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The finishing and polishing of restorative dental materials are important
steps in the fabrication of clinically successful restorations. The techniques
employed for these procedures are meant not only for removal of excess
material but also to smoothen rough surfaces.
The finishing of dental restorations prior to their placement in the oral
cavity has therefore three benefits.
1. To promote oral hygiene (by resisting the accumulation of food debris and
pathogenic bacteria).
2. Enhance oral function (so that food glides through occlusal and embrasure
3. To improve esthetics.
The materials employed for finishing and polishing of dental
restorations are generally termed as abrasives. Thus an understanding of the
characteristic features ith their properties of these materials and the process of
abrasion ould aid in improved clinical usage of these materials and
!!. !"#!$!#%&' ()"*!#E+&T!)"*
(raig has defined abrasion as ,
-& process of ear hereby a hard rough surface (li.e a sand paper
dis.) or hard irregularly shaped particles grooves in a softer material and cause
materials from these grooves to be removed from the surface.
!t has been stated by *.inner that abrasive ear could be a -to body/
or a -three body/ process.
To understand this more specifically the terms 0ear1 &brasive 0ear and
Erosive 0ear need more understanding.
a. Wear 2 is a material removal process that can occur henever surfaces
slide against each other. !n dentistry the outer most particle or the surface
material of an abrading instrument is referred to as an &3+&*!$E. The
material being finished is termed as a *%3*T+&TE.
b. Abrasive wear , this could be of to types ,
i. Two body wear 2 occurs hen abrasive particles are firmly bonded to
the surface of the abrasive instrument and no other abrasive particles are
used. Eg. a diamond bur abrading teeth.
ii. Three body wear 2 is hen the abrasive particles are free to translate
and rotate beteen to surfaces. Eg. dental prophylaxis pastes (beteen
tooth and rubber cup.
c. Erosive wear 2 This is caused by hard particles impacting a substrate
surface1 carried by either a stream of air or a stream of liquid. Erosive 0ear
should be differentiated from chemical erosion more commonly .non as
acid etching hich involves acid and al.alis instead of the hard particles to
remove the substrate material.
(hemical erosion is employed to prepare teeth surfaces for bonding
purposes and not for finishing of materials.
1. !t should be irregular in shape so that it presents a sharp edge. (that is hy
4agged particles are more effective. +ound sand particles and cubicle
particles of sand paper are poor abrasives).
2. !t should be harder than the or. it abrades. !f it cannot indent the surface
to be abraded then it cannot cut it and therefore ears out.
3. &brasives should possess high impact strength or body strength. &brasive
points should alays fracture than dull out so that alays a sharp point or
edge is available. The cuts also helps in shredding debris accumulated from
or.. 5or eg. a grinding heel against a metal.
6. &brasives should possess attrition resistance so that it does not ear.
The abrasives could be one of the three types ,
A. Abrasive Gris
&brasive grits are derived from (abrasive) materials that have been
crushed and passed through a series of mesh screens to obtain different particle
si7e ranges.
The grits are classified as 2 coarse1 medium coarse1 medium fine and
super fine according to the particle si7e ranges.
B. Bon!e! Abrasives
These consists of abrasive particles incorporated ith a binder to form
grinding tools.
The abrasive particles are bonded by 6 methods
1. *intering.
2. $itreous bonding (8lass9(eramic).
3. +esin bonding (usually phenolic resin).
6. +ubber bonding (usually silicone rubber).
1. Sinerin" 2 *intered abrasives are the strongest variety since the abrasive
particles are fused together.
2. Vireo#s Bon!e! 2 !n these the particles are mixed ith a glassy or
ceramic matrix material1 cold pressed to the instrument shape and fired to
fuse ith the binder.
3. Resin Bon!e! 2 ((onsists of phenolic resin) hich are either cold or hot
pressed and then heated to cure the resin.
6. R#bber Bon!e! 2 (onsists of silicon rubber and is made in a manner
similar to resin bonded abrasives.
&s far as bonded abrasives are concerned1 the type of bonding affects
the grinding behaviour of the tool on the substrate.
3onded abrasives that tend to disintegrate rapidly on the substrate are
ea. and result in increased abrasive costs because of reduced instrument life.
3onded abrasives that disintegrate very sloly tend to clog ith the
grinding debris hich results in loss of abrasive efficiency1 increased heat
generation and increased finishing time.
