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# 4 UNIT MATHEMATICS MECHANICS HSC

## BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997

EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
Mechanics
4U97-5b)!
mg
N
F
u

A particle of mass m is lying on an inclined plane and does not move. The plane is at an angle u to the
horizontal. The particle is subject to a gravitational force mg, a normal reaction force N, and a
frictional force F parallel to the plane, as shown in the diagram. Resolve the forces acting on the
particle, and hence find an expression for
F
N
in terms of u.
tanu
4U97-6b)!
A ball of mass 2 kilograms is thrown vertically upward from the origin with an initial speed of
8 metres per second. The ball is subject to a downward gravitational force of 20 newtons and air
resistance of (v
2
/5) newtons in the opposite direction to the velocity, v metres per second. Hence,
until the ball reaches its highest point, the equation of motion is y =
v
2

10
10, where y metres is its
height.
i. Using the fact that y = v
dv
dy
, show that, while the ball is rising, v
2
= 164e
-y/5
- 100.
ii. Hence find the maximum height reached.
iii. Using the fact that y =
dv
dt
, find how long the ball takes to reach this maximum height.
iv. How fast is the ball travelling when it returns to the origin?
i) Proof ii) 2.47m iii) 0.675sec. iv) 6.25m/s
4U96-6b)!
A circular drum is rotating with uniform angular velocity round a horizontal axis. A particle P is
rotating in a vertical circle, without slipping, on the inside of the drum.
The radius of the drum is r metres and its angular velocity is e radians/second. Acceleration due to
gravity is g metres/second
2
, and the mass of P is m kilograms.
The centre of the drum is O, and OP makes and angle u to the horizontal.
The drum exerts a normal force N on P, as well as a frictional force F, acting tangentially to the drum,
as shown in the diagram.
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS MECHANICS HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
u
F
N
P
mg
O

By resolving forces perpendicular to and parallel to OP, find an expression for
F
N
in terms of the
data.

g
r g
cos
sin
u
e u
2

4U96-7a)!
A particle is moving along the x axis. Its acceleration is given by
d x
dt
x
x
2
2 3
5 2
=

and the particle starts
from rest at the point x = 1.
i. Show that the particle starts moving in the positive x direction.
ii. Let v be the velocity of the particle. Show that v
x x
x
=
+
2
4 5
for x >1.
iii. Describe the behaviour of the velocity of the particle after the particle passes x =
5
2
.
i) Proof ii) Proof iii) For x > 2.5, v decreases tending to 1 as x tends to .
4U95-8c)!
mg
R
C
F
N
0

A particle of mass m travels at constant speed v round a circular track of radius R, centre C. The track
is banked inwards at an angle u, and the particle does not move up or down the bank.
The reaction exerted by the track on the particle has a normal component N, and a component F due
to friction, directed up or down the bank. The force F lies in the range from -N to N, where is a
positive constant and N is the normal component; the sign of F is positive when F is directed up the
bank. The acceleration due to gravity is g. The acceleration related to the circular motion is of
magnitude
2
v
R
, and is directed towards the centre of the track.
i. By resolving forces horizontally and vertically, show that
v
Rg
Nsin Fcos
Ncos + Fsin
2
=
u u
u u
.
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS MECHANICS HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
ii. Show that the maximum speed v
max
at which the particle can travel without slipping up the
track is given by
v
Rg
tan
1 tan
max
2
=
+

u
u
.
[You may suppose that tan u < 1.]
iii. Show that if u tan > , then the particle will not slide down the track, regardless of its
speed.
Proof
4U94-4b)!
Alex decides to go bungee jumping. This involves being tied to a bridge at a point O by an elastic
cable of length L metres, and then falling vertically from rest from this point. After Alex free-falls L
metres, she is slowed down by the cable, which exerts a force, in newtons, of Mgk times the distance
greater than L that she has fallen (where M is her mass in kilograms, g m s /
2
is the constant
acceleration due to gravity, and k is a constant). Let x m be the distance Alex has fallen, and let v m/s
be her speed at x. You may assume that her acceleration is given by
d
dx
v
1
2
2
|
\

|
.
| .
i. Show that
d
dx
v
1
2
2
|
\

|
.
| = g when x L s , and
d
dx
v
1
2
2
|
\

|
.
| = g - gk(x - L) when x > L.
ii. Show that v 2gL
2
= when Alex first passes x = L.
iii. Show that v gx kg x L
2 2
2 = ( ) for x > L.
iv. Show that Alexs fall is halted first at x L
1
k
2L
k
1
k
2
= + + +
|
\

|
.
| .
v. Suppose
1
k
L
4
= .
Show that O must be at least 2L metres above any obstruction on Alexs path.
Proof
4U93-5a)!
u
P
O
L
s
F

