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Page 1 of 7 October 2004

PIPENET Training Manual Appendix A - o! to "alculate #al$e %actor


Appendix A
o! to "alculate #al$e %actor
Introduction&
Both Cv and Kv are used to specify the capacity of control valves. They are same factor
but in different unit. Cv is based on the imperial units system and is defined as: the flow of
water through a valve at 60 in !" gallon per minute at a pressure drop of # psi. $ts
dimension is %!" gallon&min' psi(. Kv is based on the "$ system and is defined as: the flow
of water through a valve at )0 C in cubic meter per hour at a pressure drop of # bar. $ts
dimension is %m
*
&hr' bar(.
The converting e+uations between Cv and Kv is Cv , #.#6 Kv. $f the unit of Cv -Kv. is not
indicated by the manufactory' the default unit' i.e. %!" gallon&min' psi( for Cv and %m
*
&hr'
bar( for Kv' should be used. /owever' it is better to +uery the manufactory to confirm it.
Cv and Kv can be converted each other automatically in 0$0121T by changing the unit
system. The following e3ample shows you how to process this converting from Kv to Cv.
#. "et Kv unit in menu Init ' (nit)' i.e. %m
*
&hr( for flow rate and %bar( for pressure.
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PIPENET Training Manual Appendix A - o! to "alculate #al$e %actor

). 4ssign # %m
*
&hr' bar( Kv value to the valve although its name is still shown as Cv'
*. 5eset the unit system to Cv unit.
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PIPENET Training Manual Appendix A - o! to "alculate #al$e %actor
6. The converted Cv factor is obtained based on the new unit system.
0lease notice that Kv and K factor are different factors. K factor is a dimensionless factor
and signifies the local friction coefficient. $t must combine with the valve port area to
calculate the pressure drop across the valve.
o! to calculate "$ +,$-&
To simulate the behavior of a valve in a hydrodynamic analogy' either Cv factor or K factor
and the valve port area are the re+uired parameters in 0$0121T. /owever' sometimes the
manufactory provide the information such as the inlet&outlet pressures' temperatures and
flow rate rather than give Cv or K factors directly. Therefore' we must deduce Cv or K
factor from the 7nown parameters.
The e+uations to calculate Cv -Kv. factor are listed below' which are suitable for li+uid'
saturated steam' superheated steam and gas. The allowed pressure drop coves a wide
range which up to supercritical flow. 4ny disturbance happened in the downstream flow
can not spread up to the upstream flow when fluid reaches the critical velocity in a valve'
i.e. when the outlet pressure is less than a half of inlet pressure. $n this case' a comple3
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PIPENET Training Manual Appendix A - o! to "alculate #al$e %actor
networ7 may be separated into two simpler sub networ7s in a hydrodynamatic calculation.
This is a very importance conclusion which can simplify the model and ma7e the problem
easy.
An Exa.ple / .ain )tea. $al$e
"pecifications:
low rate: 890 tons&hr
:utlet pressure: )6) bar;g
0ressure drop: ).6) bar
Temperature: 968 <C
=ensity: >).?6 m
*
&7g
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PIPENET Training Manual Appendix A - o! to "alculate #al$e %actor
"olution:
the steam is superheated and 0)@0#&)

[ ] bar hr m
P
G
Kv , / 2257
86 . 72 42 . 2 7 . 31
1000 950
7 . 31
3
=

=

=

Anot1er Exa.ple / b2pa)) $al$e


"pecifications:
low rate: 9>0 tons&hr
$nlet pressure: )68 bar;a
:utlet pressure: 6.?# bar;a
$nlet temperature: 968 <C
=ensity: *6.6 m
*
&7g -under the inlet temperature and a half of the inlet
pressure.
"olution:
the steam is superheated and 0)A0#&)

[ ] bar hr m
P
G
Kv , / 274
6 . 34 249 4 . 22
1000 570
4 . 22
3
1
=

/owever' the above result can not be used in 0$0121T directly because a different Kv
e+uation is used in 0$0121T which assumes li+uid is the default fluid. The e+uation in
0$0121T is:
( ) ( )
2 1 1
1
2 1 0
1
1000
'
P P
G
P P
Q
Kv

=

4s the mentioned before' the flow state at the upstream of the valve is not affected by the
downstream flow when the pressure drop across the valve e3ceeds a half of the inlet
pressure. Therefore' the networ7 located at the downstream of the valve can be neglected
in the calculation. The outlet pressure can be assumed to be 0 bar;a regardless the actual
outlet pressure. Then 0$0121T e+uation can be simplified as
1 1
1000
'
P
G
Kv

=

and
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PIPENET Training Manual Appendix A - o! to "alculate #al$e %actor
1
2
'

Kv Kv =
is the density under 0
#
&) and T
#

#
is the density under 0
#
and T
#
or a supercritical steam system' for e3ample' 0
#
,)68 bar' T
#
, 968 C' , *6.6 7g&m
*
'
#
, >9.) 7g&m
*
. The converting ratio between KvB and Kv is: KvB, 0.6? Kv. or other steam
systems with a lower pressure'
2
1

, KvB, 0.9 Kv.
$n our case' the calculated Kv of the bypass valve is )>6 %m
*
&hr' bar(. The converting Kv
used in 0$0121T should be #*) %m
*
&hr' bar(. /owever' the outlet pressure of the valve
must be specified as 0 bar;a. "imilarly' the safety valves -)390C capacity. can be
calculated following above principle' the converting Kv used in 0$0121T is )#8 %m
*
&hr'
bar(.
#al$e) in parallel or )erie)
$f several close valves are assembled in parallel' the close valves can be combined into
one big valve. The total Kv factor is e+ual to the sum of the all single valves' i.e.
Kv
total
,Kv
#
DKv
)
DE.DKv
n
. This is useful in simplifying safety -relief. valve system. The
assembly of a series of control valves is used much less fre+uently than the parallel
assembly. /owever' sometimes you have to simulate such connection. The e+uivalent Kv
can be calculated by:
2 2
2
2
1
2
1 1 1 1
n total
Kv Kv Kv Kv
+ + + =

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PIPENET Training Manual Appendix A - o! to "alculate #al$e %actor
o! to e)ti.ate , factor&
K factor can be estimated by referring to the valve with same type and same siFe. The
typical K factors have been included in 0$0121T based on the used standards. $t is a
function of the valve type and siFe and can be obtained by browsing Pipe Propertie) ' ,-
factor)' as shown below. /owever' this is a rough method which may cause a big
calculation error.