Thus an ideal binder is one hich holds the abrasive particles in the tool
sufficiently long enough to cut1 grind or polish the substrate1 yet release the
particle1 either before its cutting efficiency is lost or before heat build up cause
thermal damage to the substrate.
& bonded abrasive should alays be T+%E# and #+E**E# before its
Tr#in" 2 is a procedure through hich the abrasive instrument is run against a
harder abrasive bloc. until the abrasive instrument rotates in the handpiece
ithout eccentricity hen placed on the substrate.
Dressin" 2 li.e truing is used to shape the instrument but accomplishes to
different purposes.
5irst 2 the dressing procedure reduces the instrument to its correct si7e and shape.
*econd 2 it is used to remove clogged debris (also called abrasive
b$in!in") from the abrasive instrument to restore grinding efficiency
during the finishing operation.
0hy diamond is used as a dressing tool : 3ecause diamond is the
hardest substance .non and therefore strong binders are required such as resin
and additional retention is necessary for hich nic.el plating is done
(additional advantage of nic.el plating is to absorb generated heat).
C. Coae! Abrasive Dis%s an! Sri&s
These abrasives are supplied as dis.s and finishing strips. They are
fabricated by securing abrasive particles to a flexible material (heavy
eight paper or mylar).
These dis.s are available in different diameters ith thin and very thin
The mode of action of the abrasives is similar to that of the dental burs
that is it is merely a cutting action. Each fine abrasive particle thus presents as a
sharp edge hich cuts through the surface similar to a pointed chisel. #uring
this cutting process the shavings thus formed is podered and usually clogs the
abrasive thus periodic cleaning of the abrasive necessary.
A. Abrasive A'ion on Mea$s
)n abrading metallic restorations1 the metallic grain structure usually
gets disoriented. The more the abrasion1 the greater is the associated
disorientation. *train hardening of the abraded metal usually accompanies the
grain disorientation that is the metal becomes stronger1 harder1 and less ductile
hen greater stresses are induced.
!n the abrading of metals1 the crystalline structure of the surface is
disturbed1 sometimes to a depth of 1;m. <oever this surface effect varies
ith different metals1 for eg. in ductile metals (li.e gold) less of the surface
metal may be removed by the abrasive than in a brittle metal.
B. Abrasive A'ion on Resins
The surface disturbance produced by abrasives on resins hoever leads
to the creation of surface stresses that may cause distortion if the abrasion is too
rigorous. The heat generated during this abrasion partially relieves the stresses.
Rae o( abrasion is !eer)ine! &ri)ari$* b* +ree (a'ors,
1. *i7e of the abrasive particles 2 'arger the si7e 2 greater the abrasion.
2. =ressure of the abrasive against the substrate 2 0hen an abrasive is
pressed against the substrate1 scratches are deeper and abrasion is
more rapid 2 so greater chances of the abrasives to fracture.
3. *peed at hich the abrasive particles travels across the or. 2
8reater the speed1 greater ould be the rate of abrasion.
S&ee! e)&$o*e! is o( wo *&es,
- +otational speed and
- 'inear speed i.e. speed ith hich particles pass over the substrate.
'inear speed is related to rotational speed as follos,
$ > d n here $ > 'inear speed
d > diameter of the abrasive
n > revolutions per minute
These factors are as follos,
1. <ardness of the abrasive particles (diamond is hardest1 pumice and garnet
are relatively mild).
2. *hape of the abrasive particle (particles ith sharp edges are more
3. =article si7e of the abrasive (longer particle si7e ill cut deeper grooves).
6. ?echanical properties of the abrasive (if the material brea.s1 it should form
a ne cutting edge. Therefore brittleness can be an advantage).
@. +ate of movement of the abrasive particles (sloer abrasion 2 deeper
A. =ressure applied to the abrasive (too much pressure can fracture the
abrasive instrument and increase heat of friction that has evolved).
B. =roperty of material being1 abraded (brittle material can be rapidly abraded
hereas ductile 9 malleable metal li.e gold ill flo instead of being
!. According to Craig , The abrasives used can be classified as ,
A. Finis+in" Abrasives
These are hard1 coarse abrasives used initially to develop desired
contours and remove off gross irregularities.
B. .o$is+in" Abrasives
These are smaller particle si7e and are less hard than abrasives used for
finishing. They are used for smoothening surfaces that are roughened by
finishing abrasives.