The diagram shows a simple pendulum consisting of a particle P, of mass m kg, which is attached to a
fixed point F by a string of length L metres.
The particle P moves along a circular arc in a fixed vertical plane through F.
The point O is the lowest point of the arc, Z OFP = u, and the arc length OP = s metres.
The time t is measured in seconds and g m/s in the constant gravitational acceleration.
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS MECHANICS HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
i. Show that the tangential acceleration of P is given by
( )
d s
dt
L
d
d
2
2
1
2
2
=
u
u , where

u
u
=
d
dt
.
ii. Show that the equation of the motion of the pendulum is
( )
L
d
d
g sin
1
2
2
u
u u

= .
iii. Suppose that the pendulum is given an initial angular velocity of
g
L
u = 0. Show that
( )
1
2
L
2
g cos
1
2

## u u = . Hence deduce that the maximum value of u

attained by the pendulum is
t
3
.
iv. Suppose that on the initial upward swing the angular velocity is better approximated from the
equation
( )
1
2
L g cos
1
2
g
10
(2sin )
2

## u u u u = . Use one application of Newton's method to

find the maximum value of u attained by the pendulum. Take u
t
=
3
as the first
approximation.
(i) (ii) (iii) Proof (iv) u = 0.9681 (to 4 d.p)
4U92-5b)!
An object is fired vertically upwards with initial speed 400 m/s from the surface of the Earth. Assume
that the acceleration due to gravity at height x above the Earths surface is
10
(1
x
R
)
m/ s
2
2
+

where the radius of the Earth, R= 64 10
6
. m.
i. Show that
d
dx
1
2
v
10
1
x
R
2
2
|
\

|
.
|
=

+
|
\

|
.
|

where v is the speed of the object at height x. (Neglect air resistance).
ii. Calculate the maximum height the object reaches. Give your answer to the nearest metre.
(i) Proof (ii) 8010 metres
4U92-6a)!

u
a
S
x
a
T
|
O
N

The diagram shows a model train T that is moving around a circular track, centre O and radius a
metres. The train is travelling at a constant speed of u m/s. The point N is in the same plane as the
track and is x metres from the nearest point on the track. The line NO produced meets the track at S.
Let Z = TNS | and Z = TOS u as in the diagram.
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS MECHANICS HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
i. Express
d
dt
u
in terms of a and u.
ii. Show that a x a sin( ) ( )sin u | | + = 0 and deduce that
d
dt
u
x a a
| u |
| u |
=

+ +
cos( )
( )cos cos( )
.
iii. Show that
d
dt
|
= 0 when NT is tangential to the track.
iv. Suppose that x = a. Show that the trains angular velocity about N when u
t
=
2
is
3
5
times
the angular velocity about N when u = 0.
(i)
d
dt
u
a
u
= (ii) Proof (iii) Proof (iv) Proof
4U91-6b)!
When a jet aircraft touches down, two different retarding forces combine to bring it to rest. If the
aircraft has mass M kg and speed v m/s there is a constant frictional force of
1
4
M newtons and a
force of
1
108
Mv
2
newtons due to the reverse thrust of the engines. The reverse thrust of the engines
does not take effect until 20 seconds after touchdown.
Let x be the distance in metres of the jet from its point of touchdown and let t be the time in seconds
after touchdown.
i. Show that
d
2
x
dt
2
=
1
4
for 0 < t < 20 and that for t > 20, and until the jet stops,
d
2
x
dt
2
=
1
108
(27+ v
2
).
ii. Prove the identity
d
2
x
dt
2
=
dv
dt
= v
dv
dx
.
iii. If the jets speed at touchdown is 60 m/s show that v = 55 and x = 1150 at the instant the
reverse thrust of the engines takes effect.
iv. Show that when t > 20,
( ) ( ) { }
x 1150 54 ln 27 (55) ln 27 v
2 2
= + + + .
v. Calculate how far from the touchdown point the jet comes to rest. Give your answer to the
nearest metre.
(i) Proof (ii) Proof (iii) Proof (iv) Proof (v) 1405 metres
4U90-7a)!
A mass of m kilograms falls from a stationary balloon at height h metres above the ground. It
experiences air resistance during its fall equal to mkv
2
, where v is its speed in metres per second and
k is a positive constant. Let x be the distance in metres of the mass from the balloon, measured
positively as it falls.
i. Show that the equation of motion of the mass is x g kv =
2
, where g is the acceleration due
to gravity.
ii. Find v
2
as a function of x. Hint: x
d
dx
v v
dv
dx
=
|
\

|
.
|
=
1
2
2
.
iii. Find the velocity V as the mass hits the ground in terms of g, k and h.
iv. Find the velocity of the mass as it hits the ground if air resistance is neglected.
(i) Proof (ii) v
g
k
(1 e )
2 2kx
=

