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# 4 UNIT MATHEMATICS HARDER 3 UNIT TOPICS 1 HSC

## BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997

EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
Harder 3 Unit Topics 1: 1997 - 1991
4U97-3c)!
In a game, two players take turns at drawing, and immediately replacing, a marble from a bag
containing two green and three red marbles. The game is won by player A drawing a green marble, or
player B drawing a red marble. Player A draws first. Find the probability that:
i. A wins on her first draw;
ii. B wins on her first draw;
iii. A wins in less than four of her turns;
iv. A wins eventually.
i)
2
5
ii)
9
25
iii)
1622
3125
iv)
10
19

4U97-4b)!
i. Find an expression for cot2A in terms of tanA.
ii. Show that tanA and -cotA satisfy the equation x
2
+ 2x cot2A - 1 = 0.
iii. Hence, or otherwise, find the exact value of tan
8
t
.
iv. Hence find the exact value of tan
16
cot
16
t t
.
i) cot2A=
1- tan A
tanA
2
2
ii) Proof iii) 2 1 iv) + 2 2 1 ( )
4U97-6a)!
The series 1 + + x x x
2 4 4n
... has 2n + 1 terms.
i. Explain why 1
1
1
+ + =
+
+
x x x
x
x
2 4 4n
4n + 2
2
... .
ii. Hence show that
1
1
1
1
1 +
s + + s
+
+
x
x x x
x
x
2
2 4 4n
2
4n + 2
... .
iii. Hence show that, if 0s s y 1, then tan y y -
y y y
4n +1
tan y +
1
4n + 3
-1
3 5 4n +
-1
s + + s
3 5
1
... .
iv. Deduce that 0 1
1
3
1
5
1
1001 4
10
3
< + +
|
\

|
.
|
<

...
t
.
i) Since S
a(1- r )
1- r
n
n
= and a = 1, r = -x
2
, N = 2n + 1 ii) iii) iv) Proof
4U97-7a)!
S
R
U
T
O

The points R and S lie on a circle with centre O and radius 1. The tangents to the circle at R and S
meet at T. The lines OT and RS meet at U, and are perpendicular. Show that OU OT = 1.
Proof
4U97-7b)!
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS HARDER 3 UNIT TOPICS 1 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
S
R
U
x
y
T
u
P
Q
O

The circle (x - r)
2
+ y
2
= r
2
, with centre Q(r, 0) and radius r, lies inside the circle x
2
+ y
2
= 1, with
centre O and radius 1. The point P(r + rcosu, rsinu) lies on the inner circle, and P and O do not
coincide. The tangent to the inner circle at P meets the outer circle at R and S, and the tangents to the
outer circle at R and S meet at T. The lines OT and RS meet at U, and are perpendicular.
i. Show that OT is parallel to QP.
ii. Show that the equation of RS is xcosu + ysinu = r(1 + cosu).
iii. Find the length of OU.
iv. By using the result of part (a), show that T lies on the curve r
2
y
2
+ 2rx = 1.
i) ii) Proof iii) r(1 + cosu) iv) Proof
4U97-7c)!
y
x
K
J
N M
L
O

The parabola x
2
= 4ay touches the circle x
2
+ y
2
+ 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 at J, and cuts it at K and L. The
midpoint of KL is M, and the line JM cuts the y axis at N, as shown on the diagram.
i. Find a quartic equation whose roots are the x coordinates of J, K and L.
ii. Show that JN = NM.
iii. Hence show that the area of AJKN is one-quarter of the area of AJKL.
x
4
+ (16a
2
+ 8af)x
2
+ 32a
2
gx + 16a
2
c = 0 ii) iii) Proof
4U97-8a)!
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS HARDER 3 UNIT TOPICS 1 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
C
X
E
A
D B
F

Triangle ABC is scalene. External equilateral triangles ABF, BCD and CAE are constructed on the
sides of triangle ABC as shown. Lines AD and BE meet at X.
Copy or trace this diagram into your Writing Booklet.
i. Show that ZBCE = ZDCA.
iii. Show that BDCX is a cyclic quadrilateral.
iv. Show that ZBXD = ZDXC = ZCXE = ZEXA =
t
3
.
v. Show that CF passes through X.
vi. Show that AD = BE = CF.
Proof
4U96-3c)!
v
O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 t 10

A particle moves along the x axis. At time t = 0, the particle is at x = 0. Its velocity v at time t is
shown on the graph.
Trace or copy this graph into your Writing Booklet.
iii. Sketch the displacement graph for the particle from t = 0 to t = 9.
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS HARDER 3 UNIT TOPICS 1 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
i) At t = 6.5 where the curve of v(t) has the greatest gradient. ii) At t = 4, since the curve is symmetric
around x = 2 in the interval 0 s t s 4 and v t dt ( ) =
}
0. iii)
x
t 9 4