C. C$eanin" Abrasives
These are soft abrasives ith small particle si7e and are intended to
remove softer materials that adhere to enamel or a restoration.
These dental abrasives could be employed in the form of three basic
designs as mentioned previously.
S%inners +as "ro#&e! +e abrasives e)&$o*e! in !enisr* as ,
&. "atural &brasives
3. ?anufactured &brasives
?anufactured &brasives are generally preferred because of their more
predictable physical properties.
A. Natural Abrasives :
/. Ar%ansas sone
- *emi translucent1 light gray1 siliceous sedimentary roc.1 mined in
&r.ansas .
- !t contains microcrystalline quart7.
- *mall pieces of this mineral is attached to metal and trued to various
shapes for fine grinding of tooth enamel and metal alloys.
0. C+a$%
- !t is the mineral form of calcite.
- (omposed of calcium carbonate.
- !t is used as mild abrasive paste to polish teeth enamel1 gold foil1
amalgam and plastic materials.
3. Cor#n!#) 1discovered in 1C2@)
- !t is the mineral form of aluminum oxide and is usually hite.
- !t is primarily used for grinding metal alloys.
- &vailable as bonded abrasives in several shapes.
- (ommonly used in an instrument .non as hite stone.
6. Dia)on! D !t is a transparent colourless mineral composed of carbon called
super abrasive because of its ability to abrade any other .non substance.
- !t is the hardest substance .non.
- %sed on ceramic and resin composite materials.
*upplied as
a. 3onded abrasives rotary instrument.
b. 5lexible metal bac.ed abrasive strips.
c. #iamond polishing pastes.
2. E)er*
- This abrasive is a grayish blac. corundum that is prepared in a fine grain
- *upplied predominantly as coated abrasive dis.s.
- %sed for finishing metal alloys or plastic materials.
A. Garne (glass li.e gem stone)
- These minerals are silicates of aluminum1 cobalt1 iron1 magnesium and
- The garnet abrasive used in dentistry is usually dar. red.
- !f garnet defines during grinding it forms sharp chisel shaped plates it a highly effective abrasive.
- %sed in grinding metal alloys and plastic materials.
3. .#)i'e
- !t is produced from volcanic activity.
- %sed in polishing teeth enamel1 gold foil1 dental amalgam and acrylic
- 5lour of pumice 2 extremely fine grounded volcanic roc. derivative
from !taly.
- !t is the most abundant.
4. 5#ar6
- <ard colourless and transparent.
- (rystalline particles are pulveri7ed to form sharp angular particles that
are useful in coated abrasive dis.s.
- They are used mostly to finish metal alloys and may be used to grind
dental enamel.
E. San! ()ldest abrasive 2@;;; 3.(.)
- !t is a mixture of small mineral particles predominantly silica.
- =articles have rounded to angular shape.
a. &pplied under air pressure to remove refractory investment materials
(sand blasting).
b. !t is coated on paper dis.s for grinding of metal alloys and plastic
/7. Tri&o$i
- #erived from lighteight1 friable siliceous sedimentary roc. present in
Tripoli in "orth &frica.
- (an be hite1 gray1 pin.1 red or yello.
- 8ray and red types most frequently used in dentistry.
- +oc. ground to fine particles si7es and is used for polishing metal alloys
and plastic materials.
//. 8ir'oni#) si$i'ae
- !t is an off hite mineral ground to various si7es used to ma.e coated
dis.s and strips.
- &lso used as a component of dental prophylaxis paste.
/0. C#$e
?ade from the pulveri7ed internal shell of a ?editerranean hite
mollus. from the genus sepia1 this abrasive is obtained as a hite
calcareous poder.
+elative synonyms of this abrasive are cuttle fish and cuttle bone.
)btained as a coated abrasive and used for delicate operations li.e
polishing of metal margins and dental amalgam restorations.
/9. :iese$"#+r
- &brasive is obtained from siliceous remains of minute aquatic plants
.non as diatoms.
- !t is an excellent mild abrasive.
- (oarser variety is .non as #iatomaceous earth used as a filler for
dental materials such as hydrocolloid impression materials.
- =recautions must be ta.en hile handling this abrasive as there is ris. of
respiratory silicosis due to long term exposure of this material.
B. Manufactured Abrasives
1. Si$i'on Carbi!e ; (developed by &cheson 1CE1)
- This is the first of the synthetic abrasives to be developed.
