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The term rotary applied to the tooth cutting instruments describes a group
of instruments that turn on an axis to perform work. Applied to dental procedures,
the character of work performed is primarily cutting, abrading, burnising, finishing
or polishing tooth tissues or various restorative materials.
Many procedures in operative dentistry substantially involve rotary
instrumentation. The bulk of tooth tissue removal is now accomplished using
rotary instruments.
n !"#" when $r. %onathan Taft wrote his text book of &perative $entistry,
cutting procedures on tooth enamel and dentin were carried out using thick bulk
chisel and excavator which $r. Taft's own description were of good steel, well
wrought and thoroughly tempered. (very step in their manufacture should be
perfectly executed so that edge not only cut dentin but also enamel which is the
hardest animal tissue.
These instruments were heavy handled and as wide as !)*
inch at one
cutting edge.
Taft suggested that a heavy instrument with the sharp point and a lateral
curve is often efficient in opening up the cavities and cutting down strong
pro+ections of enamel.
t is assumed that carious lesions treated by these types of instruments were
extensive enough to give the access to these type of bulky instruments with a gross
carious lesion, the chisel was used to gain entrance to the carious dentin and
makes it removal by the hand excavators. Access to interproximal lesion was
gained by wedging.
The first rotary instruments used for cutting tooth tissues were actually drill
or bur heads that could twisted in the fingers for a crude cutting a abrading action.
Taft described then as ,bur drills' which can be made from the best steel, forged
close to their proper si-e and be finally shaped on a lathe. The bulb is then cut into
basic shapes by hand with sharp edged file. These simple rotary instruments
twisted with the fingers were capable of a very limited lateral and end cutting
The early bur drills ranged in diameter from !). inch to about !)/ inch and
used for opening of the cavities. These bur chills were more regular and precise
orientation and were particularly adapted to small and medium si-ed cavities. n
addition these bur drills were used for making retaining point for fillings.
&ne of the refinements of these bur drills was ,0cranton' drill a cross
section such that it can be rotated in either direction to achieve its cutting action.
n !"*# the finger ring was introduced with a drill socket attached for
adapting a series of long handled burs or drills of assorted shapes. This ,drill ring'
which was adapted to the middle or index finger with a socket that fitted against
the palm, providing a seat for the blunt end of the bur drill.
The first drill with flexible cable drive and first angle hand piece were
invented by 1harles Merry between !"/" and !"#2.
n !"3!, techni4ues were improved significantly when Morison modified
and adapted the dental foot engine from singer sewing machine. This importance
of this addition was the fact that for the first time, cutting procedures were carried
out with the power source other than operator's own handle.
n !"". the elective dental engine linked to the hand piece by a flexible
cable arm was introduced. 5or the first time cutting was made possible from a
power source other than human hand or feet.
t is interesting to know that $r. 6.7. 8lack had no dental engine when he
began produce in !"#*.
n !9!: belt driven hand piece on a +ointed engine arm became available.
This unit, utili-ing the elective motor as its power source, was used only with
minor changes until the !9/:s, when the air turbine hand pieces was introduced to
the profession.
The changing character of rotary instruments from the crude hand twisted
bur drills to electrically powered hand piece with high cutting efficiency brought a
change in role of hand cutting instruments.
The most important function of rotary instruments in operative dentistry is
the action of cutting and abrading. ;rior to the !9*3 dental rotary instruments were
made up of carbon steel. ndustrially these burs were six bladed bin fabricated
from blank by a special cutter and were called as small milling cutter. The
rotational speed ranged up to #/::. n !9*3 the tungsten carbide burs was
introduced to the dental profession. This carbide bur was characteri-ed by the
hardening, being more than twice that of steel bur. n design and cutting potential
as well as efficiency and life expectancy.
n !9*/ $r. <.8 8lack published a report in the non=mechanical
preparation of cavities and introduced air abrasive techni4ue on dental profession.
n !9*9 >alsh and 0ymmons published their initial findings relating to the
removal of tooth tissue with diamond points at rotational speech up to 3:,::: rpm.
This report indicated the use of tighter forces and resulting increased cutting
efficiency of these higher speed.
n early !9/: the ball bearing hand piece was introduced, followed closely
by the ball bearing contrangle. n !9/., following the work of ?elson the first
fluid turbine type hand piece was introduced to the profession. This instrument
was capable of rotational speeds of approximately /:,::: rpm with moderate
n !9/* air driven hand pieces were developed. A continuous belt driven
hand piece was also introduced, making possible cutting speeds up to !/:,:::
rpm. 8y !9/3 many dentists were using rotational speeds up to . lacks rpm.