4U96-4a)!
By differentiating both sides of the formula 1
1
1
2 3
1
+ + + + + =

+
x x x x
x
x
n
n
... , find an expression for
1 2 2 3 4 4 8 2
1
+ + + + +

... n
n
.
(n 1)2
n
+ 1
4U96-4c)!
Consider a lotto-style game with a barrel containing twenty similar balls numbered 1 to 20. In each
game, four balls are drawn, without replacement, from the twenty balls in the barrel.
The probability that any particular number is drawn in any game is 0.2.
i. Find the probability that the number 20 is drawn in exactly two of the next five games
played.
ii. Find the probability that the number 20 is drawn in at least two of the next five games
played.
Let j be and integer, with 4 20 s s j .
iii. Write down the probability that, in any one game, all four selected numbers are less than or
equal to j.
iv. Show that the probability that, in any one game, j is the largest of the four numbers drawn is
j
|
\

|
.
|
|
\

|
.
|
1
3
20
4
.
i) 0.205 (to 3 d.p.) ii) 0.263 (to 3 d.p.) iii)
j
4
20
4
|
\

|
.
|
|
\

|
.
|
iv) Proof
4U96-6a)!
Solve 3 2 2 3
2
x x x s .
1 s x s 2
4U96-8b)!
P
T
Q R

The points P, Q, R lie on a straight line, in that order, and T is any point not on the line. Using the fact
that PR - PQ = QR, show that QT - QP > RT - RP.
Proof
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS HARDER 3 UNIT TOPICS 1 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
4U96-8c)!
A
K
B
C M
D
N
L

i. ABCD is a quadrilateral, and the sides of ABCD are tangent to a circle at points K, L, M, and
N, as in the diagram. Show that AB + CD = AD + BC.
ii. ABCD is a quadrilateral, with all angles less than 180. Let X be the point of intersection of
the angle bisectors of ZABC and of ZBCD. Prove that X is the centre of a circle to which
AB, BC, and CD are tangent.
iii. ABCD is a quadrilateral, with all angles less than 180. Given that AB + CD = AD + BC,
show that there exists a circle to which all sides of ABCD are tangent. You may use the
result of part (b).
Proof
4U95-4b)!
i. Solve x > 2x + 1.
ii. Prove by mathematical induction that 2
n
> n
2
for all integers n > 5.
(i) x 1 2 > + or x 1 2 < (ii) Proof
4U95-5a)!
i. Show that sin x + sin 3x = 2sin 2x cos x.
ii. Hence, or otherwise, find solutions of sin x + sin 2x + sin 3x = 0 for 0 s x < 2t.
(i) Proof (ii) x 0,
2
, ,
3
2
,
2
3
,
4
3
=
t
t
t t t

4U95-6a)!
Pat observed an aeroplane flying at a constant height, h, and with constant velocity. Pat first sighted it
due east, at an angle of elevation of 45. A short time later it was exactly north-east, at an angle of
60.
i. Draw a diagram to represent this information.
ii. Find an expression in terms of h for the initial horizontal distance between Pat and the point
directly below the aeroplane.
iii. In what direction was the aeroplane flying? Give your answer as a bearing to the nearest
degree.
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS HARDER 3 UNIT TOPICS 1 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
(i)
45
60
45
x
h
A
B
P
h

## (ii) x = h (iii) N55W or 305

4U95-6b)!
U
M
T
V
P 0
r
s
W

In the above diagram, a circle with centre O and radius r meets a circle with centre P and radius s at
the points V and W. The straight lines VW and OP meet at M. The point T is arbitrary, and U is the
point on the line OP such that TU is perpendicular to OP.
i. Prove that OP and VW are perpendicular.
ii. Show that OT - PT = OU - PU and that OM - PM = r - s.
iii. Hence show that T lies on the line VW exactly when OT - PT = r - s.
iv.
Q
P
O
F
E
D
C
B
A

FAEB, BCAD, and DECF are circles with centres O, P and Q, and radii r, s, and t,
respectively. Using the result of part (iii), or otherwise, show that the straight lines AB, CD,
and EF are concurrent.
Proof
4U95-7b)!
A fair coin is tossed 2n times. The probability of observing k heads and (2n - k) tails is given by
P
2n
k
1
2
1
2
k
k 2n k
=
|
\

|
.
|
|
\

|
.
|
|
\

|
.
|

.
i. Show that the most likely outcome is k = n. That is, show that P
k
is greatest when k = n.
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS HARDER 3 UNIT TOPICS 1 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
ii. Show that P
(2n)!
2 (n!)
n 2n 2
= .
iii. Using the result of part (a) (iii), show that
( )
1
n
P
1
n
1
2
n
t
t
+
< < .
Proof
4U95-8a)!
Suppose that p and q are real numbers. Show that pq
p q
2
2 2
s
+
.
Proof
4U94-5b)!
A jar contains w white and r red jellybeans. Three jellybeans are taken at random from the jar and
eaten.
i. Write down an expression, in terms of w and r, for the probability that these 3 jellybeans
were white.
Gary observed that if the jar had initially contained (w + 1) white and red jellybeans, then the
probability that the 3 eaten jellybeans were white would have been double that in part (i).
ii. Show that r
w w
w
=

