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DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

Unit I Complex Numbers


(May-Jun-2006)
1. Prove that |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
= |
.
|

\
|
+
+ +
o
t
o
t
o o
o o
n
n
i n
n
i
i
n
2
sin
2
cos
cos sin 1
cos sin 1
.
Sol: We have

1 sin cos
1 sin cos
n
i
i
o o
o o
+ + | |
|
+
\ .

2
2
1 cos sin
2 2
1 cos sin
2 2
2cos 2sin cos
4 2 4 2 4 2
2cos 2sin cos
4 2 4 2 4 2
2cos co
4 2
n
n
i
i
i
i
t t
o o
t t
o o
t o t o t o
t o t o t o
t o
(
| | | |
+ +
| | (
\ . \ .
( =
| | | |
(
+
| |
(
\ . \ .
( | | | | | |
+
| | | (
\ . \ . \ .
( =
| | | | | |
(

| | |
(
\ . \ . \ .

| |

|
\ .
=
s sin
4 2 4 2
2cos cos sin
4 2 4 2 4 2
cos sin
4 2 4 2
cos sin
4 2 4 2
cos
4 2
n
n
i
i
i
i
t o t o
t o t o t o
t o t o
t o t o
t o
( | | | | | |
+
( | | |
\ . \ .
\ .
(
( | | | | | | | |

| | | ( |
\ . \ . \ . \ .
( | | | | | |
+
( | | |
\ . \ . \ .
(
=
( | |
| | | |

| | ( |
\ . \ . \ .
| |
= +
|
\ .
sin cos sin
4 2 4 2 4 2
cos sin cos sin
4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2
cos sin
4 2 4 2
n
n
i i
n n n n n n n n
i i
n n n n
i
t o t o t o
t o t o t o t o
t o t o

( | | | |
| | | | | |

( | | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ .
( | | | | | | | | | | | |
= + +
( | | | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .

( | | | | | |
= +
( | | |
\ . \ . \ .
2
cos sin
2 2
n n
n i n
t t
o o
( | |
| | | |
= +
( | | |
\ . \ . \ .

2. If , prove that . ) sin( ) tan( iv u iy x + = +
v
u
y
x
tanh
tan
2 sinh
2 sin
=

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
Ans: We have
( )
( )
sin2 sinh2
tan
cos2 cosh2 cos2 cosh2
sin sin cosh cos sin
x i y
x iy
x y x y
u iv u v i u hv
+ = +
+ +
+ = +

Equating real and imaginary part, we get


sin2
sin cosh
cos2 cosh2
sinh2
cos sin
cos2 cosh2
x
u v
x y
y
u hv
x y
=
+
=
+

Dividing both the equation we get
sin2 sin cosh
sinh2 cos sin
x u v
y u hv
=
sin2 cot sinh2 coth
sin2 tan
sinh2 tan
x u y v
x u
y hv
=
=

Find sum of the series Ans: Let
( )
2 3
1 1
cos cos2 cos3
2 3
1 1
sin sin2 sin3
2 3
1 1 1 1
cos cos2 cos3 sin sin2 sin3
2 3 2 3
1 1
2 3
log 1
log 1 cos
i i i
i
c
s
c is
c is e e e
c is e
c is
u u u
u
u u u
u u u
u u u u u u
= +
= +
| | | |
+ = + + +
| |
\ . \ .
+ = +
+ = +
+ = + ( )
( )
2
2 1
sin
1 sin
log 1 cos sin tan
2 1 cos
i
c is i
u u
u
u u
u

+
(
+ = + + +

+

. ........ .......... 3 cos
3
1
2 cos
2
1
cos + u u u

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

( )
2 2 1
2
1
2 1
2sin cos
1
2 2
log 1 cos 2cos sin tan
2
2cos
2
sin
1
2
log 2 1 2cos tan
2
cos
2
1
log 2.2cos tan tan
2 2 2
log cos
2 2
log cos
2
2
c is i
c is i
c is i
c is i
c
s
u u
u u u
u
u
u
u
u u
u u
u
u

( + = + + + +

( + = + +

(
+ = +
(

(
+ = +
(

(
=
(

=

Equating real and imaginary parts we get
log cos
2
c
u (
=
(

and
2
s
u
=

(Nov-Dec-2006)
3. If
........ i
i
i A iB

= + prove that
2 2
tan ,
2
B
A B
and A B e
A
t
t

= + = .
Ans:
........ i
i
i A iB

= +

A iB
i A iB
+
= +
( ) log log( ) A iB i A iB + = +
( )
1 2 2 1
log(1) tan log tan
B
A iB i A B i
A

( | |
( + + = + +
| (
\ .

( )
2 2 1
log tan
2
B
A iB i A B i
A
t

( ( | |
+ = + +
| ( (
\ .


2 2 1
log tan
2 2
A B B
i A B i
A
t t

| |
= + +
|
\ .


1 2 2
tan , log
2 2
A B B
A B
A
t t

| |
= = +
|
\ .


( )
2 2
1
tan , log
2 2 2
A B B
A B
A
t t | |
= = +
|
\ .


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

( )
2 2
tan , log
2
A B
B A B
A
t
t
| |
= = +
|
\ .


2 2
tan ,
2
B
A B
A B e
A
t
t

| |
= + =
|
\ .
(Proved)

6. Show that
2 2 3 4 1 2
1 1 1
sin sin2 sin sin3 sin sin4 sin ....... tan (sin / (1 cos sin ))
2 3 4
u u u u u u u u u u

+ = +
Ans: Let
2 2 3 4
1 1 1
sin sin2 sin sin3 sin sin4 sin .......
2 3 4
S u u u u u u u = +
2 3 4
1 1 1
cos sin cos2 sin cos3 sin cos4 sin .......
2 3 4
C u u u u u u u u = +

2 3
sin sin
sin (cos sin ) (cos2 sin2 ) (cos3 sin3 ) ....
2 3
C iS i i i
u u
u u u u u u u + = + + + +

2 3
2 3
sin sin
sin ....
2 3
i i i
C iS e e e
u u u
u u
u + = +
2 3
(sin ) (sin )
sin ....
2 3
i i
i
e e
C iS e
u u
u
u u
u + = +
log(1 sin )
i
C iS e
u
u + = +
2
log(1 sin cos sin ) C iS i u u u + = + +
log (cos sin ) C iS r i o o + = + -------------(1)
Where
2 4
(1 sin cos ) sin r u u u = + + and
2
1
sin
tan
1 sin cos
u
o
u u

| |
=
|
+
\ .

So, equation (1) becomes
log
i
C iS re
o
+ =
log C iS r io + = +

2
2 4 1
sin
log (1 sin cos ) sin tan
1 sin cos
C iS i
u
u u u
u u

| |
+ = + + +
|
+
\ .


2
1
sin
tan
1 sin cos
S
u
u u

| |
=
|
+
\ .



2
2 2 3 4 1
1 1 1 sin
sin sin2 sin sin3 sin sin4 sin ....... tan
2 3 4 1 sin cos
u
u u u u u u u
u u

| |
+ =
|
+
\ .


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

7. If cos( )
i
i re
o
u | + = prove that:
1 sin( )
log
2 sin( )
u o
|
u o

=
+
.
Ans: cos( )
i
i re
o
u | + =
cos cosh sin sinh cos sin i r ir u | u | o o = +
cos cosh cos , sin sinh sin r r u | o u | o = =

cos sin
cosh , sinh
cos sin
r r
o o
| |
u u
= =

cos
cosh
cos
sin
sinh
sin
r
r
o
|
u
o
|
u
=

cosh cos sin
sinh sin cos
| o u
| o u
=

cos sin
sin cos
e e
e e
| |
| |
o u
o u

+
=
+


cos sin sin cos
cos sin sin cos
e e e e
e e e e
| | | |
| | | |
o u o u
o u o u


+ + +
=
+ +


2 sin( )
2 sin( )
e
e
|
|
u o
u o

+
=

2
sin( )
sin( )
e
|
u o
u o
+
=



sin( )
2 log
sin( )
u o
|
u o
| | +
=
|

\ .


1 sin( )
log
2 sin( )
u o
|
u o
| | +
=
|

\ .
(Proved)

(May-Jun 2007)
8. If
1
2cos x
x
u = + and
1
2cos y
y
| = + , show that one of the value of
1
m n
m n
x y
x y
+ is
2cos( ) m n u | + .
Ans:
1
2cos x
x
u = +

2
2 cos 1 x x u = +

2
2 cos 1 0 x x u + =

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2
2cos 4cos 4
2
x
u u
=

2cos 2 sin
cos sin
2
i
x i
u u
u u

= = ----------------(1)
1
2cos y
y
| = +

2
2 cos 1 y y | = +

2
2 cos 1 0 y y | + =

2
2cos 4cos 4
2
y
| |
=

2cos 2 sin
cos sin
2
i
y i
| |
| |

= = ----------------(2)
Taking +ve sign we get
cos sin , cos sin
m m
x m i m x m i m u u u u

= + = and
cos sin , cos sin
n n
y n i n y n i n | | | |

= + =
( )( ) cos sin cos sin
m n
x y m i m n i n u u | | = + +
( ) ( ) ( )
cos sin
m n
x y m n i m n u | u | = + + + and
( ) ( ) ( )
1
cos sin
m n
m n
x y m n i m n
x y
u | u |

= = + +
Now,
1
m n m n m n
m n
x y x y x y
x y

+ = +

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
cos sin cos sin
m n
m n
x y m n i m n m n i m n
x y
u | u | u | u | + = + + + + + +
( )
1
2cos
m n
m n
x y m n
x y
u | + = + (Proved)

9. If tan( )
i
i e
o
u | + = prove that:
i.
1
2 2
n
t
u
| |
= +
|
\ .
.
ii.
1
logtan
2 4 2
t o
|
| |
= +
|
\ .

Ans: tan( )
i
i e
o
u | + =

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
tan( ) cos sin i i u | o o + = + ------------(1)
So, tan( ) cos sin i i u | o o = ----------------(2)
(i) Now, ( ) ( ) tan2 tan i i u u | u | = + + (



( ) ( )
( ) ( )
tan tan
tan2
1 tan tan
i i
i i
u | u |
u
u | u |
+ +
=
+


( )( )
cos sin cos sin
tan2
1 cos sin cos sin
i i
i i
o o o o
u
o o o o
+ +
=
+


2cos
tan2 tan
1 1 2
o t
u = = =


2
2
n
t
u t = +

1
2 2
n
t
u
| |
= +
|
\ .

(ii) ( ) ( ) tan2 tan i i i | u | u | = + (



( ) ( )
( ) ( )
tan tan
tan2
1 tan tan
i i
i
i i
u | u |
|
u | u |
+
=
+ +


( )( )
cos sin cos sin
tan2
1 cos sin cos sin
i i
i
i i
o o o o
|
o o o o
+ +
=
+ +

tanh2 sin i i | o = tanh2 sin | o =

2 2
2 2
sin
1
e e
e e
| |
| |
o

=
+


2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
1 sin
1 sin
e e e e
e e e e
| | | |
| | | |
o
o


+ + +
=
+ +


( )
( )
2
4
2
cos( / 2) sin( / 2)
cos( / 2) sin( / 2)
e
|
o o
o o
+
=



( )
( )
2
cos( / 2) sin( / 2)
cos( / 2) sin( / 2)
e
|
o o
o o
+
=

2
1 tan( / 2)
1 tan( / 2)
e
|
o
o
+
=



2
2
n
t
| t = +
1
2 2
n
t
|
| |
= +
|
\ .
(Proved)

10. Find the sumof the series
2 3
sin sin2 sin3 .......
2 3
x x
x u u u + .

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
Ans: Let
2 3
sin sin2 sin3 .......
2 3
x x
S x u u u = +

2 3
cos cos2 cos3 .......
2 3
x x
C x u u u = +

2 3
(cos sin ) (cos2 sin2 ) (cos3 sin3 ) .......
2 3
x x
C iS x i i i u u u u u u + = + + + +

2 3
3
.......
2 3
i i i
x x
C iS xe e e
u u u
+ = +

2 3
( ) ( )
.......
2 3
i i
i
xe xe
C iS xe
u u
u
+ = +
log(1 )
i
C iS xe
u
+ = +
log(1 cos sin ) C iS x ix u u + = + +
log (cos sin ) C iS r i o o + = + -------------(1)
Where
2 2 2
(1 cos ) sin r x x u u = + +
1
sin
tan
1 cos
x
x
u
o
u

| |
=
|
+
\ .


2
1 2 cos r x x u = + +
So, equation (1) becomes
log
i
C iS re
o
+ =
log C iS r io + = +

2 2 2 1
sin
(1 cos ) sin tan
1 cos
x
C iS x x i
x
u
u u
u

| |
+ = + + +
|
+
\ .


1
sin
tan
1 cos
x
S
x
u
u

| |
=
|
+
\ .


2 3
1
sin
sin sin2 sin3 ....... tan
2 3 1 cos
x x x
x
x
u
u u u
u

| |
+ =
|
+
\ .
(Ans)

(Nov-Dec 2007)
11. State DeMoivres Theorem.
Ans: De Moivres Theorem: - For any real value of n,(cos sin ) cos sin
n
i n i n u u u u + = + .
12. Find sum of the series
Ans: Let
2 2 3 4
1 1 1
sin sin2 sin sin3 sin sin4 sin .......
2 3 4
S u u u u u u u = +
2 3 4
1 1 1
cos sin cos2 sin cos3 sin cos4 sin .......
2 3 4
C u u u u u u u u = +
. ....... sin 4 sin
4
1
sin 3 sin
3
1
sin 2 sin
2
1
sin
4 3 2 2
+ + u u u u u u u

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2 3
sin sin
sin (cos sin ) (cos2 sin2 ) (cos3 sin3 ) ....
2 3
C iS i i i
u u
u u u u u u u + = + + + +

2 3
2 3
sin sin
sin ....
2 3
i i i
C iS e e e
u u u
u u
u + = +
2 3
(sin ) (sin )
sin ....
2 3
i i
i
e e
C iS e
u u
u
u u
u + = +
log(1 sin )
i
C iS e
u
u + = +
2
log(1 sin cos sin ) C iS i u u u + = + +
log (cos sin ) C iS r i o o + = + -------------(1)
Where
2 4
(1 sin cos ) sin r u u u = + + and
2
1
sin
tan
1 sin cos
u
o
u u

| |
=
|
+
\ .

So, equation (1) becomes
log
i
C iS re
o
+ =
log C iS r io + = +

2
2 4 1
sin
log (1 sin cos ) sin tan
1 sin cos
C iS i
u
u u u
u u

| |
+ = + + +
|
+
\ .


2
1
sin
tan
1 sin cos
S
u
u u

| |
=
|
+
\ .



2
2 2 3 4 1
1 1 1 sin
sin sin2 sin sin3 sin sin4 sin ....... tan
2 3 4 1 sin cos
u
u u u u u u u
u u

| |
+ =
|
+
\ .


13. If 0 cos cos cos sin sin sin = + + = + + | o | o , prove that
2 2 2 2 2 2
cos cos cos sin sin sin . o | o | + + = + +
and
cos2 cos2 cos2 sin2 sin2 sin2 o | o | + + = + + .

Ans: - Let
cos sin
cos sin
cos sin
x i
y i
z i
o o
| |

= +
= +
= +

Fromthe given information we will have
0 sin cos sin cos sin cos 0 = + + + + + = + + | | o o i i i z y x 1

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
0 ) sin sin (sin ) cos cos (cos = + + + + + | o | o i
0 sin sin sin , 0 cos cos cos = + + = + + | o | o
Now,
| | o o sin cos
1
sin cos
1
sin cos
1 1 1 1
i i i z y x +
+
+
+
+
= + +
| | o o sin cos sin cos sin cos
1 1 1
i i i
z y x
+ + = + +
0 0 ) sin sin (sin ) cos cos (cos
1 1 1
i i
z y x
= + + + + = + + | o | o
0
1 1 1
= + +
z y x
2
( )
2
2 2 2
2( ) x y z x y z xy yz zx + + = + + + +

( )
2
0 2( ) xy yz zx = + + .from 1

1 1 1
2 0 xyz
x y z
| |
= + + =
|
\ .
(from 2).3
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2 2
cos sin cos sin cos sin x y z i i i o o | | + + = + + + + +
By applying the De Moivres Theorem we will have
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2 2
cos sin cos sin cos sin x y z i i i o o | | + + = + + + + +
= ( ) ( ) (cos2 sin2 ) cos2 sin2 cos2 sin2 i i i o o | | + + + + +
From 3 we will have
( ) ( ) (cos2 sin2 ) cos2 sin2 cos2 sin2 i i i o o | | + + + + + =0
Therefore
cos2 cos2 cos2 sin2 sin2 sin2 o | o | + + = + + =0
cos2 cos2 cos2 o | + + =
2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin cos sin o o | | + + =0
Therefore
2 2 2 2 2 2
cos cos cos sin sin sin o | o | + + + = + + =0.Hence Proved

14. If , show that and .
Ans: tan( )
i
i e
o
u | + =
tan( ) cos sin i i u | o o + = + ------------(1)
So, tan( ) cos sin i i u | o o = ----------------(2)
(i) Now, ( ) ( ) tan2 tan i i u u | u | = + + (


o
| u
i
e i = + ) tan(
2 2
1 t
u |
.
|

\
|
+ = n
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
2 4
tan log
2
1 o t
|

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
tan tan
tan2
1 tan tan
i i
i i
u | u |
u
u | u |
+ +
=
+


( )( )
cos sin cos sin
tan2
1 cos sin cos sin
i i
i i
o o o o
u
o o o o
+ +
=
+


2cos
tan2 tan
1 1 2
o t
u = = =


2
2
n
t
u t = +

1
2 2
n
t
u
| |
= +
|
\ .

(ii) ( ) ( ) tan2 tan i i i | u | u | = + (



( ) ( )
( ) ( )
tan tan
tan2
1 tan tan
i i
i
i i
u | u |
|
u | u |
+
=
+ +


( )( )
cos sin cos sin
tan2
1 cos sin cos sin
i i
i
i i
o o o o
|
o o o o
+ +
=
+ +

tanh2 sin i i | o = tanh2 sin | o =

2 2
2 2
sin
1
e e
e e
| |
| |
o

=
+


2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
1 sin
1 sin
e e e e
e e e e
| | | |
| | | |
o
o


+ + +
=
+ +


( )
( )
2
4
2
cos( / 2) sin( / 2)
cos( / 2) sin( / 2)
e
|
o o
o o
+
=



( )
( )
2
cos( / 2) sin( / 2)
cos( / 2) sin( / 2)
e
|
o o
o o
+
=

2
1 tan( / 2)
1 tan( / 2)
e
|
o
o
+
=



2
2
n
t
| t = +
1
2 2
n
t
|
| |
= +
|
\ .
(Proved)

(May-Jun 2008)
15. State DeMoivres Theorem.
Ans: De Moivres Theorem: - For any real value of n,
(cos sin ) cos sin
n
i n i n u u u u + = + .
16. Find sum of the series . ....... sin 4 sin
4
1
sin 3 sin
3
1
sin 2 sin
2
1
sin
4 3 2 2
+ + u u u u u u u

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
Ans: Let
2 2 3 4
1 1 1
sin sin2 sin sin3 sin sin4 sin .......
2 3 4
S u u u u u u u = +
2 3 4
1 1 1
cos sin cos2 sin cos3 sin cos4 sin .......
2 3 4
C u u u u u u u u = +

2 3
sin sin
sin (cos sin ) (cos2 sin2 ) (cos3 sin3 ) ....
2 3
C iS i i i
u u
u u u u u u u + = + + + +

2 3
2 3
sin sin
sin ....
2 3
i i i
C iS e e e
u u u
u u
u + = +
2 3
(sin ) (sin )
sin ....
2 3
i i
i
e e
C iS e
u u
u
u u
u + = +
log(1 sin )
i
C iS e
u
u + = +
2
log(1 sin cos sin ) C iS i u u u + = + +
log (cos sin ) C iS r i o o + = + -------------(1)
Where
2 4
(1 sin cos ) sin r u u u = + + and
2
1
sin
tan
1 sin cos
u
o
u u

| |
=
|
+
\ .

So, equation (1) becomes
log
i
C iS re
o
+ =
log C iS r io + = +

2
2 4 1
sin
log (1 sin cos ) sin tan
1 sin cos
C iS i
u
u u u
u u

| |
+ = + + +
|
+
\ .


2
1
sin
tan
1 sin cos
S
u
u u

| |
=
|
+
\ .



2
2 2 3 4 1
1 1 1 sin
sin sin2 sin sin3 sin sin4 sin ....... tan
2 3 4 1 sin cos
u
u u u u u u u
u u

| |
+ =
|
+
\ .


17. If 0 cos cos cos sin sin sin = + + = + + | o | o , prove that
2 2 2 2 2 2
cos cos cos sin sin sin . o | o | + + = + +
and
cos2 cos2 cos2 sin2 sin2 sin2 o | o | + + = + + .
Ans: - Let

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
cos sin
cos sin
cos sin
x i
y i
z i
o o
| |

= +
= +
= +

Fromthe given information we will have
0 sin cos sin cos sin cos 0 = + + + + + = + + | | o o i i i z y x 1
0 ) sin sin (sin ) cos cos (cos = + + + + + | o | o i
0 sin sin sin , 0 cos cos cos = + + = + + | o | o
Now,
| | o o sin cos
1
sin cos
1
sin cos
1 1 1 1
i i i z y x +
+
+
+
+
= + +
| | o o sin cos sin cos sin cos
1 1 1
i i i
z y x
+ + = + +
0 0 ) sin sin (sin ) cos cos (cos
1 1 1
i i
z y x
= + + + + = + + | o | o
0
1 1 1
= + +
z y x
2
( )
2
2 2 2
2( ) x y z x y z xy yz zx + + = + + + +

( )
2
0 2( ) xy yz zx = + + .from 1

1 1 1
2 0 xyz
x y z
| |
= + + =
|
\ .
(from 2).3
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2 2
cos sin cos sin cos sin x y z i i i o o | | + + = + + + + +
By applying the De Moivres Theorem we will have
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2 2
cos sin cos sin cos sin x y z i i i o o | | + + = + + + + +
= ( ) ( ) (cos2 sin2 ) cos2 sin2 cos2 sin2 i i i o o | | + + + + +
From 3 we will have
( ) ( ) (cos2 sin2 ) cos2 sin2 cos2 sin2 i i i o o | | + + + + + =0
Therefore
cos2 cos2 cos2 sin2 sin2 sin2 o | o | + + = + + =0
cos2 cos2 cos2 o | + + =
2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin cos sin o o | | + + =0
Therefore
2 2 2 2 2 2
cos cos cos sin sin sin o | o | + + + = + + =0.Hence Proved

18. Find the sum of the series .
2 3
sin sin2 sin3 .......
2 3
x x
x u u u +

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
Ans: Let
2 3
2 3
2 3 2 3
2 2 3 3
1 1
cos cos2 cos3
2 3
1 1
sin sin2 sin3
2 3
1 1 1 1
cos cos2 cos3 sin sin2 sin3
2 3 2 3
1 1
2 3
i i i
c x x x
s x x x
c is x x x x x
c is xe x e x e
c
u u u
u u u
u u u
u u u u u u
= +
= +
| | | |
+ = + + +
| |
\ . \ .
+ = +
+
( )
( )
( )
2
2 2 1
2 1
log 1
log 1 cos sin
1 sin
log 1 cos sin tan
2 1 cos
1 sin
log 1 2 cos tan
2 1 cos
i
is xe
c is x ix
x
c is x x i
x
x
c is x x i
x
u
u u
u
u u
u
u
u
u

= +
+ = + +
(
+ = + + +

+
( + = + + +

+
Equating real and imaginary parts we get

2
1
1
log 1 2 cos
2
sin
tan
1 cos
c x x
x
s
x
u
u
u

( = + +

=
+

(Nov - Dec 2008)
19. If
1
2cos x
x
u = + , find the value of x
p
.
Ans:
2
2
1
2cos
2 cos 1 0
2cos 4 4
cos sin
x
x
x x
cso
x
x i
u
u
u u
u u
= +
+ =

=
=

By De-moivers theorem
( )
( )
cos sin
cos sin
p
p
p
x i
x p i p
u u
u u
=
=

20. If
2
r r
x Cis
t | |
=
|
\ .
, show that
1 2
lim . ...... 1.

=
n
n
x x x .
Ans: - Given that
2
r r
x Cis
t | |
=
|
\ .


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
Now,
1 2 1 2
lim . ...... lim . ........
2 2 2
n n
n n
x x x Cis Cis Cis
t t t

| | | | | |
=
| | |
\ . \ . \ .


1 2 1 2
lim . ...... lim .......
2 2 2
n n
n n
x x x Cis
t t t

| |
= + + +
|
\ .


1 2 1 2 3
lim . ...... .......
2 2 2
n
n
x x x Cis
t t t

| |
= + +
|
\ .


1 2
1 1
lim . ...... ( ) cos sin 1 0
1
2
1
2
n
n
x x x Cis Cis i i t t t t

| |
|
= = = + = +
|
|

\ .


1 2
lim . ...... 1
n
n
x x x

= (Ans).

21. Separate ton
-1
(x + iy) into real and imaginary parts.
Ans: Let
1
1
tan ( ) (1)
tan ( ) (2)
i x iy
i x iy
o |
o |

+ = +
=

Adding (1) and (2) , we get
( )
1 1
1
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
2 tan ( ) tan ( )
( ) ( )
2 tan
1 ( )( )
2
2 tan
1
2
2 tanh
1
1 2
tan
2 1
x iy x iy
x iy x iy
x iy x iy
x
x y
x
x y
x
x y
o
o
o
o
o

= + +
+ +
=
+
=
+
=

=


Subtracting equation (2) from equation (1), we get
1 1
1
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
2 tan ( ) tan ( )
( ) ( )
2 tan
1 ( )( )
2
2 tan
1
2
2 tanh
1
1 2
tanh
2 1
i x iy x iy
x iy x iy
i
x iy x iy
y
i i
x y
y
i i
x y
y
x y
|
|
|
|
|

= +
+
=
+ +
=
+ +
=
+ +
=
+ +


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
Thus real part of
1
tan ( ) x iy

+ =o
1
2 2
1 2
tan
2 1
x
x y

=

and imaginary part of
1
tan ( ) x iy

+ =
1
2 2
1 2
tanh
2 1
y
x y
|

=
+ +
.

22. Find sum of the series
Ans: - Let C =1
cos0
2
+
1.3
2.4
cos20
1.3.5
2.4.6
cos30 + ..

Then S =0
sn0
2
+
1.3
2.4
sin20
1.3.5
2.4.6
sin30 + ..
Now
C +is =1
1
2
(cos0 +isin0) +
1.3
1.4
(cos20 +isin20)
1.3.5
2.4.6
(cos30 +isin30)+..
C +is =1
1
2
c
0
+
1.3
2.4
c
20

1.3.5
2.4.6
c
30
+..
C +is =1+c
0
+
[
1
2
.[
1
2
1
1.2
c
20

[
1
2
.[
1
2
1 .[
1
2
2
1.2.3
c
30
+..
C +is =(1+c
0
)
-
1
2
C +is =(1+cos0 +isin0)
-
1
2

C +is =[2cos
2
0
2
+i2sin
0
2
cos
0
2

-
1
2
=[2cos
0
2

-
1
2
[cos
0
2
+isin
0
2

-
1
2

C +is =[2cos
0
2

-
1
2
[cos
0
4
isin
0
4
=cos
0
4
[2cos
0
2

-
1
2
isin
0
4
[2cos
0
2

-
1
2

So, C =cos
0
4
(2cos
0
2
)
-
1
2

1
cos0
2
+
1.3
2.4
cos20
1.3.5
2.4.6
cos30 + .. =cos
0
4
(2cos
0
2
)
-
1
2
(Ans).