(iii) ( ) v
g
k
e ms
kh
=

1
2 1
(iv) v 2gh ms
-1
=
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS MECHANICS HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
4U89-7a)!
0
P
Q
o

A particle of mass m kg moves in a horizontal circle with centre O and radius r metres, with uniform
speed v metres per second.
At time t, the particle is at point P while at time t + ot, it is at point Q with ZPOQ = ou as in the
diagram.
i. Calculate the component of the velocity at Q in the direction PO.
ii. Hence show that the particle is subject to a force of
mv
2
r
newtons directed towards O.
iii. Suppose that the circle lies on a track banked at and angle o to the horizontal as in the figure
below.
0 P
o
r metres

Draw a diagram of all forces on the moving particle P and show that the resultant of these
forces is normal to the track precisely when tano =
v
2
rg
. Here g ms
-2
is the acceleration due
to gravity.
(i) v sin ou (ii) Proof (iii)
o
F
N
mg
P

4U88-6)!
A body of mass one kilogram is projected vertically upwards from the ground at a speed of 20 metres
per second. The particle is under the effect of both gravity and a resistance which, at any time, has a
magnitude of
1
40
v
2
, where v is the magnitude of the particle's velocity at that time.
In the following questions take the acceleration due to gravity to be 10 metres per second per second.
a. While the body is travelling upwards the equation of motion is x (10
1
40
v )
2
= + .
i. Taking x v
dv
dx
= , calculate the greatest height reached by the particle.
ii. Taking x
dv
dt
= , calculate the time taken to reach this greatest height.
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS MECHANICS HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
b. Having reached its greatest height the particle falls to its starting point. The particle is still
under the effect of both gravity and a resistance which, at any time, has a magnitude of
1
40
v
2
.
i. Write down the equation of motion of the particle as it falls.
ii. Find the speed of the particle when it returns to its starting point.
(a)(i) 20log
e
2 metres (ii)
t
2
seconds (b)(i) x g v
1
40
2
= (ii) 10 2 ms
-1

4U87-6)!
A particle of unit mass moves in a straight line against a resistance numerically equal to v + v
3
, where
v is its velocity. Initially the particle is at the origin and is travelling with velocity Q, where Q > 0.
a. Show that v is related to the displacement x by the formula x tan
Q v
1 Qv
1
=

+
|
\

|
.
|

.
b. Show that the time t which has elapsed when the particle is travelling with velocity v is given
by t
1
2
log
Q (1 v )
v (1 Q )
e
2 2
2 2
=
+
+
|
\

|
.
|
.
c. Find v
2
as a function of t.
d. Find the limiting values of v and x as t approaches .
(a) Proof (b) Proof (c)
( )
v
Q
1 Q e Q
2
2
2 2t 2
=
+
(d) V approaches O and x approaches tan
-1
Q.
4U86-5ii)!
A particle travels in a straight line away from a fixed wall. At time t secs its acceleration a ms
-2
is
given by a = t sin t. Determine the velocity v ms
-1
, and the distance from the wall x metres, as
functions of t, given that v = V and x = 0, at t = 0.
v = -t cos t + sin t + V, x = -t sin t - 2cos t + Vt + 2
4U86-6)!
a. A cyclist is travelling with constant speed v metres per second around a circular track of
radius r metres. Draw a diagram of the forces on the cyclist and show that the cyclist must
lean inwards towards the centre of the circle at an angle u, where tanu =
v
rg
2
and u is the
angle to the vertical of the line from the mass centre to the point of wheel contact.
P
B
A
O
Q
G
50 metres
o
o

