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# Domain: Set of all possible x values (the independent

variable) of a function
Horizontal line test: Used to test for the existence of
inverse functions. A functions inverse relation is a
function if any horizontal line cuts the original function
in one place only
Inverse function: An inverse function is the opposite of (or
undoes) the original function. The domain becomes the
range and the range becomes the domain. It is a result of
refection of the original function in the line y = x
Mutually inverse functions: Two functions are mutually
inverse if f
-1
[f(x)] = f [f
-1
(x)] = x
Range: Set of all possible y values (the dependent
variable) of a function
Restricted domain: Domain restricted to the x values that
will make the inverse relation a function
TERMINOLOGY
Inverse Functions
7
335 Chapter 7 Inverse Functions
DID YOU KNOW?
INTRODUCTION
IN THIS CHAPTER YOU will study inverse functions.
In particular, you will learn about inverse
trigonometric functions, including differentiation
and integration of these functions.
From left to right: Kepler,
Herschel and Newton on the
Astronomers Monument at
the Griffth Observatory in Los
Angeles
When solving or changing the subject of an equation, we use inverse
operations. For example, to solve , x 3 7 + = we subtract 3 from both sides.
Inverse functions are formed by taking the inverse operation or
undoing the operation of the function. However, the inverse is not always a
function.
Inverse Functions
The notation for inverse functions was frst used by the
astronomer Sir William Herschel (17381822). Born in
Germany, Herschel discovered Uranus, two of its satellites,
and two satellites of Saturn. He also discovered infrared
radiation. His sister and his son were also astronomers.
336 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 HSC Course
The inverse of multiplying
by 2 is dividing by 2.
EXAMPLES
1. The inverse relation of y x 2 = is . y
x
2
=
2. The inverse relation of y x = is . y x
2
=
3. The inverse relation of y e
x
= is . log y x
e
=
Write down the inverse relation of each of the following functions.
7.1 Exercises
1. y x 3 =
2. y x =
3. ( ) f x
x
5
=
4. y x =
3
5. y x 7 =
6. ( ) f x x 1 = +
7. y x 5 =
8. ( ) f x x 3 = +
9. y x
3
=
10. ( ) f x 2
x
=
11. log y x
4
=
12. y x
5
=
13. ( ) f x x 9 =
14. ( ) f x x 5 =
15. y x 3 =
16. y x
2
=
17. y x =
7
18. log y x
e
=
19. y
x
9
=
20. y x
8
=
It is harder to fnd the inverse relation when more than one operation is
involved.
EXAMPLES
Find the inverse relation of each of the following:
1. y x 2 1 = +
Solution
Changing the subject of the equation to x by using inverse operations will
show what these operations are.
y x
y x
y
x
2 1
1 2
2
1
= +
=

=
Both y x 2 1 = + and x
y
2
1
=

represent the same relation.
337 Chapter 7 Inverse Functions
The inverse operations of multiplying by 2 then adding 1 are
subtracting 1 then dividing by 2.
This means that the inverse relation of y x 2 1 = + is
. y
x
2
1
=

Changing the subject of this inverse relation gives . x y 2 1 = +
2. y x 2
3
=
Solution
Changing the subject of the equation to x by using inverse operations will
show what these operations are.
y x
y x
y x
2
2
2
3
3
=
+ =
+ =
3
Both y x 2
3
= and x y 2 = +
3
represent the same relation.
The inverse operations of cubing then subtracting 2 are adding 2 then
fnding the cube root.
This means that the inverse relation of y x 2
3
= is . y x 2 = +
3
Changing the subject of this inverse relation gives . x y 2
3
=
Can you fnd an easy way to
fnd the inverse relation?
EXAMPLES
1. Find the inverse relation of . y x 3 8 =
Solution
x y
x y
x
y
3 8
8 3
3
8
=
+ =
+
=
2. Find the inverse relation of ( ) . f x x 2 7
5
= +
Solution
x y
x y
x
y
x
y
2 7
7 2
2
7
2
7
5
5
5
= +
=

=
5
The inverse relation of ( ) y f x = can be found by interchanging the x and y
values of the function.
338 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 HSC Course
Sometimes the inverse relation is harder to fnd.
EXAMPLES
Find each inverse relation
1. y x 3
2
= +
Solution

x y
x y
x y
3
3
3
2
2
= +
=
=
2. y x x 4 7
2
= +
Solution

( )

x y y
x y y
x y y
x y
x y
x y
4 7
7 4
7 4
11 2
11 2
11 2
4 4
2
2
2
2
= +
+ = +
+ = +
+ = +
+ = +
+ =
+ +
Notice that in these
examples, the inverse is not
a function.
1. y x 5 =
2. y x 2 3 =
3. y x 5
3
= +
4. ( ) f x x 1
7
=
5. y x 2 =
3
6. y
x
2
=
7. y
x 5
3
=
+
8. y
x
2
1
=
+
9. ( ) f x x 2 = +
10. y x 7 =
3
11. y
x
3
=
12. ( ) f x x 5 1
3
= +
13. y x 3 2
5
=
14. ( ) 2 5 f x x = +
15.
3
y x 3 2 1 = +
16. y e
x
=
17. y e
x 2
=
18. ln y x =
19. ( ) ln y x 1 = +
20. ( ) f x e 1
x 3
= +
21. y x
2
=
22. y x 2
4
=
23. y x 5
2
= +
24. y x 3
6
=
7.2 Exercises
Find the inverse relation of each of the following functions
Complete the square on
4 y y
2
+
339 Chapter 7 Inverse Functions
Class Investigation
Sketch pairs of functions with their inverse relations on the same number
plane.
What do you notice about their graphs?
On the number plane, the inverse relation can be represented by a refection
of the original function in the line . y x =
For example, y x
2
= gives x y
2
= when refected in the line . y x = Notice
that, x y
2
= is not a function.
y y 5x
2
x 5y
2
y 5x
x
25. y x x 8
2
= +
26. y x x 4
2
=
27. y x x 2 3
2
= +
28. y x x 10 1
2
= +
29. y x x 6 3
2
=
30. y x x 12 11
2
= +
Class Investigation
Find the sketch of the inverse relation of a function by refecting it in the
line . y x =
EXAMPLE
y x
3
=
Use thin (e.g. tracing) paper and fold along the line y x = to see the
inverse relation.
Graph of Inverse Functions
340 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 HSC Course
Graph the inverse relation of each function below.
Function Inverse
y x
y x
y e
y x x
y
x
1
3
2
1
x
2
2
= +
= +
=
= +
=