2
2
5
.
iii. Using part (a) (v), or otherwise, determine all possible numbers of white and red jellybeans.
(i)
w
w r
w 1
w r 1
w 2
w r 2 +

+

+
(ii) Proof (iii) 2 red and 3 white, or 10 red and 4 white
4U94-6b)!
Y
P
M
X
N
o
0
C
Z
B
A

Circles PABC and PMNO intersect at P, and APM, BPN, and CPO are straight lines. BA and MN
produced meet at X, CA and MO produced meet at Y, and CB and NO produced meet at Z, as in the
diagram. Let ZYAX = o.
i. Prove that ZBPC = o.
ii. Prove that ZOMN = o.
iii. Prove that XYAM is a cyclic quadrilateral.
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS HARDER 3 UNIT TOPICS 1 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
iv. Prove that ZXYM = ZBCP.
v. Prove that X, Y and Z are collinear.
Proof
4U94-7b)!
For all integers n
n n n n
n
> =
+
+
+
+ +

+ 1
1
1
1
2
1
2 1
1
2
, ... let t . That is:

t
t
t
1
2
3
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
4
1
5
1
6
=
= +
= + +
...

i. Show that t
n n n n
n
+ = +
+
+ +

1
2
1 1
1
1
2 1
... .
ii.
x
y
0
1
n
1
n+1
1
2n-1
1
x
y =
n + 1 n n + 2 2n
2n-1

The diagram above shows the graph of the function y
x
=
1
for n x n s s 2 .
Use the diagram to show that t
n
n
+ >
1
2
2 ln .
[Note that it can be similarly shown that t ln2
n
< .]
iii. For all integers n
n n
n
> = + + +

1 1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
2 1
1
2
, ... let s . That is:

s
s
s
3
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
1
6
=
= +
= + +
...

Prove by mathematical induction that s t
n n
= .
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS HARDER 3 UNIT TOPICS 1 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
iv. Hence find, to three decimal places, the value of 1
1
2
1
3
1
4
. . .
1
9 999
1
10 000
+ + + .
(i) (ii) (iii) Proof (iv) 0.693
4U94-8a)!
Suppose a > 0, b > 0, c > 0.
i. Prove that a b ab
2 2
2 + > .
ii. Hence prove that a b c ab bc ca
2 2 2
+ + > + + .
iii. Given a b c abc a b c a b c ab bc ca
3 3 3 2 2 2
3 + + = + + + + ( )( ) , prove that
a b c abc
3 3 3
3 + + > .
In parts (iv) and (v), assume x > 0, y > 0, z > 0.
iv. By making a suitable substitution into (iii), show that x y z xyz + + >3
1
3
( ) .
v. Suppose (1 + x)(1 + y)(1 + z) = 8. Prove that xyz 1 s .
Proof
4U93-6b)!
D
S
P
Q
R
A
B
C

In the diagram, ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral and P, Q, R and S are the incentres of triangles ABC,
BCD, CDA and DAB respectively. The incentre of a triangle is the point of intersection of the
bisectors of its three angles. Thus, for example, BP bisects Z ABX and CP bisects Z ACB;
similarly BQ bisects Z DBC and CQ bisects Z DCB.
i. Copy the diagram.
ii. Prove that Z PBQ ( = Z PBC - Z QBC) =
1
2
Z ABD.
iii. Prove that Z PCQ = Z PBQ and hence explain why BCQP must be a cyclic quadrilateral.
iv. Prove that Z SPQ = -Z BAS + Z BCQ.
v. Deduce that SPQR is a rectangle.
Proof
4U93-7a)!
In the next 7 days, called day 1, day 2, ... , day 7, Esther and George must each take 3 days in a row
off work. They choose their consecutive 3 days randomly and independently of each other.
i. Show that the probability that they both have day 1 off together is
1
25
.
ii. What is the probability that day 2 is the first day that they both have off together?
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS HARDER 3 UNIT TOPICS 1 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
iii. Find the probability that Esther and George have at least one day off together.
(i) Proof (ii)
3
25
(iii)
19
25

4U93-7b)!
For n = 1, 2, 3, ..., let S 1
1
r!
n
r 1
n
= +
=

.
i. Prove by mathematical induction that e S e
x
n!
e dx
n
n
x
0
1
=

}
.
ii. From (i), deduce that 0 e S
3
(n 1)!
n
< <
+
for n = 1, 2, 3, ... . [Remember that e < 3 and
e
-x
s 1 for x > 0.]
Proof
4U93-8b)!
Let f(x) = 1 + x and let x
1
be a real number. For n = 1, 2, 3, ..., define x x
f(x )
f (x )
n 1 n
n
n
+
=
'
.
[You may assume f '(x
n
) = 0.]
i. Show that x
n + 1
- x
n
> 1 for n = 1, 2, 3, ..., .
ii. Graph the function y = cot u for 0 < u < t.
iii. Using your graph from (ii), show that there exists a real number u
n
such that x
n
= cot u
n

where 0 < u
n
< t.
iv. Deduce that cot u
n + 1
= cot 2u
n
for n = 1, 2, 3, ... .
[You may assume tan 2
2tan
1 tan
2
u
u
u
=