At that time all but one of the air turbine hand piece used a !)!# inch shank
friction grip type diamond point or carbide bur. The introduction of air bearing
hand piece in early !9#:s made possible an even greater rotational speed of
approximately /::,::: rpm.
0uperimposed on this rapidly developing era of rotary instrumentation was
the uni4ue ultrasonic method of the tooth tissue removal. The unit introduced in
!9/. was designed so that suitably shaped tips vibrating at fre4uencies ranging
from !/,::: to .:,::: cycles per sec were used to remove tissue.
Classification of rotating instrumnts:!
a@ $ental bursA The dental burs have series of cutting blades. $esigns vary from
that of a twist drill to a multibladed fissured routes. These instruments rotate in
a specific direction Bcounter clock wise@ to coincide with the way the blades
are formed.
b@ Abrading toolsA= These are bonded to its surface or impregnated within it are
bits of hard substances Be.g. diamond, garnet or sand@. The hard filler particles
vary in si-e according to use. >hether it be for reducing hard enamel or for
polishing a soft plastic can be rotated in either of the directions.
c@ ;olishing agentA= ?on=bonded abrasives or polishing agent. n the form of
slurry such as pumice or polishing agent these are carried to working area with
polishing brush, impregnated cloth wheel.
Classifications accor"ing to s#":
According to charbenaue
1onventiional or low speed C 8elow !:,::: rpm
ncreased or high speed C !:,::: to !/:,::: rpm Bmax range of belt driven
Dltraspeed = Above !/:,::: rpm
According to Mar-oukA=
a@ Dltra low speed C B.:: C .::: rpm@
b@ Eow speed B.::: C #::: rpm@
c@ Medium high speed B2:,::: C */,::: rpm@
d@ Figh speed B*/,::: C !::,::: rpm@
e@ Dltra high speed B!::, ::: rpm and more@
The term bur is applied to all rotary cutting instruments that have bladed
cutting heads. These includes instruments intended for such purposes as cavity
preparation, finishing of metal restorations and surgical removal of bone.
$anufacturing an" matrials for "ntal %urs:
The earliest burs, were handmade. These hand made burs were expensive
and variable in dimensions and performance. The dimension, nomenclature and
shapes of modern burs are directly to related to those of first machine made burs
introduced in !"9!. (arlier burs made up of steel. 0teel burs performed well,
cutting human dentin as low speeds, but dull rapidly at higher speed, when cutting
the enamel. &nce dulled the reduced cutting effectiveness creates increased heat
and vibration.
1arbide burs, now are used mainly replaced the steel bur for tooth
preparation. 0teel burs now mainly used to finishing procedures. 1arbide burs
better than the steel burs at all speeds and their efficiency is maximum at the
higher speeds.
All carbide burs have beads of cemented carbide in which microscopic
carbide particles, usually tungsten carbide are held together ina matrix of cobalt or
n most burs, the carbide head is attached to the steel shank and neck by
welding or bra-ing. The substitution of steel for carbide in these portion of bur
where greater wear resistance is not re4uired has several advantages. t permits
manufacturers more freedom of design attaining the characteristic desired in the
instrument and at the same time allows economy in the cost of material. n carbide
burs the +oint is located in the posterior part of head or have +oint located in the
The carbide is stiffer and harder than steel bur brittle. f the carbide neck is
sub+ected to sudden blow a shock will fracture but the steel neck will bent.
A bur even slightly bent produces increased vibration and over cutting as a
result of increased run out. Thus although the steel bur have reduced chances of
breakage but if bent they produced more severe problem.
0teel burs are cut from blank steel stock by means of rotary cutting that
cuts parallel to the long axis of the bur. The bin is then hardened and tempered
until its 7ickers hardens number is approximately "::.
Tungsten carbide burs are the product of metalling i.e. a process of alloying
in which complete fusion of the constituents does not occur. The tungsten carbide
powder is mixed with powder of cobalt under pressure and heated in vacuum. A
partial alloying or sintering of metal takes place. A blank is then formed and the
bur is cut from it with a diamond tool. This cutting process is better controlled
than the cutting of steel burs. The 7ickers hardness rang for this type of bin is
Common "sign of t& "ntal %urs:
(ach dental bur consists of three parts C a@ shank, b@ neck, c@ head. (ach
has is own function, influencing its design and material used for its construction.