x y
x y
x e
x y y
x
y
1
3
2
1
y
2
2
= +
= +
=
= +
=
Which of these inverse relations are functions?
How could you test the original function to see if its inverse is a
function?
Horizontal line test
A function has a unique y value for every x value. Since the inverse relation is
an exchange of the x and y values, the inverse is a function if there is a unique
value of x for every y value in the original function.
This means that the original function must be a one-to-one relation
that is, there is a unique x value for every y value, and a unique y value for
every x value. This occurs when a graph is monotonic increasing or decreasing.
In the Preliminary Course, you used a vertical line test to check a
function. To check if the inverse relation is a function, we use a horizontal
line test.
EXAMPLES
Are the inverse relations of the following curves functions?
1. y x
3
=
A horizontal line cuts the curve in only one place. Thus the inverse
will be a function.
341 Chapter 7 Inverse Functions
2. y x
2
=
A horizontal line can cut the curve more than once, so the inverse is not
a function.
1.
2.
3.
4.
7.3 Exercises
Do these functions have an inverse function?
342 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 HSC Course
5.
6.
x
y
7.
x
y
8. y
x
9. y
x
10. y
x
11. y
x
12.
y
x
343 Chapter 7 Inverse Functions
Notice the functions that have inverse functions do not turn around, but
either always increase or decrease. We call this monotonic increasing or
decreasing.
When an inverse function exists, the domain of the inverse function is
the range of the original function, and the range of the inverse function is the
domain of the original function.
Notation
Given a function ( ), y f x = the inverse function is written as ( ) . y f x =
1

Sometimes we can just write f
1
.
You studied monotonic
increasing and decreasing
curves in Chapter 2.
If ( ) y f x = is a one-to-one (monotonic increasing
or decreasing) function with domain a x b and
range ( ) ( ), f a f b y the inverse function ( ) y f x =
1

has domain ( ) ( ) f a x f b and range . a b y
EXAMPLES
1.
Write down the domain and range of the function (a) . y
x 2
1
=

## Find the inverse function. (b)

Find the domain and range of the inverse function. (c)
Solution
Domain: all real (a) x 2
Range: all real 0 y
(b) : f x
y
y
x
y
x
2
1
2
1
1
2
=

=
= +
1
Domain: all real (c) 0 x

:

x
x
1
0
1
2 2
Range
` +
` range: all real 2 y
The domain and range of the
inverse function are the range
and domain, respectively, of
the function.
CONTINUED
This is different from
( )
1
[ ( )] .
f x
f x
1
=

344 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 HSC Course
2.
Find the domain and range of (a) ( ) 3 . f x
x
=
What is its inverse function? (b)
Write down the domain and range of the inverse function. (c)
Solution
Domain: all real (a) x
Range: 0 y >
(b)
:
( )
log log
log
log
f x
x
y
y
f x x
3
3
3
y
y
3 3
3
3
`
=
=
=
=
=
1
1

## Domain: (c) 0 x >

Range: all real y
If we could restrict the domain of a function to a monotonic increasing or
decreasing curve, then it will have an inverse function over that domain.
EXAMPLES
1. By restricting the domain of the function , y x
2
= fnd the inverse
function defned over that domain.
Solution
y x
2
= is monotonic increasing for 0. x
The inverse relation is

x y
x y
2
=
=
For f to have a domain of , x f 0
1
must have a range of 0. y
y x ` = is the inverse function
345 Chapter 7 Inverse Functions
Similarly, if the domain of y x
2
= is restricted to 0 x (monotonic
decreasing) then the range of the inverse function is 0. y
`the inverse function is y x =
2. By restricting the domain of ( ) , f x x x 4
2
= fnd the inverse function
defned over that domain.
Solution
Inverse relation:
`
( )

x y y
x y y
y
x y
y x
4
4 4 4
2
4 2
4 2
2
2
2
=
+ = +
=
+ =
= + +
The graph of ( ) f x x x 4
2
= is monotonic increasing for 2. x If the function
is restricted to this domain, the range of its inverse function will be 2. y
` ( ) f x x 4 2 = + +
1
The axis of symmetry is x = 2. You
studied the axis of symmetry of the
parabola in the Preliminary Course.
CONTINUED
346 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 HSC Course
Similarly, if the domain of f is restricted to , x 2 the inverse function will
be ( ) . f x x 4 2 = + +
1
Sometimes you may need to use calculus or other methods to fnd where
a curve is monotonic increasing or decreasing. You then need to look at the
domain and range closely to fnd the inverse function.
EXAMPLE
1. Find where the function y x x 6 1
2
= + is monotonic increasing and
state the inverse function over that domain.
Solution
For increasing curve:
dx
dy
x
x
x
0
2 6 0
2 6
3
>
>
>
>

## So the function is monotonic increasing when 3 x .

When :
( )
x
y
3
3 6 3 1
8
2
=
= +
=
When the domain is all real , x 3 > the range is all real y 8
f
1
:

( )

x y y
x y y
x y y
x y
x y
x y
6 1
1 6
1 6
8 3
8 3
8 3
9 9
2
2
2
2
= +
=
=
+ =
+ =
+ + =
+ +
So the inverse function could be 8 3 y x = + + or 8 3 y x = + + .
You could use the axis of
symmetry to fnd where the
curve is increasing.
When x , 3 = the curve
is stationary so can be
included.
-
347 Chapter 7 Inverse Functions
Looking at the domain and range:
The inverse function will have domain all real 8 x and range all
real 3 y
For 3, 3 y y x 8 = + +
So the inverse function is 8 3 y x = + + .
1. Find the inverse function of each
of the following functions, and
state the domain and range of the
inverse function.
(a) y x
3
=
(b) 3 2 y x =
(c) y e
x
=
(d) ( ) f x
x
2
=
(e) y
x 1
1
=
+
2. If the domain of each of the
following functions is restricted
to a monotonic increasing curve,
fnd the inverse function, and
state the domain and range of the
inverse function.
(a) y x 2
2
=
(b) y x 2
2
= +
(c) ( ) y x 3
2
=
(d) y x x 2
2
=
(e) y x
6
=
(f) y x 1
2
=
(g) y x 1
4
=
(h) y
x
1
2
=
3. (a) Find the domain over which
the function y x x 6
2
= + is
monotonic increasing.
Find the inverse function over (b)
this restricted domain, and state
its domain and range.
Find the domain over (c)
which y x x 6
2
= + is monotonic
decreasing.
Find the inverse function over (d)
this restricted domain, and state
its domain and range.
4. Restrict the domain of each
function to a monotonic
decreasing curve and fnd the
inverse function over this
domain.
(a) y x
2
=
(b) y x 3 1
2
=
(c) ( ) ( ) f x x 2
4
=
(d) y
x
3
2
=
(e) ( ) f x
x
2
4
=
5. By restricting the following
functions to (i) monotonic
increasing and (ii) monotonic
decreasing curves, write down the
inverse function.
(a) ( ) f x x x 2
2
=
(b) y x 2
4
=
(c) y x 2 1
4
= +
(d) ( ) f x x x 6 1
2
= +
(e) y x x 4 3
2
= + .
7.4 Exercises
348 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 HSC Course
Properties of inverse functions
Inverse functions have different properties. Some of these you have seen
already, such as the domain and range being the reverse of the original
function. Here are some others.
Inverse operations undo each other. For example,
( ) ( ) x x x
2 2
= =
A function and its inverse are mutually inverse functions. That is,
[ ( )] [ ( )] f f x f f x x = =
1 1
EXAMPLES
1. Show ( ) f x x
3
= and its inverse function are mutually inverse functions.
Solution
3
( )
[ ( )] ( )
( )
[ ( )] ( )
( )
f x x
f f x f x
x
x
f f x f x
x
x
3
3
3
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
3
3
3
1
1
1
1

` and f
1
are mutually inverse functions.
2. If 2 5, y x = fnd the inverse function and show that
[ ( )] [ ( )] . f f x f f x x = =
1 1
Solution
:
:
f y x
x y
x y
x
y
2 5
2 5
5 2
2
5
=
=
+ =
+
=
f
1
f
349 Chapter 7 Inverse Functions
[ ( )] ( )
( )
[ ( )]
[ ( )] [ ( )]
f f x f x
x
x
x
f f x f
x
x
x
x
f f x f f x x
2 5
2
2 5 5
2
2
2
5
2
2
5
5
5 5
`
=
=
+
=
=
=
+
=
+

= +
=
= =
1 1
1
1 1

c
c
m
m
A useful property of differentiation is
dx
dy
dy
dx
1 =
given that ( ) y f x = is a differentiable function
(i.e. it is able to be differentiated).
You will use this property
to prove the derivatives of
the inverse trigonometric
functions.
There are different ways of showing that this result is true. Here is an informal
method.
Proof
Let ( , ) P x y be a point on the curve ( ) . y f x = The tangent at P has x-intercept Q
and y-intercept R.
dx
dy
=
Changing the subject of the equation to x, the curve can also be represented
by ( ). x g y =
( )
( )

tan
dy
dx
y
OQR
90
the curve makes with the axis
Now
sum of
-
`
+
+
+
=
=
=
( ) vertically opposite s +

## 350 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 HSC Course

`
` ( )

tan tan
cot
tan
dy
dx
dx
dy
dx
dy
dy
dx
90
1
1
1
=
=
=
=
=
The formal proof of this result uses calculus.
Proof
Let ( ) y f x =
Let x and y be small changes in x and y respectively.
`
,

## lim lim lim

x
y
y
x
x y
x
y
y
x
dx
dy
dy
dx
1
0 0
1
1
Taking limits of both sides as and
x y x 0 0 0
" "
=
=
=
" " "
EXAMPLES
1.
Find (a) .
3
dx
dy
y x if =
1
Express (b) x in terms of y.
Find (c)
dy
dx
in terms of x.
Show that (d) .
dx
dy
dy
dx
1 =
Solution
(a)
3
dx
dy
x
3
1
=

2
(b)
3
y x
y x
3
=
=
1
(c)
3
3
( ) x
x
dy
dx
y 3
3
3
2
2
=
=
=
1
2
(d)

3 3
dx
dy
dy
dx
x x
3
1
3
1
=
=
2 2
You studied differentiation
from frst principles in the
Preliminary Course.
and c 90 are
complementary angles.
You studied these in the
Preliminary Course.