- To types ere manufactured i.e. i) green form and ii) blue blac.
form both having similar physical properties.
- The green variety is preferred because substrates are more visible
against the green colour.
- The cutting efficiency of silicon carbide abrasives is higher as the
particles are sharp and brea. to form ne sharp particles.
- !t is supplied as an abrasive in coated dis.s and in vitreous and
rubber bonded instruments.
- %sed in cutting metal alloys1 ceramics and plastic mateials.
0. A$#)ini#) O<i!e
- This is the second synthetic abrasive to be manufactured after silicon
- This form of alumina can be much harder than its normal counter
part that is corundum because of its purity.
- The forms usually prepared are,
i. 0hite stones 2 made of sintered aluminium oxide are used for
contouring enamel and finishing metal and ceramic materials.
ii. $ariations of aluminium oxide include those ith chromium
compound additions. Those obtained in pin. and ruby colours are
present as vitreous bonded nonDcontaminating mounted stones 2
used for preparations of metal ceramic alloys to receive
porcelain. (!t is important to note that remnants of these materials
should not interfere ith porcelain bonding to metal. *tudies by
Famamoto in 1EC3 therefore sho that carbides are better for this
9. S*n+ei' !ia)on! ; (developed in 1E@@).
- *ynthetic or manufactured form of diamond is produced at @ times
the level of natural diamond abrasive.
- This synthetic diamond is used for the manufacture of diamond
sas1 heels and burs.
- 3loc.s ith embedded diamond particles are used to true other types
of bonded abrasives.
- *ynthetic diamonds are used primarily on tooth structure1 ceramic
materials and resin based composite materials.
=. Ro#"e
- !ron oxide is the fine red1 abrasive component of rouge.
- !t is blended li.e tripoli1 ith various soft binders into a ca.e form.
- !t is used to polish high noble metal alloys.
- ?ay be impregnated in paper or fabric .non as (rocus cloth.
2. Tin O<i!e
- Extremely fine abrasive is used extensively as a polishing agent for
polishing teeth and metallic restorations in the mouth.
- !t is mixed ith ater1 alcohol or glycerin to form a mildly abrasive
-=olishing is the production of a smooth mirror li.e surface ithout the
use of any external film/.
& number of reasons are elucidated for the importance of polishing
dental restorations and teeth. These are,
i. The smooth polished restorative and teeth (enamel) surfaces are
less receptive to bacterial coloni7ation and dental plaque
ii. The polished layer on metallic restoration aids in the prevention
of tarnish and corrosion.
iii. 5inally1 from the clinical point of vie1 polished restoration ith
rough surfaces are uncomfortable for the patient.
The polishing procedure is one hich is eventually initiated once the
abrasive mechanisms eliminates or obliterates most of the finer scratches
leaving a smooth finish. The smooth layer or smooth finish on the surface of
the restoration is referred to by *.inner as a polish.
<oever it is difficult to dra out an exact line of differentiation
beteen an abrasive and a polishing agent. 5or example1 an agent hich has a
large particle si7e and that hich produces deep or large scratches on the
restoration surface could be termed as an abrasive. )n the other hand a similar
agent ith a fine particle si7e hich produces a smooth finish could be termed
as a polishing agent.
*urface structure not more than ;.;;@ mm is removed during polishing.
!t is therefore observed that the process of finishing1 cutting 9 abrading and
polishing have not been differentiated ell in dentistry.
The term GfinishH ould actually relate to the final surface achieved or
the final character of the surface of the material after the finishing procedure.
!f this explanation for the term finish is accepted then others i.e. cutting 9
abrading1 grinding and polishing ould be considered as a series of steps
encompassed ithin the process of finishing.
<oever minor differences exist in the cutting1 grinding and polishing
1. & cutting operation as cited by *.inners -refers to the use of a bladed
instrument or any instrument in a blade li.e fashion/. The substrate may
sustain deep notches and grooves by the cutting operation.
2. & grinding operation removes small particles of a substrate through the
action of bonded or coated abrasive instruments. The grinding
instruments may contain randomly arranged abrasive particles eg, a
diamond coated rotary instrument.
!t is important to note that cutting and grinding are both %nidirectional
in their course of action.
3. The polishing operation is one of the most refined finishing process.
!t produces scratches so fine that they are visible only hen greatly
magnified. The ideally polished surface is one hich ould be
smooth ith no surface imperfections.