0hank designA= The shank is the part that fits into the hand piece, accepts the rotary
motion from the hand piece and provides a bearing surface to control the
alignment and concentricity of the instrument.
The shank design and dimensions vary with the hand piece for which it is
intended. The A$A specification no.2. for dental excavating burs include five
classes of instrument shank.
Three of these areA=
!@ 0traight hand piece shank
2@ Eatch type shank
.@ 5unction grip angle hand piece shank
0hank portion of the straight hand piece is a simple cylinder. t is held in
the instrument by a metal chuck that accepts a range of shank diameter. Therefore
precise control of the shank diameter is not as critical as for the other shank
design. ?ot for excavation but for lab work.
Eatch type angle hand piece shank smaller in length but more complicated
design can be used for the posterior teeth as for better visibility. Fand piece that
use latch type burs normally have metal bin tubes within which the instrument fits
as closely as possible. The posterior portion of the shank is flattened on one side
so that the end of the instrument fits into a $ shaped socket at the bottom of the
bin tubes causing the instrument to be rotated. This type of instruments are used
predominantly at low and medium speed ranges for finishing procedures.
n these speeds the little amount of wobble inherent in the clearance
between the instrument and the hand piece bur tube is controlled by lateral
pressure exerted during the cutting procedure. At higher speed latch type does not
provide a true running instrument head.
The friction grip shank design was developed for use with high speed hand
pieces. This design is further smaller and thus gives the maximum access to the
operating sight thus can be efficiently be used in the posterior areas.
The shank is a simple cylinder and is held in the hand piece by friction
between the shank and a plastic or a metal chuck.
Nc' Dsign:
The neck is the intermediate portion that connects the head to the shanks.
(xcept in the case of the larger, more massive instruments, the neck normally
tapers from shank diameter to small si-e immediately ad+acent to the head. The
main function of the shank is to transmit rotational and transitional forces to the
Ha" Dsign:
The head is the working part of the instrument, the cutting edges or points
that perform the desired shaping of the tooth structure. The heads of the burs
shows the maximum variation in design and construction than either portions.
Nomnclatur for t& "ntal %rus:
The dental bur is the small milling cutting instrument. A common design is
displayed with the standard nomenclature.
A@ 8ur toothA= this terminates in the cutting edge or blade. t has two surfaces the
tooth face which in the side of the tooth in the leading edge and back or flank
of the tooth which is the side of the tooth in the trailing edge.
8@ <ake angleA= The rake angle is the angle that the face of the bur tooth makes
with the radial line from the center of the bur to the blade. The rake angle can
be negative, -ero or positive. The positive rake angle is when the radial line is
ahead of the face of the bur tooth. The negative rake angle is when the radial
line is behind the face of the bur tooth. Gero rake angle is when the radial line
and face cathodes. t is also called as radial rake angle.
The more positive that the value angle more will be the cutting efficiency.
Also radial rake angle is more efficient than the negative rake angle. ?egative rake
angle gives the better life expectancy of the bur. >ith negative rake angle the cut
chip moves directly away from the blade edge and often fractures into small bits or
dust. This in contrast to burs with the rake angle where the chips are larger and
tend to dog the chip space.
The steel burs have the rake angle because positivity of the rake angle
decreases the si-e of the bur tooth and its tooth angle, thus decreasing its bulk. As
a result, there is a great possibility that bur teeth will be curved, flattened or even
fracture during cutting.
The positive rake angle can be used with T1 where the greater hardness
and strength of the material allow sacrifice of bulk to obtain a more efficient
cutting edge.
EandA= The plane surface immediately following the cutting edge.
Claranc angl:
The angle between the back of the tooth and the work. f a land is present
on the bur, the clearance angle is divided intoA primary clearance angle which, the
angle the land will make with work and secondary clearance which the angle
between the back of the bin tooth and work. >hen the back surface of tooth is
curved, the clearance is called radial clearance.
Tooth angleA= This is measured between face and back.
5lute or chip spaceA= The space between the successive teeth.