351 Chapter 7 Inverse Functions
2.
Find (a) .
dx
dy
y e if
x 2
=
Change the subject of the equation to (b) x.
Find (c)
dy
dx
Show that (d) .
dx
dy
dy
dx
1 =
Solution
(a)
dx
dy
e 2
x 2
=
(b)
ln ln
ln
ln
y e
y e
x e
x
x y
2
2
2
1
x
x
2
2
`
=
=
=
=
=
(c)
dy
dx
y
y
e
2
1 1
2
1
2
1
x 2
=
=
=
(d)
dx
dy
dy
dx
e
e
2
2
1
1
x
x
2
2
=
=
1. For each function and its inverse,
show that
[ ( )] [ ( )] f f x f f x x = =
1 1
.
(a) ( ) 7 f x x = +
(b) 3 y x =
(c) y x =
(d) ( ) f x e
x
=
(e) 3 1 y x = +
2. (a) Find the domain and range of

x
y
1
2

= .
Find the inverse function. (b)
State the domain and range of (c)
the inverse function.
3. (a) Sketch ln y x = on the number
plane.
Find the inverse function and (b)
sketch this on the same number
plane.
Write down the domain and (c)
range for both functions.
7.5 Exercises

352 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 HSC Course
4. For each of the following
functions,
fnd (i)
dx
dy
change the subject to (ii) x
fnd (iii)
dy
dx
in terms of x
show (iv)
dx
dy
dy
dx
1 =
(a) ( ) f x x
5
=
(b) y
x
1
=
(c) ( ) ln y x 1 = +
(d) ( ) f x e
x
=

(e) 3 y x =
5. For each of the following functions,
(i) write the inverse function f
1

with x in terms of y
(ii) write f
1
with y in terms of x
(iii) fnd
dx
dy
of the inverse
function
(iv) fnd
dy
dx
of the inverse
function in terms of x
(v) show
dx
dy
dy
dx
1 =
(a) 3 1 y x = +
(b) ( ) f x x 3
5
=
(c) ( ) f x
x 3
2
=
+
(d) y x 7
3
=
(e) y e
x 5 1
=
+
The trigonometric functions only have inverse functions when they have a
restricted domain.
Inverse sine function
Class Investigation
Consider sin y x = and its refection in the line . y x =
Does the refection represent a function? 1.
Can you restrict the domain of 2. sin y x = so that the inverse function
exists?
Is this domain the only one that gives an inverse function for 3.
? sin y x =
Inverse Trigonometric Functions

## 353 Chapter 7 Inverse Functions

The inverse sine function is written as . sin y x
1
=

If we restrict the curve
sin y x = to a monotonic increasing curve, it will have domain
2 2
x

and
range 1 1. y
x
1
sin can also be written
as arc sin. Some calculators
use this notation.
This means that sin y x
1
=

has domain 1 1 x and
range .

y
2 2

## Inverse cosine function

Class Investigation
Consider cos y x = and its refection in the line . y x =

354 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 HSC Course
Does the refection represent a function? 1.
Can you restrict the domain of 2. cos y x = so that the inverse function
exists?
Is this domain the only one that gives an inverse function for 3.
? cos y x =
1
cos x can also be written
as arc cos.
The inverse cosine function is written as . cos y x
1
=

If we restrict the curve
cos y x = to a monotonic decreasing curve, it will have domain 0 x and
range . y 1 1
This means that cos y x
1
=

has domain 1 1 x and range . y 0
y
x
1 1

2
Inverse tangent function
Class Investigation
Consider tan y x = and its refection in the line . y x =
y = tan x
x = tan y

355 Chapter 7 Inverse Functions
Does the refection represent a function? 1.
Can you restrict the domain of 2. tan y x = so that the inverse function
exists?
Is this domain the only one that gives an inverse function for 3.
? tan y x =
The inverse tangent function is written as . tan y x
1
= If we restrict the curve
tan y x = to a monotonic increasing curve, it will have domain

x
2 2
and
range all real y values.
tan
1
x can also be
written as arc tan.
This means that tan y x
1
= has domain all real x values and range
.

x
2 2

EXAMPLES
1. Find ( ) . tan 1
1
Solution
( )

tan
tan
y
y
y
1
1
4
If
Then
1
`
=
=
=
CONTINUED
< <
< < x
356 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 HSC Course
2. Find . sin
2
1
1

e o
Solution
.
( )

sin
sin
y
y
y y
2
1
2
1
4 2 2
If
Then
the range is restricted to
1
`
=
=
=

e o
3. Evaluate . cos
2
3
1

e o
Solution
( )

cos
cos
y
y
y y
2
3
2
3
6
0
6
5
Let
Then
in the range
1
`
=
=
=
=

e o
4. Evaluate [ ( )] . sin cos 1
1

Solution
[ ( )] sin cos sin 1
0
1
=
=

5. Show .

sin cos
2
1
2
1
2
1 1
+ =

c c m m
Solution
`

sin cos
sin cos
2
1
2
1
6 3
6
3
2
2
1
2
1
2
LHS
RHS
1 1
1 1
= +
= +
=
=
=
+ =

c c
c c
m m
m m

357 Chapter 7 Inverse Functions
6. Sketch . sin y x 3 2
1
=

Solution
`
`
`
sin
x
x
x
1 1
1 2 1

:
:
:
:

sin
sin
sin
sin
y x
y x
x
y x
y x
y
3 2
2
1
2
1
2 2
3 2
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
Domain of
Domain of
Range of
Range of
1
1
1 1
1 1
=
=

=
=

sin x 3 2
y
x
3
2
3
2

1
2

1
2
Class Investigation
Can you fnd the domain and range of, and sketch 1.
(a) ? sin y a bx
1
=

(b) ? cos y a bx
1
=

(c) ? tan y a bx
1
=

What is the domain and range of 2. ( ) ? sin sin y x
1
=

Can you sketch its
graph? Does ( ) sin sin y x
1
=

have the same domain and range?
Properties of inverse trigonometric functions
( ) sin sin x x
1 1
=

358 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 HSC Course
Proof
`
`
`
( )
( )
( )

sin
sin
sin
sin
sin
sin
sin sin
y x
y x y
x y
y
y x
y x
x x
2 2
Let
Then for
1
1
1
1 1
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

b l
You can see this property
from the graph of
y sin x.
1
=

( ) cos cos x x
1 1
=

Proof
`
`
`
( )
( )
( )
( )

cos
cos
cos
cos
cos
cos
cos cos
y x
y x y
x y
y
y x
y x
x x
0
Let
Then for
1
1
1
1 1
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

( ) tan tan x x
1 1
=

Proof
( )
( )
( )

tan
tan
tan
tan
tan
tan
tan tan
y x
y x y
x y
y
y x
y x
x x
2 2
Let
Then for < <
1
1
1
1 1
`
`
`
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

b l
Class Investigation
Sketch sin y x
1
=

and cos y x
1
=

on the same number plane. By adding
ordinates, or other methods, sketch . sin cos y x x
1 1
= +

Can you write down a property of sin cos x x
1 1
+

from this?