.]
v. Find all points x
1
such that, for some n, x
1
= x
n + 1
.
(i) Proof (ii)
y
u
t
2
t
(iii) (iv) Proof (v) All points cot
m
2 1
n
t

## , where m and n are

integers, n > 1 and 0 s m s n.
4U92-3b)!
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS HARDER 3 UNIT TOPICS 1 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
D
A
B
C
E

In the diagram, the bisector AD of ZBAC has been extended to intersect the circle ABC at E.
i. Prove that the triangles ABE and ADC are similar.
ii. Show that AB.AC AD.AE = .
iii. Prove that AD AB.AC BD.BC
2
=
Proof
4U92-6b)!
Let n be an integer with n >2.
i. For i = 1, 2, ..., n suppose x
i
is a real number satisfying 0< < x
i
t.
Use mathematical induction to show that there exist real numbers a a a
n 1 2 ,
, ,..., such that
a
i
s1 for i = 1, 2, ..., n and such that
sin( ... ) sin sin ... sin x x x a x a x a x
n n n 1 2 1 1 2 2
+ + + = + + + .
ii. Deduce that sinnx nsinx s where 0< < x t.
Proof
4U92-7a)!
M
A A'
X' X
B
North

The diagram shows the road grid of a city.
Ayrton drives exactly 10 blocks from his home, A, to his workplace, B, which is 6 blocks south (S)
and 4 blocks east (E). The route on the diagram is SESSSEEESS.
i. By how many routes can Ayrton drive to work?
ii. By how many different routes can Ayrton drive to work on those days that he wishes to stop
at a shop marked M?
iii. The street marked AA' is made one-way westward. How many routes can Ayrton follow if
he cannot drive along AA' ?
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS HARDER 3 UNIT TOPICS 1 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
iv. Suppose that instead of AA' the street marked XX' is made one-way westward. How
many different routes can Ayrton follow if he cannot drive along XX' ?
(i) 210 (ii) 90 (iii) 126 (iv) 126
4U92-8b)!
Let n be a positive integer and let x be any positive approximation to n .
Choose y so that xy = n.
i. Prove that
x y
n
+
>
2
.
ii. Suppose that x n > .
Show that
x y +
2
is a closer approximation to n than x is.
iii. Suppose x n > .
How large must x be in terms of n for
x y +
2
to be a closer approximation to n than x is?
(i) Proof (ii) Proof (iii)
n
3
x n < <
4U91-5a)!
T
S
X
P
Y
Q
R

In the diagram, the circles XPYS and XYRQ intersect at the points X and Y, and PXQ, PYR, QSY,
PST, and QTR are straight lines.
i. Explain why ZSTQ = ZYRQ + ZYPS.
ii. Show that ZYRQ + ZYPS + ZSXQ = t.
iii. Deduce that STQX is a cyclic quadrilateral.
iv. Let ZQPY = o and ZPQY = |. Show that ZSTQ = o + |.
(i) The exterior angle is the sum of the interior opposite angles. (ii) Proof (iii) Proof (iv) Proof
4U91-6a)!
A nine-member Fund Raising Committee consists of four students, three teachers and two parents.
The Committee meets around a circular table.
i. How many different arrangements of the nine members around the table are possible if the
students sit together as a group and so do the teachers, but no teacher sits next to a student?
ii. One student and one parent are related. Given that all arrangements in (i) are equally likely,
what is the probability that these two members sit next to each other?
(i) 288 (ii)
1
4

4U91-7a)!
i. By assuming that cos(A + B) = cosAcosB - sinAsinB, prove the identity
cos A
3
4
cos A
1
4
cos 3A
3
= .
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS HARDER 3 UNIT TOPICS 1 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
ii. Show that x = 2 2 cosA satisfies the cubic equation x
3
- 6x = -2 provided cos3A =
1
2 2
.
iii. Using (ii), find the three roots of the equation x
3
decimal places.
(i) Proof (ii) Proof (iii) x = 2.2618, -2.6017 or 0.3399
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS HARDER 3 UNIT TOPICS 2 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
Harder 3 Unit Topics 2: 1990 - 1984
4U90-4b)!
Let L x y
1
4 5 1 + and L x y
2
2 3 5 + .
i. Find the point P of intersection of the two straight lines L
1
0 = and L
2
0 = .
ii. In the Cartesian plane draw the lines L L L L
1 2 1 2
0 0 6 7 = = = = , , , , marking the point P.
Explain why these four lines define a parallelogram.
iii. If a and b are constants, not both zero, explain why aL bL
1 2
0 + = defines a straight line
through P.
iv. Using part (iii), or otherwise, prove that the diagonal through P of the parallelogram defined
in part (ii) has equation: 7 6 0
1 2
L L = .
(i) P(1, 1) (ii)
L
1
= 0
L
1
= 6
L2 = 7
L
2
= 0
y
x
P
L
1
= 0 is parallel to L
1
= 6 and L
2
= 0 is parallel
to L
2
= 7. (iii) L
1
= L
2
= 0 at P so aL
1
+ bL
2
= 0. (iv) Proof
4U90-5b)!
i. How many different five figure numbers can be formed from the digits 1,2,3,4,5 without
repetition?
ii. How many of these numbers are greater than 45321?
iii. How many of these numbers are less than 45321?
(i) 120 (ii) 24 (iii) 95
4U90-6b)!
D
P
C
B A