Classification of Burs:
According to the mode of the attachment to the hand piece, they can be,
= latch type
= friction grip type
According to the hand piece they are designed for,
= contra angle bin
= straight hand piece bin
According to revolution they can be class,
<ight C <evolve clockwise most of the burs revolve clockwise
Eeft C <evolve anticlockwise
According to the length of the head,
= Eong
= 0hort Bpedominiature@
= <egular
According to use,
= 1utting bur B# bladed@
= 5inishing and polishing burs B!2 to *: to #: bladed@
According to the orientation of the bur teethA=
= They can be straight or special
= >hen the bur teeth are cut parallel to the long axis of the bur they are
designated as straight
= >hen the bur teeth are cut obli4uely to the long axis of the teeth they are
special Bfor better unclogging@
According to the type of the flutesA=
!@ ;lain fissure burs ) ?on=crosscut.
2@ 1ross cut burs
1ross cut burs have notches in the blade edges or cuts across the blades to
increase cutting effectiveness at low and medium speeds. 1ross cut burs are not
used at the high speeds because at the high speeds they produce underlying rough
A certain amount of perpendicular force is re4uired to make a blade grasp
the surface and start cutting as it passes across the surface. The harder the surface
duller is the blade, and the greater its length, the more force that is re4uired to
initiate the cutting. 8y reducing the total length of the bur blade that is actively
cutting at any one time, the cross cut effectively increases both cutting pressure
resulting from rotation of the bur and the pressure holding the blade edge, the
tooth. As each cross out blade cuts, it leaves small ridges of the tooth structure
standing behind the notches. 8ecause the notches in the two succeeding blades do
not line up with the each other, the ridges left by one blade are moved by the
following one as the low or medium speeds. Fowever at the high speeds allowed
with air turbine hand pieces, the contact of the bur with the tooth is not continuous
and usually only one blades cut effectively. Dnder these circumstances, although
high cutting rate of the cross cut bin is maintained, the ridges are not removed and
thus much rougher surface results.
According to shapes and si-es of the burA=
n Dnited 0tates, dental burs traditionally have been described the arbitrary
numerical code for head si-e and shape. 5or e.g.
?o.2 H ! mm of diameter round bur
?o./3 H ! mm diameter straight fissure bur
?o..* H ! mm diameter inverted cone bur
?ewer classification as given by 5$ and 0& tends to use separate
designation for shape Busually shape name@ and si-e Busually a number giving the
head diameter in tenth of millimeter Be.g. round straight fissure plain :!:, inverted
core ::"@.
The bur shapes referred to contour or silhouette of the head. The basic head
shapes are round, inverted cone, pear, straight fissure and tapered fissure.
A@ <ound burA= <ound in shape and customarily has been used for the purposes
such as initial entry into the tooth, extension of the preparation.
8@ nverted coneA= <apidly tapered cone with apex of the cone directed towards
the shank. Fead length similar to the diameter. The shape is suitable to provide
undercuts in the tooth preparation.
1@ ;ear shapedA= ;ortion of the slight tapered cone with the small end of the cone
directed toward bur shank. The end of the head is continuously curved or is flat
with mounted corners. A normal length pear shaped bur for gold foil B1lass @
Blength slightly more than the width@ long length pear Blength three times more
than width for the tooth preparation for the amalgam@.
$@ 0traight fissure burA= (longated cylinder for the extension of the cavity can be
straight. 1rosscut cylindrical fissure bur.
(@ Tapered fissure burI= 0lightly tapered with the end of the cone directed away
from the shank. Tooth used for the tooth preparation of the indirect
5@ (nd cutting bursA= 1ylindrical in shape with +ust end carrying the blades
extending the preparation apically without the axial reduction. The numbering
system was given by 0.0. >hite dental manufacturing company in !"9! for
their first machine made burs. The original numbering system grouped burs by
9 shapes and !! si-es. 1ross cut bur efficient in slow speed /::: prefix end
cutting bur, 9:: prefix.
$o"ifications of Bur:
!@ 1rosscut
2@ (xtended head lengthsA= 1arbide fissure burs with the extended head lengths
two to three times those of tapered fissure bur of similar diameter have been
introduced. 0uch a design is never used in slow speed with such a brittle
material. The applied force re4uired to make a bur cut at speeds of /:: to #::
rpm would normally be sufficient to fracture such an attenuated head. 5or these
burs extremely light pressure and high speed.
.@ <ounding of the sharp tip cornersA= ntroduced by Markley and 0ockwell.