b. The figure represents the front view of a cyclist PQ, with mass centre G, riding on a circular
competition track AB which is banked at an angle o to the horizontal. The track is so
designed that when the cyclist is travelling at a constant speed of 40 km per hour around a
horizontal circle of centre O and radius OQ = 50 metres, then PQ and AB are perpendicular.
Assuming the value of g to be 10 ms
-2
, show that o = 14, to the nearest degree.
c. Also calculate the force of the wheels on the track at Q in the direction AB, given that a
cyclist of total mass 80kg is travelling around the same circle at 50 km per hour.
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS MECHANICS HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
(a)
m
2
v
r
F
G
R
N
mg
where N is the normal reaction of the road, F is the
frictional force and R is the resultant force of N and F. (b) Proof (c) 108N
4U85-6)!
A particle of mass 10kg is found to experience a resistive force, in newtons, of one-tenth of the square
of its velocity in metres per second, when it moves through the air.
The particle is projected vertically upwards from a point O with a velocity of u metres per second, and
the point A, vertically upwards from a point O with a velocity of u metres per second, and the point A,
vertically above O, is the highest point reached by the particle before it starts to fall to the ground
again. Assuming the value of g is 10 ms
-2
,
a. find the time the particle takes to reach A from O;
b. show that the height OA is 50log
e
(1 + 10
-3
u
2
) metres;
c. show that the particles velocity w ms
-1
when it reaches O again is given by w
2
= u
2
(1 + 10
-
3
u
2
)
-1
.
(a) 10tan
u
10 10
1
|
\

|
.
|
seconds (b) Proof (c) Proof
4U84-6)!
Two stones are thrown simultaneously from the same point in the same direction and with the same
non-zero angle of projection (upward inclination to the horizontal), o, but with different velocities U,
V metres per second (U < V). The slower stone hits the ground at a point P on the same level as the
point of projection. At that instant the faster stone just clears a wall of height h metres above the level
of projection and its (downward) path makes and angle | with the horizontal.
a. Show that, while both stones are in flight, the line joining them has an inclination to the
horizontal distance from P to the foot of the wall in terms of h, o.
b. Show that V(tano + tan|) = 2Utano, and deduce that, if | =
1
2
o, then U <
3
4
V.
Proof
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS POLYNOMIALS HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
Polynomials
4U97-5c)!
Suppose that b and d are real numbers and d 0 = . Consider the polynomial P(z) = z
4
+ bz
2
+ d. The
polynomial has a double root o.
i. Prove that P(z) is an odd function.
ii. Prove that o is also a double root of P(z).
iii. Prove that d =
b
2
4
.
iv. For what values of b does P(z) have a double root equal to 3i ?
v. For what values of b does P(z) have real roots?
i) ii) iii) Proof iv) b = -6 v) b s 0
4U96-5b)!
Consider the polynomial equation x ax bx cx d
4 3 2
0 + + + + = , where a, b, c, and d are all integers.
Suppose the equation has a root of the form ki, where k is real, and k =0.
i. State why the conjugate -ki is also a root.
ii. Show that c k a =
2
.
iii. Show that c a d abc
2 2
+ = .
iv. If 2 is also a root of the equation, and b = 0, show that c is even.
Proof
4U95-5b)!
Let f(t) = t
3
+ ct + d, where c and d are constants.
Suppose that the equation f(t) = 0 has three distinct real roots, t
1
, t
2
, t
3
.
i. Find t
1
+ t
2
+ t
3
.
ii. Show that t
1
+ t
2
+ t
3
= - 2c.
iii. Since the roots are real and distinct, the graph of y = f(t) has two turning points, at t = u and
t = v, and f(u).f(v) < 0. Show that 27d
2
+ 4c
3
< 0.
(i) 0 (ii) Proof (iii) Proof
4U94-8b)!
Let x = o be a root of the quartic polynomial P x x Ax Bx Ax ( ) = + + + +
4 3 2
1, where A and B are
real. Note that o may be complex.
i. Show that o = 0.
ii. Show that x = o is also a root of Q x x
x
A x
x
B ( ) = + + +
|
\

|
.
|
+
2
2
1 1
.
iii. With u x
1
x
, = + show that Q(x) becomes R u u Au B ( ) ( ) = + +
2
2 .
iv. For certain values of A and B, P(x) has no real roots. Let D be the region of the AB plane
where P(x) has no real roots for A > 0.
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS POLYNOMIALS HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
-2
0
L
B
T
c
A