In the diagram, AB is a fixed chord of a circle, P a variable point in the circle and AC and BD are
perpendicular to BP and AP respectively. Copy this diagram into your examination booklet.
i. Show that ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral on a circle with AB as diameter.
ii. Show that triangles PCD and APB are similar.
iii. Show that P varies, the segment CD has constant length.
iv. Find the locus of the midpoint of CD.
(i) Proof (ii) Proof (iii) Proof (iv) If M is the midpoint of AB and Z DBC = o, then the midpoint of CD
moves on a circle centre M and radius r cos o.
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS HARDER 3 UNIT TOPICS 2 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
4U90-7b)!
x
y
1 2 0 n-1 n
2
1
n
y = x

Consider the graph of the function y x = .
i. Show that this curve is increasing for all x>0.
ii. Hence show that 1 2
2
3
0
+ + + s =
}
... n xdx n n
n
.
iii. Use mathematical induction to show that 1 2
4 3
6
+ + + s
+
... n
n
n, for all integers
n >1.
iv. Use parts (ii) and (iii) to estimate 1 2 ... 10 000 + + + to the nearest hundred.
(i) Proof (ii) Proof (iii) Proof (iv) 666 700
4U90-8a)!
You are given that 2cosAsinB = sin(A + B) - sin(A - B).
Let S= + + + 1 2 2 2 2 3 cos cos cos u u u.
i. Prove that Ssin sin
u u
2
7
2
= .
ii. Hence show that if u =
t 2
7
, then 1 2 2 2 2 3 0 + + + = cos cos cos u u u .
iii. By writing S in terms of cosu, prove that cos
2
7
t
is a solution of the polynomial equation
8 4 4 1 0
3 2
x x x + = .
Proof
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS HARDER 3 UNIT TOPICS 2 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
4U90-8b)!
x
y
0
P(
t t
1
2
1
3
,
)
Q(
t t
2
2
2
3
,
)

Consider the curve defined parametrically by x = t
2
,y = t
3
.
Let
( )
P t t
1
2
1
3
, and
( )
P t t
1
2
1
3
, be two distinct points on the curve.
i. Write down the equation of the curve in terms of x and y only.
ii. Show that the equation of the chord PQ is given by
( ) ( )
t t y t t t t x t t 0
1 2 1
2
1 2 2
2
1
2
2
2
+ + + + = .
iii. Hence, or otherwise, show that the equation of the tangent to the curve at a point
corresponding to t, where t = 0, is given by 2y3tx+t
3
= 0.
iv. Let
( ) R x y
0 0
, be a point in the plane such that x
0
3
> y
0
2
> 0. Prove that there are precisely 3
tangents from R to the curve and sketch this on a diagram.
(i) y
2
= x
3
(ii) (iii) (iv) Proof ,
R
x
y
0

4U89-3b)!
A public opinion survey of a certain parliamentary proposition finds 47% of the population in favour,
38% opposed and 15% undecided. Three persons are selected at random. Using the expansion
(p+q +r)
3
= p
3
+q
3
+r
3
+3p
2
q+3q
2
r +3pq
2
+3qr
2
+3rp
2
+3r
2
p+6pqr
or otherwise, find the
probability that:
i. one person is in favour, one opposed and one is undecided;
ii. exactly two persons are opposed;
iii. at least two persons are of the same opinion, either in favour, or opposed or undecided.
(i) 0.16704 (ii) 0.268584 (iii) 0.83926
4U89-4a)!
i. Write expressions for sin(o + |), cos(o + |) in terms of sin o, sin |, cos o and cos |.
ii. Show that tan(o+|) =
tano+tan|
1tanotan|
.
iii. Hence find tan(o+
t
4
) in terms of o.
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS HARDER 3 UNIT TOPICS 2 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
(i) sin( ) sin cos cos sin o | o | o | + = + , cos( ) cos cos sin sin o | o | o | + = . (ii) Proof (iii)
tan
tan
o
o
+