8ecause the teeth are relatively brittle the sharp angles produced by the
conventional burs can result in high stress concentration and increase in
tendency to tooth to fracture. 8ur heads with the rounded corners resulted in
lower stresses in the restored teeth, enhance the strength of the tooth by
pressuring the vital dentin, and facilitates the adaptation of the restorative
material. These type of bur Btungsten carbide or diamond@ last longer because
there are no sharp corners to chip and wear off.
C&aractristics of Rotar( Instrumntation:
)* S#":!
0peed refers to not only revolutions per minute but also surface feet per
unit line of contact that the tool has with the work to be cut. According to the
industrial investigation, the maximum cutting efficiency of the cutting tool of
uniform width ranges between /:::=#::: surfaces feet per unit time. 0ince the
surface feet per min is controlled mainly by rpm and the si-e of the tool, it is
important to consider the si-e of one working tool in relative to the speed of the
A rotary tool should be large in diameter when used with low speed to
obtain an optimum surface feet per unit time and vice versa.
The various speed in dentistry are classified asA=
The advantages of the use of the increased speeds C
!@ 0mall rotary instruments could be used with the increased speeds
2@ Eess fatigue is resulted with both the operator and patient
.@ 1ontrol of the instrument by the operator is better
*@ $ue to high speed very light pressure is re4uired
/@ Eess vibrations is felt by the patient
#@ The efficiency and the life of the cutting tool is increased
3@ <emoval of old filling is simplified
The disadvantages of higher speeds areA=
!@ >ith increased speed increased temperature of the tooth which might
damage the tooth pulp.
2@ Figh speeds results in greater wear of the working parts of the hand piece
therefore fre4uent repairs and replacements in addition to more exacting
and properly used.
.@ Dnless properly used high speeds have a tendency to create striations on the
tooth structure.
8iologic principles of the tooth preparationA=
!@ <emoves least amount of the tooth tissue
2@ ?o in+urious effects to the periodontal tissue and pulp
.@ Eeast discomfort to the patient and fatigue to operator
*@ ?o pathologic reactions initiated in the pulp
;ressureA= ;ressure is the resultant effect of the two factors under the control.
!@ 5orceA The gripping of the headpiece and its positioning and application to
the tooth.
2@ AreaA The amount of surface area of the cutting tool in contact with the
tooth surface during the cutting operation.
Dsing the same force the smaller cutting tool apply the larger pressure than
the larger cutting tools. To have both small and large tools cut at the same pressure
it is necessary to reduce the force applied with smaller one. f the constant force is
reduced on the smaller tools so that there is e4ual pressure on the tooth. &bviously
the larger tools remove more.
Tooth structure since there is more single feet per minute contact. To have
smaller tool remove the same amount of the tooth structure the rpm has to be
increased, thus increasing surface per minute contact.
t has been observed that low speed re4uires 2=* pounds force, high speed
re4uires less force B! pound@ and ultra high speed still less force B!=* ounces@ for
efficient cutting. $esirable feature of the higher speed is C better control and less
fatigue on part of the operator and greater patient comfort.
Hat +ro"uction:
Feat generated is directly proportional to the pressure, rpm and area of
tooth in contact with the tool. Therefore any factor increased heat production is
increased heat production up to !.:5 causes permanent damage to the pulps.
(ven temperature up to !!.5 within the pulp can produce the inflammatory
responses that could result to pulpus and pulpal necrosis
The various factors which causes heat production areA=
a@ 0peed of the rotating tool C Temperature rise occurs within !: to 2: secs
after the cutting operation has begun
b@ 0i-e of the cutting instrument
c@ ;ressure
The heat production ill effects can be minimi-ed by using coolants, such as
flowing water a water=air spray or air.
1oolant must be employed which, to be effective should be applied at a
point of contact between the cutting instrument and tooth tissue. ;eyton found that
even with water coolant, excessive temperature developed when large diameter
instruments or excessive forces were applied with increased operating speed. This
indicates that mere the use coolants, per sec, does not eliminate the excessive
temperature rise. The minimum water volume to be applied was !./ mm per min.
Another advantage of the water coolant that tooth debris from cutting is
removed rapidly, preventing the clogging of the burs. This results in greater
efficiency and prolongs the life of the cutting tool.
D* ,i%ration:!