(May-Jun 2009)
23. State DeMoivres Theorem.
Ans: De Moivres Theorem: - For any real value of n,
(cos sin ) cos sin
n
i n i n u u u u + = + .
24. Find all the roots of the equation:
(i) cos 2 z = .
Ans: cos 2 z =

2
2 4 4 1 0
2
iz iz
iz iz iz iz
e e
e e e e

+
= + = + =

4 16 4 4 2 3
2 3
2 2
iz
e

= = =

( ) ( )
2 3 2 log 2 3 iz Log n i t = = +

( )
2 log 2 3 z n i t =
. ........ .......... 6 cos
6 . 4 . 2
5 . 3 . 1
4 cos
4 . 2
3 . 1
2 cos
2
1
1 + + u u u

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

( )
2 log 2 3 z n i t = + (Ans)
(ii) tanh 2 z = .
Ans: tanh 2 z =
2 2 2
z z
z z z z
z z
e e
e e e e
e e

= = +
+

3 0
z z
e e

+ =

2
3
z
e =
2 ( 3) (3) ( 1) 2 log3 z Log Log Log n i i t t = = + = + +
2 log3 (2 1) z n i t = + +

1 1
log3
2 2
z n i t
| |
= + +
|
\ .
(Ans)
25. Separate
1
sin (cos sin ) i u u

+ into real and imaginary parts, where u is a positive acute


angle.
Ans: Let
1
sin (cos sin ) i x iy u u

+ = +
(cos sin ) sin( ) i x iy u u + = +
(cos sin ) sin cosh cos sinh i x y i x y u u + = +
cos sin cosh ..........(1) sin cos sinh ..........(2) x y x y u u = =
By squaring and adding (1) and (2) we get

2 2 2 2
sin cosh cos sinh 1 x y x y + =

2 2 2 2
sin (1 sinh ) cos sinh 1 x y x y + + =

2 2 2 2 2
sin sinh cos sinh 1 sin x y x y x + =

2 2 2 2
sinh (sin cos ) cos y x x x + =

2 2
cos sinh x y =
Now, from(2) we get

2 2 2 2 2 4
sin cos sinh cos cos cos x y x x x u = = =

2
cos sin x u = as u is positive acute angle.
cos sin x u =

( )
1
cos sin x u

= .(3)
By using (2) and (3) we get
sin sin sinhy u u =
sinh sin sin
2
y y
e e
y u u

= =

2
2 sin 1
y y
e e u

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2 sin 4sin 4 2 sin 2 1 sin
sin 1 sin
2 2
y
e
u u u u
u u
+ + + +
= = = + +

( )
log sin 1 sin y u u = + + .(4)
So,
( ) ( )
1 1
sin (cos sin ) cos sin log sin 1 sin i i u u u u u

+ = + + + (Ans)
26. Find the sum of the series
( 1) ( 1)( 2)
sin sin2 sin3 .......
1.2 1.2.3
n n n n n
n o o o
+ + +
+ + + .
Ans: Let
( 1) ( 1)( 2)
sin sin2 sin3 .......
1.2 1.2.3
n n n n n
S n o o o
+ + +
= + + + and

( 1) ( 1)( 2)
cos cos2 cos3 .......
1.2 1.2.3
n n n n n
C n o o o
+ + +
= + + +
Then,

( 1) ( 1)( 2)
(cos sin ) (cos2 sin2 ) (cos3 sin3 ) ...
1.2 1.2.3
n n n n n
C iS n i i i o o o o o o
+ + +
+ = + + + + + +

2 3
( 1) ( 1)( 2)
...
1.2 1.2.3
i i
n n n n n
C iS ne e e
o o o
+ + +
+ = + + +

2 3
( 1) ( 1)( 2)
1 ... 1
1.2 1.2.3
i i
n n n n n
C iS ne e e
o o o
+ + +
+ = + + + +

( )
1 1
n
i
C iS e
o

+ =

( )
1
1
1
n
i
C iS
e
o
+ =



( )
1
1
1 cos sin
n
C iS
i o o
+ =



( )
2
2 2 2
1
1
2sin 2sin cos
n
C iS
i
o o o
+ =



( )
2 2 2
1
1
2 sin sin cos
n
n n
C iS
i
o o o
+ =



( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2
1
1
2 sin cos sin
n
n n
C iS
i
o t o t o
+ =



( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2
1 1
1
2 sin cos sin
n n
C iS
n i n
o t o t o
+ =



( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
2
cos sin
1
2 sin
n n
n i n
C iS
t o t o
o
+
+ =

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
2 2
cos sin
1
2 sin 2 sin
n n n n
n n
C iS i
t o t o
o o

+ = +

( )
2 2
2
sin
2 sin
n n
n
S
t o
o

=

( )
2 2
2
sin
( 1) ( 1)( 2)
sin sin2 sin3 .......
1.2 1.2.3 2 sin
n n
n
n n n n n
n
t o
o
o o o

+ + +
+ + + = (Ans)
(Nov-Dec 2009)
27. If
2
r r
x Cis
t | |
=
|
\ .
. Find the value of
1 2
lim . ......
n
n
x x x

.
Ans: - Given that
2
r r
x Cis
t | |
=
|
\ .

Now,
1 2 1 2
lim . ...... lim . ........
2 2 2
n n
n n
x x x Cis Cis Cis
t t t

| | | | | |
=
| | |
\ . \ . \ .


1 2 1 2
lim . ...... lim .......
2 2 2
n n
n n
x x x Cis
t t t

| |
= + + +
|
\ .


1 2 1 2 3
lim . ...... .......
2 2 2
n
n
x x x Cis
t t t

| |
= + +
|
\ .


1 2
1 1
lim . ...... ( ) cos sin 1 0
1
2
1
2
n
n
x x x Cis Cis i i t t t t

| |
|
= = = + = +
|
|

\ .


1 2
lim . ...... 1
n
n
x x x

= (Ans).
28. If
........ i
i
i A iB

= +
prove that
2 2
tan ,
2
B
A B
and A B e
A
t
t

= + = .
Ans: -
........ i
i
i A iB

= +
A iB
i A iB
+
= + ( ) log log( ) A iB i A iB + = +
( )
1 2 2 1
log(1) tan log tan
B
A iB i A B i
A

( | |
( + + = + +
| (
\ .

( )
2 2 1
log tan
2
B
A iB i A B i
A
t

( ( | |
+ = + +
| ( (
\ .


2 2 1
log tan
2 2
A B B
i A B i
A
t t

| |
= + +
|
\ .

1 2 2
tan , log
2 2
A B B
A B
A
t t

| |
= = +
|
\ .


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

( )
2 2
1
tan , log
2 2 2
A B B
A B
A
t t | |
= = +
|
\ .

( )
2 2
tan , log
2
A B
B A B
A
t
t
| |
= = +
|
\ .


2 2
tan ,
2
B
A B
A B e
A
t
t

| |
= + =
|
\ .
(Proved)
OR
29. Find the sum to infinite of the series:
1 1.3 1.3.5
1 cos cos2 cos3 .......
2 2.4 2.4.6
u u u + +
Ans: - Let C =1
cos0
2
+
1.3
2.4
cos20
1.3.5
2.4.6
cos30 + ..

Then S =0
sn0
2
+
1.3
2.4
sin20
1.3.5
2.4.6
sin30 + ..
Now
C +is =1
1
2
(cos0 +isin0) +
1.3
1.4
(cos20 +isin20)
1.3.5
2.4.6
(cos30 +isin30)+..
C +is =1
1
2
c
0
+
1.3
2.4
c
20

1.3.5
2.4.6
c
30
+..
C +is =1+c
0
+
[
1
2
.[
1
2
1
1.2
c
20

[
1
2
.[
1
2
1 .[
1
2
2
1.2.3
c
30
+..
C +is =(1+c
0
)
-
1
2
C +is =(1+cos0 +isin0)
-
1
2

C +is =[2cos
2
0
2
+i2sin
0
2
cos
0
2

-
1
2
=[2cos
0
2

-
1
2
[cos
0
2
+isin
0
2

-
1
2

C +is =[2cos
0
2

-
1
2
[cos
0
4
isin
0
4
=cos
0
4
[2cos
0
2

-
1
2
isin
0
4
[2cos
0
2

-
1
2

So, C =cos
0
4
(2cos
0
2
)
-
1
2

1
cos0
2
+
1.3
2.4
cos20
1.3.5
2.4.6
cos30 + .. =cos
0
4
(2cos
0
2
)
-
1
2
(Ans).
30. If logtan
4 2
u
t u | |
= +
|
\ .
, proved that:
i. tanh tan
2 2
u u | | | |
=
| |
\ . \ .
.
Ans: - u =log ton[
n
4
+
0
2
u =log ton[
n
4
+
0
2
c
u
=ton[
n
4
+
0
2

c
u/ 2
c
-u/ 2
=
1+tun
0
2
1-tun
0
2

c
u/ 2
-c
-u/ 2
c
u/ 2
+c
-u/ 2
=
2tun
0
2
2
ton
u
2
=ton
0
2
(Proved)
ii. logtan
4 2
iu
i
t
u
| |
= +
|
\ .

Ans: - FromAns (i)
ton
u
2
=ton
0
2

1

ton
u
2
=
1

ton
0
2

0
2
=ton
-1
[ton
u
2


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

0
2
=
1
2
log_
1+tun
iu
2
1-tun
iu
2
_ 0 =
1

log_
tun
n
4
+tun
iu
2
1-tun
n
4
.tun
iu
2
_ 0 =ilog ton[
n
4
+i
u
2
(Ans)
May June (2010)
31. What is the imaginary part of ) 3 4 ( i Log + .
Ans: -
2 2 1
( ) log 2 tan
y
Log x iy x y i n
x
t

| | | |
+ = + + +
| |
\ . \ .

Here, Imaginary part of
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = +

x
y
n iy x Log
1
tan 2 ) ( t
So, Imaginary part of
1
3
(4 3) 2 tan
4
Log i nt

| | | |
+ = +
| |
\ . \ .

32. If . .......... ) 1 (
2
2 1 0
+ + + = + x P x P P x
n
show that,
(i) |
.
|

\
|
= +
4
cos 2 . ..........
2 /
4 2 0
t n
P P P
n
.
Ans: - . .......... ) 1 (
2
2 1 0
+ + + = + x P x P P x
n

. .......... ) 1 (
2
2 1 0
+ = x P x P P x
n

( ) . .......... 2 ) 1 ( ) 1 (
4
4
2
2 0
+ + + = + + x P x P P x x
n n

Putting i x = , we get
( ) . .......... 2 ) 1 ( ) 1 (
4 2 0
+ = + + P P P i i
n n

( ) . .......... 2
4
sin
4
cos 2
4
sin
4
cos 2
4 2 0
2 / 1 2 / 1
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ P P P i i
n n
t t t t

( ) . .......... 2
4
sin
4
cos 2
4
sin
4
cos 2
4 2 0
2 / 2 /
+ = |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ P P P
n
i
n n
i
n
n n
t t t t

( ) . .......... 2
4
cos 2 2
4 2 0
2 /
+ = P P P
n
n
t


4
cos 2 . ..........
2 /
4 2 0
t n
P P P
n
= + (Proved).
(ii) |
.
|

\
|
= +
4
sin 2 . ..........
2 /
5 3 1
t n
P P P
n

Ans: - . .......... ) 1 (
2
2 1 0
+ + + = + x P x P P x
n

. .......... ) 1 (
2
2 1 0
+ = x P x P P x
n

( ) . .......... 2 ) 1 ( ) 1 (
5
5
3
3 1
+ + + = + x P x P x P x x
n n

Putting i x = , we get

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
( ) . .......... 2 ) 1 ( ) 1 (
5 3 1
+ + = + i P i P i P i i
n n

( ) . .......... 2
4
sin
4
cos 2
4
sin
4
cos 2
5 3 1
2 / 1 2 / 1
+ + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ P P P i i i
n n
t t t t

( ) . .......... 2
4
sin
4
cos 2
4
sin
4
cos 2
5 3 1
2 / 2 /
+ + = |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ P P P i
n
i
n n
i
n
n n
t t t t

( ) . .......... 2
4
sin 2 2
5 3 1
2 /
+ + = P P P i
n
i
n
t


4
sin 2 . ..........
2 /
5 3 1
t n
P P P
n
= + + (Proved).
33. If | o i iv u + = +

) ( sin
1
, prove that o
2
sin and |
2
cosh are the roots of the equation
0 ) 1 (
2 2 2 2
= + + + u v u x x
Ans: - To prove o
2
sin and |
2
cosh are the roots of the equation
0 ) 1 (
2 2 2 2
= + + + u v u x x
is same as to prove
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
sin cosh (1 ), sin .cosh u v u o | o | + = + + =

1
sin ( ) sin( ) u iv i u iv i o | o |

+ = + + = +
sin .cosh cos .sinh u iv i o | o | + = + -------------------(1)
From(1) modulus square is

2 2 2 2 2 2
sin .cosh cos .sinh u v o | o | + = +

2 2 2 2 2 2
sin .cosh (1 sin ).(cosh 1) u v o | o | + = +

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
sin .cosh cosh 1 sin .cosh sin u v o | | o | o + = + +

2 2 2 2
cosh 1 sin u v | o + = +

2 2 2 2
sin cosh (1 ) u v o | + = + + (Proved -1)
Form(1) sin .cosh , cos .sinh u v o | o | = =

2 2 2
sin .cosh u o | = (proved 2)
Hence o
2
sin and |
2
cosh are the roots of the equation 0 ) 1 (
2 2 2 2
= + + + u v u x x .
34. Find sum of the series: + + + ..... .......... 5 sin
5
3 sin
3
sin
5 3
o o o
c c
c .
Ans: - Let
3 5
sin sin3 sin5 ...............
3 5
c c
S c o o o = + + +
So,
3 5
cos cos3 cos5 ...............
3 5
c c
C c o o o = + + +

( ) ( ) ( )
3 5
cos sin cos3 sin3 cos5 cos5 ...............
3 5
c c
C is c o o o o o o + = + + + + + +

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

3 5
3 5
.......
3 3
i i i
c c
C iS ce e e
o o o
+ = + +

( ) ( )
3 5
.......
3 3
i i
i
ce ce
C iS ce
o o
o
+ = + +
As |
.
|

\
|

+
= = + + +

x
x
x
x x
x
1
1
log
2
1
tanh ....... ..........
5 3
1
5 3


( ) ( )
1 1 1
log log 1 log 1
2 1 2
i
i i
i
ce
C iS ce ce
ce
o
o o
o
| | +
(
+ = = +
|

\ .


2 2 2 1
2 2 2 1
1 sin
(1 cos ) sin tan
2 1 cos
1 sin
(1 cos ) sin tan
2 1 cos
c
C iS c c i
c
c
c c i
c
o
o o
o
o
o o
o

( | |
+ = + + +
| (
+
\ .
( | |
+ +
| (

\ .


2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1
1
(1 cos ) sin (1 cos ) sin
2
1 sin sin
tan tan
2 1 cos 1 cos
C iS c c c c
c c
i
c c
o o o o
o o
o o

(
+ = + + +

( | | | |
+
| | (
+
\ . \ .


1 1
1 sin sin
tan tan
2 1 cos 1 cos
c c
S
c c
o o
o o

( | | | |
=
| | (
+
\ . \ .


1 1
1 sin sin
tan tan
2 1 cos 1 cos
c c
S
c c
o o
o o

( | | | |
= +
| | (
+
\ . \ .


1 1
2
sin sin
1 1 2 sin
1 cos 1 cos
tan tan
sin sin
2 2 1
1 .
1 cos 1 cos
c c
c
c c
S
c c
c
c c
o o
o
o o
o o
o o

| |
+
|
| |
+
= =
|
|

\ .
|

+ \ .


3 5
1
2
1 2 sin
sin sin3 sin5 ............... tan
3 5 2 1
c c c
c
c
o
o o o

| |
+ + + =
|

\ .
(Ans)
Nov Dec (2010)
35. Find :

4
5
(cos sin )
(sin cos )
i
i
o o
| |
+
+

Sol
4
5
(cos sin )
(sin cos )
i
i
o o
| |
+
+

We know from De Moivres Theorem: - For any real value of n,
(cos sin ) cos sin
n
i n i n u u u u + = + .

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
( )
4
5 5 5
5
(cos sin ) (cos4 sin4 ) (cos4 sin4 )
(sin cos ) (sin cos )
cos sin
i i i
i i
i i
o o o o o o
| | | |
| |
+ + +
= =
+ +


( )
4
5 5 5
(cos sin ) (cos4 sin4 ) (cos4 sin4 )
(sin cos ) (sin cos )
cos sin
i i i
i i
i i
o o o o o o
| | | |
| |

+ + +
= =
+ +
+

( )
5
4
5 5
(cos4 sin4 ) cos sin
(cos sin ) (cos4 sin4 )
(sin cos ) (sin cos )
i i
i i
i i i
o o | |
o o o o
| | | |
+ +
+ +
= =
+ +

( )
5
4
5 5
(cos4 sin4 ) cos5 sin5
(cos sin ) (cos4 sin4 )
(sin cos ) (sin cos )
i i
i i
i i i
o o | |
o o o o
| | | |
+ +
+ +
= =
+ +

( ) ( )
4
5 5
(cos 4 5 sin 4 5 (cos sin ) (cos4 sin4 )
(sin cos ) (sin cos )
i i i
i i i
o | o | o o o o
| | | |
+ + + + +
= =
+ +

( ) ( )
4
5 5
(cos sin ) (cos4 sin4 )
(cos 4 5 sin 4 5
(sin cos ) (sin cos )
i i
i i
i i
o o o o
o | o |
| | | |
+ +
= = + + + (

+ +

( ) ( )
4
5 5
(cos sin ) (cos4 sin4 )
sin 4 5 (cos 4 5
(sin cos ) (sin cos )
i i
i i
i i
o o o o
o | o |
| | | |
+ +
= = + + (

+ +

36. If x = cos sin i o o + , y=cos sin i | | + , z=cos sin i + and x+y +z =0, then prove that
1 1 1
0.
x y z
+ + =
Ans: - Let
cos sin
cos sin
cos sin
x i
y i
z i
o o
| |

= +
= +
= +

Fromthe given information we will have
0 sin cos sin cos sin cos 0 = + + + + + = + + | | o o i i i z y x 1
0 ) sin sin (sin ) cos cos (cos = + + + + + | o | o i
0 sin sin sin , 0 cos cos cos = + + = + + | o | o
Now,
| | o o sin cos
1
sin cos
1
sin cos
1 1 1 1
i i i z y x +
+
+
+
+
= + +
| | o o sin cos sin cos sin cos
1 1 1
i i i
z y x
+ + = + +
0 0 ) sin sin (sin ) cos cos (cos
1 1 1
i i
z y x
= + + + + = + + | o | o
0
1 1 1
= + +
z y x
2 Hence Proved


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
37. If ( )
p x iy
a ib m
+
+ = then prove that one of the value of y/x is
2 2
2tan ( / )
log ( )
e
b a
a b

+
.
Ans:
( )
( )
( )
2 2 1
log( ) log
log( ) log
1
log tan log log
2
p
x iy
p x iy
a ib m
a ib m
p a ib x iy m
b
p a b i x m iy m
a
+
+

+ =
+ =
+ = +
(
+ + = +
(


Equating real and imaginary parts
( )
2 2
1
1
log log ...........................(1)
2
log tan ............................(2)
x m p a b
b
y m p
a

= +
=

Dividing (2 )by (1)
( )
( )
1 1
2 2
2 2
tan 2tan
1
log
log
2
b b
p
y
a a
x a b
p a b

= =
+
+


38. Sumthe series
2 3
sin sin( ) sin( 2 ) sin( 3 ).......
2 3
x x
x o o | o | o | + + + + + +
Ans: let
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2
cos cos cos 2 ........................
2!
sin sin sin 2 ........................
2!
cos sin cos sin cos 2 sin 2 .........................
2!
x
c x
x
s x
x
c is i x i i
i x
i
c is e xe
o o | o |
o o | o |
o o o | o | o | o |
o |
o
= + + + + +
= + + + + +
+ = + + + + + + + + + +
+
+ = + +
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2
2
cos sin
sin cos
cos
2
........................................
2!
2
1 ........................
2!
cos sin sin sin
x i
i x x
x
i
e
x
i i i
c is e xe e
i
c is e e
c is e e
c is e x i x
| |
o | |
|
o |
| | o
o
o | o |
+
+
+
+
| |
+ = + + +
|
\ .
+ =
+ =
( + = + + +

equating real and imaginary parts

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
( )
( )
cos
cos
cos sin
sin sin
x
x
c e x
s e x
|
|
o |
o |
( = +

( = +


May June (2011)
39. Find real and imagiant parts of exp(z
2
).
Ans: We have
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
exp exp
exp exp 2
exp exp .exp 2
exp exp . cos 2 sin 2
exp cos 2 exp sin 2 exp
z x iy
z x y ixy
z x y ixy
z x y xy i xy
z xy x y i xy x y
= +
= +
=
= +
= +

Hence real part is ( ) ( )
2 2
cos 2 exp xy x y and imaginary part is ( ) ( )
2 2
sin 2 exp xy x y .

40. If (1+x)
n
=P
0
+ P
1
x + P
2
x
2
+P
3
x
3
+..
Show that
(i) p
0
- p
2
+p
4
- ---------------------- =2
n/2
cos nt/4 ,
(iii) p
1
p
3
+p
5
---------------------- =2
n/2
sin nt/4 .
(i) |
.
|

\
|
= +
4
cos 2 . ..........
2 /
4 2 0
t n
P P P
n
.
Ans: - . .......... ) 1 (
2
2 1 0
+ + + = + x P x P P x
n

. .......... ) 1 (
2
2 1 0
+ = x P x P P x
n

( ) . .......... 2 ) 1 ( ) 1 (
4
4
2
2 0
+ + + = + + x P x P P x x
n n

Putting i x = , we get
( ) . .......... 2 ) 1 ( ) 1 (
4 2 0
+ = + + P P P i i
n n

( ) . .......... 2
4
sin
4
cos 2
4
sin
4
cos 2
4 2 0
2 / 1 2 / 1
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ P P P i i
n n
t t t t

( ) . .......... 2
4
sin
4
cos 2
4
sin
4
cos 2
4 2 0
2 / 2 /
+ = |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ P P P
n
i
n n
i
n
n n
t t t t


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
( ) . .......... 2
4
cos 2 2
4 2 0
2 /
+ = P P P
n
n
t


4
cos 2 . ..........
2 /
4 2 0
t n
P P P
n
= + (Proved).
(ii) |
.
|

\
|
= +
4
sin 2 . ..........
2 /
5 3 1
t n
P P P
n

Ans: - . .......... ) 1 (
2
2 1 0
+ + + = + x P x P P x
n

. .......... ) 1 (
2
2 1 0
+ = x P x P P x
n

( ) . .......... 2 ) 1 ( ) 1 (
5
5
3
3 1
+ + + = + x P x P x P x x
n n

Putting i x = , we get
( ) . .......... 2 ) 1 ( ) 1 (
5 3 1
+ + = + i P i P i P i i
n n

( ) . .......... 2
4
sin
4
cos 2
4
sin
4
cos 2
5 3 1
2 / 1 2 / 1
+ + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ P P P i i i
n n
t t t t

( ) . .......... 2
4
sin
4
cos 2
4
sin
4
cos 2
5 3 1
2 / 2 /
+ + = |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ P P P i
n
i
n n
i
n
n n
t t t t

( ) . .......... 2
4
sin 2 2
5 3 1
2 /
+ + = P P P i
n
i
n
t


4
sin 2 . ..........
2 /
5 3 1
t n
P P P
n
= + + (Proved).

41. If
........ i
i
i A iB

= +
prove that
2 2
tan ,
2
B
A B
and A B e
A
t
t

= + = .
Ans: -
........ i
i
i A iB

= +
A iB
i A iB
+
= + ( ) log log( ) A iB i A iB + = +
( )
1 2 2 1
log(1) tan log tan
B
A iB i A B i
A

( | |
( + + = + +
| (
\ .

( )
2 2 1
log tan
2
B
A iB i A B i
A
t

( ( | |
+ = + +
| ( (
\ .


2 2 1
log tan
2 2
A B B
i A B i
A
t t

| |
= + +
|
\ .

1 2 2
tan , log
2 2
A B B
A B
A
t t

| |
= = +
|
\ .


( )
2 2
1
tan , log
2 2 2
A B B
A B
A
t t | |
= = +
|
\ .

( )
2 2
tan , log
2
A B
B A B
A
t
t
| |
= = +
|
\ .


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2 2
tan ,
2
B
A B
A B e
A
t
t

| |
= + =
|
\ .
(Proved)
42. Find the sumto infinite of the series:
Coso +Cos( ) o | + +Cos( 2 ) o | + +.. to n terms.
Coso +Cos( ) o | + +Cos( 2 ) o | + +.. to n terms.
\
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
cos cos cos 2 ........................
sin sin sin 2 ........................
cos sin cos sin cos 2 sin 2 ............................
c nterms
s nterms
c is i i i nterms
i
i
c is e e
o o | o |
o o | o |
o o o | o | o | o |
o |
o
= + + + + +
= + + + + +
+ = + + + + + + + + + +
+
+ = +
( ) 2
........................................
2
. . ................................
1
1
i
e nterms
i i i i i
c is e e e e e nterms
in i
e e
c is
i
e
o |
| | o o o
| o
|
+
+ +
| |
+ = + + +
|
\ .
| |

|
\ .
+ =

We know that
( ) 1
2
2 2 2 2
1 2 sin
2
2 2 2 2
1 2 sin
2
sin cos
2 2
in
i n
i i i i
i
e e e e e i
n n n
in i i i
n
e e e e e i
n
c is e ec
|
|
o
| | | |
|
|
| | | |
|
| |
(
+
(

| |

|
| |
= =
| |
\ .
|
\ .
| |
|
| |
= =
| |
\ .
|
\ .
+ =

Equating real and imaginary parts we get
( )
( )
1
cos sin cos
2 2 2
1
sin sin cos
2 2 2
n
n
c ec
n
n
s ec
|
| |
o
|
| |
o
(
= +
(

(
= +
(


Nov Dec (2011)
43. State the De Moivers theorem.

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
Ans: De Moivres Theorem: - For any real value of n, (cos sin ) cos sin
n
i n i n u u u u + = +
44. Prove that
1
(1 cos sin ) (1 cos sin ) 2 cos cos
2 2
n n n n
n
i i
u u
u u u u
+
+ + + + = .
Ans:

2 2
(1 cos sin ) (1 cos sin )
2cos .2sin cos 2cos .2sin cos
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 cos cos sin 2 cos cos sin
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 cos cos sin 2 cos cos sin
2 2 2 2 2 2
n n
n n
n n
n n n n
n n n n
i i
i i
i i
n n n n
i i
u u u u
u u u u u u
u u u u u u
u u u u u u
+ + + +
| | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .
| | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .
| | |
= + +
|
\ . \
1
2 cos 2cos
2 2
2 cos cos
2 2
n n
n n
n
n
u u
u u
+
|
|
.
| |
=
|
\ .
| |
=
|
\ .

45. If , prove that .
Ans: We have
( )
( )
sin2 sinh2
tan
cos2 cosh2 cos2 cosh2
sin sin cosh cos sin
x i y
x iy
x y x y
u iv u v i u hv
+ = +
+ +
+ = +

Equating real and imaginary part, we get


sin2
sin cosh
cos2 cosh2
sinh2
cos sin
cos2 cosh2
x
u v
x y
y
u hv
x y
=
+
=
+

Dividing both the equation we get
sin2 sin cosh
sinh2 cos sin
x u v
y u hv
=
sin2 cot sinh2 coth
sin2 tan
sinh2 tan
x u y v
x u
y hv
=
=

46. Find the sumto infinite of the series:
1 1.3 1.3.5
1 cos cos2 cos3 .......
2 2.4 2.4.6
u u u + +
Ans: - Let C =1
cos0
2
+
1.3
2.4
cos20
1.3.5
2.4.6
cos30 + ..

) sin( ) tan( iv u iy x + = +
v
u
y
x
tanh
tan
2 sinh
2 sin
=

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
Then S =0
sn0
2
+
1.3
2.4
sin20
1.3.5
2.4.6
sin30 + ..
Now
C +is =1
1
2
(cos0 +isin0) +
1.3
1.4
(cos20 +isin20)
1.3.5
2.4.6
(cos30 +isin30)+..
C +is =1
1
2
c
0
+
1.3
2.4
c
20

1.3.5
2.4.6
c
30
+..
C +is =1+c
0
+
[
1
2
.[
1
2
1
1.2
c
20

[
1
2
.[
1
2
1 .[
1
2
2
1.2.3
c
30
+..
C +is =(1+c
0
)
-
1
2
C +is =(1+cos0 +isin0)
-
1
2

C +is =[2cos
2
0
2
+i2sin
0
2
cos
0
2

-
1
2
=[2cos
0
2

-
1
2
[cos
0
2
+isin
0
2

-
1
2

C +is =[2cos
0
2

-
1
2
[cos
0
4
isin
0
4
=cos
0
4
[2cos
0
2

-
1
2
isin
0
4
[2cos
0
2

-
1
2

So, C =cos
0
4
(2cos
0
2
)
-
1
2

1
cos0
2
+
1.3
2.4
cos20
1.3.5
2.4.6
cos30 + .. =cos
0
4
(2cos
0
2
)
-
1
2
(Ans).

May June (2012)
47. Prove that :
4
cos sin
cos8 sin8
sin cos
i
i
i
u u
u u
u u
+ | |
= +
|
+
\ .

Sol. L.H.S.
=
4
cos sin
sin cos
i
i
u u
u u
+ | |
|
+
\ .

( )
( )
4
4
4
cos sin
s sin
2 2
cos sin
s4 sin4
2 2
i
co i
i
co i
u u
t t
u u
u u
t t
u u
+
| | | | | |
+
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
+
=
| | | | | |
+
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
4
4
4
cos sin
s 2 4 sin 2 4
cos sin
s sin
i
co i
i
co i
u u
t u t u
u u
u u

+
=
+
+
=
+


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
( ) ( )
( )
( )
4 4
8
cos sin cos sin
cos sin
cos8 sin8
i i
i
i
u u u u
u u
u u
= + +
= +
= +

48. If
1
2cos x
x
u = + and
1
2cos y
y
C = + show that :
1
2cos( )
m n
m n
x y m n
x y
u + = + C
Ans:
1
2cos x
x
u = +

2
2 cos 1 x x u = +

2
2 cos 1 0 x x u + =

2
2cos 4cos 4
2
x
u u
=

2cos 2 sin
cos sin
2
i
x i
u u
u u

= = ----------------(1)
1
2cos y
y
| = +

2
2 cos 1 y y | = +

2
2 cos 1 0 y y | + =

2
2cos 4cos 4
2
y
| |
=

2cos 2 sin
cos sin
2
i
y i
| |
| |

= = ----------------(2)
Taking +ve sign we get
cos sin , cos sin
m m
x m i m x m i m u u u u

= + = and
cos sin , cos sin
n n
y n i n y n i n | | | |

= + =
( )( ) cos sin cos sin
m n
x y m i m n i n u u | | = + +
( ) ( ) ( )
cos sin
m n
x y m n i m n u | u | = + + + and
( ) ( ) ( )
1
cos sin
m n
m n
x y m n i m n
x y
u | u |

= = + +
Now,
1
m n m n m n
m n
x y x y x y
x y

+ = +

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
cos sin cos sin
m n
m n
x y m n i m n m n i m n
x y
u | u | u | u | + = + + + + + +

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
( )
1
2cos
m n
m n
x y m n
x y
u | + = + (Proved)
49. If tan( )
i
i e
o
u + C = , show that :
1
2 2
n
t
u
| |
= +
|
\ .
and
1
logtan
2 4 2
t o | |
C = +
|
\ .