=olishing is considered to be ?ultidirectional in its course of action.
Eg. of polishing instruments are ,
a. +ubber abrasive points.
b. 5ine particle dis.s and strips.
c. 5ine particle polishing pastes 2 applied ith soft felt points1
muslin heels1 prophy cups or buffing heels.
d. Electrolytic polyshing ((obalt 2 (hromium &lloys).
&erosols1 the dispersion of solid and liquid particles in air are generated
henever finishing and polishing operations are performed.
The dental aerosols contain tooth structures dental materials and
These aerosols are potential sources of infections and cause chronic
diseases of the eyes and lungs.
*ilicosis or grinders disease is a ma4or aerosol ha7ard in dentistry
because1 a number of silica based materials are used in processing and finishing
of dental restorations.
These aerosols can remain for more than 26 hours before settling and are
therefore capable of contaminating other 7ones of the treatment facility.
Aeroso$s &ro!#'e! !#rin" (inis+in" &ro'e!#res 'an be 'onro$$e! b* +ree
wa*s,1. Controlled at the source through
a. &dequate infection control procedures.
b. 0ater spray.
c. <igh volume suction.
2. Personal protection
a. *afety glasses. 3.#isposable face mas.s.
3. Adequate ventilation
/. A)a$"a)
- 3urnishing of nely condensed amalgam is carried out ith a metal
having broad surface contact to ma.e the surface ready susceptible to
finishing and polishing procedures.
- 3urnishing can produce a tenfold reduction in surface roughness.
- &fter initial carving1 restoration is left undisturbed for an appropriate
period (usually 26 hrs to obtain maximum strength) before finishing
and polishing is initiated.
- =olishing is done through the sequential use of finishing fine burs1
stones and dis.s or strips.
- 5inal polishing is done by the application of extrafine silex folloed
by a slurry of tin oxide ith a rotating soft brush.
- #uring final polishing1 restorations should be .ept moist to avoid
- !n case of high copper amalgam ith high early strengths1 finishing
can be done at the first appointment.
=olishing is started CD1; minutes after the start of trituration but care
must be ta.en to use light pressure (of no more than 3; seconds per surface)
ith triple x silex creamy paste and ater and unebbed polishing cup using
slo handpiece.
& three year study has shoed no difference beteen the C min. and 26
hour polishing technique. ?ain advantage of Cmin. polishing technique is the
elimination of a second appointment.
(3uffing refers to the process that is controlled by the use of abrasives
carried via bristle brushes1 treated leather and cloth materials).
0. For A'r*$i' ?a'%e Crowns
1. !nitial trimming is done ith tungsten carbide burs or alpine stones
folloed by &r.ansas stone.
2. 5inishing of the restoration is done using sand paper dis.s to remove
irregularities on the surface.
3. 3uffing is done ith et pumice and buffing heel coated ith tripoli.
=umice is made et to prevent distortion of the resin by heat generation.
6. #ry buffing is done using a buffing heel made of cloth material and a
mild abrasive such as chal. is used.
9. For Cas Mea$ Resoraions
1. The internal margin is inspected under magnification and ad4usted as
necessary ith small diamond stones and carbide burs. &d4ustments are
restricted to areas here binding contact occurs.
2. The sprue is removed by abrasive (carborundum) discs. #iscs and stones
are used for gross recontouring at the attachment area.
3. !nitially a ire brush is used on the occlusal surfaces.
6. & fine grit sand paper disc is applied for removing pits and irregularities
from the axial alls.
@. +ubber points and small carbides are used for selective finishing of
occlusal morphology.
A. 5inal polishing of the surface are done using rouge on a brush.
B. The polished restoration is then cleaned using an ultrasonic cleaner.+E$!E0
)5 '!TE+&T%+E
=. For Co)&osie Resoraions ,
A. Rotary instrument finishing of micro filled and small particle composite
resins. JAA. Aug !"#$.
- This study suggests that rotary instrument for finishing composites must
be selected in accordance ith the type of composites used.
- Tungsten (arbide 3urs at high speeds for trimming and finishing
microfilled composites are contraindicated because they disrupt1 the
composite resin surface therefore for microfilled and small particle
resins diamond burs at slo speeds are used.
- (arbide burs at high speeds on small particle composites produces a
surface free from the characteristic striations and grooves produced by
diamond burs.