7ibration is not only ma+or annoying factor for the patient but is also
causes fatigue for the operator, excessive wear of the instrument and most
importantly, a destruction reaction in tooth and supporting tissues. 7ibration is the
product of the e4uipment used and the speed of rotation. The deleterious effects of
vibration are two fold in originA=
!@ Amplitude
2@ Dndesirable modulating fre4uencies
Am#litu":! A wave of vibration consists of the fre4uency and amplitude. At low
speeds the amplitude is more but fre4uency is less. At higher speeds the reverse is
true. The greater destruction is caused by large amplitude cause destruction to
instrument, apprehension in patient but also great fatigue to the client.
7ibration waves are measured by cycles per second. #::: rpm sets up
fundamental vibrational wave of !:: cycles per sec.
At !::#:: rpm there is !#:: cycles per second at this amplitude the vibration are
practically imperceptible to patient. This is concluded that higher rpm produces
less amplitude and greater fre4uency.
Un"sira%l mo"ulating fr-uncis:
The second deleterious effects of vibration is caused by improperly
designed, or poorly maintained e4uipment. Although there must be a fundamental
vibrational wave, improper e4uipment use or care allows modulatory fre4uency to
be established so that series of the vibration Bin different directions@ are perceived
by the patient and dentist. The end result is again apprehension in the patient,
fatigue for dentist and accelerated wear for cutting. To reduce this the e4uipment
should be free from such defects.
E* +atint ractions:!
The factors that cause patient apprehension consists primarily of heat
production, vibrational sensation, length and operating time and number of visits.
The proper understanding of the instrument, the speed, use of coolants,
intermittent application of tool, sharp instruments etc in greatly minimi-ing both
patient discomfort and unnecessary irritation to oral stricture. ;atient can be
F* O#rator fatigu:!
The ma+or causes of operator fatigue are duration of operation, vibration
produced in hand piece, forces, needed to control the rotating instrument,
apprehension on the part of dentist.
Figh speed rotary instrumentation minimi-es fatigue by decreasing time of
operation. ;roper balancing also reduces the forces needed to control the
A* Influnc of "sign an" manufacturing:!
)* Ra' angl:!
The more positive that the rake angle is, the greater is the bur's cutting
efficiency. All burs with radial positive angle cut more effectively than designs
with negative rake angles. n negative rake angle the cut chip moves directly away
from the blade edge and often fractures into small bits or dust. This in contrast to
burs with a positive rake angle where chips are large tends to clog the chip space.
Thus there is a practical ob+ection to use of the positive rake angles in
dental burs, particularly in steel burs because as the positivity of the make angle
decreases the si-e, si-e of the bur tooth and its tooth angle, thus decreasing its
bulk. As a result there is great possibility that bur teeth will be curved, flattened or
even fractured during cutting.
Tungsten carbide burs can positive rake angle because the hardness and
strength of the material compensates the sacrifice of the bulk to obtain a more
efficient cutting edge. The burs with a negative rake angle or radial clearance with
short bur tooth height is employed to contribute to a longer bur life.
/* Claranc Angl:!
This angle provides clearance between the work and the cutting edge to
prevent tooth back from rubbing on the work. There is always a component of the
frictional force on one cutting edge as it rubs against the surface following the
dislodgement of the chips. Any slight wear of the cutting edge will increase the
dulling perceptibility. Earge clearance angle may result in less rapid dulling of the
0* Num%r of tt& or %la"s an" t&ir "istri%ution:!
The number of teeth in a dental bur is usually limited to #=". 0ince the
external load is distributed among the blades actively cutting, as the number of
blades is decreased, the magnitude of forces at each blade increases and the
thickness of the chip removed by each flute correspondingly increases.
Dnder certain conditions, really the same amount of material can be
removed by either ", 3 or # fluted burs i.e. the product of chip thickness removed
by each tooth and number of flutes may be nearly constant.
The burs with fewer number of the teeth, gives increased space between the
bur teeth which reduces their clogging tendency.
f each bur tooth is removing more material the tendency for bur tooth wear
should be greater and cutting life reduced.
5issure bur with straight flutes produces less temperature rise than one with
spinal flutes. This is due to the fact that the straight fluted bur produces large
chips. These chips carries some heat with it. Thus a bur with the fewer flute will
be cooler in operating.
t has been seen that the fewer number of bur tooth, the greater the
tendency for vibration however if there are two or more teeth in contact with work
at onetime, this effect would be at greater importance, particularly if the bur is " or
# fluted.
f the bur teeth is crosscut, the number of the bur teeth can be increased,
based on the assumption that cross cutting reduces the friction in cutting and
provides more chip space. 0ome burs will have !:=!2 or even up to *: blades.