359 Chapter 7 Inverse Functions

sin cos x x
2
1 1
+ =

Proof
( )
( )

sin
sin
cos
cos
sin cos
y x
x y y
y
y x
x x y y
1
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
Let
Then for
From(1) and(2):
1
1
1 1
`
=
=
=
=
+ = +
=

b
b
l
l
EXAMPLES
1 Show ( ) ( ) . cos cos 1 1
1 1
=

Solution
( )
( )
( ) ( )

cos
cos
cos cos
1
1
0
1 1
LHS
RHS
LHS RHS
1
1
1 1
`
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

2 Prove that .

sin cos
5
4
5
4
2
1 1
+ =

c c m m
Solution
Let sin
5
4
1
=

c m and cos
5
4
1
=

c m
Then sin
5
4
= and . cos
5
4
=
b ( )
.

sin cos
2
5
4
5
4
2
ut sum of
1 1
`
+ + =
+ =

c c m m

360 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 HSC Course
General solution of trigonometric equations
You studied general solutions of trigonometric functions in Chapter 5.
We can write these general solutions using inverse function notation as
follows:
The solution for sin b = is given by
( ) sin n b 1
n 1
= +

where n is an integer.
The solution for cos b = is given by
cos n b 2
1
=

where n is an integer.
The solution for tan b = is given by
tan n b
1
= +

where n is an integer.
EXAMPLES
Find the general solution of these trigonometric equations.
1. 1 tan =
Solution
( )
( )

tan
tan
n
n
1
1
4
4
1
1
`
= +
=
= +

2. cos
2
3
=
Solution

cos
cos
n
n
2
2
3
2
3
6
2
6
1
1
`
=
=
=

e
e
o
o
361 Chapter 7 Inverse Functions
(a) ( ) sin 1
1
(b) ( ) tan 0
1
(c) ( ) cos 1
1
(d) sin
2
1
1
c m
(e) ( ) tan 1
1

(f) ( ) sin 1
1

(g) ( ) cos 0
1
(h) cos
2
1
1
e o
(i) tan
3
1
1
e o
(j) ( ) tan 3
1

(k) sin
2
1
1
e o
(l) cos
2
3
1

e o
(m) tan
3
1
1

e o
2. Evaluate
(a) [ ( )] tan cos 1
1
(b) [ ( )] cos cos 1
1

## (c) ( ) cos sin

1
(d) cos cos
2
1
1
e o > H
(e) [ ( )] sin tan 1
1
(f) tan cos
2
1
1
c m < F
(g) ( ) sin tan0
1
(h) tan sin
2
3
1

e o > H
(i) cos tan
3
1
1

e o > H
(j) [ ( )] tan tan 1
1

## 3. Evaluate, in radians, correct to

2 decimal places.
(a) . sin 0 4
1
(b) . tan 1 72
1
(c) . cos 0 569
1
(d) ( . ) sin 0 6
1

(e) ( . ) tan 3 7
1

## 4. Evaluate, correct to 2 decimal

places.
(a) ( . ) sin sin0 67
1
(b) ( . ) tan tan 0 14
1

## (c) ( . ) cos cos 1 64

1
(d) ( . ) sin cos 0 26
1
(e) ( . ) tan sin 0 67
1

## 5. Sketch the graph of

(a) cos y x
1
=

(b) tan y x
1
=

(c) sin y x
1
=

(d) cos y x 2
1
=

(e) sin y x 3
1
=

(f) cos y x 2
1
=

(g) cos y x 5 3
1
=

(h) sin y
x
3
2
1
=

b l
(i) sin y x 2 4
1
=

(j) cos y x 2 7
1
=

(k) tan y x 4 5
1
=

(l) ( ) sin sin y x
1
=

(m) ( ) cos cos y x
1
=

(n) ( ) tan tan y x
1
=

6. State the domain of
(a) ( ) sin y x
1 2
=

(b) cos y x x
1
=

(c) [ ] sin tan y x
1
=

7. Find exact values for
(a) ( ) ( ) cos cos 1 1
1 1
+

(b) ( ) ( ) sin sin 1 1
1 1
+

(c) ( ) ( ) tan tan 1 1
1 1
+

(d) sin cos
2
1
2
1
1 1
+

c c m m
(e) cos sin
2
3
2
3
1 1
+

e e o o
(f) sin cos
2
1
2
1
1 1
+

e e o o
7.6 Exercises
362 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 HSC Course
8. Find exact values for
(a) sin sin
5
4
1
c m < F
(b) cos sin
5
4
1
c m < F
(c) tan cos
13
12
1
c m < F
(d) sin tan
7
3
1
c m < F
(e)

cos sin
4
1
b l
< F
(f) ( ) tan cos
1
9. (a) Write sin 2 in terms of .
Hence fnd the exact value of (b)
. sin cos
5
3
2
1
c m < F
10. Find whether each of the
following functions is even, odd
or neither
(a) sin y x =
(b) sin y x
1
=