Ans: tan( )
i
i e
o
u | + =
tan( ) cos sin i i u | o o + = + ------------(1)
So, tan( ) cos sin i i u | o o = ----------------(2)
(i) Now, ( ) ( ) tan2 tan i i u u | u | = + + (



( ) ( )
( ) ( )
tan tan
tan2
1 tan tan
i i
i i
u | u |
u
u | u |
+ +
=
+


( )( )
cos sin cos sin
tan2
1 cos sin cos sin
i i
i i
o o o o
u
o o o o
+ +
=
+


2cos
tan2 tan
1 1 2
o t
u = = =


2
2
n
t
u t = +

1
2 2
n
t
u
| |
= +
|
\ .

(ii) ( ) ( ) tan2 tan i i i | u | u | = + (



( ) ( )
( ) ( )
tan tan
tan2
1 tan tan
i i
i
i i
u | u |
|
u | u |
+
=
+ +


( )( )
cos sin cos sin
tan2
1 cos sin cos sin
i i
i
i i
o o o o
|
o o o o
+ +
=
+ +

tanh2 sin i i | o = tanh2 sin | o =

2 2
2 2
sin
1
e e
e e
| |
| |
o

=
+


2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
1 sin
1 sin
e e e e
e e e e
| | | |
| | | |
o
o


+ + +
=
+ +


( )
( )
2
4
2
cos( / 2) sin( / 2)
cos( / 2) sin( / 2)
e
|
o o
o o
+
=



( )
( )
2
cos( / 2) sin( / 2)
cos( / 2) sin( / 2)
e
|
o o
o o
+
=

2
1 tan( / 2)
1 tan( / 2)
e
|
o
o
+
=



DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2
2
n
t
| t = +
1
2 2
n
t
|
| |
= +
|
\ .
(Proved)
50. Sum of the following series:
1 1
cos cos2 cos3 ..........
2 3
u u u +
Ans: Let
( )
2 3
1 1
cos cos2 cos3
2 3
1 1
sin sin2 sin3
2 3
1 1 1 1
cos cos2 cos3 sin sin2 sin3
2 3 2 3
1 1
2 3
log 1
log 1 cos
i i i
i
c
s
c is
c is e e e
c is e
c is
u u u
u
u u u
u u u
u u u u u u
= +
= +
| | | |
+ = + + +
| |
\ . \ .
+ = +
+ = +
+ = + ( )
( )
2
2 1
sin
1 sin
log 1 cos sin tan
2 1 cos
i
c is i
u u
u
u u
u

+
(
+ = + + +

+


( )
2 2 1
2
1
2 1
2sin cos
1
2 2
log 1 cos 2cos sin tan
2
2cos
2
sin
1
2
log 2 1 2cos tan
2
cos
2
1
log 2.2cos tan tan
2 2 2
log cos
2 2
log cos
2
2
c is i
c is i
c is i
c is i
c
s
u u
u u u
u
u
u
u
u u
u u
u
u

( + = + + + +

( + = + +

(
+ = +
(

(
+ = +
(

(
=
(

=

Dec Jan (2012)
51. Define De Moivers theorem
Ans: De Moivres Theorem: - For any real value of n, (cos sin ) cos sin
n
i n i n u u u u + = +

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
52. If and o | are the roots of the equation u u + =
2 2
sin sin 1 0. z z then prove that
i. 2cos cos
n n n
n ec o | u u + =
ii.
2
cos
n n n
ec o | u =
Ans: It is given those roots of the equation u u + =
2 2
sin sin 1 0. z z

Are and o | therefor by applying the property of relations between roos and
coeffecfint of the equation we will have
cos
b
ec
a
o | u

+ = = And
2
cosec o | u = ..1
As
2
cosec o | u = therefore
( ) ( )
2
cos
n
n n n
ec o | o | u = = 2
cos
b
ec
a
o | u

+ = = ;
2
cosec o | u =
2
cosec u
|
o
=
From above
2
cos
cos
ec
ec
u
o u
o
+ =
2 2
cos cos 0 ec ec o o u u + =
2 2
cos cos 4cos
2
ec ec ec u u u
o

=
1 3
cos
2
i
ec o u
| |

=
|
|
\ .
1 3 1 3
cos & cos
2 2
i i
ec ec o u | u
| | | |
+
= =
| |
| |
\ . \ .

( ) ( ) cos cos sin & cos cos sin ec r i ec r i o u | | | u | | = + =
2
2
1
3
1 3
2
1 & tan
1
2 2 3
2
where r
t
|

| |
| |
= + = = =
|
|
|
\ .
\ .

( ) ( )
1 3 1 3
cos & cos
2 2
cos cos sin & cos cos sin
n n
n n n n
i i
ec ec
ec i ec i
o u | u
o u | | | u | |
| | | |
+
= =
| |
| |
\ . \ .
= + =

2cos cos
n n n
ec o | | u + =
In the given problem instead of 2cos cos
n n n
n ec o | u u + = it should be
2cos cos
n n n
ec o | | u + =

53. f ( )
p x iy
a ib m
+
+ = then prove that one of the value of y/x is
2 2
2tan ( / )
log ( )
e
b a
a b

+

Ans:

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
( )
log( ) log
p
x iy
p x iy
a ib m
a ib m
+
+
+ =
+ =

( )
( )
2 2 1
log( ) log
1
log tan log log
2
p a ib x iy m
b
p a b i x m iy m
a

+ = +
(
+ + = +
(


Equating real and imaginary parts
( )
2 2
1
1
log log ...........................(1)
2
log tan ............................(2)
x m p a b
b
y m p
a

= +
=

Dividing (2 )by (1)
( )
( )
1 1
2 2
2 2
tan 2tan
1
log
log
2
b b
p
y
a a
x a b
p a b

= =
+
+


54. Find sum of the series
Ans: Let
2 2 3 4
1 1 1
sin sin2 sin sin3 sin sin4 sin .......
2 3 4
S u u u u u u u = +
2 3 4
1 1 1
cos sin cos2 sin cos3 sin cos4 sin .......
2 3 4
C u u u u u u u u = +

2 3
sin sin
sin (cos sin ) (cos2 sin2 ) (cos3 sin3 ) ....
2 3
C iS i i i
u u
u u u u u u u + = + + + +

2 3
2 3
sin sin
sin ....
2 3
i i i
C iS e e e
u u u
u u
u + = +
2 3
(sin ) (sin )
sin ....
2 3
i i
i
e e
C iS e
u u
u
u u
u + = +
log(1 sin )
i
C iS e
u
u + = +
2
log(1 sin cos sin ) C iS i u u u + = + +
log (cos sin ) C iS r i o o + = + -------------(1)
Where
2 4
(1 sin cos ) sin r u u u = + + and
2
1
sin
tan
1 sin cos
u
o
u u

| |
=
|
+
\ .

So, equation (1) becomes
log
i
C iS re
o
+ =
. ....... sin 4 sin
4
1
sin 3 sin
3
1
sin 2 sin
2
1
sin
4 3 2 2
+ + u u u u u u u

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
log C iS r io + = +

2
2 4 1
sin
log (1 sin cos ) sin tan
1 sin cos
C iS i
u
u u u
u u

| |
+ = + + +
|
+
\ .


2
1
sin
tan
1 sin cos
S
u
u u

| |
=
|
+
\ .



2
2 2 3 4 1
1 1 1 sin
sin sin2 sin sin3 sin sin4 sin ....... tan
2 3 4 1 sin cos
u
u u u u u u u
u u

| |
+ =
|
+
\ .








Unit II Differential Equations of higher order
April -May, 2006
1. Solve:
2
2 3
2
2 cos2
x x
d y
y x e e x
dx
+ = +
Ans:
( )
2 2 3
2 cos2
x x
D y x e e x + = + -----------(1)
Here Auxiliary equation is
2
2 0 2 D D i + = =
So, cos 2 sin 2
h
y A x B x = +

( )
2 3
2
1
. . cos2
2
x x
p
P I y x e e x
D
= = +
+


( ) ( )
3 2
2 2
1 1
cos2
( 3) 2 ( 1) 2
x x
p
y e x e x
D D
= +
+ + + +

( ) ( )
3
2
2 2
1 1
cos2
11 2 3 6
1
11
x
x
p
e
y x e x
D D D D
= +
+ + | | +
+
|
\ .


( ) ( )
3
2
2 2
1 1
cos2
6 11 4 2 3
1
11
x
x
p
e
y x e x
D D D
= +
+ + +
+


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 3
2 2
3 2
2
2
6 6
6 2 13
1 ... cos2
11 11 121 1331 4 169
x
x
p
D D D D
e D D D
y x e x
D
(
+ +
+ +
(
= + + +
(



( ) ( )
3
2 2
2
6 1 36 2 13
1 ... cos2
11 11 11 121 4 169
x
x
p
e D D
y D x e x
D
( + | |
= + + +
| (

\ .


( ) ( )
3
2 2
2
6 47 2 13
1 ... cos2
11 11 121 4 4 169
x
x
p
e D D
y D x e x
+ (
= + +
(



( )
3
2
6 47 2 13
2 2 0 0 ... cos2
11 11 121 233
x
x
p
e D
y x x e x
+ (
= + + + +
(



( )
3
2
12 94
4sin2 13cos2
11 11 121 233
x x
p
e x e
y x x x
(
= +
(


So, Solution
h p
y y y = +
( )
3
2
12 94
cos 2 sin 2 4sin2 13cos2
11 11 121 233
x x
e x e
y A x B x x x x
(
= + + +
(




2. Solve:
3 2
3 2
3 2
1
2 2 10( )
d y d y
x x y x
dx dx x
+ + = +
Ans:
3 2
3 2
3 2
1
2 2 10
d y d y
x x y x
dx dx x
| |
+ + = +
|
\ .
-------------(1)
Let log
z
x e z x = =
So,
2 3
2 3
2 3
', '( ' 1) , '( ' 1)( ' 2)
dy d y d y
x D x D D y x D D D y
dx dx dx
= = = where
'
d
D
dz
=
Putting all these values in (1) we get
| | '( ' 1)( ' 2) 2 '( ' 1) 2 10( )
z z
D D D D D y e e

+ + = +

3 2
' ' 2 10( )
z z
D D y e e

( + = +

-------(2)
Its auxiliary equation is
3 2
2 0 m m + =

2
( 1)( 2 2) 0 m m m + + =

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2 4
1,
2
m

=
1, 1 m i =
So, ( ) . . cos sin )
z z
h
C F y Ae e B z C z

= = + +
( ) . . cos(log ) sin(log )
h
A
C F y x B x C x
x
= = + + -------------(3)
Now,
3 2
1
. . 10( )
' ' 2
z z
p
P I y e e
D D

= = +
+


3 2 3 2
1 1
10 10
' ' 2 ' ' 2
z z
p
y e e
D D D D

= +
+ +


3 2 3 2
1 1
10 10 (1)
1 1 2 ( ' 1) ( ' 1) 2
z z
p
y e e
D D

= +
+ +


2
1
5 10 (1)
'( ' 4 ' 5)
z z
p
y e e
D D D

= +
+


1
2
1 4 1
5 10 1 ' ' (1)
5 ' 5 5
z z
p
y e e D D
D

| |
= + +
|
\ .


1 4
5 2 1 ' ..... (1)
' 5
z z
p
y e e D
D

| |
= +
|
\ .


1
5 2 (1)
'
z z
p
y e e
D

= +
5 2
z z
p
y e ze

= +

2log
5
p
x
y x
x
= +
So, Solution
h p
y y y = +
( )
2log
cos(log ) sin(log ) 5
A x
y x B x C x x
x x
= + + + + (Ans)

3. Solve the following simultaneous equation: 2 , 2 , 2
dx dy dz
y z x
dt dt dt
= = =
(Ans.) The given equation is:
2 =
dx
y
dt
..(1), 2 ..........(2)
dy
z
dt
=
,
2 ..........(3)
dz
x
dt
=
Differentiating (1)w . r. t., we get
2
2
2 2(2 )
d x dy
z
dt dt
= = using(2)

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
Differentiating again w. r. t. t,, we get
3
3
4 4(2 )
d x dz
x
dt dt
= =
3
3 2
2
1 2 3
2
1 2 3 2 3
2
1 2 3 3
2
1 2
( 8) 0,
8 0 ( 2)() 2 4) 0
2, 1 3
cos( 3 )
1
2
1
2 cos( 3 ) 3 sin( 3 )
2
2 2
cos cos( 3 ) sin sin( 3 )
3 3
cos 3
t t
t t t
t t
t t
d
D x whereD
dt
D or D D D
D i
x c e c e t c
dx
y
dt
c e c e t c c e t c
c e c e t c t c
c e c e t
t t

= =
= + + =
=
= +
=
(
=

(
= +
(

= +
3
2
3
c
t | |
+
|
\ .

From(2)..
2
1 2 3 2 3
2
1 2 3
1
2
1 2 2
2 cos( 3 ) 3 sin( 3 )
2 3 3
4
cos( 3 )
3
t t t
t t
dy
z
dt
c e c e t c c e t c
c e c e t c
t t
t

=
(
= + +
(

= + +

Nov-Dec 2006
4. Solve the following : sin , cos
dx dx
y t x t
dt dt
+ = + = , Given that , 2, 0, , 0 x y when t = = =
Ans: Given simultaneous differential equation are
sin
dx
y t
dt
+ = -------------(1)
cos
dy
x t
dt
+ = ------------(2)
Fromequation (2) we get cos
dy
x t
dt
= + ---------(3)
Differentiating (3) with respect to t we get

2
2
sin
dx d y
t
dt dt
= ---------(4)
From(1) and (4) we get

2
2
sin sin
d y
t y t
dt
=

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2
2
2sin
d y
y t
dt
=

2
( 1) 2sin D y t = -----------(5)
Its Auxiliary equation is
2
1 0 1,1 m m = =
So, . .
t t
h
C F y Ae Be

= = +
And
2
1
. . ( 2sin )
1
p
P I y t
D
= =



2
1
( 2sin ) sin
1 1
p
y t t = =


So,
h p
y y y = +
sin
t t
y Ae Be t

= + + -------(6)
Putting the value of y in (2) we get
cos cos
t t
Ae Be t x t

+ + =

t t
x Ae Be

= + ---------(7)
Given that 2, 0, 0 x y when t = = =
So, equation (6) and (7) becomes 0 A B = + and 2 A B = +
1, 1 A B = =
So, solution
t t
x e e

= + and sin
t t
y e e t

= + + (Ans)
5. Solve the differential equation:
3 2
3 2
3 2
1
2 2 10( )
d y d y
x x y x
dx dx x
+ + = +
Ans:
3 2
3 2
3 2
1
2 2 10
d y d y
x x y x
dx dx x
| |
+ + = +
|
\ .
-------------(1)
Let log
z
x e z x = =
So,
2 3
2 3
2 3
', '( ' 1) , '( ' 1)( ' 2)
dy d y d y
x D x D D y x D D D y
dx dx dx
= = = where '
d
D
dz
=
Putting all these values in (1) we get
| | '( ' 1)( ' 2) 2 '( ' 1) 2 10( )
z z
D D D D D y e e

+ + = +

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

3 2
' ' 2 10( )
z z
D D y e e

( + = +

-------(2)
Its auxiliary equation is
3 2
2 0 m m + =

2
( 1)( 2 2) 0 m m m + + =

2 4
1,
2
m

=
1, 1 m i =
So, ( ) . . cos sin )
z z
h
C F y Ae e B z C z

= = + +
( ) . . cos(log ) sin(log )
h
A
C F y x B x C x
x
= = + + -------------(3)
Now,
3 2
1
. . 10( )
' ' 2
z z
p
P I y e e
D D

= = +
+


3 2 3 2
1 1
10 10
' ' 2 ' ' 2
z z
p
y e e
D D D D

= +
+ +


3 2 3 2
1 1
10 10 (1)
1 1 2 ( ' 1) ( ' 1) 2
z z
p
y e e
D D

= +
+ +


2
1
5 10 (1)
'( ' 4 ' 5)
z z
p
y e e
D D D

= +
+


1
2
1 4 1
5 10 1 ' ' (1)
5 ' 5 5
z z
p
y e e D D
D

| |
= + +
|
\ .


1 4
5 2 1 ' ..... (1)
' 5
z z
p
y e e D
D

| |
= +
|
\ .


1
5 2 (1)
'
z z
p
y e e
D

= +
5 2
z z
p
y e ze

= +

2log
5
p
x
y x
x
= +
So, Solution
h p
y y y = +
( )
2log
cos(log ) sin(log ) 5
A x
y x B x C x x
x x
= + + + + (Ans)
6. Using method of variation of parameters:
2
2
4 tan2
d y
y x
dx
+ =
Ans: Homogeneous equation is 4 0 y y '' + =

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
Its characteristics equation is
2
4 0 + = 2i =
Hence, Homogeneous solution is cos2 sin2
h
y A x B x = +

1 2
cos2 , sin2 y x y x = =

1 1 2 2
2 2
cos2 sin2
2cos 2 2sin 2 2
2sin2 2cos2
y y x x
W x x
x x
y y
'
= = = + =
'



} }
+ =
W
rdx y
y
W
rdx y
y y
p
. .
1
2
2
1


sin2 .tan2 cos2 tan2
cos2 sin2
2 2
p
x xdx x xdx
y x x = +
} }


cos2 sin2
(sec2 cos2 ) sin2 .
2 2
p
x x
y x x dx x dx = +
} }


cos2 log(sec2 tan2 ) sin2 sin2 cos2
2 2 2 2 2
p
x x x x x x
y
+ | | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .


cos2 .log(sec2 tan2 )
4
p
x x x
y
+
=
So, Solution
cos2 .log(sec2 tan2 )
cos2 sin2
4
h p
x x x
y y y A x B x
+
= + = + (Ans)
April -May, 2007
7. Solve the differential equation
2
2
2 sin
x
d y dy
y xe x
dx dx
+ = .
Ans:
2
2
2 sin
x
d y dy
y xe x
dx dx
+ =
Its auxiliary equation is
2 2
2 1 0 ( 1) 0 1,1 m m m m + = = =
So, . .
x x
h
C F y Ae Bxe = = +
Now,
2
1
. . sin
( 1)
x
p
P I y xe x
D
= =



2 2
1 1
sin sin
( 1 1)
x x
p
y e x x e x x
D D
= =
+


1
sin
x
p
y e x xdx
D
=
}

( )
1
cos sin
x
p
y e x x x
D
= +
( ) cos sin
x
p
y e x x x dx = +
}

( ) sin cos cos
x
p
y e x x x x =
( ) sin 2cos
x
p
y e x x x = +

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
So, general solution
h p
y y y = +
( ) sin 2cos
x x x
y Ae Bxe e x x x = + + (Ans)
8. Solve by method of variation of parameters of : -
2
2
sin
d y
y x x
dx
+ = .
Ans: Homogeneous equation is 0 y y '' + =
Its characteristics equation is
2
1 0 + =
2i =
Hence, Homogeneous solution is cos sin
h
y A x B x = +

1 2
cos2 , sin2 y x y x = =

1 1 2 2
2 2
cos sin
cos sin 1
sin cos
y y x x
W x x
x x
y y
'
= = = + =
'



} }
+ =
W
rdx y
y
W
rdx y
y y
p
. .
1
2
2
1


sin . sin cos . sin
cos sin
1 1
p
x x xdx x x xdx
y x x = +
} }


2
cos sin . sin sin cos
p
y x x x dx x x x xdx = +
} }


cos sin
(1 cos2 ) sin2 .
2 2
p
x x
y x x dx x x dx = +
} }


2
cos sin2 cos2 sin cos2 sin2
2 2 2 4 2 2 4
p
x x x x x x x x x
y
(
(
= + +
(
(




2
cos cos sin2 cos cos2 sin cos2 sin sin2
4 4 8 4 8
p
x x x x x x x x x x x x
y = + + +

( )
2
cos sin2 sin cos2 cos cos cos2 sin sin2
4 4 8
p
x x x x x x x x x x x
y
+
= + +

2
cos sin cos
4 4 8
p
x x x x x
y = + +
So, Solution
2
cos sin cos
cos sin
4 4 8
h p
x x x x x
y y y A x B x = + = + + + (Ans)
9. Solve the differential equation
2
2 2
2
3 4 (1 )
d y dy
x x y x
dx dx
+ = + .
Ans:
2
2 2
2
3 4 (1 )
d y dy
x x y x
dx dx
+ = + ---------(1)
Let log
z
x e z x = = and
2
2
2
' , '( ' 1)
dy d y
x D y x D D y
dx dx
= = where '
d
D
dz
=

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
Putting all the values in (1) we get
| |
2
'( ' 1) 3 ' 4 (1 )
z
D D D y e + = +
2 2
' 4 ' 4 1 2
z z
D D y e e ( + = + +

-----------(2)
Its auxiliary equation is
2 2
4 4 0 ( 2) 0 2,2 m m m m + = = =
So,
2 2 2 2
. . log
z z
h
C F y Ae BZe Ax Bx x = = + = +
Now,
2
2
1
. . (1 2 )
( ' 2)
z z
p
P I y e e
D
= = + +



0 2
2 2 2
1 1 1
2
( ' 2) ( ' 2) ( ' 2)
z z z
p
y e e e
D D D
= + +



2
2 2 2
1 1 1
.1 2 1
(0 2) (1 2) ( ' 2 2)
z z
p
y e e
D
= + +
+


2
2
1 1
2 1
4 '
z z
p
y e e
D
= + +
2
1
2 1
4
z z
p
y e e dzdz = + +
} }


2 2 2 2
1 1 (log )
2 2
4 2 4 2
z
z
p
z e x x
y e x = + + = + +
So, general solution is
2 2
2 2
1 (log )
log 2
4 2
h p
x x
y y y Ax Bx x x = + = + + + + (Ans).
Nov-Dec 2007
10. Solve:
2
2
3 4 0
d y dy
y
dx dx
=
Sol. Its symbolic form is:
2
2
3 4 0
( 3 4) 0
D y Dy y
D D y
=
=

Its auxiliary equation is :
2
3 4 0 D D =

4, 1 D =

Hence C.F.=
4
1 2
x x
y c e c e

= +
(Ans.)

11. Solve:
2
2
5 6 sin3
d y dy
y x
dx dx
+ =
Sol. It s symbolic form is
( )
2
5 6 tan2 D D y x + =
Its auxiliary equation is:
( )
2
5 6 0 D D + =
( 2)( 3) 0
2,3
D D
D
=
=

Hence C.F.=y=
2 3
1 2
x x
c e c e +

And P.I.=

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
2 2
2 2
1 1
sin3 sin3
( 5 6) 3 5 6
1 1 5 3
sin3 [ ][ ]sin3
5 3 5 3 5 3
5 3 5 3
sin3 sin3
25 9 25( 3 ) 9
1 15cos3 3sin3
(5 3)sin3
234 234
5cos3 sin3
78
x x
D D D
D
x x
D D D
D D
x x
D
x x
D x
x x
= =
+ +

= =
+ +

= =

= =

=

Hence complete solution is:y=C.F.+P.I.
2 3
1 2
1
(5cos3 sin3 )
78
x x
y c e c e x x = + +


12. Solve by method variation of parameters:

2
2
4 tan2
d y
y x
dx
+ =
Ans: Homogeneous equation is 4 0 y y '' + =
Its characteristics equation is
2
4 0 + = 2i =
Hence, Homogeneous solution is cos2 sin2
h
y A x B x = +

1 2
cos2 , sin2 y x y x = =

1 1 2 2
2 2
cos2 sin2
2cos 2 2sin 2 2
2sin2 2cos2
y y x x
W x x
x x
y y
'
= = = + =
'



} }
+ =
W
rdx y
y
W
rdx y
y y
p
. .
1
2
2
1


sin2 .tan2 cos2 tan2
cos2 sin2
2 2
p
x xdx x xdx
y x x = +
} }


cos2 sin2
(sec2 cos2 ) sin2 .
2 2
p
x x
y x x dx x dx = +
} }


cos2 log(sec2 tan2 ) sin2 sin2 cos2
2 2 2 2 2
p
x x x x x x
y
+ | | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .


cos2 .log(sec2 tan2 )
4
p
x x x
y
+
=
So, Solution
cos2 .log(sec2 tan2 )
cos2 sin2
4
h p
x x x
y y y A x B x
+
= + = + (Ans)
13. Solve the simultaneously equation:

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
2 5 , 4 3
t
dx dx
x y e x y t
dt dt
+ + = + + =
Sol. The given equation can be expressed as:
( 5) 3 ............(1)
2 ( 5) ......(2)
t
D x y t
x D y e
+ + =
+ + = =

To eliminate y , operating equation (1) by (D+5) and equation (2) by 3 then subtracting , we get
2
( 5)( 4) 6 ( 5) 3
( 9 14) 1 5 3
t
t
D D x x D t e
D D x t e
+ + = +
+ + = + ..(3)
The root of auxiliary equation of the equation corresponding homogeneous equation
2
( 9 14) 0 D D x + + =
of the equation (3) is given by
2
( 9 14) 0
, 2, 7
D D
or D
+ + =
=

Hence the complementary function of equation (3) is:
2 7
1 2
. .
t t
C F c e c e

= +
The particular integral of equation (3) is
2
2 2
2
1
. . (1 5 3 )
( 9 14)
1 1
(1 5) 3
( 9 14) ( 9 14)
1 9 3
1 ............. (1 5)
14 14 14 1 9 14
1 9
1 5 .5
14 14 8
1 31
5
14 14 8
t
t
t
t
t
P I t e
D D
t e
D D D D
D e
D t
e
t
e
t
= +
+ +
= +
+ + + +
| |
= + +
|
+ +
\ .
| |
= +
|
\ .
| |
=
|
\ .

Hence the general solution of equation (3) is:
2 7
1 2
2 7
1 2
. . . .
1 31
5
14 14 8
5
, 2 7
14 8
t
t t
t
t t
x C F P I
e
x c e c e t
dx e
Now c e c e
dt


= +
| |
= + +
|
\ .
= +
.(4)
Substituting the above values of x and dx/dt in equation (1), we get;


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
2 7 2 7
1 2 1 2
2 7
1 2
5 20 124
3 2 7 4 4
14 8 14 196 2
1 3 5 27
2 3 .......................(5)
3 7 8 98
t t
t t t t
t t t
e e
y c e c e c e c e t t
y c e c e t e


= + + + + +
(
= + + +
(


Since the degree of D in the determinant
4 3
,2
2 5
D
is
D
+ | |
|
+
\ .
it follows that the number of
independent constant in general solution must be two. Hence (4) and (5) together constitute the
general solution of the given system.

April -May, 2008

14. State Cauchys Linear equation.
Ans: - A Differential equation of the form
X y a
dx
y d
x a
dx
y d
x a
dx
y d
x
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
= + + + +

........
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
is known as Cauchys
Linear differential equation.

15. Solve
2
2
2
4 sin2
x
d y dy
y e x
dx dx
+ = .
(ANS). Its symbolic form is :
2 2
( 4 1) sin2
x
D D y e x + =
Its auxiliary equation is:
2
( 4 1) 0 D D + =
4 16 4
( ) 2 2 3
2
D

= =
( )
2
1 2
. cosh2 3 sinh2 3
x
C F e C C = +
And P.I.=
( ) ( )
{ }
2 2
2 2
1 1
sin2 sin2
( 4 1)
1 4 1 1
x x
e x e x
D D
D D
= =
+
+ + +

2 2
2 2
sin2 sin2
1 2 4 4 1 2 2
x x
e e
x x
D D D D D
=
+ + + +

2 2
2
sin2 sin2
4 2 2 16 2 2
x x
e e
x x
D D
=
+ +

2 2
sin2 sin2
14 2 14 2
x x
e e
x x
D D

=
+


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
( )
2
2
2
2 14
sin2 sin2
14 2 4 196
x
x
e D
e
x x
D D

=
+

( )
( )
2
2
2 14
sin2
4 2 196
x
e D
x



( )
2
2 14
sin2
212
x
e D
x


( )
2
4cos2 14sin2
212
x
e x x

Hence complete solution is:y=C.F.+P.I.
( )
( )
2
2
1 2
4cos2 14sin2
cosh2 3 sinh2 3
212
x
x
e x x
y e C C

= + +


16. Solve by method of variation of parameters of : -
2
2
4 4tan2 .
d y
y x
dx
+ =
Ans: Homogeneous equation is 4 0 y y '' + =
Its characteristics equation is
2
4 0 + = 2i =
Hence, Homogeneous solution is cos2 sin2
h
y A x B x = +

1 2
cos2 , sin2 y x y x = =

1 1 2 2
2 2
cos2 sin2
2cos 2 2sin 2 2
2sin2 2cos2
y y x x
W x x
x x
y y
'
= = = + =
'



} }
+ =
W
rdx y
y
W
rdx y
y y
p
. .
1
2
2
1


sin2 .tan2 cos2 tan2
cos2 sin2
2 2
p
x xdx x xdx
y x x = +
} }


cos2 sin2
(sec2 cos2 ) sin2 .
2 2
p
x x
y x x dx x dx = +
} }


cos2 log(sec2 tan2 ) sin2 sin2 cos2
2 2 2 2 2
p
x x x x x x
y
+ | | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .


cos2 .log(sec2 tan2 )
4
p
x x x
y
+
=
So, Solution
cos2 .log(sec2 tan2 )
cos2 sin2
4
h p
x x x
y y y A x B x
+
= + = + (Ans)

17. Solve + + + = 2 0
dy dx
x y
dt dt

and + + + = 5 3 0
dy dx
x y
dt dt


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
(Ans). The given equation are:
+ + + = 2 0.....................(1)
dy dx
x y
dt dt

+ + + = 5 3 0.....................(2)
dy dx
x y
dt dt

Subtracting equation (2) from equation (1), we get
3 2 0...............(3)
dx
x y
dt
=
Writing equation (2)and (3) symbolically (i.e;D=d/dt),we have
5 ( 3) 0..........(4)
( 3) 2 0..........(5)
x D y
D x y
+ + =
=
Operating equation (5)by D+3 ,we get
2
( 9) 2( 3) 0.........(6) D x D y + =
Now, multiplying equation(4) by 2 and adding in equation (6),we get
2
( 1) 0 D x + = .(7)
This is the linear equation in x with constant coefficient s for which the auxiliary equation is
2
( 1) 0 D
D i
+ =
=

Hence the general solution of linear equation is:
0
1 2
1 2
( cos sin )
( cos sin )..........................(8)
t
x e c t c t
x c t c t
= +
= +

From equation (8)
1 2
1 2
sin cos
sin cos
dx
c t c t
dt
Dx c t c t
= +
= +
Substituting these values in equation(5) we get
| |
1 2 1 2
2 1 1 2
1 1
( 3 ) ( sin cos ) 3( cos sin )
2 2
1 1
( 3 )cos ( 3 )sin
2 2
y Dx x c t c t c t c t
y c c t c c t
= = + +
= +

Nov-Dec 2008
18. Define the linear differential equation.
Ans. A differential equation in which the dependent variable & its derivatives occur only in the first
degree & are not multiplied together is known as Linear Differential equation.
General form of Linear Differential Equation of nth order is:
X y P
dx
y d
P
dx
y d
P
dx
y d
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
= + + + +

........
2
2
2
1
1
1
, where X P P P
n
, ,........, ,
2 1
are functions of x.