They are not designed for cutting. They are used only for finishing and polishing
of a dental restoration.
1* Run out concntricit(:!
1oncentricity is a direct measurement of the symmetry of the bur head
itself. t measures how closely a single circle can be passed through the tips of all
blade. Thus concentricity is an indication of whether one blade is longer or shorter
than the others. t is a static measurement not directly related to function.
Run out:! t is a dynamic test measuring the accuracy with which all blade tips
pass through a single point when the instrument is rotated. t measures not only the
concentricity of the head, but also accuracy with which the centre of rotation
passes through the center of the head or run out refers to the eccentricity or
maximum displacement of the bur head from its axis of rotation while the bur
turns. The average value of clinically acceptable run out is about :.:2. mm.
<un out will depend not only on the design of the bur itself, but also on the
precision of the dental hand piece. (ven a perfectly concentric head will exhibit
substantial amount if the head is off longitudinal on the axis of bur, the bur is bent,
the bur is not held straight on the hand piece.
The run out is clinically more significant term because it is the primary
cause of vibration during the cutting and the factor that determines the minimum
diameter of the hole that can be prepared by the bur. t is because of the run out
error that burs normally cut holes measurably larger than the head diameter.
As run out tell the maximum displacement of the bur head from its long
axis while rotation.
f the bur moves away from the tooth periodically, blades will not cut
f the operator senses this lack, he will probably exerts more pressure. The
result will be that one stage revolution the bur and the work tend to be pushed
apart. &nly to be driven together at the next half revolution, resulting in
disagreeable vibration. These vibrations causes removal of tissue by shattering
than cutting action.
2* Finis& of on fluts:!
The dental bur is formed by cutting each flute into the bur blank with a
rotating cutter while it progresses nearly parallel to the axis of the bur. $uring the
first cut or pass of the cutter the flute is roughly formed. The second cut places
cutting edge as the bur flute. Fowever considerable roughness along the flute will
remain. This roughness may be removed by making subse4uent passes or cuts on
the bur flute.
Test for cutting efficiency were done on different types of burs undergoing
two, four and six flute cuts. Those cut si-e most efficient while those cut two times
well the least efficient.
3* Hat Tratmnt:!
Feat treatment is used to harden the bur that is made up of soft steel. This
operation presents the edge placed on the flute by utter and hardens the bur to
increase the cutting life.
4* Dsign of flut n"s:!
The dental burs have two types of flute ends C a@ <evelation cut, b@ 0tar
a@ <evelation cut, where the flute comes together at two +unction near a
diametrical cutting edge.
b@ 0tar cut, where the end flutes come together in a common +unction at the
axis of the bur.
<evelation cut shows some of greater cutting efficiency in direct cutting. n
lateral cutting both types prove to be of e4ual efficiency.
5* Bur "iamtr:!
6enerally the force on the each bur look from the external load do not
depend on the diameter of the bur, but rather on number of flutes or teeth and their
rotational position. The average linear displacement per revolution and length of
cut does not depend upon the diameter of the bur. t follows that because the
length of the cut is constant, the material removed will vary directly with the bur
diameter as well as the tongue and mechanical energy that the power source
re4uired to supply.
6* D#t& of ngagmnt:!
As the depth of engagement decreases, the force intensity on each small
portion of the bur tooth still cutting correspondingly increased according to the
average displacement per flute should be increased. This increase is so great that
the volume of material removed from by the shallow cut is more than the deeper
)7* Influnc of loa":!
Eoad signifies the force exerted by dentist on the tool head and not pressure
or stress induced in the tooth during cutting. The force or the load is related to the
rotational speed of bur of a given design. The exact amount of force exerted is not
known but maximum of !::: gm B2 pounds@ for low rotational speed and from #:=
!2: gm B2=* ounces@ at high rotational speed.
))* Influnc of s#":
The rate of increase in cutting at rotational speed above .:,::: rpm is
greater than below this speed. Fowever it has been found that at very high speeds
!/:,::: and above, the time re4uired for the removal of the same weight of tooth
structure is nearly same at still higher speed.
There is also a minimum rotation speed for a given load below which the
tool will not cut. The greater the load lower the minimum rotational speed. The
correlation between load and minimum rotational speed depends upon whether
enamel or dentin is being cut, the design and composition of bur and similar