1
1

4U89-4b)!
x
y p
A
B
R
O
Q
C
o

FIGURE NOT TO SCALE
The lines AB and BC in the diagram above have equations 3y = -4x + 20 and 4y = 3x - 15
respectively, and meet at B(5,0). BC makes and angle o with the x axis. The line PQ has equation
x = 1 and meets the line AB in Q. BR is the bisector of ZABC.
i. Show that AB is perpendicular to BC and then copy the diagram into your examination
booklet.
ii. Use (a) to show that BR has equation y = 7x - 35.
iii. The bisector of ZPQB has slope
1
3
and meets BR at S. Calculate the co-ordinates of S.
iv. Draw SM and SN perpendicular to AB and BC, meeting AB at M and BC at N, respectively.
Prove SM = SN.
v. Show that S is the centre of a circle tangential to PQ, AB and BC and write down the
equation of the circle.
(i) Proof (ii) Proof (iii) S(6, 7) (iv) Proof (v) (x - 6)
2
+ (y - 7)
2
= 25
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS HARDER 3 UNIT TOPICS 2 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
4U89-5a)!
A
B
S
Q
C
Y
R
D
P

Let ABCD be a cyclic quadrilateral; AB and DC produced meet at P; DA and CB produced meet at Q
as in the diagram.
Let PR be the internal bisector of ZAPD meeting AD at R and BC at S.
Let QY be the internal bisector of ZDQC meeting PR at Y as in the diagram.
Copy the diagram into your examination booklet and prove that:
i. ZQRS = ZQSR;
ii. QY PR.
Proof
4U89-7b)!
i. Find real numbers a and b such that x
4
+x
3
+x
2
+x +1= (x
2
+ax+1)(x
2
+bx +1) .
ii. Given that x = cos
2t
5
+i sin
2t
5
is a solution of x
4
+x
3
+x
2
+x +1= 0, find the exact
value of cos
2t
5
.
(i) a
1 5
2
=
+
, b
1 5
2
=

(ii)
5 1
4

4U89-8a)!
Find all values u with 0 s u s 2t such that sin cos u u 3 1.
u
t t
=
2
7
6
,
4U89-8b)!
The difference between a real number r and the greatest integer less than or equal to r is called the
fractional part of r, F(r). Thus F(3.45) = 0.45. Note that for all real numbers r, 0 s F(r) < 1.
i. Let a = 2136 log
10
2. Given that F(a) = 7.0738.... 10
-5
, observe that F(2a) = 14.1476....
10
-5
, F(3a) = 21.2214.... 10
-5
.
o. Use your calculator to show that log
10
1.989 < F(4223a) < log
10
1.990.
|. Hence calculate an integer M such that the ordinary decimal representation of 2
M

begins with 1989. Thus 2
M
= 1989.... .
ii. Let r be a real number and let m and n be non-zero integers with m = n.
o. Show that if F(mr) = 0, then r is rational.
|. Show that if F(mr) = F(nr), then r is rational.
iii. Suppose that b is an irrational number. Let N be a positive integer and consider the
fractional parts F(b), F(2b), ...., F((N + 1)b).
o. Show that these N + 1 numbers F(b), ...., F((N + 1)b) are all distinct.
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS HARDER 3 UNIT TOPICS 2 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
|. Divide the interval 0 x 1 s s into N subintervals each of length
1
N
and show that
there must be integers m and n with m n = and 1 s m, n s N + 1 such that F((m -
n)b) <
1
N
.
iv. Given that log
10
2 is irrational, choose any integer N such that
1
N
log
1990
1989
10
< ; note that in
(i), F(a) < log
10
1990
1989
. Use (iii) to decide whether there exists another integer M such that
2
M
= 1989.... .
(i) (o) Proof (|) 4223 2136 (ii) Proof (iii) Proof (iv) There are an infinite number of integers m such
that 2
m
= 1989... .
4U88-3a)!
On a particular island, twenty per cent of all turtles survive for four weeks after hatching. Fifteen
turtles hatch on the same day and are tagged for a study.
i. Find, correct to two significant figures, the probability that:
o. all fifteen turtles will survive the four weeks;
|. none of the turtles survives the four weeks.
ii. Write down expressions for the probability that:
o. no more than three turtles survive the four weeks;
|. at least three turtles survive the four weeks;
(i) (o) 3.3 10
-11
(|) 3.5 10
-2
(ii) (o)
( . ) ( . ) ( . ) ( . ) ( . ) ( . ) ( . ) 080
15
1
080 020
15
2
080 020
15
3
080 020
15 14 13 2 12 3
+
|
\

|
.
| +
|
\

|
.
| +
|
\

|
.
| (|)
1 080
15
1
080 0 20
15
2
080 0 20
15 14 13 2

|
\

|
.
|

|
\

|
.
|
( . ) ( . ) ( . ) ( . ) ( . )
4U88-3b)!
The population P of a town increases at a rate proportional to the number by which the town's
population exceeds 1000. This can be expressed by the differential equation
dP
dt
= k(P1000),
where t is the time in years and k is a constant.
i. By differentiation show that P = 1000 + Ae
kt
, where A is a constant, is a solution of this
equation.
ii. The population of the town was 2500 at the start of 1970 and 3000 at the start of 1985. Find
its population at the start of the year 2000.
iii. During which year will the population reach 4000?
(i) Proof (ii) Approximately 3670 (iii) 2006
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS HARDER 3 UNIT TOPICS 2 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
4U88-7b)!
A
B
E
F
G
D
C

ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral. BA and CD are both produced and intersect at E. BC and AD
produced intersect at F. The circles EAD, FCD intersect at G as well as at D. Prove that the points E,
G, and F are collinear.
Proof
4U88-8a)!
A
B
L
E F
G
H
D
L
h
C

A building is in the shape of a square prism with base edge L metres and height h metres. It stands on
level ground. A base diagonal AC is produced to a point K. From K it is found that the angles of
elevation of F and G are 30 and 45 respectively. Prove that:
h
t
=
+ 2 10
4
.
Proof
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS HARDER 3 UNIT TOPICS 2 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
4U88-8b)!
Newton's method may be used to determine numerical approximations to the real roots of the equation
x
3
= 2. Let x
1
= 2, x
2
, x
3
,...x
n
,... be a series of estimations obtained by iterative applications of
Newton's method.
i. Show that x
n+1
=
2
3
x
n
+
1
x
n
2
|
\

|
.
|
.
ii. Show algebraically that x
x x
x
n
n n
n
+
=
+
1
3
3 2 3
2
2
2 2 2
3
( ) ( )
.
iii. Given that x
n
> 2
3
, show that x x
n n +
<
1
3 3 2
2 2 ( ) .
iv. Show that x
12
and 2
3
agree to at least 267 decimal places.
Proof
4U87-5ii)!
Five letters are chosen from the letters of the word CRICKET. These five letters are then placed
alongside one another to form a five letter arrangement. Find the number of distinct five letter
arrangements which are possible, considering all possible choices.
1320
4U87-7i)!
ABC is an isosceles triangle with AB = AC. Let Q be a point on the base BC between B and C. AQ
produced meets the circle through the points A, B, C at P.
a. Prove that triangle BQP is similar to triangle AQC.
b. Show that BP.CQ = PQ.AC .
c. Prove that
1
BP
+
1
CP
=
1
PQ
.
BC
AC
.
Proof
4U87-7ii)!
a. Prove using mathematical induction that for n > 1, 1+
1
2
2
+
1
3
2
+... +
1
n
2
s 2
1
n
.
b. Prove that 1.45 < 1+
1
2
2
+
1
3
2
+...+
1
99
2
<1.99.
Proof
4U87-8i)!
Write down the general solution of the equation sin2u + cos5u = 0.
u
t t
=
(4n+1)
6
or
(4n-1)
14

4U86-2)!
The functions S(x), C(x) are defined by the formulae S(x) =
1
2
(e
x
e
x
) and C(x) =
1
2
(e
x
+e
x
) .
i. a. Verify that S(x) = C(x).
b. Show that S(x) is an increasing function for all real x.
c. Prove that {C(x)}
2
= 1 + {S(x)}
2
.
ii. a. S(x) has an inverse function, S
-1
(x), for all values of x. Briefly justify this
statement.
b. Let y = S
-1
(x). Prove that
dy
dx
x
=
+
1
1
2
( )
.
c. Hence, or otherwise, show that S
-1
(x) = log ( ( ))
e
x x + + 1
2
.
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS HARDER 3 UNIT TOPICS 2 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
d. Show that
dx
x x
e
( )
log
2
0
1
2 2
2 5
1 2
+ +
=
+
+
|
\

|
.
|
}
.
(i) Proof (ii) Proof
4U86-7i)!
Find all x such that cos2x = sin3x, and 0 s x s
t
2
.
x
2
=
t t
10
,
4U86-7ii)!
Appropriate diagrams should accompany each of your solutions to this section.
Z
S
Y
X

a. In the figure, ZS is the tangent to the circle at Z, and X, Y are any two points on the circle.
By drawing the diameter through Z, or otherwise, prove that ZYZS = ZZXY.
b. In the given figure, XY produced meets ZS at P. The lengths PX, PY and PZ are x, y, z,
respectively. Prove that z
2
= xy.
c. Two unequal circles intersect at L, M. The common tangent AB touches the circles at A, B.
Prove that LM produced bisects AB.
Proof
4U86-8ii)!
A committee of 4 women and 3 men are to be seated at random around a circular table with 7 seats.
What is the probability that all the women will be seated together?