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
19. Solve the differential equation:

2
2
3 2
x d y dy
e
y e
dx dx
+ + =
Ans: - Its symbolic formis
( )
2
3 2
x
e
D D y e + + = .
Its Auxiliary equation is
2
3 2 0 D D + + = 1, 2 D =
Hence, Complementary function is
2 x x
c
y Ae Be

= +
Now,
( ) 2
1 1 1 1
3 2 ( 2)( 1) ( 2) ( 1)
x x x
e e e
PI e e e
D D D D D D
= = =
+ + + + + +


2 2 2
1 1
2 2
x x x x x x x x
x x x x
e e e e
PI e e e dx e e e e e e dx e e e dx
D D

= = = =
+ +
} } }


2x
x
e
PI e e

=
So, Solution
2 2 x x x
c p
x
e
y y y Ae Be e e

= + = + + (Ans)

20. Solve by method variation of parameters:
2 3
2 2
6 9
x
d y dy e
y
dx dx x
+ =
Ans: -
2
3
2
2
9 6
x
e
y
dx
dy
dx
y d
x
= +
Its Homogeneous equation is 0 9 6
2
2
= + y
dx
dy
dx
y d

Its symbolic formis 0 ) 9 6 (
2
= + y D D
Its characteristics equation is 0 ) 9 6 (
2
= + D D
3 , 3 = D
Hence, Homogeneous solution is
2 1
3
) ( By Ay e Bx A y
x
h
+ = + =

x x
xe y e y
3
2
3
1
, = =

x x x x
x x x
x x
e xe xe e
xe e e
xe e
y y
y y
W
6 6 6 6
3 3 3
3 3
2 1
2 1
3 3
3 3 ' '
= + =
+
= =

} }
+ =
W
rdx y
y
W
rdx y
y y
p
. .
1
2
2
1


} }
+ = dx
x
e
e
e
xe dx
x
e
e
xe
e y
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
p
2
3
6
3
3
2
3
6
3
3
. .

} }
+ = dx
x
xe dx
x
e y
x x
p
2
3 3
1 1

|
.
|

\
|
+ =
x
xe x e y
x
e
x
p
1
log
3 3 x
e
x
p
e x e y
3 3
log =

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
So, Solution
x
e
x x x
p h
e x e Bxe Ae y y y
3 3 3 3
log + = + = (Ans).

21. Solve the simultaneously equation:
5 2 , 2 0
dx dy
x y t x y
dt dt
+ = + + = being x=y=0 when t=0.
Ans: -
dx
dt
+5x 2y =t,
d
dt
+2x +y =0
Its symbolic formis ( +5)x 2y =t------------------(1)
2x +( +1)y =0-------------------(2)
Now, eq(1) X (D+1) +eq(2) X 2 we get
[( +1)( +5) +4]x =( +1)t +0
(D
2
+6D+9)x=1+t, which is linear differential equation.
Its auxiliary equation is (D
2
+6D+9) =0 D=3,3
So, C.F.=(C
1
+C
2
t)c
-3t

Now, P.I.=
1
(+3)
2
(1+t) =
1
9
[1+

-2
(1+t) =
1
9
[1 2

3
+3

2
9
+ .(1+t)
P.I.=
1
9
[1+t
2
3
=
1
9
[t +
1
3
=
t
9
+
1
27

So, x =(C
1
+C
2
t)c
-3t
+
t
9
+
1
27
---------------------------------(3)
Now, from(1) 2y =( +5)x t =x +5x t
2y =5(C
1
+C
2
t)c
-3t
+
5t
9
+
5
27
3(C
1
+C
2
t)c
-3t
+C
2
c
-3t
+
1
9
t
y =
c
-3t
2
(2C
1
+C
2
) +tC
2
c
-3t

2t
9
+
4
27
---------------(4)
Given that at t =0, x =y =0, so equation (3) and (4) becomes
C
1
+
1
27
=0 C
1
=
1
27
and

1
2
(2C
1
+C
2
) +
4
27
=0 C
2
=
8
27
2C
1
==
8
27
+
2
27
=
6
27
=
2
9

So, Solution is
x =(
1
27

2
9
t)c
-3t
+
t
9
+
1
27
and y =
c
-3t
2
[
2
27
+
2
9
+
2
9
tc
-3t

2t
9
+
4
27

x =
1
27
{(1+6t)c
-3t
(3t +1)} and y =
1
27
{(4+6t)c
-3t
+(6t 4)}
April -May, 2009
22. Explain briefly the method of variation of parameter.
Ans: Let us solve
2
2
d y dy
P Qy X
dx dx
+ + = by variation of parameter method.
Let its complementary function is
1 1 2 2 c
y c y c y = +
Then find out wronskian
1 2
1 2
1 2
( , )
' '
y y
W y y
y y
=
Now, particular integral
2 1
1 2
1 2 1 2
. .
( , ) ( , )
p
y X y X
y y dx y dx
W y y W y y

= +
} }


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
Then general solution is
c p
y y y = + (Ans).
23. Solve the differential equation
( )
2 2 3
2 cos2
x x
D y x e e x + = + .
Ans:
( )
2 2 3
2 cos2
x x
D y x e e x + = + -----------(1)
Here Auxiliary equation is
2
2 0 2 D D i + = =
So, cos 2 sin 2
h
y A x B x = +

( )
2 3
2
1
. . cos2
2
x x
p
P I y x e e x
D
= = +
+


( ) ( )
3 2
2 2
1 1
cos2
( 3) 2 ( 1) 2
x x
p
y e x e x
D D
= +
+ + + +

( ) ( )
3
2
2 2
1 1
cos2
6 11 2 3
1
11
x
x
p
e
y x e x
D D D D
= +
+ + +
+


( ) ( )
3
2
2 2
1 1
cos2
6 11 4 2 3
1
11
x
x
p
e
y x e x
D D D
= +
+ + +
+


( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 3
2 2
3 2
2
2
6 6
6 2 13
1 ... cos2
11 11 121 1331 4 169
x
x
p
D D D D
e D D D
y x e x
D
(
+ +
+ +
(
= + + +
(



( ) ( )
3
2 2
2
6 1 36 2 13
1 ... cos2
11 11 11 121 4 169
x
x
p
e D D
y D x e x
D
( + | |
= + + +
| (

\ .


( ) ( )
3
2 2
2
6 47 2 13
1 ... cos2
11 11 121 4 4 169
x
x
p
e D D
y D x e x
+ (
= + +
(



( )
3
2
6 47 2 13
2 2 0 0 ... cos2
11 11 121 233
x
x
p
e D
y x x e x
+ (
= + + + +
(



( )
3
2
12 94
4sin2 13cos2
11 11 121 233
x x
p
e x e
y x x x
(
= +
(


So, Solution
h p
y y y = +
( )
3
2
12 94
cos 2 sin 2 4sin2 13cos2
11 11 121 233
x x
e x e
y A x B x x x x
(
= + + +
(


24. Solve the equation : - | |
2
2
2
(1 ) (1 ) sin 2log(1 )
d y dy
x x y x
dx dx
+ + + + = + .
Ans: | |
2
2
2
(1 ) (1 ) sin 2log(1 )
d y dy
x x y x
dx dx
+ + + + = + (1) is a Legendres equation.
Now let us put 1
t
x e + = we get

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2
2
2
(1 ) ( 1) , (1 )
d y dy
x D D y x Dy
dx dx
+ = + = where
d
D
dt
=
So, equation (1) becomes ( 1) sin2 D D y Dy y t + + =

2
( 1) sin2 D y t + = which is linear differential equation with constant coefficients.
Its auxiliary equation is
2
( 1) 0 D D i + = =
So,
1 2
. . cos sin C F c t c t = + ..(2)
Now,
2 2
1 sin2 sin2
. . sin2
1 2 1 3
t t
P I t
D
= = =
+ +

So, solution
1 2
sin2
. . . . cos sin
3
t
y C F P I c t c t = + = + (Ans)
25. Solve the simultaneous equation: -
2 , 2
t t
dx dy
y e x e
dt dt

+ = = .
Ans: 2 , 2
t t
dx dy
y e x e
dt dt

+ = =
2 ...............(1) 2 ..............(2)
t t
Dx y e Dy x e

+ = = where
d
D
dt
=
(1) 2 (2) D + we get

2
2 4 2 2
t t
Dx y D y Dx e e

+ + =

2
( 4) 2
t t
D y e e

+ = ..(3)
Here Its auxiliary equation is
2
( 4) 0 2 D D i + = =
So,
1 2
. . cos2 sin2 C F c t c t = + ..(4)
Now,
( )
2 2 2
1 1 1
. . 2 2
1 1 1
t t t t
P I e e e e
D D D

= =
+ + +


2 2
1 1
. . 2
1 1 ( 1) 1 2
t
t t t
e
P I e e e

= =
+ +

So, solution
1 2
. . . . cos2 sin2
2
t
t
e
y C F P I c t c t e

= + = + + ..(5)
Now putting the value of y in (2) we get
2
t
Dy x e

=

1 2
2 sin2 2 cos2 2
2
t
t t
e
c t c t e x e

+ + + =

1 2
2 2 sin2 2 cos2
2
t
t
e
x c t c t e

= + +

1 2
sin2 cos2
2 4
t t
e e
x c t c t

= + + (6)

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
So, solution
1 2 1 2
sin2 cos2 , cos2 sin2
2 4 2
t t t
t
e e e
x c t c t y c t c t e

= + + = + + (Ans)
Nov-Dec 2009

26. Solve the equation:
2
( 2) 0 D D y + = .
Ans: -
2
( 2) 0 D D y + =
Its auxiliary equation is
2
( 2) 0 1, 2 D D D + = =
So, solution is
2 x x
y Ae Be

= + (Ans).
27. Solve the following differential equation:

2
2
2
log
d y dy
x x y x
dx dx
+ = .
Ans: - x
2
d
2
y
dx
2
x
dy
dx
+y =logx

--------------------(1)

Given equation is Cauchys Homogeneous Linear differential equation.

Put x=e
t
t =logx, if D=
d
dt
, x
dy
dx
=Dy, x
2
d
2
y
dx
2
=D(D1)y
So, equation (1) is D(D 1)y Dy+y =t (D
2
2D+1)y =t
Which is linear differential equation with constant coefficients.
So, its Auxiliary equation is D
2
2D+1 =0 D=1,1
So, C.F.=C
1
c
t
+C
2
tc
t
------------------------(2)
Now, P.I.=
1
(-1)
2
t =(1 )
-2
t =(1+2 +3
2
+ .)t
P.I.=t +2
So, solution is y =C.F.+P.I.=C
1
c
t
+C
2
tc
t
+t +2
y =C
1
x +C
2
xlogx +logx +2 (Ans).
OR
28. Solve the simultaneous differential equation:
5 2 , 2 0
dx dy
x y t x y
dt dt
+ = + + = , given that 0 x y = = when 0 t = .
Ans: -
dx
dt
+5x 2y =t,
d
dt
+2x +y =0
Its symbolic formis ( +5)x 2y =t------------------(1)
2x +( +1)y =0-------------------(2)
Now, eq(1) X (D+1) +eq(2) X 2 we get
[( +1)( +5) +4]x =( +1)t +0
(D
2
+6D+9)x=1+t, which is linear differential equation.
Its auxiliary equation is (D
2
+6D+9) =0 D=3,3
So, C.F.=(C
1
+C
2
t)c
-3t

Now, P.I.=
1
(+3)
2
(1+t) =
1
9
[1+

-2
(1+t) =
1
9
[1 2

3
+3

2
9
+ .(1+t)
P.I.=
1
9
[1+t
2
3
=
1
9
[t +
1
3
=
t
9
+
1
27


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
So, x =(C
1
+C
2
t)c
-3t
+
t
9
+
1
27
---------------------------------(3)
Now, from(1) 2y =( +5)x t =x +5x t
2y =5(C
1
+C
2
t)c
-3t
+
5t
9
+
5
27
3(C
1
+C
2
t)c
-3t
+C
2
c
-3t
+
1
9
t
y =
c
-3t
2
(2C
1
+C
2
) +tC
2
c
-3t

2t
9
+
4
27
---------------(4)
Given that at t =0, x =y =0, so equation (3) and (4) becomes
C
1
+
1
27
=0 C
1
=
1
27
and

1
2
(2C
1
+C
2
) +
4
27
=0 C
2
=
8
27
2C
1
==
8
27
+
2
27
=
6
27
=
2
9

So, Solution is
x =(
1
27

2
9
t)c
-3t
+
t
9
+
1
27
and y =
c
-3t
2
[
2
27
+
2
9
+
2
9
tc
-3t

2t
9
+
4
27

x =
1
27
{(1+6t)c
-3t
(3t +1)} and y =
1
27
{(4+6t)c
-3t
+(6t 4)}
29. Solve the following differential equation:
2
2
4 sinh
d y
y x x
dx
= .
Ans: -
d
2

dx
2
4y =
xc
x
-xc
-x
2


d
2

dx
2
4y =
xc
x
-xc
-x
2

Its Symbolic formis (
2
4)y =
xc
x
-xc
-x
2

Its Auxiliary equation is (
2
4) =0 =2
So, C.F.=C
1
c
2x
+C
2
c
-2x

Now, P.I.=
1

2
-4
xc
x
-xc
-x
2
=
1
2
j
1

2
-4
xc
x

1

2
-4
xc
-x
[
P.I.=
1
2
jc
x
1
(+1)
2
-4
x c
-x
1
(-1)
2
-4
x[ =
1
2
jc
x
1

2
+2-3
x c
-x
1

2
-2-3
x[
P.I.=
1
2
_
c
x
-3
1
1-
D
2
+2D
3
x +
c
-x
3
1
1-
D
2
-2D
3
x_
P.I.=
1
2
j
c
x
-3
[1+

2
+2
3
+ x +
c
-x
3
[1+

2
-2
3
+ x[
P.I.=
1
2
j
c
x
-3
[x +
2
3
+
c
-x
3
[x
2
3
[ =
1
9
j
-3x(c
x
-c
-x
)
2

2(c
x
+c
-x
)
2
[
P.I.=
1
9
[3xsinx 2cosx]
So, solution is y =C.F.+P.I.=C
1
c
2x
+C
2
c
-2x
+
1
9
[3xsinx 2cosx] (Ans).
April -May, 2010
30. Define Cauchy and Legendre Linear differential equation.

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
Ans: - A Differential equation of the form
X y a
dx
y d
x a
dx
y d
x a
dx
y d
x
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
= + + + +

........
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
is known as Cauchys
Linear differential equation.

A Differential equation of the form
X y a
dx
y d
b ax a
dx
y d
b ax a
dx
y d
b ax
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
= + + + + + + +

........ ) ( ) ( ) (
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
is
known as Legendres Linear differential equation.
31. Solve
3
3
3 2
x d y dy
e
y e
dx dx
+ + = .
Ans: - Its symbolic formis
( )
2
3 2
x
e
D D y e + + = .
Its Auxiliary equation is
2
3 2 0 D D + + = 1, 2 D =
Hence, Complementary function is
2 x x
c
y Ae Be

= +
Now,
( )
2
1 1 1 1
3 2 ( 2)( 1) ( 2) ( 1)
x x x
e e e
PI e e e
D D D D D D
= = =
+ + + + + +


2 2 2
1 1
2 2
x x x x
x x e x e x x x e x x e
PI e e e dx e e e e e e dx e e e dx
D D

= = = =
+ +
} } }


2
x
x e
PI e e

=
So, Solution
2 2
x
x x x e
c p
y y y Ae Be e e

= + = + + (Ans)
32. Solve, by the method of variation of parameters: x e D D
x
log ) 1 2 (
2
= + + .
Ans: - Its Auxiliary equation is
2
2 1 0 D D + + = 1, 1 D =
Hence, Complementary function is ( )
x
c
y A Bx e

= +

1 2
,
x x
y e y xe

= =

1 2
2 2 2 2
1 2
x x
x x x x
x x x
y y
e xe
W e xe xe e
e e xe
y y



= = = + =
' '



} }
+ =
W
Xdx y
y
W
Xdx y
y y
p
. .
1
2
2
1


2 2
. log . log
x x x x
x x
p x x
xe e xdx e e xdx
y e xe
e e



= +
} }

log log
x x
p
y e x xdx xe xdx

= +
} }

( )
2 2
log log
2 4
x x
p
x x
y e x xe x x x

| |
= +
|
\ .

( )
2 2 2
3
log 2log 3
2 4 4
x x x
p
x x x
y e x e e x

= =

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
So, Solution ( )
2
( ) 2log 3
4
x x
c p
x
y y y A Bx e e x

= + = + + (Ans)
33. Solve the simultaneous equation: -
0 = + y
dt
dx
t , 0 = + x
dt
dy
t , given that 0 ) 1 ( , 1 ) 1 ( = = y x .
Ans: - 0 = + y
dt
dx
t -------------------(1), 0 = + x
dt
dy
t -------------(2)
Differentiating (1) w.e.t. t we get
2
2
0
dx d x dy
t
dt dt dt
+ + = , by multiplying t both side we get

2
2
2
0
dx d x dy
t t t
dt dt dt
+ + = --------------------(3)
By putting (2) in (3) we get
2 2
2 2
2 2
0
d x dx d x
t t t x
dt dt dt
+ + = -----(4) which is Cauchy
Linear Differential Equation.
Put log
z
t e z t = = and
2
2
2
( 1) ,
d x dx
t D D x t Dx
dt dt
= = where
d
D
dz
=
So, eqn (4) becomes
2
( 1) 0 ( 1) 0 D D x Dx x D x = =
Its Auxiliary equation is
2
( 1) 0 1,1 D D = =
So,
z z
B
x Ae Be At
t

= + = + -------(5)
Putting in (1) we get
2
dx B B
y t t A At
dt t t
| |
= =
|
\ .
-----------(6)
So, Solution is
B
x At
t
= + and
B
y At
t
= (Ans).
Given x(1) =1 and y(-1) =0, so
2
1
,
2
1
0 , 1 = = + = + = B A A B B A
Hence solution is |
.
|

\
|
= + |
.
|

\
|
+ = t
t
y B A
t
t x
1
2
1
,
1
2
1
(Ans).
Nov-Dec 2010
34. Write the formula for P.I. for the method of variation of parameters.
Ans: - Let equation is r y b aD D = + + ) (
2
, then P.I is given by
} }
+ =
W
rdx y
y
W
rdx y
y y
p
. .
1
2
2
1
where
' '
2 1
2 1
y y
y y
W = .
35. Solve ) 2 sin ( 8 ) 2 (
2 2 2
x x e y D
x
+ + = .
Ans: - ) 2 sin ( 8 ) 2 (
2 2 2
x x e y D
x
+ + = ---------------------(1)
Its characteristics equation is 2 , 2 0 ) 2 (
2
= = D D

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
So,
x x
h
Bxe Ae y F C
2 2
. . + = = -----------------------(2)
Now, ) 2 sin ( 8
) 2 (
1
. .
2 2
2
x x e
D
y I P
x
p
+ +

= =

(

=
2
2 2
2
2
) 2 (
1
2 sin
) 2 (
1
) 2 (
1
8 x
D
x
D
e
D
y
x
p


(
(
(
(
(

|
.
|

\
|

+
+
+

=
2
2 2
2
2
1
1
4
1
2 sin
4 4
1
) 2 ( 2
1
8 x
D
x
D D
e
D
x y
x
p


(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + +
+
+ =
2
2
2
2 2
..........
4
3
2
2 1
4
1
2 sin
4 4 2
1
2
1
8 x
D D
x
D
e x y
x
p


(

|
.
|

\
|
+ + + + + |
.
|

\
|
= .......... 0 0
4
6
2
4
1
2
2 cos
4
1
2
8
2 2
2
x x
x
e
x
y
x
p

3 4 2 2 cos 4
2 2 2
+ + + + = x x x e x y
x
p

So, Solution 3 4 2 2 cos 4
2 2 2 2 2
+ + + + + + = + = x x x e x Bxe Ae y y y
x x x
p h
(Ans).
36. Solve, by the method of variation of parameters:
2
3
2
2
9 6
x
e
y
dx
dy
dx
y d
x
= + .
Ans: -
2
3
2
2
9 6
x
e
y
dx
dy
dx
y d
x
= +
Its Homogeneous equation is 0 9 6
2
2
= + y
dx
dy
dx
y d

Its symbolic formis 0 ) 9 6 (
2
= + y D D
Its characteristics equation is 0 ) 9 6 (
2
= + D D
3 , 3 = D
Hence, Homogeneous solution is
2 1
3
) ( By Ay e Bx A y
x
h
+ = + =

x x
xe y e y
3
2
3
1
, = =

x x x x
x x x
x x
e xe xe e
xe e e
xe e
y y
y y
W
6 6 6 6
3 3 3
3 3
2 1
2 1
3 3
3 3 ' '
= + =
+
= =

} }
+ =
W
rdx y
y
W
rdx y
y y
p
. .
1
2
2
1


} }
+ = dx
x
e
e
e
xe dx
x
e
e
xe
e y
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
p
2
3
6
3
3
2
3
6
3
3
. .

} }
+ = dx
x
xe dx
x
e y
x x
p
2
3 3
1 1


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
x
xe x e y
x
e
x
p
1
log
3 3 x
e
x
p
e x e y
3 3
log =
So, Solution
x
e
x x x
p h
e x e Bxe Ae y y y
3 3 3 3
log + = + = (Ans).
37. Solve: x y
dx
dy
x
dx
y d
x
e
log
2
2
2
= + .
Ans: - x y
dx
dy
x
dx
y d
x
e
log
2
2
2
= + ---------(1)
Let log
z
x e z x = = and
2
2
2
' , '( ' 1)
dy d y
x D y x D D y
dx dx
= = where '
d
D
dz
=
Putting all the values in (1) we get
| | z y D D z y D D D = + ' ' = + ' ' ' ] 1 2 [ 1 ) 1 (
2
-----------(2)
Its auxiliary equation is 1 , 1 0 1 2
2
= = + m m m
So, x Bx Ax Bze Ae y F C
e
z z
h
log . . + = + = =
Now, z
D
y I P
p
2
) 1 (
1
. .
'
= =
z D D z D y
p
.........) 3 2 1 ( ) 1 (
2 2
+ ' + ' + = ' =


x z z y
e p
log 2 2 ........ 0 0 0 2 + = + = + + + + =
So, general solution is x x Bx Ax y y y
e e p h
log 2 log + + + = + = (Ans).
April -May, 2011
38. Find the particular integral of Solve
3
3.
4 sin2
d y dy
x
dx dx
+ =
Ans.
3
3.
4 sin2
d y dy
x
dx dx
+ =
P.I will be
3
1
sin2
4
PI x
D D
=
+

( )
3 2
1 1
sin2 sin2
4 4
x x
D D D D
=
+ +

( )
3 2
1 1
sin2 sin2
4 2 4
x x
D D D
=
+ +

( )
3
1 1
sin2 sin2
4 0
x x
D D D
=
+

By differentiating
3
4 D D + as
( )
( )
1
, 0 in f D can not be
f D


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
( )
3 2
1 1
sin2 sin2
4 3 4
x x x
D D D
=
+ +

( )
3 2
1 1
sin2 sin2
4 3( 2 ) 4
x x x
D D
=
+ +

( )
3
1
sin2 sin2
4 8
x
x x
D D
=
+

3
1 sin2
sin2
4 8
x x
x
D D

=
+

P.I of
3
3.
4 sin2
d y dy
x
dx dx
+ = will be
sin2
8
x x


39. Solve
2
2
3 2
x d y dy
e
x y e
dx dx
+ + =
Ans: - Its symbolic formis
( )
2
3 2
x
e
D D y e + + = .
Its Auxiliary equation is
2
3 2 0 D D + + = 1, 2 D =
Hence, Complementary function is
2 x x
c
y Ae Be

= +
Now,
( )
2
1 1 1 1
3 2 ( 2)( 1) ( 2) ( 1)
x x x
e e e
PI e e e
D D D D D D
= = =
+ + + + + +


2 2 2
1 1
2 2
x x x x
x x e x e x x x e x x e
PI e e e dx e e e e e e dx e e e dx
D D

= = = =
+ +
} } }


2
x
x e
PI e e

=
So, Solution
2 2 x x
c p
x
x e
y y y Ae Be e e

= + = + + (Ans)
40. Solve the differential equation:
2
2
2
5 4 .log .
d y dy
x x y x x
dx dx
+ + =
(Ans). Let
z
x e = and
d
D
dz
= . Then
2
2
2
, ( 1)
dy d y
x Dy x D D y
dx dx
= =
Thus the given differential equation reduces to the following fotm:
| |
2
( 1) 5 4
( 4 4)
z
z
D D D y ze
D D y ze
+ + =
+ + =

Which is the linear differential equation with constant coefficient s, for which the auxiliary
equation is:
2
4 4 0 D D + + =
2, 2 D =
C.F=( ) ( )
2 2
1 2 1 2
log
z
c c z e c c x x

+ = +
P.I Will be

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
1
( )
z
ze
f D
i.e
2
1
.
( 4 4)
z
P I ze
D D
=
+ +

2 2 2
1
.
( 4 4) ( 1) 4( 1) 4 ( 6 9)
z z
z
e e
P I ze z z
D D D D D D
= = =
+ + ( ( + + + + + +


2
6
. (1 )
9 9 9
z
e D D
P I z
(
= + +
(


6
.
9 9
z
e
P I z
(
= +
(


2
. log
9 3
x
P I x
(
= +
(


Complete Ans is C.F +P.I
( )
2
1 2
log c c x x

+ +
2
log
9 3
x
x
(
+
(


41. Solve sin , cos ,
dx dy
y t x t
dt dt
+ = + = Given that x=2 and y=0 when t=0.
Ans: Given simultaneous differential equation are

sin
dx
y t
dt
+ =
-------------(1)

cos
dy
x t
dt
+ =
------------(2)
From equation (2) we get cos
dy
x t
dt
= + ---------(3)
Differentiating (3) with respect to t we get

2
2
sin
dx d y
t
dt dt
=
---------(4)
From (1) and (4) we get

2
2
sin sin
d y
t y t
dt
=


2
2
2sin
d y
y t
dt
=


2
( 1) 2sin D y t =
-----------(5)
Its Auxiliary equation is
2
1 0 1,1 m m = =
So,
. .
t t
h
C F y Ae Be

= = +


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
And
2
1
. . ( 2sin )
1
p
P I y t
D
= =



2
1
( 2sin ) sin
1 1
p
y t t = =


So,
h p
y y y = +


sin
t t
y Ae Be t

= + +
-------(6)
Putting the value of y in (2) we get

cos cos
t t
Ae Be t x t

+ + =


t t
x Ae Be

= +
---------(7)
Given that
2, 0, 0 x y when t = = =

So, equation (6) and (7) becomes
0 A B = +
and
2 A B = +


1, 1 A B = =

So, solution
t t
x e e

= + and sin
t t
y e e t

= + + (Ans)

Nov-Dec 2011

42. Explain Cauchys homogeneous linear differential equation.
Ans: - A Differential equation of the form
X y a
dx
y d
x a
dx
y d
x a
dx
y d
x
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
= + + + +

........
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
is known as Cauchys
Linear differential equation.
43. Solve the differential equation
2
2
2 sin
x
d y dy
y xe x
dx dx
+ = .
Ans:
2
2
2 sin
x
d y dy
y xe x
dx dx
+ =
Its auxiliary equation is
2 2
2 1 0 ( 1) 0 1,1 m m m m + = = =
So, . .
x x
h
C F y Ae Bxe = = +
Now,
2
1
. . sin
( 1)
x
p
P I y xe x
D
= =



2 2
1 1
sin sin
( 1 1)
x x
p
y e x x e x x
D D
= =
+


1
sin
x
p
y e x xdx
D
=
}

( )
1
cos sin
x
p
y e x x x
D
= +
( ) cos sin
x
p
y e x x x dx = +
}


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
( ) sin cos cos
x
p
y e x x x x =
( ) sin 2cos
x
p
y e x x x = +
So, general solution
h p
y y y = +
( ) sin 2cos
x x x
y Ae Bxe e x x x = + + (Ans)

44. Solve the differential equation
2
2
2
log .sin(log ) + + =
d y dy
x y x x
dx dx

z
x e = and
d
D
dz
= . Then
2
2
2
, ( 1)
dy d y
x Dy x D D y
dx dx
= =
Thus the given differential equation reduces to the following fotm:
| |
2
( 1) 1 (sin )
( 1) sin
D D D y z z
D y z z
+ + =
+ =

Which is the linear differential equation with constant coefficient s, for which the auxiliary
equation is:
2
1 0 D + =
, D i i =
C.F=( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 1 2
cos sin cos log sin log c z c z c x c x + = +
P.I Will be
1
sin
( )
z z
f D
i.e
2 2
1 1
. sin .
( 1) ( 1)
iz
P I z z I P ze
D D
(
= =
(
+ +


( )
2 2
1
. sin .
( 1)
1)
iz
e
P I z z I P z
D
D i
(
= = (
+
+ + (


( )
2
1
. sin .
( 1) 2
iz
e
P I z z I P z
D D i
(
= =
(
+ +
(


2
1 1 1
. sin .
( 1) 2
1
2
iz
P I z z I Pe z
D D i
i
(
(
( = =
+ | |
(
+
|
(
\ .