(c) cos y x =
(d) cos y x
1
=

(e) tan y x =
(f) tan y x
1
=

(g) ( ) sin sin y x
1
=

11. Show that
(a) ( ) tan tan 1 1
1 1
=

(b) ( ) sin sin 1 1
1 1
=

(c) ( ) tan tan 3 3
1 1
=

(d) cos cos
2
1
2
1
1 1
=

c m
(e) sin sin
2
1
2
1
1 1
=

e o
12. Write down the general solution
for the following equations
(a) sin
2
3
=
(b) 1 cos =
(c) tan 3 =
(d) sin
2
1
=
(e) 1 tan =
(f) cos
2
3
=
(g) 0 cos =
(h) sin
2
1
=
(i) sin
2
1
=
(j) tan
3
1
=
13. (a) Find the general solution for
1. sin =
Find the solutions when (b)
, . n 0 1 =
14. (a) Find the general solution for
. cos
2
1
=
Find the solutions when (b)
1. n =
15. (a) Find the general solution for
. tan 3 =
Find the solutions when (b)
, n 1 2 = and 3.
16. Find the general solution to the
following equations correct to
2 decimal places
(a) . cos x 0 045 =
(b) . sin x 0 378 =
(c) . tan x 1 3 =
(d) . sin x 0 86 =
(e) . tan x 0 93 =
(f) . cos x 0 227 =
363 Chapter 7 Inverse Functions
17. (a) Draw sin y x
1
=

and
cos y x
1
=

on the same set of axes
On the same set of axes, sketch (b)
the graph of sin cos y x x
1 1
= +

to show graphically that

sin cos x x
2
1 1
+ =

.
18. Prove that
(a)

sin cos
7
3
7
3
2
1 1
+ =

c c m m
(b) sin sin
9
5
9
5
1 1
=

c c m m
(c) cos cos
5
2
5
2
1 1
=

c c m m
(d) tan tan
10
7
10
7
1 1
=

c c m m
Differentiation of Inverse Trigonometric
Functions
( ) sin
dx
d
x
x 1
1
1
2
=

Proof
sin
sin
cos
cos
sin cos
cos sin
cos sin
y x
x y
dy
dx
y
dx
dy
dy
dx
y
y y
y y
y y
x
dx
dy
x
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Let
Then
1
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
`
`
=
=
=
=
=
+ =
=
=
=
=

sin
dx
d
a
x
a x
1
1
2 2
=

a k
364 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 HSC Course
Proof
`
`
`
sin
sin
sin
cos
cos
sin cos
cos sin
cos
y
a
x
a
x
y
x a y
dy
dx
a y
dx
dy
dy
dx
a y
y y
y y
a
x
a
a x
y
a
a x
a
a x
dx
dy
a
a a x
a x
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Let
Then
1
2 2
2 2
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
=
=
=
=
=
=
+ =
=
=
=

=

=

=

a k
( ) cos
dx
d
x
x 1
1
1
2
=

Proof
`
cos
cos
sin
sin
sin cos
sin cos
sin cos
y x
x y
dy
dx
y
dx
dy
dy
dx
y
y y
y y
y y
x
dx
dy
x
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Let
Then
1
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
`
=
=
=
=
=
+ =
=
=
=
=

cos
dx
d
a
x
a x
1
1
2 2
=

a k
Proof
cos
cos
cos
sin
sin
sin cos
sin cos
sin
y
a
x
a
x
y
x a y
dy
dx
a y
dx
dy
dy
dx
a y
y y
y y
a
x
a
a x
y
a
a x
a
a x
dx
dy
a
a a x
a x
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Let
Then
1
2 2
2 2
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
`
`
`
=
=
=
=
=
=
+ =
=
=
=

=

=

=

a k
( ) tan
dx
d
x
x 1
1
1
2
=
+

Proof
tan
tan
sec
sec
y x
x y
dy
dx
y
dx
dy
dy
dx
y
1
1
Let
Then
1
1
2
=
=
=
=
=

## 366 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 HSC Course

`
sec tan y y
x
dx
dy
x
1
1
1
1
2 2
2
2
= +
= +
=
+
tan
dx
d
a
x
a x
a
1
2 2
=
+

a k
Proof
`
tan
tan
tan
sec
sec
sec tan
y
a
x
a
x
y
x a y
dy
dx
a y
dx
dy
dy
dx
a y
y y
a
x
a
a x
dx
dy
a
a
a x
a x
a
1
1
1
1
1
Let
Then
1
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
=
=
=
=
=
=
= +
= +
=
+
=
+
=
+

e o
EXAMPLES
1. Differentiate . cos y x 2
1
=

Solution 1
( )
( ) ( )
dx
dy
x
dx
d
x
x
1 2
1
2
1 4
2
function of a function rule
2
2
=

## 367 Chapter 7 Inverse Functions

Solution 2
( )
cos
cos
dx
d
a
x
a x
dx
d
x
x
x
x
x
1
2
2
1
1
4
1
1
4
1 4
1
1 4
2
1
2 2
1
2
2
2
2
2
`
=

a
c
k
m
2. Find the gradient of the tangent to the curve tan y x
1
=

at the point
where 3. x =
Solution
`
,
dx
dy
x
x
dx
dy
m
1
1
3
1 3
1
10
1
When
2
2
=
+
=
=
+
=
3. Find the equation of the normal to the curve tan y x x
1
=

at the
point ,

1
4
b l
Solution
. .
1
tan
tan
tan
y x x
dx
dy
u v v u
x
x
x
x
x
x
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
=
= +
= +
+
= +
+

l l
CONTINUED
368 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 HSC Course
At ,

1
4
b l:

tan
dx
dy
m
1 1
1
2
1
4
4
2
4
4
2
4
2
1
2
1
1
`
=
+
+
= +
= +
=
+
=
+

## Normal is perpendicular to tangent.

m m
m
m
1
4
2
1
2
4
So
1 2
2
2
`
=
+
=
=
+
c m
Equation:
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )

y y m x x
y x
y x
y x
y x
x y
4 2
4
1
2 2
4
4 1
2
2 4
4 4
4 2 2 16 16
16 4 2 2 16 0
1 1
2
2
2
=
=
+

+ + =
+ = +
+ = +
+ + =
1. Differentiate
(a) cos x
1
(b) sin x 2
1
(c) tan x
1
(d) ( ) cos x 3
1
(e) ( ) sin x 4 2
1
(f) ( ) sin x
1 2
(g) ( ) tan x 2 1
1