%. &ffect of three finishing systems on four aesthetic restorative
materials'. (perative entistry ) !""#.
To varieties of composites (<ybrid and ?icrofilled) and to types of
8!( vi7. Traditional 9 conventional 8!( and a +esin modified 8!( ere
employed for this study.
- !mpregnated dis.s and diamond and carbide burs ere used.
- "o difference as seen in the surface of any of the restorations. 0hen
the mylar matrix ere used.
- <oever the study concluded ith the result that abrasive impregnated
dis.s and aluminium oxide dis.s provided smoother finished surfaces on
the 8!( and composite than did the diamond and carbide finishing burs.
*. A quantitative study of finishing and polishing techniques for a
composite'. Journal of Prosthetic ent. !"##.
&s e .no1 finishing and polishing of composite has alays been a
problem because the resin matrix and inorganic fillers differ in hardness and do
not abrade uniformly.
This study evaluated and compared six finishing and polishing
techniques to identify the most effective one for micro filled composite
T+ese si< e'+ni@#es were as (o$$ows ,
TE(<"!I%E ! %se of dis.s of medium1 fine and superfine grits in
descending order.
TE(<"!I%E !! %se of polishing points.
TE(<"!I%E !!! %se of polishing paste ith rubber cup.
TE(<"!I%E !$ 5inishing (6; m) and polishing (1@ m) diamond burs
ere used.
TE(<"!I%E $D!$ 5olloed by polishing points.
TE(<"!I%E $!D!$ 5olloed by polishing pastes.
Con'$#sion o( +e S#!*
Technique ! produced the smoothest polished surface.
Technique $ as second best.
For G$ass Iono)er Ce)ens
+,inishing glass polyal-enoate cements ./0*1' 2.J. 3oodfords ) %J
This article reports on the *E? surface examination of 8!( after
finishing procedures using rotary and hand instrumentation.
&nhydrous ater hardening type and encapsulated type of 8!(Hs ere
- 5inishing procedures employed ere ,
1. 0hite stones and $aseline in the slo hand piece at @;;; rpm.
2. *oflex dis.s (&l
dis.s) and $aseline in the slo hand piece at
@;;; rpm.
3. Tungsten carbide burs in air turbine hand piece ith a ater
spray as coolant.
Res#$s ,
!deal surface is produced by the matrix Jany finishing inevitably disrupts
this surfaceK.
- *oflex discs produce a relatively smooth surface.
- Tungsten (arbide disrupts the surface of even mature 8!(.
- <and instruments cause marginal brea.don.
The functions of a dentifrice may extend beyond mere cosmetic
ob4ectives and include the incorporation of additives9 ingredients hich ould
provide therapeutic benefits specially flourides.
#entifrices are made in three forms i.e. pastes1 gels1 and poders.
They provide three important functions i.e.
i. Efficient removal of plaque1 debris and stained pellicle.
ii. =olish teeth to increase the light reflectance and thus improve
The high polish also aids in preventing the accumulation of
microorganisms and stains.
iii. They act as vehicles for delivery of therapeutic agents ith
.non benefits.
Co)&onen Maeria$s .#r&ose
&brasive (alcium carbonate
#ibasic calcium phosphate
<ydrated alumina
<ydrated silica
*odium bicarbonate
?ixtures of listed abrasives
+emoval of =laque 9 stain1
polish tooth surface
#etergent *odium lauryl sulfate &ids debris removal
(oolants 5ood colorants &ppearance
5lavoring )ils of spearmint1 peppermint1
intergreen or cinnamon
<umecant *orbitol1 glycerine ?aintains moisture content
0ater #eioni7ed ater *uspension agent
3inder (arrageenan Thic.ener1 prevents liquidD
solid separation
5luoride *odium
monofluorophoshpate1 sodium
fluoride1 stannous fluoride
#ental caries prevention
Tartar control
#isodium pyrophosphate1
tetrasodium pyrophosphate1
tetrapotassium pyrophosphate
!nhibits the formation of
calculus above the gingival
=otassium nitrate1 strontium
=romotes occlusion of
dentinal tubules
Though a varied range of abrasive and polishing agents have been
described ith relation to individual dental materials1 an ideal abrasive or a
polishing agent hich ould satisfy all polishing needs of the dental materials1
one ould say is yet to be developed.