1
2
1 1
. sin . 1
( 1) 2 2
D
iz
P I z z I Pe z
D i i

(
| |
= = +
(
|
+
\ .
(


2
1 1
. sin . 1
( 1) 2 2
D
iz
P I z z I Pe z
D i i
(
| |
= =
| (
+
\ .


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
2
1 1 1
. sin .
( 1) 2 2
iz
P I z z I Pe z
D i i
(
| |
= =
| (
+
\ .

2
1
. sin .
( 1) 2 2
i i
iz
P I z z I Pe z
D
( | |
= = +
| (
+
\ .

2
1 1
. sin .
( 1) 2 4
i
iz
P I z z I Pe z
D
( | |
= = +
| (
+
\ .

( )
2
1 1
. sin . cos sin
( 1) 2 4
i
P I z z I P z i z z
D
( | |
= = + +
| (
+
\ .

2
1 cos sin sin
. sin . cos
( 1) 2 4 2 4
i z z z i z
P I z z I P z z
D
| |
= = + + +
|
+
\ .

2
1 cos sin sin 1
. sin . cos
( 1) 4 2 4 2
z z z z
P I z z I P i z z
D
| |
| | | |
= = + +
| | |
+
\ . \ . \ .

2
1 sin 1
. sin cos
( 1) 4 2
z
P I z z z z
D
| |
= =
|
+
\ .

2
1 sinlog 1
. sin log coslog
( 1) 4 2
x
P I z z x x
D
| |
= =
|
+
\ .

Ans.=C.F+P.I
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2
cos log sin log c x c x + +
sinlog 1
log coslog
4 2
x
x x
| |

|
\ .

45. Solve the following simultaneous equation 2 =
dx
y
dt
, 2 =
dy
z
dt
,
2 . =
dz
x
dt

(Ans.) The given equation is:
2 =
dx
y
dt
..(1), 2 ..........(2)
dy
z
dt
=
,
2 ..........(3)
dz
x
dt
=
Differentiating (1)w . r. t., we get
2
2
2 2(2 )
d x dy
z
dt dt
= = using(2)
Differentiating again w. r. t. t,, we get
3
3
4 4(2 )
d x dz
x
dt dt
= =
3
3 2
2
1 2 3
( 8) 0,
8 0 ( 2)() 2 4) 0
2, 1 3
cos( 3 )
1
2
t t
d
D x whereD
dt
D or D D D
D i
x c e c e t c
dx
y
dt

= =
= + + =
=
= +
=


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
2
1 2 3 2 3
2
1 2 3 3
2
1 2 3
1
2 cos( 3 ) 3 sin( 3 )
2
2 2
cos cos( 3 ) sin sin( 3 )
3 3
2
cos 3
3
t t t
t t
t t
c e c e t c c e t c
c e c e t c t c
c e c e t c
t t
t

(
=

(
= +
(

| |
= + +
|
\ .

From(2)..
2
1 2 3 2 3
2
1 2 3
1
2
1 2 2
2 cos( 3 ) 3 sin( 3 )
2 3 3
4
cos( 3 )
3
t t t
t t
dy
z
dt
c e c e t c c e t c
c e c e t c
t t
t

=
(
= + +
(

= + +

April -May, 2012
46. Solve
3
3
0
d y
y
dx
+ =
Ans: - Its symbolic form is Solve ( ) 0 1
3
= + y D .
Its Auxiliary equation is 0 ) 1 )( 1 ( 0 1
2 3
= + + + = + D D D D

2
3 1
,
2
3 1
, 1
i i
D
+
=

So, solution ( )
2
3
2 3 2 2 1
sin cos . .
x
x x
x
e C C e C y F C + + = =

(Ans).
47. Solve
2
2
2
5 4 log
d y dy
x x y x x
dx dx
+ + =
(Ans). Let
z
x e = and
d
D
dz
= . Then
2
2
2
, ( 1)
dy d y
x Dy x D D y
dx dx
= =
Thus the given differential equation reduces to the following fotm:
| |
2
( 1) 5 4
( 4 4)
z
z
D D D y ze
D D y ze
+ + =
+ + =

Which is the linear differential equation with constant coefficient s, for which the auxiliary
equation is:
2
4 4 0 D D + + =
2, 2 D =
C.F=( ) ( )
2 2
1 2 1 2
log
z
c c z e c c x x

+ = +
P.I Will be
1
( )
z
ze
f D
i.e

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
2
1
.
( 4 4)
z
P I ze
D D
=
+ +

2 2 2
1
.
( 4 4) ( 1) 4( 1) 4 ( 6 9)
z z
z
e e
P I ze z z
D D D D D D
= = =
+ + ( ( + + + + + +


2
6
. (1 )
9 9 9
z
e D D
P I z
(
= + +
(


6
.
9 9
z
e
P I z
(
= +
(


2
. log
9 3
x
P I x
(
= +
(


Complete Ans is C.F +P.I
( )
2
1 2
log c c x x

+ +
2
log
9 3
x
x
(
+
(



48. Solve :

3 2
3. 2
2 sin2
x
d y d y dy
e x
dx dx dx

+ + = +

Sol. Its symbolic form is ( ) x e y D D D
x
2 sin 2
2 3
+ = + +


Its Auxiliary equation is 0 ) 1 2 ( 0 2
2 2 3
= + + = + + D D D D D D
1 , 1 , 0 = D
So, ( )
x x
c
e x C C e C y F C

+ + = =
3 2
0
1
. .
( )
x
c
e x C C C y

+ + =
3 2 1
---------------------(1)
Now, ( ) x e
D D D
y I P
x
p
2 sin
2
1
. .
2 3
+
+ +
= =


x
D D D
e
D D D
y
x
p
2 sin
2
1
2
1
2 3 2 3
+ +
+
+ +
=


x
D D D D
e
D D
x y
x
p
2 sin
2 .
1
1 4 3
1
2 2 2
+ +
+
+ +
=


x
D D
e
D
x y
x
p
2 sin
) 4 ( 2 ) 4 .(
1
4 6
1
2
+ +
+
+
=


x
D
e
x y
x
p
2 sin
8 3
1
4 ) 1 ( 6
2
+

+
=


x
D
D e x
y
x
p
2 sin
64 9
8 3
2
2
2

=


x
D e x
y
x
p
2 sin
64 ) 4 ( 9
8 3
2
2


=



DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

10
2 sin 8 2 cos 6
2
2
x x e x
y
x
p

+ =

-------------------(2)
So, solution ( )
10
2 sin 8 2 cos 6
2
2
3 2 1
x x e x
e x C C C y y y
x
x
p c

+ + + = + =

(Ans).

49. Solve the equations simultaneously

5 2 , 2 0, 0
dx dy
x t t x y x y
dt dt
+ = + + = = = when t=0
Ans: -
dx
dt
+5x 2y =t,
d
dt
+2x +y =0
Its symbolic formis ( +5)x 2y =t------------------(1)
2x +( +1)y =0-------------------(2)
Now, eq(1) X (D+1) +eq(2) X 2 we get
[( +1)( +5) +4]x =( +1)t +0
(D
2
+6D+9)x=1+t, which is linear differential equation.
Its auxiliary equation is (D
2
+6D+9) =0 D=3,3
So, C.F.=(C
1
+C
2
t)c
-3t

Now, P.I.=
1
(+3)
2
(1+t) =
1
9
[1+

-2
(1+t) =
1
9
[1 2

3
+3

2
9
+ .(1+t)
P.I.=
1
9
[1+t
2
3
=
1
9
[t +
1
3
=
t
9
+
1
27

So, x =(C
1
+C
2
t)c
-3t
+
t
9
+
1
27
---------------------------------(3)
Now, from(1) 2y =( +5)x t =x +5x t
2y =5(C
1
+C
2
t)c
-3t
+
5t
9
+
5
27
3(C
1
+C
2
t)c
-3t
+C
2
c
-3t
+
1
9
t
y =
c
-3t
2
(2C
1
+C
2
) +tC
2
c
-3t

2t
9
+
4
27
---------------(4)
Given that at t =0, x =y =0, so equation (3) and (4) becomes
C
1
+
1
27
=0 C
1
=
1
27
and

1
2
(2C
1
+C
2
) +
4
27
=0 C
2
=
8
27
2C
1
==
8
27
+
2
27
=
6
27
=
2
9

So, Solution is
x =(
1
27

2
9
t)c
-3t
+
t
9
+
1
27
and y =
c
-3t
2
[
2
27
+
2
9
+
2
9
tc
-3t

2t
9
+
4
27

x =
1
27
{(1+6t)c
-3t
(3t +1)} and y =
1
27
{(4+6t)c
-3t
+(6t 4)}
Nov -Dec, 2012
50. Write the formula for P.I. for the method of variation of parameters.
Ans: - Let equation is r y b aD D = + + ) (
2
, then P.I is given by
} }
+ =
W
rdx y
y
W
rdx y
y y
p
. .
1
2
2
1
where
' '
2 1
2 1
y y
y y
W = .
51. Solve
( )
= +
2
1 sin cos D y x x
Ans:
( )
= +
2
1 sin cos D y x x x

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
2
( 1) 0 D = therefore 1 D =
1 2
. .
x x
c
C F y C e C e

= = +
( )
2
1
. . sin cos
1
P I x x x
D
= +


2 2
1 1
. . sin cos
1 1
P I x x x
D D
= +


2 2
1 1
. . . cos
1 1
ix
P I I P xe x
D D
| |
= +
|

\ .

( )
2 2
1
. . . cos
1
1
ix
e
P I I P x x
D
D i
| |
= + |
|

+
\ .

( )
2 2
1
. . . cos
1 1 1 2 1
ix
e
P I I P x x
D Di
| |
| = +
|
+
\ .

( )
2 2
1
. . . cos
1 1 1 2 1
ix
e
P I I P x x
D Di
| |
| = +
|
+
\ .

( )
2
1
. . . cos
2 2 2
ix
e
P I I P x x
D Di
| |
| = +
|
+
\ .

2
1
. . . cos
2
2 1
2
ix
e
P I I P x x
D
Di
| |
|

|
=
|
| |

|
|
\ . \ .

1
2
1
. . . 1 cos
2 2 2
ix
e D
P I I P Di x x

| |
| |
| =
|
|
\ .
\ .

( )
1
. . . 1 cos
2 2
ix
e
P I I P Di x x
| |
= +
|
\ .

( )
1
. . . cos
2 2
ix
e
P I I P x i x
| |
= +
|
\ .

( )
( )
cos sin 1
. . . cos
2 2
x i x
P I I P x i x
+ | |
= +
|
\ .

( ) cos cos sin sin 1
. . . cos
2 2
x x i x ix x x
P I I P x
+ + | |
=
|
\ .

By selecting only imaginary part from above we will have

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
( ) cos sin 1
. . cos
2 2
x x x
P I x
+ | |
=
|
\ .

Y =C.F +P.I
Y=
1 2
. .
x x
c
C F y C e C e

= = + +
( ) cos sin 1
cos
2 2
x x x
x
+ | |

|
\ .

52. Solve the equation : - | |
2
2
2
(1 ) (1 ) sin 2log(1 )
d y dy
x x y x
dx dx
+ + + + = + .
Ans: | |
2
2
2
(1 ) (1 ) sin 2log(1 )
d y dy
x x y x
dx dx
+ + + + = + (1) is a Legendres equation.
Now let us put 1
t
x e + = we get

2
2
2
(1 ) ( 1) , (1 )
d y dy
x D D y x Dy
dx dx
+ = + = where
d
D
dt
=
So, equation (1) becomes ( 1) sin2 D D y Dy y t + + =

2
( 1) sin2 D y t + = which is linear differential equation with constant coefficients.
Its auxiliary equation is
2
( 1) 0 D D i + = =
So,
1 2
. . cos sin C F c t c t = + ..(2)
Now,
2 2
1 sin2 sin2
. . sin2
1 2 1 3
t t
P I t
D
= = =
+ +

So, solution
1 2
sin2
. . . . cos sin
3
t
y C F P I c t c t = + = + (Ans)

53. Solve the simultaneously equation:

2
2 3 , 3 2
t
dx dx
x y t x y e
dt dt
+ = + =
Sol. The given equation can be expressed as:
2
( 2) 3 ............(1)
3 ( 2) ......(2)
t
D x y t
x D e
+ =
+ + =

To eliminate y , operating equation (1) by (D+2) and equation (2) by 3 then adding , we get
2 2
2 2
( 2) 9 ( 2) 3
( 4 5) 1 2 3
t
t
D x x D t e
D D x t e
+ = + +
+ = + +
..(3)
The root of auxiliary equation of the equation corresponding homogeneous equation
2
( 4 5) 0 D D x + =
of the equation (3) is given by
2
( 4 5) 0
, 5,1
D D
or D
+ =
=

Hence the complementary function of equation (3) is:

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
5
1 2
. .
t t
C F c e c e

= +
The particular integral of equation (3) is
2
2
2
2 2
1
2
2
2
1
. . 1 2 3
( 4 5)
1 1
(1 2 ) 3
( 4 5) ( 4 5)
1 4 3
1 (1 2)
5 5 5 4 8 5
1 4 3
1 (1 2 )
5 5 7
1 8 3
(1 2)
5 5 7
t
t
t
t
t
P I t e
D D
t e
D D D D
D e
D t
e
D t
e
t

= + +
+
= + +
+ +
| |
= +
|
+
\ .
| |
= + +
|
\ .
| |
= + +
|
\ .

Hence the general solution of equation (3) is:
2
5
1 2
. . . .
1 8 3
(1 2)
5 5 7
t
t t
x C F P I
e
x c e c e t

= +
| |
= + + + +
|
\ .
.(4)
2
5
1 2
2 6
, 5
5 8
t
t t
dx e
Now c e c e
dt


= + +
2 2
5 5
1 2 1 2
1 1 2 6 1 8 3
, 2 5 2 (1 2 )
3 3 5 8 5 5 7
t t
t t t t
dx e e
Now y x t c e c e c e c e t t
dt

( | | ( | | | |
= + = + + + + + + +
( | | | (
\ . \ .
\ .

2 2
5
1 2
1 3 2 8 6 3
3 2
3 5 5 5 8 7
t t
t t
t e e
y c e c e t

( | |
= + + +
( |
\ .

2
5
1 2
1 2 15
3 2 1
3 5 8
t
t t
t e
y c e c e t

( | |
= + +
( |
\ .

Unit III Multiple Integral
(May-Jun-2006)
1. Evaluate by changing the order of integration.
Ans
0 0
2
x
x
y
xe dydx

} }

} }

0 0
/
.
2
x
y x
dydx xe

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

0 0
2
x
x
y
xe dydx

} }
by changing the order of the equation we will have
0
2
y
x
y
xe dydx

} }

0 0
2 2
y y
x x
y y
xe dydx xe dx dy
| |


|
=
|
|
\ .
} } } }

0 0
2
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
2 2 2
y
y
t
y y
x x
y
y y
xe dydx e dy
y
x
x
y
xe dx taking t
y
xdx ydt
x
x
y
y y y
y
xdx dt xe dx e dt e
y

(



(
=
(
(

(
(

(
= = (
(
(
=
(

(
(


(
(
( = = = =
(
(
(
(

} } }
}
} }


{ }
0 0 0 0
2 2
0
2 2 2
y
x x
y y y
y y y y
xe dydx e dy e dy e dy
y
y

(


( (
= = =
( (

(

} } } } }

0
0
2
1
1. 1/ 2
2 1
y
x
y
e
y y
xe dydx y e


( | |

= =
( |

( \ .
} }
(Ans).
2. Find the volume common to the cylinder
2 2 2 2 2 2
, x y a x z a + = + = .


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
Ans:



2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 0 0 0
Volume 8
a a x a x a a x a x
a
a x a x
dxdydz dxdydz


= =
} } } } } }

|
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2
0
0 0 0 0
Volume 8 8
a a x a a x
a x
z dxdy a x dxdy

= =
} } } }


|
2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0
0 0 0
Volume 8 . 8 . 8 ( )
a a a
a x
a x y dx a x a x dx a x dx

= = =
} } }


3 3 3 3
2 2
0
2 16
Volume 8 8 8
3 3 3 3
a
x a a a
a x a
( | | | |
= = = =
( | |
\ . \ .
(Ans).

3. Prove that .
Sol. ( )
( )
( )
1
1
0
1 !
log
1
n
n
n
n
m
x x dx
m
+

=
+
}

( )
1
0
log
n
m
x x dx
}
.1
Let log
t
x t x e = =
t
dx e dt =
1 becomes
( )
( )
( )
( )
0
0
1 1
n n
m t m t
e t dt e t dt

+ +
=

} }
.2
1 , 0 ,
) 1 (
! . ) 1 (
) .(log
1
1
0
> >
+

=
+ }
m n
m
n
dx x x
n
n
n m

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
( )
( )
1
1
dp
m t p dt
m

+ = =
+

2 becomes
0
1
1 1
n
p
p
e dp
m m

| | | |

| |
+ +
\ . \ .
}

( )
( )
0
1
1
1
1
n
n
p n
e p dp
m
+
| |

|
+
\ .
}
=
( )
( )
( )
0
1
1 1
1
1
1
n
n
n
p
e p dp
m
+
+
| |

|
+
\ .
}


( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
0
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1 1
1 1
n n
n n
n
p
e p dp n
m m
+ +
+
| | | |
= +
| |
+ +
\ . \ .
}


( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
1 ! 1
1 1
1
1
1
n
n
n
n
n
n
m
m
+

| |
+ =
|
+
+
\ .
+
Hence Proved

(Nov Dec 2006)
4. Evaluate the following integral by changing of order of integration
2
4 2 2
0
a a
ax
y dxdy
y a x
} }
.
Ans:

Here region of integration is x varies from0 to a, y varies from ax to a.
After changing order y varies from0 to a, x varies from 0 to
2
y
a
.

2
/
2 2
4 2 2 4 2 2
0 0 0
y a a a a
ax
y dxdy y dydx
y a x y a x
=

} } } }
putting
2
a as common we get

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2
2
4 2 2 2
2
0 0 0
2
2
a a a
ax
y
y
dydx a
y dxdy
a
y a x
y
x
a
=

| |

|
\ .
} } } }


2
2 2
1
2
4 2 2 2
2
0 0 0 0
2
0
2
2
sin
a a a a
ax
y
a
y
y
dx a
y dxdy y x
a
dy dy
a y
y a x
y
x
a
a

| |
(
|
(
|
(
= =
|
(
| |

|
| |
( |

| |
| \ .
\ .
\ .
} } } } }


2
2 2 2
1 1 1
2 2
4 2 2
0 0 0
0
2
sin sin sin 0
a a a a
ax
y
a
y
y dxdy y x y
a
dy dy
a a y y
y a x
a a

( (
( (
( (
= =
( (
| | | |

( ( | |
\ . \ .
} } } }


2 2 2
4 2 2
0 0 0
0
2 2
a a a a
ax
y dxdy y y
dy dy
a a
y a x
t t (
= =
(

} } } }


2 2 2
3
0 4 2 2
0 0
2 6 6
a a a
a
ax
y dxdy y a
dy y
a a
y a x
t t t
( = = =

} } }
(Ans)

5. Find the volume common to gas cylinder
2 2 2 2 2 2
, x y a x z a + = + = .
Ans:



DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 0 0 0
Volume 8
a a x a x a a x a x
a
a x a x
dxdydz dxdydz


= =
} } } } } }

|
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2
0
0 0 0 0
Volume 8 8
a a x a a x
a x
z dxdy a x dxdy

= =
} } } }


|
2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0
0 0 0
Volume 8 . 8 . 8 ( )
a a a
a x
a x y dx a x a x dx a x dx

= = =
} } }


3 3 3 3
2 2
0
2 16
Volume 8 8 8
3 3 3 3
a
x a a a
a x a
( | | | |
= = = =
( | |
\ . \ .
(Ans).

6. Define Beta function and show that
( ) ( )
( , )
( )
m n
m n
m n
|
I I
=
I +
.
Ans: The Beta function is defined as
1 1
1 1
0 0
( , ) (1 ) , , 0
(1 )
n
m n
m n
x
B m n x x dx dx m n
x


+
= = >
+
} }
.
We know that
1
0
( ) .
x n
n e x dx


I =
}
By putting x az dx adz = = we get

1
0
( ) .( )
az n
n e az adz


I =
}


1
0
( ) .
n az n
n a e z dz


I =
}
Putting z =x we get

1
0
( ) .
n ax n
n a e x dx


I =
}
Now, taking a =z we get

1
0
( ) .
zx n n
n e x z dx


I =
}

By multiplying
1 z m
e z

both side we get

1 (1 ) 1 1
0
( ) .
z m z x n m n
n e z e x z dx

+ +
I =
}


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
Now taking integration with respect to z both side from 0 z = we get

1 1 (1 ) 1
0 0 0
( ) .
z m n z x m n
n e z dz x e z dzdx

+ +
I =
} } }

Now, let (1 )
1 1
y dy
z x y z dz
x x
+ = = =
+ +
we get

1
1
0 0
.
( ) ( )
(1 )
y m n
n
m n
e y dy
n m x dx
x
+

+
(
I I =
(
+

} }


1
1
0 0
( ) ( ) .
(1 )
n
y m n
m n
x
n m e y dy dx
x

+
+
(
I I =
(
+

} }


1
0
( ) ( ) ( )
(1 )
n
m n
x
m n m n dx
x

+
I I = I +
+
}


1
0
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ). ( , )
(1 )
n
m n
x
m n m n dx m n B m n
x

+
I I = I + = I +
+
}


( ) ( )
( , ) .
( )
m n
B m n
m n
I I
=
I +
(proved)

(May-Jun-2007)
7. Change the order of integration in
2
1 2
0
x
x
I xydxdy

=
} }
and hence evaluate the same.
Ans: From
2
1 2
0
x
x
I xydxdy

=
} }
, region of integration is
2
, 2 , 0, 1 y x y x x x = = = =


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
By changing of order of integration we get two regions
In one region limit of x is 0, x x y = = and limit of y is 0, 1 y y = =
In another region limit of x is 0, 2 x x y = = and limit of y is 1, 2 y y = =
So,
2
2 1 2 1 2
0 0 0 1 0
y y x
x
I xydxdy xydydx xydydx

= = +
} } } } } }


2 1 2
0 0 1 0
y y
I xydx dy xydx dy

| |
| |
| = +
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
} } } }


2
1 2 2 2
0 1 0 0
2 2
y y
x y x y
I dy dy

( (
= +
( (

} }


1 2 2 2
0 1
0 (2 ) 0
2 2
y y y
I dy dy

= +
} }


1 2 2 3
2
0 1
2 2
2 2
y y
I dy y y dy = + +
} }


1 2
3 3 4
2
0 1
2
6 3 8
y y y
I y
( (
= + +
( (



1 16 16 2 1
0 4 1
6 3 8 3 8
I = + + +

4 96 128 48 24 16 3
24
I
+ + +
=

164 153 11
24 24
I

= = (Ans)

8. Find the volume bounded by the cylinder
2 2
4 x y + = and the planes 4, 0 y z z + = =
Ans:

Fromthe figure 4 z y = is to be integrated over the circle
2 2
4 x y + = in the xy plane.

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
To cover the shaded half of the circle, x varies from 0 to
2
4 y
So,
2 2
4 4 2 2
2 0 2 0
Volume 2 2 (4 )
y y
zdxdy y dxdy


= =
} } } }


|
2
2
4
0
2
Volume 2 (4 )
y
y x dy

=
}


2
2
2
Volume 2 (4 ) 4 y y dy

=
}


2 2
2 2
2 2
Volume 8 4 2 4 y dy y y dy

= +
} }

2
2
1
2
4 4
Volume 8 sin 0
2 2 2
y y y

= + + (
(


{second termis zero because of odd function}

1 1
Volume 8 0 0 2sin 1 2sin ( 1)

( = +



1
Volume 8 4sin 1 8 4 16
2
t
t

( = = =

(Ans).

9. Solve
2 2 /2
( )
n
xy x y dxdy +
}}
over the positive quadrant of
2 2
4 x y + = supposing n+3>0.
Ans:


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2 2
2 2 /2 2 2 /2
0 0
( ) ( )
a a x
n n
xy x y dxdy xy x y dxdy

+ = +
}} } }


2 2
3
2 2
2
2 2 /2
0
0
( )
( )
3
2
2
a x
n
a
n
y
x x y
xy x y dxdy dx
n

+
=
(
( +
+ =
(
+
(

}} }


3
2 2 /2 2 2 2
2
0
1
( ) ( 0)
3
a n
n
xy x y dxdy x x a x dx
n
+
+ = +
+
}} }


3 3
2
2 2
2 2 /2
0 0
( )
3 3 2
n n
a
a
n
a a x
xy x y dxdy xdx
n n
+ +
(
+ = =
(
+ +

}} }


( )
7 3
2
2
2 2 /2
( )
3 2 2( 3)
n n
n
a
a a
xy x y dxdy
n n
+ +
+ = =
+ +
}}
(Ans)

(Nov Dec 2007)
10. Define Beta Function.
Ans. The Beta function ( ) , m n | is defined as
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
0
1
1
, 1
m
n
m n x x dx |


=
}
for m>0 and n>0 It is also known as first Eularian Integral
11. Evaluate .
Ans:
( )
2 2 2
c b a
x y z dxdydz
c a
b
+ +

} } }

3 3
2 2 2 2
2
2 2
3 3
a
c b c b
z a
x z y z dxdy ax ay dxdy
c c
a b b
( | | | |
+ + = + +
( | |
\ . \ .

} } } }

( )
3 3 3 3
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 4 4
2 4
3 3 3 3
b
c b a c c
ay a y ab a b
x y z dxdydz ax y dx abx dx
c a c c b
b
| | | |
+ + = + + = + +
| |
\ . \ .

} } } } }

( )
3 3 3 3 3 3
2 2 2
4 4 4 8 8 8
3 3 3 3 3 3
c
c b a
abx ab x a bx abc ab c a bc
x y z dxdydz
c a c
b
| | | |
+ + = + + = + +
| |
\ . \ .

} } }

} } }

+ +
c
c
b
b
a
a
dxdydz z y x ) (
2 2 2

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
8
3
c b a
abc
x y z dxdydz a b c
c a
b
+ + = + +

} } }
(Ans)

12. Prove that .
Sol. ( )
( )
( )
1
1
0
1 !
log
1
n
n
n
n
m
x x dx
m
+

=
+
}

( )
1
0
log
n
m
x x dx
}
.1
Let log
t
x t x e = =
t
dx e dt =
1 becomes
( )
( )
( )
( )
0
0
1 1
n n
m t m t
e t dt e t dt

+ +
=

} }
.2
( )
( )
1
1
dp
m t p dt
m

+ = =
+

2 becomes
0
1
1 1
n
p
p
e dp
m m

| | | |

| |
+ +
\ . \ .
}

( )
( )
0
1
1
1
1
n
n
p n
e p dp
m
+
| |

|
+
\ .
}
=
( )
( )
( )
0
1
1 1
1
1
1
n
n
n
p
e p dp
m
+
+
| |

|
+
\ .
}


( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
0
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1 1
1 1
n n
n n
n
p
e p dp n
m m
+ +
+
| | | |
= +
| |
+ +
\ . \ .
}


( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
1 ! 1
1 1
1
1
1
n
n
n
n
n
n
m
m
+

| |
+ =
|
+
+
\ .
+
Hence Proved
13. Find the area enclosed by the parabolas y = 4x x
2
,y = x .
Ans:
1 , 0 ,
) 1 (
! . ) 1 (
) .(log
1
1
0
> >
+

=
+ }
m n
m
n
dx x x
n
n
n m

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT


2
3 4
0
Area
x x
x
dxdy

=
} }


|
2
3 3 3
4
2 2
0 0 0
Area (4 ) (3 )
x x
x
y dx x x x dx x x dx

= = =
} } }


3
2 3
0
27 27 27 9
Area 3 0 0
2 3 2 3 6 2
x x (
= = + = =
(

(Ans)

(May-Jun-2008)
14. Define Gamma Function.
Ans. Gamma function is defined as
( )
1
0
, 0
x n
n e x dx n


= >
}

15. Evaluate the integral:
1
log
log
1 1
x
y
e e
zdxdydz
} } }

Sol.
1
log
log
1 1
x
y
e e
zdxdydz
} } }

( ) ( ) ( )
{ }
1 1 1
log log log
log log 0 1
1
1 1 1 1
x
x
x x
y y y
e e e e
e
zdz dxdy z z z dxdy e x e dx dy
(
| |
(
|
= =
| (
\ .