(h) ( ) cos x 5 8
1
(i) cos
x
3
1
(j) tan
x
2
1
(k) sin
x
3
6
1
(l) cos x 3
1
(m) cos
x
7
1
(n) ( ) sin x 5 3 2
1
+
(o) cos x x
1
(p) ( ) tan x 1
1 5
+
2. Find the derivative of
(a) ( ) sin cos x
1
(b) ( ) cos cos x
1
(c) ( ) sin log x

e
1
(d) ( ) tan e
x 1
(e) ( ) ln sin x
1
(f)
tan x
1
1
7.7 Exercises
369 Chapter 7 Inverse Functions
(g) ( ) tan cos x 1
1 1
+

(h) tan
x
1
1
(i) sin
x
2
1
1
+

b l
(j) e
cos x
1
3. Find the gradient of the
(i) tangent (ii) normal to
the curve
(a) cos y x
1
=

at the point 0,

2
b l
(b) tan y x 2
1
=

at the point
where x
4
1
=
(c) ( ) ( ) sin f x x
1 3
=

at the point
where x
2
1
=
(d) cos y
x
3
1
=

at the point ,

0
2
b l
(e) tan y
x
5
1
=

at the point where
. x 0 =
4. Find the equation of the tangent
to the curve sin y x 2
1
=

at the
point where . x 0 =
5. Find the equation of the normal
to the curve 5 . ,

tan y x
5
1
4
at
1
=

c m
6. (a) Show that
( ) . sin cos
dx
d
x x 0
1 1
+ =

(b) Why do we get this result?
7. (a) Show that sin y x x
1
=

has a
stationary point at (0, 0).
Find the domain and range of (b)
the curve.
Sketch (c) sin y x x
1
=

on the
number plane.
8. Find the second derivative of
(a) cos
x
3
1
b l
(b) ( ) log tan x
e
1
9. Find the frst derivative of
( ) cos sin y x
1
=

in the domain
. x
10. (a) Find . tan tan x
dx
d
x
1
1 1
+

b l ; E
Draw the graph of (b)
. tan tan y x
x
1
1 1
= +

b l
11. Differentiate
(a) cos e
x 1 2
(b) ( ) log tan x
e
1
(c) ( ) tan ln x
1
(d) sin x 1
1 2

(e) e
tan x
1
12. A 6 metre long ladder is leaning
up against a wall at a height of h
and angle as shown.
6 m
h

## Show that (a) sin

h
6
1
=

c m .
The ladder slips down the wall (b)
at a constant rate of 0.05 ms
1
.
Find the rate at which the angle is
changing in degrees and minutes
when the height is 2.5 m.

-
370 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 HSC Course
sin
sin
cos sin
x
dx
x C
a x
dx
a
x
C
x
dx
x C x C
1
1
2
1
2 2
1
2
1 1

= +

= +

= + = +

#
#
#
cos sin
tan
tan
a x
dx
a
x
C
a
x
C
x
dx
x C
a x
dx
a a
x
C
1
1
2 2
1 1
2
1
2 2
1

= + = +
+
= +
+
= +

#
#
#
Integration of Inverse Trigonometric
Functions
Integration is the inverse of
differentiation.
We make the coeffcient of
x
2
equal to 1 to put it into
the form of the standard
integral.
EXAMPLES
1. Evaluate
x
dx
4
2
0
2

#
Solution

sin
sin sin
x
dx
x
4
2
1 0
2
0
2
2
0
2
1
0
2
1 1

=
=
=
=

; E
#
2. Find
x
dx
4 9
2
+
#
Solution
tan
tan
x
dx
x
dx
x
dx
x
C
x
C
4 9
9
9
4
9
9
9
1
9
4
9
1
3
2
1
3
2
6
1
2
3
2
2
2
1
1
+
=
+
=
+
= +
= +

c
f
m
p
#
#
#
371 Chapter 7 Inverse Functions
3. Find the volume, correct to 2 decimal places, of the solid of revolution
formed if the curve
x
y
1
1
2
+
= is rotated about the x-axis from 0 x =
to . x 3 =
Solution
( )
.

tan
tan tan
y
x
y
x
V y dx
x
dx
x
1
1
1
1
1
3 0
3 92 units
a
b
2
2
2
2
2
0
3
1
0
3
1 1
3
`
=
+
=
+
=
=
+
=
=
=

6 @
#
#
1. Find the integral (primitive
function) of
(a)
x 1
1
2

(b)
x 1
2
2

(c)
x 1
1
2
+
(d)
x 9
1
2
+
(e)
x 4
1
2

(f)
x 4
5
2
+
(g)
x 2 1
3
2

(h)
x 5 16
1
2

(i)
x 3
1
2
+
(j)
x 5
1
2

2. Find
(a)
x
dx
36
2
+
#
(b)
x
dx
1 4
2

#
(c)
t
dt
9
2

#
(d)
x
dx
1 9
2
+
#
(e)
x
dx
4 25
2

#
(f)
x
dx
9 16
3
2
+
#
(g)
t
dt
25 4
2
2

#
(h)
x
dx
1 5
2
+
#
(i)
x
dx
4 3
2
+
#
(j)
x
dx
5 25 9
2
2

#
7.8 Exercises
372 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 HSC Course
3. Find the exact value of
(a)
x
dx
1
2
0
1

#
(b)
x
dx
1
2
0
1
+
#
(c)
x
dx
4
2
1
1

#
(d)
t
dt
9
2
3
+

0
#
(e)
x
dx
81
2
0
4
2
1

#
(f)
x
dx
4
2
2
1
3

#
(g)
x
dx
2 1
3
2
2
3
2
3

#
(h)
x
dx
4 9
2
3
1
3
1

#
(i)
x
dx
1 49
3
2
0
7 2
1

#
(j)
x
dx
5
2
0
15
+
#
4. Find the area bounded by the
curve ,
x
y
1
1
2
+
= the x-axis and the
lines 0 x = and 2, x = to 1 decimal
place.
5. (a) Find the area enclosed
between the curve ,
x
y
1
1
2

=
the x-axis and the lines
0 x = and . x
2
1
=
This area is rotated about the (b)
y-axis. Find the exact volume of
the solid formed.
6. (a) Differentiate ( ) . log sin x
e
1
Hence fnd (b)
sin x x
dx
1
2 1
4
1
3
1

#
correct to 1 decimal place.
7. Use Simpsons rule with
3 function values to fnd an
approximation to , sin x dx
1
0

. 0 4
#
correct to 1 decimal place.
8. Find the area enclosed between
the curve , cos y x
1
=

the y-axis
and the lines 0 y = and .

y
4
=
9. Find
x
x
dx
1
6
2

# by using the
substitution . u x
3
=
10. Find the equation of the curve
with
dx
dy
x 9
1
2

= and passing
through , .