The region D is shaded in the figure. Specify the bounding straight-line segment L and curved
segment c. Determine the coordinates of T.
(i) Proof (ii) Proof (iii) Proof (iv) The straight line segment is B = 2A - 2 and the curved segment is
B A 2
1
4
2
= + . T is the point (4, 6).
4U93-1d)!
i. Find real numbers a, b and c such that
4x 3
(x 1)(x 2)
ax b
x 1
c
x 2
2 2
+
+ +
=
+
+
+
+
ii. Hence find
4x 3
(x 1)(x 2)
dx
2
+
+ +
}
.
(i) a = 1, b = 2, c = -1 (ii) ( ) ( )
1
2
ln 2tan x ln c
1
x x
2
1 2 + + + +

4 UNIT MATHEMATICS POLYNOMIALS HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
4U93-5b)!
i. If a is a multiple root of the polynomial equation P(x) = 0, prove that P'(a) = 0.
ii. Find all of the roots of the equation 18x
3
+ 3x - 28x + 12 = 0, given that two of the roots are
equal.
(i) Proof (ii) x
2
3
,
2
3
3
2
= ,
4U91-7b)!
Let x = a be a root of the quartic polynomial P(x) = x
4
+ Ax
3
+ Bx
2
+ Ax + 1 where (2 + B)
2
= 4A
2
.
i. Show that o cannot be 0, 1, or -1.
ii. Show that x =
1
o
is a root.
iii. Deduce that if o is a multiple root, then its multiplicity is 2 and 4B = 8 + A
2
.
Proof
4U90-6a)!
i. Write down the relations which hold between the roots o | , , of the equation
ax bx cx d a
3 2
0 0 + + + = = , ( ) , and the coefficients a, b, c, d.
ii. Consider the equation 36x
3
12x
2
11x +2 = 0. You are given that the roots o,|, of this
equation satisfy o = |+ . Use part (i) to find o.
iii. Suppose the equation x
3
+px
2
+qx +r = 0 has roots v , , which satisfy = + v.
Show that p
3
4pq+8r = 0.
(i) o + | + =
b
a
, o| + | + o =
c
a
, o| =
d
a
(ii)
1
6
(iii) Proof
4U89-2b)!
i. Write
4x
2
5x7
(x 1)(x
2
+x+2)
in the form
A
x 1
+
Bx+C
x
2
+x +2
.
ii. Hence evaluate
4x
2
5x7
(x1)(x
2
+x+2)
dx
1
0
}
.
(i)

+
+
+ +
2
x 1
6x 3
x x 2
2
(ii) 2 ln 2
4U87-8ii)!
a. A polynomial R(x) is given by R(x) = x
7
- 1. Let p = 1 be that complex root of R(x) = 0
which has the smallest positive argument. Show that:
o. R(x) = (x - 1)(1 + x + x
2
+ x
3
+ x
4
+ x
5
+ x
6
)
|. 1 + p + p
2
+ p
3
+ p
4
+ p
5
+ p
6
= 0
b. Let u = p + p
2
+ p
4
and | = p
3
+ p
5
+ p
6
.
o. Prove that u + | = -1 and u| = 2.
|. Show that u =
+ 1 7
2
i
and | =
1 7
2
i

c. Given that
T(x) = 1 + x + x
2
+ x
3
+ x
4
+ x
5
+ x
6

= (x - p)(x - p
2
) (x - p
3
) (x - p
4
) (x - p
5
) (x - p
6
),
write the polynomial T(x) as a product of two cubics with coefficients involving u, | and
rational numbers.
(a) Proof (b) Proof (c) (x p)(x p )(x p ) (x x x 1)(x x x
2 4 3 2 3 2
= + + u | | u 1)
4U86-3ii)!
a. Show that if a is a multiple root of the polynomial equation f(x) = 0 then f(a) = f '(a) = 0.
b. The polynomial ox
n+1
+ |x
n
+ 1 is divisible by (x - 1)
2
. Show that o = n, and | = -(1 + n).
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS POLYNOMIALS HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
c. Prove that 1 + x +
x
2
2!
+...+
x
n
n!
has no multiple roots for any n > 1.
Proof
4U86-8i)!
Let o, |, be the roots of the cubic equation x
3
+ px
2
+ q = 0, where p, q are real. The equation
x
3
+ ax
2
+ bx + c = 0 has roots o
2
, |
2
,
2
. Find a, b, c as functions of p, q.
a = -p
2
, b = -2pq and c = -q
2

4U85-1ii)!
Find real numbers A, B, C such that
x
(x 1)
2
(x2)

A
x 1
+
B
(x1)
2
+
C
x 2
.
Hence show that
x
(x 1) (x 2)
dx 2log
3
2
1
2
0
1
2
e

=
|
\

|
.
|
}
.
A = -2, B = -1, C = 2, Proof