} } } } } } }

{ } { }
1 1 1
log log
log
log 1
1
1 1 1
x
x x x x x
y y
e e e e
y
zdxdydz e x e dx dy e x e e x dy
(
(
= + = +
(

} } } } } }


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
( ) ( ) { }
( ) { }
1
1 1
1 1
log
log log 2 log 2 1
1 1
log
log log 2 log 1
1 1
x
x
y
e e e
zdxdydz y y y y e e dy
y
e e e
zdxdydz y y y y e dy
= + +
= + +
} } } }
} } } }

( )
2
2 2
1
log
log log log 1
4
1
1 1
x
y
e y
e e
y
zdxdydz y y y y y e
| |
= + +
|
\ .
} } }

( ) ( )
2 2
1
log
5
log 1 0 5/ 4 0 1
2 4
1 1
x
y
e e
e e
zdxdydz e e e e
| |
= + + +
|
\ .
} } }

2
1
log
log 2 13/ 4
4
1 1
x
y
e e
e
zdxdydz e
| |
= +
|
\ .
} } }
Ans.
16. Given
1
0
1 sin( )
n
x
dx
x n
t
t

=
+
}
Show that
1
sin( )
n n
n
t
t
=
Hence evaluate
4
0
1
dy
y

+
}

Sol. Given that
1
0
1 sin( )
n
x
dx
x n
t
t

=
+
}

We know that
( , )
m n
m n
m n
| =
+

( )
1
0
1
n
m n
x m n
dx
m n x

+
=
+ +
}

( ) 1 1 let m n m n + = =
( )
1
0
1
1
1 1
n
m n
x n n
dx n n
x

+

= =
+
}

( )
1
0
1
sin( )
1
n
x
dx n n
n
x
t
t

= =
+
}

Therefore1
sin( )
n n
n
t
t
=
Now for

4
0
1
dy
y

+
}
.1
Let
4
y =x
Y=
1/4
x
Y=
3/4
1
4
dy x dx

=

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
3/4 1/4 1
4
0 0 0
1 1 1 1 1
1
1 4 1 4 1 4sin 4 4 2 2
sin
4 2
dy x dx x dx
y x x
t t t t
t t

= = = = = =
+ + + | |
|
\ .
} } }
(Ans)
17. Find the area enclosed by the parabolas y
2
= 4ox,x
2
= 4oy .

Area is given by
4
0
2
2
/4
a ax
dxdy
x a
} }

| |
4 4
0 0
2
2
2
/4
2
/4
a a ax
ax
dxdy y dx
x a
x a
=
} } }

4 4
2
0 0
2
2 / 4
2
/4
a a ax
dxdy ax x a dx
x a
(
=

} } }

4
4 3 2 2 2
0
0
2 3/2
1 32 16 16
2
3/ 2 4 3 3 3 3
2
/4
a
a ax
x x a a a
dxdy a
a
x a
(
(
= = = (
(
(

} }
(Ans)
(Nov Dec 2008)
18. Write only the value of .
Ans By using Legendre duplication formula
( )
1
2
2 1
2
2
m m m
m
t
+ =


1
4
1 1 1 1 1
2 2
1
4 4 2 4 2 2 1
2
2
2
t t
t
| | | |
| |
\ . \ .
| | | | | | | |
+ = = =
| | | |

\ . \ . \ . \ .

|
.
|

\
|
I
|
.
|

\
|
I
4
3
.
4
1

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
19. Evaluate .
Ans:
( )
2 2 2
c b a
x y z dxdydz
c a
b
+ +

} } }

3 3
2 2 2 2
2
2 2
3 3
a
c b c b
z a
x z y z dxdy ax ay dxdy
c c
a b b
( | | | |
+ + = + +
( | |
\ . \ .

} } } }

( )
3 3 3 3
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 4 4
2 4
3 3 3 3
b
c b a c c
ay a y ab a b
x y z dxdydz ax y dx abx dx
c a c c b
b
| | | |
+ + = + + = + +
| |
\ . \ .

} } } } }

( )
3 3 3 3 3 3
2 2 2
4 4 4 8 8 8
3 3 3 3 3 3
c
c b a
abx ab x a bx abc ab c a bc
x y z dxdydz
c a c
b
| | | |
+ + = + + = + +
| |
\ . \ .

} } }

( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
8
3
c b a
abc
x y z dxdydz a b c
c a
b
+ + = + +

} } }
(Ans)
20. Change the order of integration
0

} }
y
x
e
dxdy
y
and hence evaluate it.
Ans
0

} }
y
x
e
dxdy
y


0

} }
y
x
e
dxdy
y
by changing the order of the equation we will have
0 0
y
y
e
dxdy
y

} }

0 0 0 0
y y
y y
e e
dxdy dx dy
y y

| |
=
|
|
\ .
} } } }

} } }

+ +
c
c
b
b
a
a
dxdydz z y x ) (
2 2 2

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
0 0 0 0
y
y
y y
e e
dxdy x dy
y y

| |
=
|
\ .
} } }

0 0 0 0
y
y y
y
e e
dxdy y dy e dy
y y

| |
= =
|
\ .
} } } }

( )
0
0 0 0 0
1
y
y y
y y
e e
dxdy y dy e dy e
y y



| |
= = = =
|
\ .
} } } }
(Ans).
21. Find the area of the loop of the curve oy
2
= x
2
(o x) .
Ans.

Area of the loop of the curve oy
2
= x
2
(o x) .will be given by
0 0
a x
x
a a
dxdy

} }


0 0 0 0
a x a x
x x
a a a a
dxdy dy dx

| |
|
= |
|
|
\ .
} } } }
..1


( )
0 0 0 0 0 0
a x a x
a x
x x
x
a a a a a
a
dxdy dy dx y dx

| |
|
= = |
|
|
\ .
} } } } }

( )
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0
a x a x
a x
x x
x
a a a a a a
a
a x
dxdy dy dx y dx x dx
a

| |
|
| |

= = = | |
|
| \ .
|
\ .
} } } } } }


0 0 0
0
a x
x
a a a
a x
dxdy x dx
a

| |

=
|
|
\ .
} } }
..2
Take
2
sin x a u =

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

Becomes
( ) ( )
/2 /2
2 2 2 4 2
0 0 0 0
sin cos 2 sin cos 2 sin cos
a x
x
a a
dxdy a a d a a d
t t
u u u u u u u u

= =
} } } }

( )
( )( )
/2 2
2 4 2 2
0 0 0
3 1 1
2 sin cos 2
6 4 2 2 16
a x
x
a a
a
dxdy a a d a
t
t t
u u u

= = =

} } }
(Ans).
(May-Jun-2009)
22. Write the relation between Beta and Gamma function.
Ans:
( ). ( )
( , )
( )
m n
B m n
m n
I I
=
I +

23. Evaluate the following integral by changing of order of integration
2
4 2 2
0
a a
ax
y dxdy
y a x
} }
.
Ans:

Here region of integration is x varies from0 to a, y varies from ax to a.
After changing order y varies from0 to a, x varies from 0 to
2
y
a
.

2
/
2 2
4 2 2 4 2 2
0 0 0
y a a a a
ax
y dxdy y dydx
y a x y a x
=

} } } }
putting
2
a as common we get

2
2
4 2 2 2
2
0 0 0
2
2
a a a
ax
y
y
dydx a
y dxdy
a
y a x
y
x
a
=

| |

|
\ .
} } } }


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2
2 2
1
2
4 2 2 2
2
0 0 0 0
2
0
2
2
sin
a a a a
ax
y
a
y
y
dx a
y dxdy y x
a
dy dy
a y
y a x
y
x
a
a

| |
(
|
(
|
(
= =
|
(
| |

|
| |
( |

| |
| \ .
\ .
\ .
} } } } }


2
2 2 2
1 1 1
2 2
4 2 2
0 0 0
0
2
sin sin sin 0
a a a a
ax
y
a
y
y dxdy y x y
a
dy dy
a a y y
y a x
a a

( (
( (
( (
= =
( (
| | | |

( ( | |
\ . \ .
} } } }


2 2 2
4 2 2
0 0 0
0
2 2
a a a a
ax
y dxdy y y
dy dy
a a
y a x
t t (
= =
(

} } } }


2 2 2
3
0 4 2 2
0 0
2 6 6
a a a
a
ax
y dxdy y a
dy y
a a
y a x
t t t
( = = =

} } }
(Ans)
24. Evaluate
2 2
( )
0 0
x y
e dxdy

+
} }
by changing to polar coordinates. Hence show that
2
0
2
x
e dx
t

=
}
.
Ans:
2 2 2
/2
( )
0 0 0 0
x y r
r
e dxdy e rdrd
t
u
u

+
= =
=
} } } }


2 2 2
/2
( )
0 0 0 0
1
2
2
x y r
r
e dxdy re dr d
t
u
u

+
= =
| |
=
|
\ .
} } } }


2 2 2
/2
( )
0
0 0 0
1
2
x y r
e dxdy e d
t
u
u


+
=
(
=

} } }


2 2
/2
( )
0 0 0
1
(0 1)
2
x y
e dxdy d
t
u
u

+
=
=
} } }


|
2 2
/2
/2
( )
0
0 0 0
1 1 1
2 2 2 2 4
x y
e dxdy d
t
t
u
t t
u u

+
=
= = = =
} } }
(Ans)
Now,
2 2
( )
0 0
4
x y
e dxdy
t

+
=
} }


2 2
( ) ( )
0 0
4
x y
e dx e dy
t


=
} }


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2 2
( ) ( )
0 0
4
x x
e dx e dx
t


=
} }


2
2
( )
0
4
x
e dx
t

| |
=
|
\ .
}


2
0
2
x
e dx
t

=
}
(Proved)

25. Find by double integration, the area lying between the parabolas
2
4 y x x = and the liney x = .
Ans:


2
3 4
0
Area
x x
x
dxdy

=
} }


|
2
3 3 3
4
2 2
0 0 0
Area (4 ) (3 )
x x
x
y dx x x x dx x x dx

= = =
} } }


3
2 3
0
27 27 27 9
Area 3 0 0
2 3 2 3 6 2
x x (
= = + = =
(

(Ans)

(Nov Dec 2009)
26. Find the value of
2
0
ax
e x dx

}
.
Ans: - c
-ux
x
2
Jx

0
Let ox =t oJx =Jt Jx =
1
u
Jt
=
1
u
3
c
-t
t
2
Jx

0
=
1
u
3
(3) =
1
u
3
2 =
2
u
3
(Ans).

27. Change the order of integration and evaluate
4
3
0 1
( )
y
x y dxdy

+
} }


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
Ans: - _
(x +y)Jx
4-
1
]
3
0
Jy = [
(x +y)Jy
4-x
2
0

2
1
Jx = xy +

2
2
[
0
4-x
2
2
1
Jx
= x(4x
2
) +
(4-x
2
)
2
2
2
1
Jx
= 4x x
3
+8 4x
2
+
x
4
2
2
1
Jx
=2x
2

x
4
4
+8x
4x
3
3
+
x
S
10
[
1
2

=2(41)
1
4
(16 1) +8(21)
4
3
(81) +
1
10
(32 1)
=6
15
4
+8
28
3
+
31
10
=
360-225+480-560+186
60
=
241
60
(Ans).

28. Find the volume bounded by the plane xy, the cylinder
2 2
1 x y + = and plane
3 x y z + + = .
Ans: - Volume =JxJyJz
= JxJyJz
3-x-
0
1-x
2
-1-x
2
1
-1
= z]
0
3-x-
JxJy
1-x
2
-1-x
2
1
-1

=
(3x y)JxJy = 3y xy

2
2
[
-1-x
2
1-x
2
Jx
1
-1
1-x
2
-1-x
2
1
-1

=
(3 x)(1 x
2
+1 x
2
)
(1-x
2
-1+x
2
)
2
Jx
1
-1

= 2(3 x)1 x
2
Jx
1
-1
= 61x
2
x1 x
2
Jx
1
-1

=_6
x1-x
2
2
+6
1
2
sin
-1
x +
2(1-x
2
)
3/ 2
3
_
-1
1

=j6(00) +3[
n
2
+
n
2
+(00)[ =3n (Ans).

29. Prove that:
1 1 2
4 4
0 0
4 2
1 1
x dx dx
x x
t
=
+
} }
.
Ans: -
x
2
dx
1-x
4
1
0
Let x
2
=sint 2xJx =costJt Jx =
costdt
2x
=
cost
2snt
Jt

x
2
dx
1-x
4
1
0
=
snt
cost
n/ 2
0
cost
2snt
Jt =
1
2
sintJt
n/ 2
0
=
1
2
_
1
2
+1
2
_[
1
2

_
1
2
+2
2
_
=
1
2
[
3
4

[
S
4

n
2


x
2
dx
1-x
4
1
0
=
1
2
[
3
4

[
S
4

n
2
----------------------------------(1)

dx
1+x
4
1
0
Let x
2
=tont 2xJx =scc
2
tJt Jx =
scc
2
tdt
2x
=
scc
2
tdt
2tunt
Jt

dx
1+x
4
1
0
=
1
scct
n/ 4
0
scc
2
tdt
2tunt
Jt =
1
2

scctdt
tunt
Jt
n/ 4
0
=
1
2

dt
sntcost
Jt
n/ 4
0


dx
1+x
4
1
0
=
1
2

dt
sn2t
Jt
n/ 4
0
Let 2t =0 2Jt =J0 Jt =
d0
2


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

dx
1+x
4
1
0
=
1
22

d0
sn0
n/ 2
0
=
1
22
_
-1
2
+1
2
_[
1
2

_
-1
2
+2
2
_
=
1
22
[
1
4

[
3
4

n
2
--------------------(2)
Now,
x
2
dx
1-x
4
1
0

dx
1+x
4
1
0
=
1
2
[
3
4

[
S
4

n
2

1
22
[
1
4

[
3
4

n
2


x
2
dx
1-x
4
1
0

dx
1+x
4
1
0
=
1
162
[
1
4

[
S
4

n =
1
162
[
1
4

1
4
[
1
4

n =
n
42
(Ans).
(May-Jun-2010)
30. Compute, [ [
9
2
,
7
2
.
Ans: -
9 7
7 5 3 1 5 3 1
. . . . . . . .
9 7 5 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
,
9 7 2 2 7.6.5.4.3.2.1 2048
2 2
t t
t
|
| | | |
I I
| |
| |
\ . \ .
= = =
|
| |
\ .
I +
|
\ .
(Ans).
31. Show that :
dx
1-x
6
=
3
2
1
0

dx
1-x
3
=
__[
1
3
_
3
2

3
,
.n
1
0
.
Ans: -
}

1
0
6
1 x
dx
putting u u u u u d dx x x cos sin
3
1
sin sin
3 / 2 3 / 1 3
= = =

} } } }

= = =

2 /
0
1 ) 2 / 1 ( 2 1 ) 6 / 1 ( 2
2 /
0
3 / 2
2 /
0
3 / 2
1
0
6
cos sin
3
1
sin
3
1
cos
cos sin
3
1
1
t t t
u u u u
u
u u u
d d
d
x
dx


( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) 3 / 2
. 6 / 1
6
1
3 / 2 2
2 / 1 . 6 / 1
3
1
1
1
0
6
I
I
=
I
I I
=

}
t
x
dx
--------------------(1)
By Legendres Duplication method ( ) ( ) n n n
n
2
2 2
1
1 2
I = |
.
|

\
|
+ I I

t
---------(2)
Now, putting
6
1
= n in eqn (2) we get ( ) ( ) ( ) 3 / 1
2
3 / 2 6 / 1
3 / 2
I = I I

t

( )
( )
( ) 3 / 2
3 / 1 2
6 / 1
3 / 2
I
I
= I
t

So, equation (1) becomes

( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) 3 / 2 3 / 2
3 / 1 2
6
1
3 / 2
3 / 1 2
3 / 2 6
1
1
3 / 2 3 / 2 1
0
6
I I
I
=
I
I
I
=

}
t t t
x
dx


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

( ) ( ) | |
( ) ( ) | |
( ) | |
| |
2
3 3 / 2
2
2 3 / 2 1
0
6
) 3 / sin( /
3 / 1 . 2
6
1
3 / 2 3 / 1
3 / 1 3 / 1 2
6
1
1
t t
t t I
=
I I
I I
=

}
x
dx
as
n
r
n
r
n
r
t
t
sin
1 . =
|
.
|

\
|
I
|
.
|

\
|
I

( ) | | ( ) | |
3 / 7
3 3 3 / 2 1
0
6
2
3 / 1 .
4 .
3 . 3 / 1 . 2
6
1
1
t t
I
=
I
=

}
x
dx
(Proved)--------(I)
Again
}

1
0
3
1
2
3
x
dx
putting u u u u d dx x cos sin
3
2
sin
3 / 1 3 / 2
= =

} } } }

= = =

2 /
0
1 ) 2 / 1 ( 2 1 ) 3 / 1 ( 2
2 /
0
3 / 1
2 /
0
3 / 1
1
0
3
cos sin
3
1
cos sin
3
1
cos
cos sin
3
2
2
3
1
2
3
t t t
u u u u u
u
u u u
d d
d
x
dx


( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) 6 / 5
. 3 / 1
3 2
1
6 / 5 2
2 / 1 . 3 / 1
3
1
1
2
3
1
0
3
I
I
=
I
I I
=

}
t
x
dx
-----------------(3)
By Legendres Duplication method ( ) ( ) n n n
n
2
2 2
1
1 2
I = |
.
|

\
|
+ I I

t
---------(4)
Now, putting
3
1
= n in eqn (4) we get ( ) ( ) ( ) 3 / 2
2
6 / 5 3 / 1
3 / 2
I = I I

t

( )
( )
( ) 3 / 1
3 / 2 2
6 / 5
3 / 2
I
I
= I
t

So, equation (3) becomes

( )
( )
( )
( ) | |
( ) 3 / 2
3 / 1
3 2
1
3 / 1
3 / 2 2
3 / 1
3 2
1
1
2
3
2
3 / 5 3 / 2
1
0
3
I
I
=
I
I
I
=

}
t
t
x
dx


( ) | | ( )
( ) ( )
( ) | |
) 3 / sin( /
3 / 1
3 2
1
3 / 2 3 / 1
3 / 1 3 / 1
3 2
1
1
2
3
3
3 / 5
2
3 / 5
1
0
3
t t
I
=
I I
I I
=

}
x
dx

as
n
r
n
r
n
r
t
t
sin
1 . =
|
.
|

\
|
I
|
.
|

\
|
I

( ) | | ( ) | |
t t
3 / 7
3 3
3 / 5
1
0
3
2
3 / 1
2
3 3 / 1
3 2
1
1
2
3 I
=
I
=

}
x
dx
(Proved)--------------(II)

From(I) and (II)

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

t
3 / 7
3
1
0
3
1
0
6
2
3
1
1
2
3
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

} }
x
dx
x
dx
(Proved)

32. Change the order of following integration: xy Jx Jy
2-x
x
2
1
0
and evaluate.
Ans: From
2
1 2
0
x
x
I xydxdy

=
} }
, region of integration is
2
, 2 , 0, 1 y x y x x x = = = =

By changing of order of integration we get two regions
In one region limit of x is 0, x x y = = and limit of y is 0, 1 y y = =
In another region limit of x is 0, 2 x x y = = and limit of y is 1, 2 y y = =
So,
2
2 1 2 1 2
0 0 0 1 0
y y x
x
I xydxdy xydydx xydydx

= = +
} } } } } }


2 1 2
0 0 1 0
y y
I xydx dy xydx dy

| |
| |
| = +
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
} } } }


2
1 2 2 2
0 1 0 0
2 2
y y
x y x y
I dy dy

( (
= +
( (

} }


1 2 2 2
0 1
0 (2 ) 0
2 2
y y y
I dy dy

= +
} }


1 2 2 3
2
0 1
2 2
2 2
y y
I dy y y dy = + +
} }


1 2
3 3 4
2
0 1
2
6 3 8
y y y
I y
( (
= + +
( (



DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

1 16 16 2 1
0 4 1
6 3 8 3 8
I = + + +

8
3
24
9
24
155 164
24
3 16 24 48 128 96 4
= =

=
+ + +
= I (Ans).

33. Find the volume enclosed by the cylinders
x
2
+y
2
=2ax and z
2
=2ax.
Ans: -
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 0 ( ) x y ax x y ax x a y a + = + = + =
At
2 2
0,( ) 0,2 y x a a x a = = =
Volume =
2
2
2 2 2
0 2
2
a ax x ax
ax
ax x
dxdydz


} } }

Volume =
|
2
2
2 2
2
2
0
2
a ax x
ax
ax
ax x
z dxdy


} }

Volume =
|
2
2
2
2
2 2 2
2
2
0 0
2
2 2 2 2
a ax x a
ax x
ax x
ax x
axdxdy a x y dx



| |
=
|
\ .
} } }

Volume =
2
2
0
2 2 .2 2
a
a x ax x dx
}

Volume =
2
2
0
4 2 . 2
a
a x ax x dx
}
Let
2
2 sin 4 sin cos x a dx a d u u u u = =
Volume =
/2
0
4 2 2 sin .2 sin cos .4 sin cos a a a a d
t
u u u u u u
}

Volume =
/2 3
3 3 2 3
0
2 128
64 sin .cos 64 .
5 3 15
a
a d a
t
u u u = =

}
(Ans).
(Nov Dec 2010)
34. Write the relation between beta and gamma function.
( ) ( )
( , ) .
( )
m n
B m n
m n
I I
=
I +

35. Change the order of integration and evaluate :
2
4 2
0 /4
a ax
x a
I dydx =
} }


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
2
4 2
0 /4
a ax
x a
I dydx =
} }
By changing the order of the integration we will have figure below and the
solution will be
2 2
2
4 2 4
0 0 /4 /4
ay
a ax a
x a y a
dydx dydx =
} } } }

=


2
4
0 2
/4
ay
a
dydx
y a
} }
=

| |
4
0
2
4
2
2
/4
0 2
/4
a ay
a
ay
dydx x dy
y a
y a
=
} }
}

4 4
2
0 0
2
2 / 4
2
/4
a a
ay
dxdy ay y a dy
y a
(
=

} } }

4
4 3 2 2 2
0
0
2
3/2
1 32 16 16
2
3/ 2 4 3 3 3 3
2
/4
a
a
ay
y y a a a
dxdy a
a
y a
(
(
= = = (
(
(

} }
(Ans)

36. Evaluate :
2 2
2
1
1 1
0 0 0
x y
x
I xyzdydxdz

=
} } }

Sol.

2 2
2 2
2 2
1
1
1 1 1 1 2
0 0 0 0 0 0
2
x y
x y
x x
xyz
I xyzdydxdz dydx



(
= =
(

} } } } }


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
( )
2 2
2 2
2 2 1
1 1 1 1
0 0 0 0 0
1
2
x y
x x
xy x y
I xyzdydxdz dydx

(

(
= =
(

} } } } }

( )
2 2
2 2
3 3 1
1 1 1 1
0 0 0 0 0
2
x y
x x
xy x y y x
I xyzdydxdz dydx

(

(
= =
(

} } } } }

2
2 2
2
1
2 3 2 4
1 1 1 1
0 0 0 0
0
2 2 4
2
x
x y x
xy x y y x
I xyzdydxdz dx


(
| |
(
|
( \ .
= =
(
(
(

} } } }

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2 4
2 3 2 2
1 1 1 1
0 0 0 0
1 1 1
4 4 8
x y x x x x x x x
I xyzdydxdz dx

| |

|
= =
|
|
\ .
} } } }

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2
2
2 3 2 2 1
1 1 1
0 0 0 0
1 1 1
4 4 8
x y
x
x x x x x x
I xyzdydxdz dx

| |

|
= =
|
\ .
} } } }

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2
3 3 5 5 3 1
1 1 1
0 0 0 0
2
4 4 8
x y
x
x x x x x x x
I xyzdydxdz dx

| |
+
|
= =
|
\ .
} } } }

2 2 2
1
2 4 4 6 2 6 4
1 1 1
0 0 0
0
2
2 4 4 6 2 6 4
4 4 8
x y x
x x x x x x x
I xyzdydxdz

| |
| | | | | |
| +
| | |
| \ . \ . \ .
= =
|
|
|
\ .
} } }

2 2 2
1 1 1
0 0 0
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
8 16 16 24 16 48 16
x y x
I xyzdydxdz

| | | | | |
= = +
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
} } }

2 2 2
1 1 1
0 0 0
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
8 16 16 24 16 48 16 48
x y x
I xyzdydxdz

| |
= = + + =
|
\ .
} } }
(Ans)
37. Given
1
0
1 sin( )
n
x
dx
x n
t
t

=
+
}
Show that
1
sin( )
n n
n
t
t
=
Hence evaluate
4
0
1
dy
y

+
}

Sol. Given that
1
0
1 sin( )
n
x
dx
x n
t
t

=
+
}


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
We know that
( , )
m n
m n
m n
| =
+

( )
1
0
1
n
m n
x m n
dx
m n x

+
=
+ +
}

( ) 1 1 let m n m n + = =
( )
1
0
1
1
1 1
n
m n
x n n
dx n n
x

+

= =
+
}

( )
1
0
1
sin( )
1
n
x
dx n n
n
x
t
t

= =
+
}

Therefore1
sin( )
n n
n
t
t
=
Now for

4
0
1
dy
y

+
}
.1
Let
4
y =x
Y=
1/4
x
Y=
3/4
1
4
dy x dx

=
3/4 1/4 1
4
0 0 0
1 1 1 1 1
1
1 4 1 4 1 4sin 4 4 2 2
sin
4 2
dy x dx x dx
y x x
t t t t
t t

= = = = = =
+ + + | |
|
\ .
} } }
(Ans)

(May-Jun-2011)
38. Evaluate
3
2


Ans. We know that
( 1) ( ) n n n + =
( 1)
( )
n
n
n
+
=
3
1
3 2
3 2
2
| |
+
|
| |
\ .
=
|
| |
\ .
|
\ .


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
1
3 2
3 2
2
| |
|
| |
\ .
=
|
| |
\ .
|
\ .
..1
As we know that
( 1)
( )
n
n
n
+
=
Therefore we will have
1 1
1
1 2 2
1 1 2
2 2
| | | |
+
| |
| |
\ . \ .
= =
|
| | | |
\ .
| |
\ . \ .
..2
From 1 and 2 we will have
1
2
1 1
3 2 2
3 3 1 2
2 2 2
| |
|
\ .
| | | |
| |
| |
\ . \ .
= =
|
| | | | | |
\ .

| | |
\ . \ . \ .

1
4
3 2
2 3
t
| |
|
| |
\ .
=
|
\ .
Ans

39. Evaluate the following integral by changing of order of integration
2
4 2 2
0
a a
ax
y dxdy
y a x
} }
.
Ans:

Here region of integration is x varies from0 to a, y varies from ax to a.

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
After changing order y varies from0 to a, x varies from 0 to
2
y
a
.

2
/
2 2
4 2 2 4 2 2
0 0 0
y a a a a
ax
y dxdy y dydx
y a x y a x
=

} } } }
putting
2
a as common we get

2
2
4 2 2 2
2
0 0 0
2
2
a a a
ax
y
y
dydx a
y dxdy
a
y a x
y
x
a
=

| |

|
\ .
} } } }


2
2 2
1
2
4 2 2 2
2
0 0 0 0
2
0
2
2
sin
a a a a
ax
y
a
y
y
dx a
y dxdy y x
a
dy dy
a y
y a x
y
x
a
a

| |
(
|
(
|
(
= =
|
(
| |

|
| |
( |

| |
| \ .
\ .
\ .
} } } } }


2
2 2 2
1 1 1
2 2
4 2 2
0 0 0
0
2
sin sin sin 0
a a a a
ax
y
a
y
y dxdy y x y
a
dy dy
a a y y
y a x
a a

( (
( (
( (
= =
( (
| | | |

( ( | |
\ . \ .
} } } }


2 2 2
4 2 2
0 0 0
0
2 2
a a a a
ax
y dxdy y y
dy dy
a a
y a x
t t (
= =
(

} } } }


2 2 2
3
0 4 2 2
0 0
2 6 6
a a a
a
ax
y dxdy y a
dy y
a a
y a x
t t t
( = = =

} } }
(Ans)
40. State and prove relation between beta and gamma function.
Ans: The Beta function is defined as
1 1
1 1
0 0
( , ) (1 ) , , 0
(1 )
n
m n
m n
x
B m n x x dx dx m n
x


+
= = >
+
} }
.
We know that
1
0
( ) .
x n
n e x dx


I =
}
By putting x az dx adz = = we get

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

1
0
( ) .( )
az n
n e az adz


I =
}


1
0
( ) .
n az n
n a e z dz


I =
}
Putting z =x we get

1
0
( ) .
n ax n
n a e x dx


I =
}
Now, taking a =z we get

1
0
( ) .
zx n n
n e x z dx


I =
}

By multiplying
1 z m
e z

both side we get

1 (1 ) 1 1
0
( ) .
z m z x n m n
n e z e x z dx

+ +
I =
}

Now taking integration with respect to z both side from 0 z = we get

1 1 (1 ) 1
0 0 0
( ) .
z m n z x m n
n e z dz x e z dzdx

+ +
I =
} } }

Now, let (1 )
1 1
y dy
z x y z dz
x x
+ = = =
+ +
we get

1
1
0 0
.
( ) ( )
(1 )
y m n
n
m n
e y dy
n m x dx
x
+

+
(
I I =
(
+

} }


1
1
0 0
( ) ( ) .
(1 )
n
y m n
m n
x
n m e y dy dx
x

+
+
(
I I =
(
+

} }


1
0
( ) ( ) ( )
(1 )
n
m n
x
m n m n dx
x

+
I I = I +
+
}


1
0
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ). ( , )
(1 )
n
m n
x
m n m n dx m n B m n
x

+
I I = I + = I +
+
}


( ) ( )
( , ) .
( )
m n
B m n
m n
I I
=
I +
(proved)

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
41. Find the volume common to gas cylinder
2 2 2 2 2 2
, x y a x z a + = + = .
Ans:



2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 0 0 0
Volume 8
a a x a x a a x a x
a
a x a x
dxdydz dxdydz


= =
} } } } } }

|
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2
0
0 0 0 0
Volume 8 8
a a x a a x
a x
z dxdy a x dxdy

= =
} } } }


|
2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0
0 0 0
Volume 8 . 8 . 8 ( )
a a a
a x
a x y dx a x a x dx a x dx

= = =
} } }


3 3 3 3
2 2
0
2 16
Volume 8 8 8
3 3 3 3
a
x a a a
a x a
( | | | |
= = = =
( | |
\ . \ .
(Ans).
(Nov Dec 2011)
42. Write the relation between Beta and Gamma function
Ans: - The relation between beta & gamma function is
( ) ( )
( , )
( )
m n
m n
m n
|
I I
=
I +
.
43. Change the order of integration
0

} }
y
x
e
dxdy
y
and hence evaluate it.
Ans
0

} }
y
x
e
dxdy
y


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

0

} }
y
x
e
dxdy
y
by changing the order of the equation we will have
0 0
y
y
e
dxdy
y

} }

0 0 0 0
y y
y y
e e
dxdy dx dy
y y

| |
=
|
|
\ .
} } } }

0 0 0 0
y
y
y y
e e
dxdy x dy
y y

| |
=
|
\ .
} } }

0 0 0 0
y
y y
y
e e
dxdy y dy e dy
y y

| |
= =
|
\ .
} } } }

( )
0
0 0 0 0
1
y
y y
y y
e e
dxdy y dy e dy e
y y



| |
= = = =
|
\ .
} } } }
(Ans).