3
7
b l
11. (a) Show that

( ) ( )
.
x x
x
x x 1 4
2 5
1
1
4
1
2 2
2
2 2
+ +
+
+
+
+
=
Hence evaluate (b)
( ) ( ) x x
x
dx
1 4
2 5
2 2
2
1
2
+ +
+
#
correct to
2 decimal places.
12. For the curve ,
x
y
1
1
2
+
= fnd the
volume of the solid formed by
x-axis from . x x
3
1
1 to = =
13. (a) Differentiate
. cos x x x 1
1 2

## Find the area bounded by the (b)

curve , cos y x
1
=

the x-axis and
the lines 0 x = and . x
2
1
=
14. Use
sin x x +
dx
d
x 1
1 2

> H
to help
fnd the area enclosed between
the curve , sin y x
1
=

the x-axis
and the lines 0 x = and 1. x =
15. The acceleration of a particle
is given by ,
x
x
1
1
2
+
=
p
where x is
displacement in metres over
time t seconds. If the particle
starts at rest at the origin and
always has positive velocity, fnd
the equation of its velocity in
terms of x.
373 Chapter 7 Inverse Functions
1. Evaluate
(a) tan 1
1
(b) sin
2
3
1
e o
(c) cos
2
1
1

c m
(d) ( ) cos sin 1
1
(e)

tan tan
6
5
1
c m
2. Find the indefnite integral of
(a)
x 1
3
2
+
(b)
x 16
1
2

3. Differentiate
(a) sin x
1
(b) tan x 3
1
(c) cos x 2 5
1
4. Find the exact area bounded by the curve
,
x
y
1
1
2

## = the x-axis and the lines x

2
1
=
and . x
2
1
=
5. Find the inverse function of ( ) . f x x 3 2 =
6. Find the general solutions of . cos
2
1
=
7. Find the inverse function of ( ) . f x e 1
x 3
= +
8. (a) Evaluate ( ) . sin cos
dx
d
x x
1 1
+

Explain this result. (b)
9. Differentiate . tan x x
1
10. (a) State the domain and range of
. y x 1 =
Find the inverse of this function and (b)
state its domain and range.
11. Sketch the graph of . tan y
x
2
1
=

12. Show that . cos cos
2
3
2
3
1 1
=

e e o o
13. (a) Find the domain and range of
. y
x 2
1
=
+
Find the inverse function. (b)
Find the domain and range of the (c)
inverse function.
14. (a) Find the area bounded by the curve
,
x
y
1
1
2

## = the x-axis and the lines 0 x =

and . x
2
1
=
Find the volume of the solid formed (b)
if this area is rotated about the x-axis.
correct to 2 decimal places.
15. Find the exact value of
(a) sin cos
2
3
2
3
1 1
+

e e o o
(b) tan cos
5
3
1
c m
16. (a) Find the domain and range of
. sin y x 2
1
=

Sketch the graph of (b) . sin y x 2
1
=

17. Find the equation of the tangent to the
curve sin y
x
3
1
=

at the point 1 , .

2
1
6
c m
18. (a) Find the domain over which the
curve y x x 4
2
= is monotonic increasing.
Find the inverse function over this (b)
domain.
Test Yourself 7
374 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 HSC Course
1. By restricting the domain of each of
the following functions to a monotonic
increasing curve, fnd the inverse
function, and state the domain and
range of the inverse function.
(a) ( ) f x x 1
2
=
(b) y
x 1
1
2
=

2. Differentiate .
sin
x
x
y
1
=

## Are there any

stationary points on the curve?
3. By using the substitution , u x
2
= fnd
.
x
x
dx
1
4
+
#
4. (a) Show that .

tan tan
5
4
4
5
2
1 1
+ =

Find (b) . tan tan
dx
d
x
x
1
1 1
+

b l
Show that (c)

tan tan x
x
1
2
1 1
+ =

for
all x.
5. The acceleration of a particle is given by
.
dt
d x
x 1
1
2
2
2
=

## If initially the velocity

is 0.5 ms
1
when the particle is 0.1 m to
the right of the origin, fnd its velocity,
correct to 1 decimal place, when it is
0.8 m to the right of the origin.
6. By considering the difference between
the area of a rectangle and the area
enclosed between the curve sin y x
1
=

and the y-axis, fnd the exact area
bounded by the curve , sin y x
1
=

the
x-axis and the lines 0 x = and . x
2
3
=
7. Prove that sin cos x x 1
1 1 2
=

for
0 1. x
8. Find ,
x
x
dx
1 9
4

## # using the substitution

. u x 3
2
=
9. Sketch ( ) sin cos y x
1
=

for 2 2 . x
10. Find the volume of the solid formed if
the curve sec y x
1
=

the (a) x-axis from 0 x = to 0.5, x = using
the trapezoidal rule with 5 subintervals
place)
the (b) y-axis from 0 y = to

y
4
= .
Challenge Exercise 7
19. If ( ) p x x 1
3
= and ( ) , q x x 2 5 = + evaluate
(a) ( ) p 7
1
(b) ( ( )) q p 3
1
20. Find the exact value of
(a)
x
dx
1
2
2
1
2
1

#
(b)
x
dx
1 7
3
2
0
21
1
+
#