1
5

4U86-8iii)!
The function f(x) is given, for x > 0, by f(x) = 2log
e
x -
x
2
1
x
.
a. Show that the only zero of f(x) occurs at x = 1.
b. Let g(x) =
xlog
e
x
x
2
1
, for x > 0 and x = 1. Show that 0 < g(x) <
1
2
.
Proof
4U85-2i)!
a. Find the turning points of the cubic polynomial p(x) = x
3
- x
2
- 5x - 1, and without attempting
to solve the equation, show that the equation p(x) = 0 has three distinct real roots, two of
which are negative.
b. Sketch the graph of p(x).
c. Starting with the approximation x = 0, use one application of Newtons method to estimate a
root of the equation p(x) = 0.
d. What initial approximation would you use to estimate the positive root of p(x) = 0 by
Newtons method? State briefly your reasons for this choice.
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS HARDER 3 UNIT TOPICS 2 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
(a)
5
3
202
27
,
|
\

|
.
|
is a relative minimum and (-1, 2) is a relative maximum (b)
( )
5
3
202
27
,
x
y
(-1, 2)
-1
3 -2
(c) x ~ -0.2 (d) x
0
= 3. The tangent to the curve at x
0
= 3
cuts the x-axis at a point closer than x
0
3 = .
4U85-5i)!
A thin wire of length L is cut into two pieces, out of which a circle and a closed square are to be
formed, so that the sum of the areas of the circle and square so formed is a minimum. Show that this
minimum value is
L
2
4(t+4)
.
Proof
4U85-7i)!
Given that sinx + siny = 2sinAcosB, find values for A and B in terms of x and y. Solve the equation
sinu + sin2u + sin3u + sin4u = 0, giving all solutions in the interval 0 s u s 2t.
A (x y)
1
2
= + , B (x y)
1
2
= , u
t t
t
t t t
= 0,
2
5
,
2
,
4
5
, ,
6
5
,
3
2
,
8
5
t

4U85-7ii)!
a. A, B, C are three points lying on a given circle, and P is another point in the same plane.
Write down two different angle tests to determine whether A, B, C, P are concyclic (i.e. P
also lies on the given circle).
b. In an acute-angled triangle with vertices L, M, N, the foot of the perpendicular from L to MN
is P, and the foot of the perpendicular from N to LM is Q. The lines LP, QN intersect at H.
o. Draw a clear diagram showing the given information.
|. Prove that ZPHM = ZPQM.
. Prove that ZPHM = ZLNM.
o. Produce MH to meet LN at R. Prove that MR is perpendicular to LN.
c. What general result about triangles is proved in (b)?
(a) 1: ZAPB = ZACB or ZBPC = ZBAC, 2: ZAPC + ZABC = 180 or ZBAP + ZBCP = 180 (b) (o)
M P N
L
Q
H
(|) Proof () Proof (o) Proof (c) The altitudes of a triangle
are concurrent.
4U85-8i)!
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS HARDER 3 UNIT TOPICS 2 HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
a. In how many ways can 4 persons be grouped into two pairs to play a set of doubles tennis?
b. The eight members of a tennis club meet to play two simultaneous sets of doubles tennis on
two separate but otherwise identical courts. In how many different ways can the members of
the club be selected for these two sets of tennis?
(a) 3 (b) 315
4U85-8ii)!
a. Show that for k > 0, 2k + 3 > 2 ( )( ) k k + + 1 2 .
b. Hence prove that for n > 1, ( ) 1
1
2
1
3
1
2 1 1 + + + + > + ... ( )
n
n .
c. Is the statement that, for all positive integers N,
1
10
1
10
k
k
N
=

## < true? Give reasons for your

(a) Proof (b) Proof (c)
1
k
10
k 1
n
10
=

> for N (5 10 1) 1
9 2
> + The statement is not true.
4U84-7i)!
In how many ways can the five letters on the word CONIC be arranged in a line so that the two
(indistinguishable) Cs are separated by at least one other letter?
36
4U84-7ii)!
It is given that x, y, z are positive numbers. Prove that:
a. x
2
+ y
2
> 2xy;
b. x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
- xy - yz - zx > 0.
Multiply both sides of the inequality (b) by (x + y + z) to obtain
c. x
3
+ y
3
+ z
3
> 3xyz.
Deduce from (c) or prove otherwise, that
d. (x + y + z)(x
-1
+ y
-1
+ z
-1
) > 9.
Suppose that x, y, z satisfy the additional constraint that x + y + z is equal to 1. Is it true that the
minimum value of the expression x
-1
+ y
-1
+ z
-1
(a) Proof (b) Proof (c) Proof (d) Yes
4U84-8i)!
Write down expressions for sin(o + |), cos(o + |) in terms of sino, coso, sin|, cos|.
Deduce that tan(o + |) =
tano+ tan|
1tanotan|
, and
tan(o+|+ ) =
tano +tan|+tan tanotan|tan
1tanotan| tan tanotan|tan
.
By means of the substitution t = tanu, transform the equation sin4u + asin2u + bcos2u + b = 0 into a
cubic equation in t. (a, b are real constants, a = 2). Suppose the roots of the transformed equation are
tano, tan|, tan . Show that o + | + is a multiple of t.
sin( ) sin cos cos sin o | o | o | + = + , cos( ) cos cos sin sin o | o | o | + = ,
(a 2)t bt (a 2)t b 0
3 2
+ + + + =
4U84-8ii)!
A woman travelling along a straight flat road passes three points at intervals of 200m. From these
points she observes the angle of elevation of the top of the hill to the left of the road to be respectively
30, 45, and again 45. Find the height of the hill.
200m