44. Find the volume common to the cylinder
2 2 2 2 2 2
, x y a x z a + = + = .

Ans:



DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 0 0 0
Volume 8
a a x a x a a x a x
a
a x a x
dxdydz dxdydz


= =
} } } } } }

|
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2
0
0 0 0 0
Volume 8 8
a a x a a x
a x
z dxdy a x dxdy

= =
} } } }


|
2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0
0 0 0
Volume 8 . 8 . 8 ( )
a a a
a x
a x y dx a x a x dx a x dx

= = =
} } }


3 3 3 3
2 2
0
2 16
Volume 8 8 8
3 3 3 3
a
x a a a
a x a
( | | | |
= = = =
( | |
\ . \ .
(Ans).
45. Prove that
2
1 2 1
2 2 1
n
n
n
n
t +
+ =
+

Ans.
( ) 2 1 1 2 1
1
2 2 2
n n
n
+
+ = = +
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 2 3
1
1 ..........
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
n n n n n n
n

+ = + = =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 1 2 1 2 3 2 5 2 7
1 1 1
1 ............
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
n n n n n
n

+ = + =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 1 . 2 3 . 2 5 . 2 7 ................1 1
2 2
n n n n
n
n
t

+ =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 . 2 1 . 2 2 . 2 3 . 2 4 . 2 5 . 2 6 . 2 7 ................1 1
2 2 .2 . 2 2 . 2 4 . 2 6 ......................2
n n n n n n n n
n
n
n n n n
t

+ =


( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 !
2 2 .2 . 1 . 2 . 3 ......................1
n
n
n n
n n n
t + =


1 2 !
2
2
2 . !
n
n
n
n
t + =
1 2 1
2
2
2 . 1
n
n
n
n
t
+
+ =
+
hence Proved

(May-Jun-2012)

46. Evaluate the following Integral:

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2 3
2
0 1
xy dxdy
} }

( )
3 2
3 2
2 3 2 2
2
0 1 0 0
1 0
26 26
52/ 3
3 3 6
xy x x
xy dy dx dx dx
| | | |
| |
= = = =
| | |
\ .
\ . \ .
} } } }

47. Evaluate the following integral by changing the order of integration:
0
y
x
e
dydx
y


} }

Ans
0

} }
y
x
e
dxdy
y


0

} }
y
x
e
dxdy
y
by changing the order of the equation we will have
0 0
y
y
e
dxdy
y

} }

0 0 0 0
y y
y y
e e
dxdy dx dy
y y

| |
=
|
|
\ .
} } } }

0 0 0 0
y
y
y y
e e
dxdy x dy
y y

| |
=
|
\ .
} } }

0 0 0 0
y
y y
y
e e
dxdy y dy e dy
y y

| |
= =
|
\ .
} } } }

( )
0
0 0 0 0
1
y
y y
y y
e e
dxdy y dy e dy e
y y



| |
= = = =
|
\ .
} } } }
(Ans).

48. Given
1
0
1 sin
n
x
dx
x n
t
t

=
+
}
, show that ( ) (1 )
sin
n n
n
t
t
=

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
Sol. Given that
1
0
1 sin( )
n
x
dx
x n
t
t

=
+
}

We know that
( , )
m n
m n
m n
| =
+

( )
1
0
1
n
m n
x m n
dx
m n x

+
=
+ +
}

( ) 1 1 let m n m n + = =
( )
1
0
1
1
1 1
n
m n
x n n
dx n n
x

+

= =
+
}

( )
1
0
1
sin( )
1
n
x
dx n n
n
x
t
t

= =
+
}

Therefore1
sin( )
n n
n
t
t
=
Now for

4
0
1
dy
y

+
}
.1
Let
4
y =x
Y=
1/4
x
Y=
3/4
1
4
dy x dx

=
3/4 1/4 1
4
0 0 0
1 1 1 1 1
1
1 4 1 4 1 4sin 4 4 2 2
sin
4 2
dy x dx x dx
y x x
t t t t
t t

= = = = = =
+ + + | |
|
\ .
} } }
(Ans)
49. Find the area included between the parabola:
2
4 y x x = and the line y x =
Ans:


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2
3 4
0
Area
x x
x
dxdy

=
} }


|
2
3 3 3
4
2 2
0 0 0
Area (4 ) (3 )
x x
x
y dx x x x dx x x dx

= = =
} } }


3
2 3
0
27 27 27 9
Area 3 0 0
2 3 2 3 6 2
x x (
= = + = =
(

(Ans)
(Nov-Dec2012)
50. Define Beta and Gamma Function.
Ans:
Beta function
The Beta function is defined as
1 1
1 1
0 0
( , ) (1 ) , , 0
(1 )
n
m n
m n
x
B m n x x dx dx m n
x


+
= = >
+
} }
.
Gamma Function: - The Gamma function ) (n I is defined as dx x e n
n x
}


= I
0
1
) ( for 0 > n .
It is also know as Second Eulerian Integral

51. Evaluate
0
y
x
e
dydx
y


} }

Ans
0

} }
y
x
e
dxdy
y


0

} }
y
x
e
dxdy
y
by changing the order of the equation we will have
0 0
y
y
e
dxdy
y

} }


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
0 0 0 0
y y
y y
e e
dxdy dx dy
y y

| |
=
|
|
\ .
} } } }

0 0 0 0
y
y
y y
e e
dxdy x dy
y y

| |
=
|
\ .
} } }

0 0 0 0
y
y y
y
e e
dxdy y dy e dy
y y

| |
= =
|
\ .
} } } }

( )
0
0 0 0 0
1
y
y y
y y
e e
dxdy y dy e dy e
y y



| |
= = = =
|
\ .
} } } }
(Ans).

52. Prove that

Hence evaluate
1
3
0
(log ) x x dx
}

Sol. ( )
( )
( )
1
1
0
1 !
log
1
n
n
n
n
m
x x dx
m
+

=
+
}

( )
1
0
log
n
m
x x dx
}
.1
Let log
t
x t x e = =
t
dx e dt =
1 becomes
( )
( )
( )
( )
0
0
1 1
n n
m t m t
e t dt e t dt

+ +
=

} }
.2
( )
( )
1
1
dp
m t p dt
m

+ = =
+

2 becomes
0
1
1 1
n
p
p
e dp
m m

| | | |

| |
+ +
\ . \ .
}

( )
( )
0
1
1
1
1
n
n
p n
e p dp
m
+
| |

|
+
\ .
}
=
( )
( )
( )
0
1
1 1
1
1
1
n
n
n
p
e p dp
m
+
+
| |

|
+
\ .
}


( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
0
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1 1
1 1
n n
n n
n
p
e p dp n
m m
+ +
+
| | | |
= +
| |
+ +
\ . \ .
}


( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
1 ! 1
1 1
1
1
1
n
n
n
n
n
n
m
m
+

| |
+ =
|
+
+
\ .
+
Hence Proved
1 , 0 ,
) 1 (
! . ) 1 (
) .(log
1
1
0
> >
+

=
+ }
m n
m
n
dx x x
n
n
n m

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
As we know that ( )
( )
( )
1
1
0
1 !
log
1
n
n
n
n
m
x x dx
m
+

=
+
}
there fore
( )
( )
( )
3
1
3
3 1
0
1 3! 6
3
(log )
16 8
1 1
x x dx
+


= = =
+
}
=

53. Find the volume of the cylinder
2 2
4, x y + = and the planes 4 y z + = and z=0
Ans:

Fromthe figure 4 z y = is to be integrated over the circle
2 2
4 x y + = in the xy plane.
To cover the shaded half of the circle, x varies from 0 to
2
4 y
So,
2 2
4 4 2 2
2 0 2 0
Volume 2 2 (4 )
y y
zdxdy y dxdy


= =
} } } }


|
2
2
4
0
2
Volume 2 (4 )
y
y x dy

=
}


2
2
2
Volume 2 (4 ) 4 y y dy

=
}


2 2
2 2
2 2
Volume 8 4 2 4 y dy y y dy

= +
} }

2
2
1
2
4 4
Volume 8 sin 0
2 2 2
y y y

= + + (
(


{second termis zero because of odd function}

1 1
Volume 8 0 0 2sin 1 2sin ( 1)

( = +



DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

1
Volume 8 4sin 1 8 4 16
2
t
t

( = = =

(Ans).

APPLIED MATHS II
300214 B.E.(Second Semester)


Unit IV Vector Calculus
(May-Jun-2006)
1. Show that
2 2
( 1)
n n
r n n r

V = + where r =xi +y] +zk.
Ans: -
2 2 2

z y x k z j y i x R r + + = + + = =


( ) ( )
2
2 2 2 2 2 2
n
n
n
z y x z y x r + + = + + =
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2

n n n
n n n
n
x y z x y z x y z
r r r
r i j k i j k
x y z x y z
c + + c + + c + +
c c c
V = + + = + +
c c c c c c

( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2
.2 .2 .2
2
n n n
n
n
r i x y z x j x y z y k x y z z

V = + + + + + + + +
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2
2
n
n
r n x y z ix jy kz

V = + + + +
2 n n
r nr R

V =

1
( )

V = V

2 2 n n
r nr R
( )
| | c c c

V = + +
|
c c c
\ .

2 2

n n
r i j k nr R
x y z

( ) ( )

( )
| | c c c

V = + +
|
c c c
\ .


2 2 2 2 n n n n
r nr R i nr R j nr R k
x y z

( ) ( ) ( )
| | c c c

V = + +
|
c c c
\ .
2 2 2 2 n n n n
r nr x nr y nr z
x y z
because

R xi yj zk = + +
( ) ( ) ( )
| | c c c

V = + +
|
c c c
\ .
2 2 2 2 n n n n
r n r x r y r z
x y z

( ) ( ) ( )
| | c c c c c c

V = + + + + +
|
c c c c c c
\ .
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 n n n n n n n
r n r x x r r y y r r z z r
x x y y z z

( ) ( ) ( )
| | c c c

V = + + + + +
|
c c c
\ .
2 2 3 2 3 2 3
.1 2 .1 2 .1 2
r r r
n n n n n n n
r n r x n r r y n r r z n r
x y z


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
( ) ( ) ( )
| |
V = + + + + +
|
\ .
2 2 3 2 3 2 3
.1 2 .1 2 .1 2
y x z
n n n n n n n
r n r x n r r y n r r z n r
r r r

( ) ( ) ( )
( )

V = + + + + +
2 2 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 4
.1 2 .1 2 .1 2
n n n n n n n
r n r x n r r y n r r z n r
( )
( ) ( )

V = + + +
2 2 4 2 2 2
3 2
n n n
r n r n r x y z
( )
( )

V = +
2 2 4 2
3 2
n n n
r n r x n r r
( )
( )

V = +
2 2 2
3 2
n n n
r n r n r
( ) ( )

V = +
2 2
3 2
n n
r nr n
( )

V = +
2 2
1
n n
r nr n
( )

V = +
2 2
1
n n
r n n r hence proved
2. Verify Stokes theoremfor the vector field on the upper half
surface of , bounded by its projection on the xy-plane.
Ans: Stokes theoremstates that . ( ).
C S
F dr curl F nds =
} }}


1. Here C is unit circle
2 2
1, 0 x y z + = =
( ) ( )
2 2

. (2 ) . F dr x y i yz j y zk idx jdy kdz = + +


( )
2 2
. (2 ) F dr x y dx yz dy y zdz =


Here C is z =0, dz =0 and cos , sin x y u u = =
. (2 ) F dr x y dx =


So,
2
0
. (2 ) (2cos sin )( sin )
C C
F dr x y dx d
t
u u u u = =
} } }



2
0
1 cos2
. sin2
2
C
F dr d
t
u
u u
| |
= +
|
\ .
} }


2
0
cos2 sin2
.
2 2 4
C
F dr
t
u u u (
= +
(


1 1 2 0 0 0
.
2 2 4
C
F dr
t
t

= + =
}

-------(1)
2. Now,
2 2

(2 ) F x y i yz j y zk =


2 2

( )
2
i j k
curl F
x y z
x y yz y z
c c c
=
c c c


2 2

(2 ) F x y i yz j y zk =

2 2 2
1 x y z + + =

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

( ) ( 2 2 ) (0 0) (0 1) curl F i yz yz j k k = + + + =


By using spherical co-ordinate we have

sin cos sin sin cos n i j k u | u | u = + +
So, ( ). cos curl F n u =


Hence
/2 2
0 0
( ). cos .sin
S
curl F nds d d
t t
u |
u u u |
= =
=
}} } }


/2 2
0 0
( ). cos .sin
S
curl F nds d d
t t
u |
u u u |
= =
=
}} } }


|
/2
2
2
0
0
sin
( ).
2
S
curl F nds
t
t u
|
(
=
(

}}


1 0
( ). (2 0)
2
S
curl F nds t t

= =
}}

------------(2)
From(1) and (2) it verifies Stokes theorem. (Ans)

3. Use divergence theorem to evaluate where and S is the
surface of the sphere .

Ans: By divergence theorem .
S V
F ds divFdv =
} }


3 3 3
. ( ) ( ) ( )
S V
F ds x y z dv
x y z
( c c c
= + +
(
c c c

} }


2 2 2
. 3
S V
F ds x y z dxdydz ( = + +
} } } }

{ }
2 2 2 2 2
. 3
S V
F ds a dxdydz x y z a given ( = + + =
} } } }


3 3
2
4 4
. 3
3 3
S V
a a
F ds a volume of sphere dxdydz
t t

= = =
`
)
} } } }


5
. 4
S
F ds a t =
}
Ans

Nov-Dec, 2006
4. Verify Greens theorem for:
2 2
( )
C
xy y dx x dy ( + +
}
where C is bounded by
2
, y x y x = = .
Ans:
}

S
ds F

k z j y i x F

3 3 3
+ + =
2 2 2 2
a z y x = + +

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

By Greens theorem
2 1
1 2
C S
F F
Fdx F dy dxdy
x y
| | c c
+ =
|
c c
\ .
} }}

(1) Here
2 2

( ) F xy y i x j = + +


So,
2 1
2 , 2
F F
x x y
x y
c c
= = +
c c

( )
2
1
2 1
0
2 2
x
S x
F F
dxdy x x y dxdy
x y
| | c c
=
|
c c
\ .
}} } }

2
1
2 2 1
0
x
x
S
F F
dxdy xy y dx
x y
| | c c
( =
|

c c
\ .
}} }

( )
1
2 2 3 4 2 1
0 S
F F
dxdy x x x x dx
x y
| | c c
= +
|
c c
\ .
}} }

( )
1
1 5 4
4 3 2 1
0 0
5 4
S
F F x x
dxdy x x dx
x y
( | | c c
= =
| (
c c
\ .
}} }

2 1
1 1 1
5 4 20
S
F F
dxdy
x y
| | c c
= =
|
c c
\ .
}}
----------------(1)
(2) Now we have to find line integral along two curves.
Along
2
, 2 y x dy xdx = = .
So,
1 1
2 2
1 2
( )
C C
Fdx F dy xy y dx x dy ( + = + +
} }

1
1
2 4 2
1 2
0
( . ) .2
C
Fdx F dy x x x dx x xdx ( + = + +
} }

1
1
1 4 5
3 4
1 2
0 0
3
(3 )
4 5
C
x x
Fdx F dy x x dx
(
( + = + = +
(


} }


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
1
1 2
3 1 19
4 5 20
C
Fdx F dy + = + =
}

Along , y x dy dx = =
So,
2 2
2 2
1 2
( )
C C
Fdx F dy xy y dx x dy ( + = + +
} }

2
0
2 2
1 2
1
( . ) .
C
Fdx F dy x x x dx x dx ( + = + +
} }

2
0
0
2 3
1 2
1
1
3 0 1 1
C
Fdx F dy x dx x ( ( + = = = =
} }

Now,
1 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
19 1
1
20 20
C C C
Fdx F dy Fdx F dy Fdx F dy + = + + + = =
} } }
----------(2)
From(1) and (2) it verifies Greens theorem.
5. Evaluate .
S
F dS
}

where
2 2

4 2 F xi y j z k = +

and S is the surface bounding the region


2 2
4 x y + = , 0, 3 z z = = .
Ans:



By divergence theorem .
S V
F ds divFdv =
} }


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2 2
. (4 ) ( 2 ) ( )
S V
F ds x y z dv
x y z
( c c c
= + +
(
c c c

} }

| | . 4 4 2
S V
F ds y z dxdydz = +
} } } }


| |
2
2
2 4 3
2 0
4
. 4 4 2
x
S
x
F ds y z dxdydz


= +
} } } }


2
2
2 4
3
2
0
2
4
. 4 4
x
z
S
x
F ds z yz z dxdy


( = +
} } }


| | | |
2 2
2 2
2 4 2 4
2 2
4 4
. 12 12 9 21 12
x x
S
x x
F ds y dxdy y dxdy



= + =
} } } } }


2
2
2
4
2
4
2
. 21 6
x
x
S
F ds y y dx

( =
} }


2
2
2
. 42 4 0
S
F ds x dx

(
=

} }


2
2
2
. 42 4
S
F ds x dx

=
} }


2
2
1
2
4 4
. 42 sin
2 2 2
S
x x x
F ds

= + (
(

}


1 1
. 42 0 0 2sin 1 2sin ( 1)
S
F ds

( = +
}


1
. 42 4sin 1 42 4 84
2
S
F ds
t
t

( = = =
}
(Ans).
6. Evaluate
C
F dR
}

, where

2 F yi zj xk = +

and the curve cos , sin , 2cos x t y t z t = = =


from 0 / 2 t to t = .
Ans: Here

2 F yi zj xk = +



DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
So,


2 ( ) (2 ) (2 )
i j k
F dR y z x i zdz xdy j ydz xdx k ydy zdx
dx dy dz
= = + +


Now,

( ) (2 ) (2 )
C C
F dR i zdz xdy j ydz xdx k ydy zdx = + +
} }


2 2 /2
0

(4sin cos cos ) ( 4sin sin cos )

(2sin cos 2sin cos )


C
i t tdt tdt j tdt t tdt
F dR
k t tdt t tdt
t
+
=
+
} }


( )
/2
2 2
0

(4sin cos cos ) (4sin sin cos )
C
F dR i t t t j t t t dt
t
= +
} }


/2
0
1 cos2 sin2

2sin2 2(1 cos2)
2 2
C
t t
F dR i t j t dt
t
| + | | | | |
= +
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
} }


/2
0
sin2
cos2
2

cos2 2 sin2
2 4
C
t
t
t
F dR i t j t t
t
| | | |
+
| |
| |
= + +
| | |
\ .
| |
|
\ . \ .
}


0 0 0
1 1
2

1 1 2 0 0 0
2 2 4
C
F dR i j
t
t
| | | |
+
| |
| | | |
= + + + +
| | | |
\ . \ .
| |
|
\ . \ .
}


1

2
4 2
C
F dR i j
t
t
| | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .
}

(Ans)
May-June, 2007

7. Find the work done in moving a particle in the force field:
2

3 (2 ) F x i xz y j zk = + +

, along:
(a) The straight line from (0, 0, 0) to (2, 1, 3).
Ans: Theequation of straight line joining (0, 0, 0) and (2, 1, 3) is

0 0 0
2 , , 3
2 0 1 0 3 0
x y z
t x t y t z t

= = = = = =

where 0 t = to 1 t =
So, Work done .
C
F dr =
}



1
2
0
Work done 3(2) .2 (4 (3 )) 3.3 t dt t t t dt t dt = + +
}


( ) ( )
1 1
2 2 2
0 0
Work done 24 12 8 36 8 t t t dt t t dt = + + = +
} }


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

1
3 2
0
Work done 12 4 12 4 0 0 16 t t ( = + = + =


(b) The curve defined by
2 3
4 ,3 8 x y x z = = from 0, 2 x x = = .
Ans:
2 3
4 ,3 8 x y x z = =
Let
2 3
3
,
4 8
t t
x t y z = = = where 0, 2 t t = =
So, Work done .
C
F dr =
}



1 4 2 3 2
2
0
3 3 9
Work done 3 .
4 4 2 8 8
t t t t t
t dt dt dt
| |
= + +
|
\ .
}


1 1 5 3 5 3 5
2 2
0 0
3 27 51
Work done 3 3
8 8 64 8 64
t t t t t
t dt t dt = + + = +
} }


2
4 6
3
0
17 16 17 64 1 17
Work done 8 8 16
32 128 32 128 2 2
t t
t
(
= + = + = + =
(

(Ans)
8. Evaluate divergence and curl of
2 2 3

3 5 F x i xy j xyz k = + +

at the point (1, 2, 3).


Ans:
2 2 3

3 5 F x i xy j xyz k = + +



2
( ) 6 10 3 div F x xy xyz = + +



(1,2,3)
( ) 6 20 54 80 div F = + + =

(Ans).
Now,

2 2 3

( )
3 5
i j k
curl F
x y z
x xy xyz
c c c
=
c c c



3 3 2

( ) ( 0) ( 0) (5 0) curl F i xz j yz k y = +



3 3 2

( ) 5 curl F xz i yz j y k = +



(1,2,3)

( ) 9 54 20 curl F i j k = +

(Ans).
9. Use divergence theorem to evaluate .
S
F dS
}

where
2 2

4 2 F xi y j z k = +

and S is the
surface bounding the region
2 2
4 x y + = , 0, 3 z z = = .
Ans:

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT


By divergence theorem .
S V
F ds divFdv =
} }


2 2
. (4 ) ( 2 ) ( )
S V
F ds x y z dv
x y z
( c c c
= + +
(
c c c

} }

| | . 4 4 2
S V
F ds y z dxdydz = +
} } } }


| |
2
2
2 4 3
2 0
4
. 4 4 2
x
S
x
F ds y z dxdydz


= +
} } } }


2
2
2 4
3
2
0
2
4
. 4 4
x
z
S
x
F ds z yz z dxdy


( = +
} } }


| | | |
2 2
2 2
2 4 2 4
2 2
4 4
. 12 12 9 21 12
x x
S
x x
F ds y dxdy y dxdy



= + =
} } } } }


2
2
2
4
2
4
2
. 21 6
x
x
S
F ds y y dx

( =
} }


2
2
2
. 42 4 0
S
F ds x dx

(
=

} }


2
2
2
. 42 4
S
F ds x dx

=
} }


2
2
1
2
4 4
. 42 sin
2 2 2
S
x x x
F ds

= + (
(

}


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

1 1
. 42 0 0 2sin 1 2sin ( 1)
S
F ds

( = +
}


1
. 42 4sin 1 42 4 84
2
S
F ds
t
t

( = = =
}
(Ans).
Nov - Dec, 2007
10. Define Gradient.
Ans. Gradient of a scalar point function : -Let f be a scalar point function then vector point function
f V is known as gradient of f. Its geometrical interpretation is grad(f) is the normal to the
surface f =const.So,

( )
f f f
grad f f i j k
x y z
c c c
= V = + +
c c c

11. Find the values of a and b such that the surfaces x a byz ax ) 2 (
2
+ = and 4 4
3 2
= + z y x
cut orthogonally at (1, -1, 2).
Ans: - Here 0 ) 2 (
2
= + = x a byz ax F and 0 4 4
3 2
= + = z y x G
So, k by j bz i a ax F

) 2 2 ( = V and k z j x i xy G

8
2 2
+ + = V
| k b j b i a F

2

) 2 (
) 2 , 1 , 1 (
+ = V

| k j i G

12

8
) 2 , 1 , 1 (
+ + = V


As surfaces are orthogonal, so 0 12 8 16 8 0 = + + = V V b b a G F
0 4 2 0 16 8 4 = + + = + b a a b ---------------(1)
As point (1, -1, 2) lies on the surface, so it satisfies surface F.
1 0 2 2 0 ) 2 ( 2 = = = + + b b a b a
Putting in (1) we get 2 / 5 0 4 1 2 = = + + a a
So, 1 , 2 / 5 = = b a (Ans).
12. If
( )
2 2 2

( ) 2 F x y i xyj y xy k = + +

then find dif F and Curl F .


Ans:
If
( )
2 2 2

( ) 2 F x y i xyj y xy k = + +

then dif F will be defined as


( ) { }
2 2 2

. . ( ) 2
f f f
F i j k x y i xyj y xy k
x y z
| | c c c
V = + + + +
|
c c c
\ .

{ } . (2 2 F x x V = +

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
If
( )
2 2 2

( ) 2 F x y i xyj y xy k = + +

then Curl F will be defined as


( ) { }
2 2 2

( ) 2
f f f
F i j k x y i xyj y xy k
x y z
| | c c c
V = + + + +
|
c c c
\ .

( )
2 2 2

( ) (2 )
i j k
F
x y z
x y xy y xy
c c c
V =
c c c
+


{ } { } { }

2 2 2 F y x i y j y y k V = + +


{ } { }

2 F y x i y j V = +

Ans.
13. Verify Stokes theorem for the vector field
2 2

( ) 2 F x y i xyj = +

taken around the


rectangle bounded by , 0 x a y to y b = = =
Ans: Stokes theoremstates that . ( ).
C S
F dr curl F nds =
} }}

1

Here C is Rectangle bounded by , x a y b = =
( ) ( )
2 2

. ( ) 2 . F dr x y i xyj idx jdy kdz = + + +


( )
2 2
. ( ) 2 F dr x y dx xydy = +


( )
2 2
. ( ) 2 F dr x y dx xydy = +


So,
( )
2 2
. ( ) 2
C C DA AB BC CD
F dr x y dx xydy = + = + + +
} } } } } }



( )
0
2 2 2
0
2 2
a b a
DA AB BC CD a a b
x dx aydy x b dx aydy

+ + + = + + + +
} } } } } } } }


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

( )
0
2 2 2
0 0
4 2 2
a b a b
DA AB BC CD a a b
x dx aydy x b dx aydy aydy

(
+ + + = + + =
(

} } } } } } } } }


3 2 3
2
0
4
3 2 3
a b a
DA AB BC CD a a
x ay x
b x

( ( (
+ + + = + +
( ( (

} } } }


3 3
2 2
2 2
2 2
3 3
DA AB BC CD
a a
ab ab
( (
+ + + = +
( (

} } } }


2
4
DA AB BC CD
ab + + + =
} } } }
2

( ).
S
curl F nds
}}


( ) curl F F = V

=
2 2

( ) ( 2 ) 0
i j k
F
x y z
x y xy
c c c
V =
c c c
+


( )

2 2 4 F y y k yk V = =

0
( ). ( )
b a
S a
curl F nds curl F Nds

=
}} } }



( )

( )
0 0 0
( ) 4 4
b a b a b a
a a a
curl F Nds yk kds y dxdy

= =
} } } } } }

( ) ( )
0 0 0
( ) 4 4
b a b a b
a
a
a a
curl F Nds y dxdy yx dy


= =
} } } } }

( ) ( )
0 0 0
( ) 4 4 2
b a b a b
a a
curl F Nds y dxdy ay dy

= =
} } } } }

( ) ( )
2 2
0
0 0 0
( ) 4 4 2 4 4
b a b a b
b
a a
curl F Nds y dxdy ay dy a y ab

( = = = =
} } } } }

..3
From 1 , 2, and 3
rd
we can Verify the Stokess theorem


(May-Jun-2008)

14. Define gradient.

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
Ans. Gradient of a scalar point function : -Let f be a scalar point function then vector point function
f V is known as gradient of f. Its geometrical interpretation is grad(f) is the normal to the
surface f =const.So,

( )
f f f
grad f f i j k
x y z
c c c
= V = + +
c c c

15. Find the values of a and b such that the surfaces and
cut orthogonally at (1, -1, 2).
Ans: - Here 0 ) 2 (
2
= + = x a byz ax F and 0 4 4
3 2
= + = z y x G
So, k by j bz i a ax F

) 2 2 ( = V and k z j x i xy G

8
2 2
+ + = V
| k b j b i a F

2

) 2 (
) 2 , 1 , 1 (
+ = V

| k j i G

12

8
) 2 , 1 , 1 (
+ + = V


As surfaces are orthogonal, so 0 12 8 16 8 0 = + + = V V b b a G F
0 4 2 0 16 8 4 = + + = + b a a b ---------------(1)
As point (1, -1, 2) lies on the surface, so it satisfies surface F.
1 0 2 2 0 ) 2 ( 2 = = = + + b b a b a
Putting in (1) we get 2 / 5 0 4 1 2 = = + + a a
So, 1 , 2 / 5 = = b a (Ans).
16. Prove that :
2
2
( ) ''( ) '( ) f r f r f r
r
V = +
Ans: -
2 2 2

z y x k z j y i x R r + + = + + = =


( ) V = V V
2
( ) . ( ) f r f r
V ( ) f r = ( )
| | c c c
+ +
|
c c c
\ .

( ) i j k f r
x y z

( ) ( ) ( )
| | c c c
V = + +
|
c c c
\ .

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) f r i f r j f r k f r
x y z

| | c c c
V = + +
|
c c c
\ .

/ / /

( ) ( )
r r r
f r f r i f j f k
x y z

| |
V = + +
|
\ .

/

( ) ( )
y x z
f r f r i j k
r r r

V =

/
( )
( )
f r R
f r
r

( )
| |
|
V = V V V
|
|
\ .

2
/
( )
( ) . ( ) .
f r R
f r f r
r

x a byz ax ) 2 (
2
+ = 4 4
3 2
= + z y x

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
| | | | | | | |
V = V + V
| | | |
|
\ . \ . \ . \ .

2 / /
( ) ( ) . . ( )
R R
f r f r f r
r r

( ( | | | | | | | | c c c c c c
V = + + + + +
( ( | | | |
c c c c c c
( \ . \ . \ . \ .

2 / /

( ) ( ) . ( )
R R
f r f r i j k i j k f r
x y z r r x y z

( | |
( | | | | | | c c c c c c
( |
V = + + + + + + +
( | | |
( c c c c c c |
\ . \ . \ . + + + + + +
\ .

2 / /

( ) ( ) . ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
x x x R
f r f r i j k i j k i j k f r
x y z r x y z
x y z x y z x y z

( | | | | | | | |
( | | | | c c c c c c
( | | | |
V = + + + + +
( | |
( | c c c c c c | | |
\ . \ . + + + + + +
\ . \ . \ . \ .

2 / / /

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
y x z R r r r
f r f r f r i j k
x y z r x y z
x y z x y z x y z

( | | | |
( | | | | c c c c
( | |
V = + + +
( | |
( | c c c c |
\ . \ . + +
\ . \ .


2 / / /

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
x R r r r
f r f r f r i j k
x r x y z
x y z

( ) ( )
( )
( | | | |
c c
+ + + + ( | |
| |
( | |
c c
( | | V = + + +
| |
(
( | \ . |
\ .
+ +
| |
(
\ . \ .


2
2 2 2 2 2 2
/ / /

( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2 2
x y z x x x y z
y R x z
x x
f r f r f r i j k
r r r r
x y z

( )
( )
( | | | |
+ +
( | |
( | | | | + +
( | |
V = +
( | |
( | |
(
\ . \ .
( | + + |
| |
(
\ . \ .


2
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2
/ / /
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2 2
x
x y z x
x y z R R
f r f r f r
r r
x y z

( )
( )
( )
( | | | |
( + + | | ( | |
V = ( + | | ( |
( ( | \ . |
+ + + +
| |
(
\ . \ .


2
2 2 2 2 2
/ / /
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
x y z x
R
f r f r f r
r
x y z x y z

( )
( )
( | | | |
( | |
( | |
( | |
V = +
( |
( | |
(
\ .
+ +
+ +
( | |
\ . \ .


2
2
2
1
/ / /
( ) ( ) ( )
3/ 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
x R
f r f r f r
r
x y z
x y z

( )
( )
( | |
( |
( | | + +
( |
V = +
( |
( |
(
\ .
+ +
+ +
| (
\ .

2
2
2 2 2
3
/ / /
( ) ( ) ( )
3/ 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
x y z R
f r f r f r
r
x y z
x y z


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
( ) ( )
( | |
( | ( | |
V = + ( | ( |
( ( \ . |
+ +
|
(
\ .

2
2
2
3
/ / /
( ) ( ) ( )
3/ 2
2 2 2 2
r R
f r f r f r
r
x y z r

( )
( | |
( | ( | |
V = + ( | ( |
( ( \ . |
+ +
|
(
\ .

2
2
3 1
/ / /
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
R
f r f r f r
r r
x y z

( ) ( )
( | |
( | ( | |
V = + ( | ( |
( ( \ . |
+ + + +
|
(
\ .

2
2
3 1
/ / /
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
R
f r f r f r
r
x y z x y z

( )
( | |
( | ( | |
V = + ( | ( |
( ( \ . |
+ +
|
(
\ .

2
2
2
/ / /
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
R
f r f r f r
r
x y z

( )
( ) ( )
( | |
( |
( | |
V = + = + + + + = + + = ( |
|
(
\ .
( |
+ +
|
(
\ .

2
2
2
2
/ / / 2 2 2 2

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ).( )
2 2 2
r
f r f r f r R xi yj zk xi yj zk x y z r
r
x y z

( | |
V = +
|
(
\ .
2
2
/ / /
( ) ( ) ( ) Pr f r f r f r Hence oved
r


17. Evaluate the line integral
2 2 2
( ) ( )
C
x xy dx x y dy + + +
}
where C is square formed by the
lines y =1, x = 1.
Ans. Here C is Square bounded by 1, 1 x y = =

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT


So,
2 2 2
. ( ) ( )
C C DA AB BC CD
F dr x xy dx x y dy = + + + = + + +
} } } } } }



( )
0
2 2 2
0
2 2
a b a
DA AB BC CD a a b
x dx aydy x b dx aydy

+ + + = + + + +
} } } } } } } }


( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
1 1
DA AB BC CD
x x dx y dy x x dx y dy


+ + + = + + + + + +
} } } } } } } }


( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
DA AB BC CD
x x dx y dy x x dx y dy y dy y dy


(
+ + + = + + + + + + = +
(

} } } } } } } } } }

( ) ( )
1 1
2 2
1 1 DA AB BC CD
x x dx x x dx

+ + + = + +
} } } } } }

1 1 1 1
3 2 3 2
1 1 1 1
3 2 3 2
DA AB BC CD
x x x x


( ( ( (
+ + + = + +
( ( ( (

} } } }

2 2
0
3 3
DA AB BC CD
( (
+ + + = + =
( (

} } } }

2 2 2
. ( ) ( )
C C DA AB BC CD
F dr x xy dx x y dy = + + + = + + +
} } } } } }

= 0

(Nov Dec 2008)

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
18. Evaluate Ji: (3x
2
t + 5xy
2
+ 5xyz
3
k
`
) at (1, 2, 3).
Ans: -
2 2 3 2 2 3

3 5 5 3 5 5 div x i xy j xyz k x xy xyz
x y z
c c c
(
+ + = + +

c c c


2 2 3 2

3 5 5 6 10 15 div x i xy j xyz k x xy xyz
(
+ + = + +



2 2 3
(1,2,3)

3 5 5 6 20 270 296 div x i xy j xyz k
(
+ + = + + =

(Ans).

19. What is the directional derivative of
2 3
xy yz | = + at the point (2, -1, 1) in the direction of
normal to the surface at (-1, 2, 1)?
Ans: Let
2 3
xy yz | = +

The gradient of above is
| V and its directional derivative is in the direction of unit vector normal to the surface

( )
(2, 1,1)

i j k
x y z
| |

| | c c c
V = + +
|
c c c
\ .

( ) ( )
2 3
(2, 1,1)

i j k xy yz
x y z
|

| | c c c
V = + + +
|
c c c
\ .

( ) ( ) ( )
2 3 2
(2, 1,1)

2 3 y i yx z j yz k |

V = + + +
( )
( )
(2, 1,1)

3 3 i j k |

V =
Normal vector to the surface
( )
2
log 4 x z y = is given by
( )
2
log 4 x z y V =

( ) ( )
2 2

log 4 log 4 x z y i j k x z y
x y z
| | c c c
V + = + + +
|
c c c
\ .

( ) ( )
2

log 4 4 x z y j k V + =
Now directional derivative of
2 3
xy yz | = +

in the direction of
( )

4j k will be
( )
( )

4

3 3 .
17
j k
i j k


Which is equal to
15
17


20. If = (x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
)
-n
, find Ji:(groJ()) and determine n if Ji:(groJ()) =
0.
Ans: -
2 2 2

z y x k z j y i x R r + + = + + = =



( ) ( )
2 2 2
2
n
n
x y z r


+ + =
4 log
2
= y z x
4 log
2
= y z x

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
( ) ( ) . div gradf f = V V
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2
n
n
f x y z r


V = V + + = V
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2

n n n
r r r
f i j k
x y z

| |
c c c
|
V = + +
| c c c
\ .

( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 1 2 1 2 1

2 2 2
r r r n n n
f n r i n r j n r k
x y z
c c | | c
V =
|
c c c
\ .

( ) ( )
2 1

2
r r r n
f n r i j k
x y z
| | c c c
| |
V = + +
|
|
c c c \ .
\ .

( ) ( )
2 1

2
x y z n
f n r i j k
r r r
| |
| |
V = + +
|
|
\ .
\ .

( ) ( )
2 1
2
R n
f n r
r

| |
V =
|
\ .


( ) ( )
2 1
2
R n
f n r
r


| |
V V = V
| `
\ .

)


( ) ( )
2 1

2
R n
f i j k n r
x y z r
| | c c c
| |
V V = + +
| ` |
c c c \ .
\ . )


( ) ( ) ( )
2 1

2
R n
f n i j k r
x y z r
| | c c c
V V = + +
` |
c c c
\ . )


( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 1 2 1

2
x y z R n n
f n r i j k i j k r
x r y r z r r x y z
( | | | | c c c c c c
V V = + + + + +
` ` ` ( | |
c c c c c c
) ) )
\ . \ .


( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 1 2 1

2
2 2 2
r x x r r y y r r z z r
R n n
x x x x x x
f n r i r
r x
r r r
( | | c c c c c c

( |
| | c
c c c c c c
V V = + + + ( |
|
c
( | \ .
|
(
\ .


( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 1 2 2

2 2 1
2 2 2
x y z
r x r y r z
R r n n
r r r
f n r n r i
r x
r r r
( | |

( | | | c
V V = + + +
( | |
c
\ .
( |
( \ .



DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 1 2 2

2 2 1
2 2 2
x y z
r x r y r z
R x n n
r r r
f n r n r i
r r
r r r
( | |

( | | |
V V = + + +
( | |
\ .
( |
( \ .


( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 1 2 2
2 2 1
3 3 3
r x r y r z R R n n
f n r n r
r r
r r r
( | |
| |

( | V V = + + +
|
|
(
\ .
\ .


( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 1 2 2
2 2 1
3 3 3
y z x z y x R n n
f n r n r
r
r r r
( | |
| |
| |
+ + +
( |
| V V = + + +
|
( | |
|
\ .
\ .
(
\ .


( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
2 2 2 2
2
2 1 2 2
2 2 1
3
x y z
R n n
f n r n r
r
r
( | |
| |
+ +
| |
( |
|
V V = +
|
( |
|
|
\ . |
(
\ .
\ .


( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2 2 2
2 .2 2 1 .1 1
R n n
f n r n r
r
(
| |
( | |
(
V V = + =
| |
(
(
\ .
\ .
(


( ) ( )( ) | |
2 2
2 .2 2 1
n
f n r n

V V =
( ) ( )( ) | |
2 2
2 . 2 1
n
f n r n

V V = +
( ) 0 f V V =
( )( ) | | | |
2 2
2 . 2 1 0 . 2 1 0 1/ 2
n
n r n n n

+ = + = =



21. Verify Greens theorem for: where C is bounded by
.
Ans:

By Greens theorem
2 1
1 2
C S
F F
Fdx F dy dxdy
x y
| | c c
+ =
|
c c
\ .
} }}

2 2
( )
C
xy y dx x dy ( + +
}
2
, y x y x = =

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
Here
2 2

( ) F xy y i x j = + +


So,
2 1
2 , 2
F F
x x y
x y
c c
= = +
c c

( )
2
1
2 1
0
2 2
x
S x
F F
dxdy x x y dxdy
x y
| | c c
=
|
c c
\ .
}} } }

2
1
2 2 1
0
x
x
S
F F
dxdy xy y dx
x y
| | c c
( =
|

c c
\ .
}} }

( )
1
2 2 3 4 2 1
0 S
F F
dxdy x x x x dx
x y
| | c c
= +
|
c c
\ .
}} }

( )
1
1 5 4
4 3 2 1
0 0
5 4
S
F F x x
dxdy x x dx
x y
( | | c c
= =
| (
c c
\ .
}} }

2 1
1 1 1
5 4 20
S
F F
dxdy
x y
| | c c
= =
|
c c
\ .
}}
----------------(1)
Now we have to find line integral along two curves.
Along
2
, 2 y x dy xdx = = .
So,
1 1
2 2
1 2
( )
C C
Fdx F dy xy y dx x dy ( + = + +
} }

1
1
2 4 2
1 2
0
( . ) .2
C
Fdx F dy x x x dx x xdx ( + = + +
} }

1
1
1 4 5
3 4
1 2
0 0
3
(3 )
4 5
C
x x
Fdx F dy x x dx
(
( + = + = +
(


} }

1
1 2
3 1 19
4 5 20
C
Fdx F dy + = + =
}

Along , y x dy dx = =
So,
2 2
2 2
1 2
( )
C C
Fdx F dy xy y dx x dy ( + = + +
} }

2
0
2 2
1 2
1
( . ) .
C
Fdx F dy x x x dx x dx ( + = + +
} }

2
0
0
2 3
1 2
1
1
3 0 1 1
C
Fdx F dy x dx x ( ( + = = = =
} }

Now,
1 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
19 1
1
20 20
C C C
Fdx F dy Fdx F dy Fdx F dy + = + + + = =
} } }
---------- (2)
From(1) and (2) it verifies Greens theorem.



DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
May-June 2009
22. State the Greens theorem in the plane.
Ans: If C be the regular closed curve in xy plane bounding any region R and
1
( , ) F x y and
2
( , ) F x y be continuous functions on C and its interior, having continuous partial derivatives
1
F
y
c
c
and
2
F
x
c
c
in R, then ( )
2 1
1 2
C R
F F
Fdx F dy dxdy
x y
| | c c
+ =
|
c c
\ .
} } }
, the line integral being
taken along the boundary C of R such that R is on the left as one advances in the direction of
integration.
23. Prove that
5 3
1 3( )( ) A R B R A B
A B
r r r
| |
V V =
|
\ .
where A and B are constants vectors

R xi yj zk = + + and
2 2 2
r x y z = + + .


Ans:
2 2 2
r x y z = + +

( )
( )
3/2
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1

2 2 2
2
xi yj k
r
x y z x y z
V = V = + +
+ + + +


3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1 R
R
r r r
x y z
V = V = =
+ +


3
1 B R
B
r r

V =

3
1 B R
B
r r
| | | |
V V = V
| |
\ . \ .

( ) ( )
3 3
1 1 1
B B R B R
r r r
| | | |
V V = V V
| |
\ . \ .
-----------(1)
Where
( ) ( )

B R ai cj ck xi yj zk ax by cz = + + + + = + +
( ) ( )

B R ax by cz ai cj ck B V = V + + = + + =
So equation (1) becomes
( ) ( )
3 4
1 3 B
B B R r
r r r
| |
V V = V
|
\ .


( )
( )
2 2 2
3 4
1
3
B R B
B x y z
r r r

| |
V V = + V + +
|
\ .


( )
( )
3 4
2 2 2
1 1

3 2 2 2
2
B R B
B xi yj k
r r r
x y z

| |
V V = + + +
|
\ . + +


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

( )
3 5
1
3
B R B
B R
r r r

| |
V V = +
|
\ .


( )( )
3 5
1
3
A R B R A B
A B
r r r
| |
V V = +
|
\ .


( )( )
5 3
1
3
A R B R A B
A B
r r r
| |
V V =
|
\ .
(Proved)
24. A vector is given by
2 2

( ) (2 ) F x y x i xy y j = + +

. Show that the field is irrotational and


find its scalar potential. Hence evaluate the line integral from (1, 2) to (2, 1).
Ans: Here
2 2

( ) (2 ) F x y x i xy y j = + +



2 2

( ) (2 ) 0
i j k
F
x y z
x y x xy y
c c c
V =
c c c
+ +




(0 0) (0 0) ( 2 2 ) 0 F i j k y y V = + + =


So,
2 2

( ) (2 ) F x y x i xy y j = + +

is irrotational and can be expressed as the gradient


of a scalar potential.
Hence, F | = V



2 2

( ) (2 ) x y x i xy y j i j
x y
| | c c
+ + = +
c c


2 2
( )..........(1) (2 )..........(2) x y x xy y
x y
| | c c
= + = +
c c

Now, integrating (1) we get

3 2
2
( )............(3)
3 2
x x
y x f y | = + +
Now, differentiating (3) with respect to y we get
2 '( ) yx f y
y
| c
= +
c

(2 ) 2 '( ) xy y yx f y + = +

2
'( ) ( )
2
y
f y y f y = =
So,
3 2 2
2
3 2 2
x x y
y x | = + (Ans)
Again . F dR
}

from(1, 2) to (2, 1)
| |
(1,2) (2,1)
| | =

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
1 1 4 8 4 1
. 4 2
3 2 2 3 2 2
F dR
| | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .
}


2 24 3 12 16 12 12 3 31 13 44 22
.
6 6 6 6 6 3
F dR
+ + | | | |
= = = =
| |
\ . \ .
}

(Ans)
25. Verify Stokes theorem for the vector field
2 2

(2 ) F x y i yz j y zk =

on the upper half


surface of
2 2 2
1 x y z + + = , bounded by its projection on the xy-plane.
Ans: Stokes theoremstates that . ( ).
C S
F dr curl F nds =
} }}


Here C is unit circle
2 2
1, 0 x y z + = =
( ) ( )
2 2

. (2 ) . F dr x y i yz j y zk idx jdy kdz = + +


( )
2 2
. (2 ) F dr x y dx yz dy y zdz =


Here C is z =0, dz =0 and cos , sin x y u u = =
. (2 ) F dr x y dx =


So,
2
0
. (2 ) (2cos sin )( sin )
C C
F dr x y dx d
t
u u u u = =
} } }



2
0
1 cos2
. sin2
2
C
F dr d
t
u
u u
| |
= +
|
\ .
} }


2
0
cos2 sin2
.
2 2 4
C
F dr
t
u u u (
= +
(


1 1 2 0 0 0
.
2 2 4
C
F dr
t
t

= + =
}

-------(1)
Now,
2 2

(2 ) F x y i yz j y zk =


2 2

( )
2
i j k
curl F
x y z
x y yz y z
c c c
=
c c c



( ) ( 2 2 ) (0 0) (0 1) curl F i yz yz j k k = + + + =


By using spherical co-ordinate we have

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

sin cos sin sin cos n i j k u | u | u = + +
So, ( ). cos curl F n u =


Hence
/2 2
0 0
( ). cos .sin
S
curl F nds d d
t t
u |
u u u |
= =
=
}} } }


/2 2
0 0
( ). cos .sin
S
curl F nds d d
t t
u |
u u u |
= =
=
}} } }


|
/2
2
2
0
0
sin
( ).
2
S
curl F nds
t
t u
|
(
=
(

}}


1 0
( ). (2 0)
2
S
curl F nds t t

= =
}}

------------(2)
From(1) and (2) it verifies Stokes theorem. (Ans)

Nov-Dec, 2009
26. Find
2 2 3

3 5 3 div x i xy j xyz k
(
+ +

at the point (1,2,3) .
Ans: -
2 2 3 2 2 3

3 5 3 3 5 3 div x i xy j xyz k x xy xyz
x y z
c c c
(
+ + = + +

c c c


2 2 3 2

3 5 3 6 10 9 div x i xy j xyz k x xy xyz
(
+ + = + +



2 2 3
(1,2,3)

3 5 3 6 20 162 188 div x i xy j xyz k
(
+ + = + + =

(Ans).
27. Verify Greens theorem for:
2 2
( )
C
xy y dx x dy ( + +
}
where C is bounded by
2
, y x y x = = .
Ans: -

By Greens theorem
2 1
1 2
C S
F F
Fdx F dy dxdy
x y
| | c c
+ =
|
c c
\ .
} }}



DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
(3) Here
2 2

( ) F xy y i x j = + +


So,
2 1
2 , 2
F F
x x y
x y
c c
= = +
c c

( )
2
1
2 1
0
2 2
x
S x
F F
dxdy x x y dxdy
x y
| | c c
=
|
c c
\ .
}} } }

2
1
2 2 1
0
x
x
S
F F
dxdy xy y dx
x y
| | c c
( =
|

c c
\ .
}} }

( )
1
2 2 3 4 2 1
0 S
F F
dxdy x x x x dx
x y
| | c c
= +
|
c c
\ .
}} }

( )
1
1 5 4
4 3 2 1
0 0
5 4
S
F F x x
dxdy x x dx
x y
( | | c c
= =
| (
c c
\ .
}} }

2 1
1 1 1
5 4 20
S
F F
dxdy
x y
| | c c
= =
|
c c
\ .
}}
----------------(1)
(4) Now we have to find line integral along two curves.
Along
2
, 2 y x dy xdx = = .
So,
1 1
2 2
1 2
( )
C C
Fdx F dy xy y dx x dy ( + = + +
} }

1
1
2 4 2
1 2
0
( . ) .2
C
Fdx F dy x x x dx x xdx ( + = + +
} }

1
1
1 4 5
3 4
1 2
0 0
3
(3 )
4 5
C
x x
Fdx F dy x x dx
(
( + = + = +
(


} }
1
1 2
3 1 19
4 5 20
C
Fdx F dy + = + =
}

Along , y x dy dx = =
So,
2 2
2 2
1 2
( )
C C
Fdx F dy xy y dx x dy ( + = + +
} }

2
0
2 2
1 2
1
( . ) .
C
Fdx F dy x x x dx x dx ( + = + +
} }

2
0
0
2 3
1 2
1
1
3 0 1 1
C
Fdx F dy x dx x ( ( + = = = =
} }

Now,
1 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
19 1
1
20 20
C C C
Fdx F dy Fdx F dy Fdx F dy + = + + + = =
} } }
----------(2)
From(1) and (2) it verifies Greens theorem.
OR

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
28. Evaluate .
S
F ndS
}

where
2 2

4 2 F xi y j z k = +

and S is the surface bounding the region


2 2
4 x y + = , 0, 3 z z = = .
Ans: -






By divergence theorem .
S V
F ds divFdv =
} }


2 2
. (4 ) ( 2 ) ( )
S V
F ds x y z dv
x y z
( c c c
= + +
(
c c c

} }
| | . 4 4 2
S V
F ds y z dxdydz = +
} } } }


| |
2
2
2 4 3
2 0
4
. 4 4 2
x
S
x
F ds y z dxdydz


= +
} } } }
2
2
2 4
3
2
0
2
4
. 4 4
x
z
S
x
F ds z yz z dxdy


( = +
} } }


| | | |
2 2
2 2
2 4 2 4
2 2
4 4
. 12 12 9 21 12
x x
S
x x
F ds y dxdy y dxdy



= + =
} } } } }


2
2
2
4
2
4
2
. 21 6
x
x
S
F ds y y dx

( =
} }
2
2
2
. 42 4 0
S
F ds x dx

(
=

} }


2
2
2
. 42 4
S
F ds x dx

=
} }
2
2
1
2
4 4
. 42 sin
2 2 2
S
x x x
F ds

= + (
(

}


1 1
. 42 0 0 2sin 1 2sin ( 1)
S
F ds

( = +
}
1
. 42 4sin 1 42 4 84
2
S
F ds
t
t

( = = =
}

(Ans).
29. Find the directional derivative of
2 3
( , , ) f x y z xy yz = + at (2, 1,1) in the direction of
vector

2 2 i j k + +
.

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
Ans: -
2 3
( , , ) f x y z xy yz = +

2 3
[ ( , , )] [ ] grad f x y z grad xy yz = +

2 3 2

(2 ) 3 f y i xy z j yz k V = + + + |
(2, 1,1)

3 3 f i j k

V =
Given that

2 2 a i j k = + +


So, directional derivative of
2 3
( , , ) f x y z xy yz = + at (2,-1,1) in the direction of

2 2 a i j k = + +

is
|
( )
(2, 1,1)

2 2 1 6 6 11

3 3
3 3
2 2
a i j k
f i j k
a
i j k

+ +
= V = = =
+ +

(Ans).

May-June 2010
30. Explain in brief the directional derivatives.
It is the maximumrate of change of a scalar point function in the direction of a vector.
So, directional derivative of f at a point P in the direction of vector a

is given by
a
f
a
V


31. Evaluate
}
+
C
ds z xy ) (
2
, where C is the arc of the helix t z t y t x = = = , sin , cos , which joins
the points ) 0 , 0 , 1 ( and ) , 0 , 1 ( t .
Ans: - Here z t = , so 0 0 z t t t s s s s

2 2 2
2 2
sin cos 1 2
dx dy dz
ds dt t t dt dt
dt dt dt
| | | | | |
= + + = + + =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

Now,
2 2
0
( ) (sin .cos ) 2
C
xy z ds t t t dt
t
+ = +
} }


3
2 2
0
0
sin2 cos2
( ) 2 2
2 4 3
C
t t t
xy z ds t dt
t
t
( | | | |
+ = + = +
( | |
\ .
\ .
} }


3 3
2
1 1 2
( ) 2 0
4 3 4 3
C
xy z ds
t t | |
+ = + + =
|
\ .
}
(Ans).
32. Evaluate
}

S
dS F

, where k z j y i x F

2

4
2 2
+ =

and S is the surface bounding the region


3 , 0 , 4
2 2
= = = + z z y x .
Ans:

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT


By divergence theorem .
S V
F ds divFdv =
} }


2 2
. (4 ) ( 2 ) ( )
S V
F ds x y z dv
x y z
( c c c
= + +
(
c c c

} }

| | . 4 4 2
S V
F ds y z dxdydz = +
} } } }
| |
2
2
2 4 3
2 0
4
. 4 4 2
x
S
x
F ds y z dxdydz


= +
} } } }


2
2
2 4
3
2
0
2
4
. 4 4
x
z
S
x
F ds z yz z dxdy


( = +
} } }


| | | |
2 2
2 2
2 4 2 4
2 2
4 4
. 12 12 9 21 12
x x
S
x x
F ds y dxdy y dxdy



= + =
} } } } }


2
2
2
4
2
4
2
. 21 6
x
x
S
F ds y y dx

( =
} }
2
2
2
. 42 4 0
S
F ds x dx

(
=

} }


2
2
2
. 42 4
S
F ds x dx

=
} }
2
2
1
2
4 4
. 42 sin
2 2 2
S
x x x
F ds

= + (
(

}


1 1
. 42 0 0 2sin 1 2sin ( 1)
S
F ds

( = +
}


1
. 42 4sin 1 42 4 84
2
S
F ds
t
t

( = = =
}
(Ans).

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
33. If k x j i y F

3

2
2
+ =

and S is the surface of the parabolic cylinder x y 8


2
= in the first
octant bounded by the planes 6 , 4 = = z y , show that 132 =
}
S
dS N F

.
Ans: -

Here Let
2
8 y x = | , j y i grad

8 ) ( = |
16

4
4 64

8
) (
) (

2 2
+

=
+

= =
y
j y i
y
j y i
j y i
j y i
grad
grad
n
|
|

16
4

16

4

2 2
+
=
+

=
y
i
y
j y i
i n
( )
16
11
16
3 8
16

4

3

2
2 2 2
2
+
=
+
+
=
+

+ =
y
y
y
y y
y
j y i
k x j i y n F


dydz
y
y
dydz
y
y
i n
dydz
N F dS N F
S
} } } } } } }
=
+
+
=

=
4
0
6
0
2
4
0
6
0
2
4
0
6
0
4
11
16
4
16
11



| . 132 6 8
4
11
2 4
11
6
0
4
0
2
= =
(

(
=
}
z
y
dS N F
S

(Proved).
(Nov Dec 2010)
34. State the Greens theoremin the plane.
Ans: If C be the regular closed curve in xy plane bounding any region R and
1
( , ) F x y and
2
( , ) F x y be continuous functions on C and its interior, having continuous partial derivatives
1
F
y
c
c


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
and
2
F
x
c
c
in R, then ( )
2 1
1 2
C R
F F
Fdx F dy dxdy
x y
| | c c
+ =
|
c c
\ .
} } }
, the line integral being taken along
the boundary C of R such that R is on the left as one advances in the direction of integration
Or
Ans: - Greens theorem in the plane: If
x y
y x y x | | , ), , ( ), , ( be continuous in a region
E of the xy plane bounded by a closed curve C, then dxdy
y x
dy dx
E C
} } } |
|
.
|

\
|
c
c

c
c
= +
|
| ) . . ( .
35. Find the values of a and b such that the surfaces x a byz ax ) 2 (
2
+ = and 4 4
3 2
= + z y x
cut orthogonally at (1, -1, 2).
Ans: - Here 0 ) 2 (
2
= + = x a byz ax F and 0 4 4
3 2
= + = z y x G
So, k by j bz i a ax F

) 2 2 ( = V and k z j x i xy G

8
2 2
+ + = V
| k b j b i a F

2

) 2 (
) 2 , 1 , 1 (
+ = V

| k j i G

12

8
) 2 , 1 , 1 (
+ + = V


As surfaces are orthogonal, so 0 12 8 16 8 0 = + + = V V b b a G F
0 4 2 0 16 8 4 = + + = + b a a b ---------------(1)
As point (1, -1, 2) lies on the surface, so it satisfies surface F.
1 0 2 2 0 ) 2 ( 2 = = = + + b b a b a
Putting in (1) we get 2 / 5 0 4 1 2 = = + + a a
So, 1 , 2 / 5 = = b a (Ans).
36. Using Greens theorem, evaluate | |
}
+
C
xdy dx x y cos ) sin ( , where C is the plane triangle
enclosed by the lines
t
t x
y x y
2
,
2
, 0 = = =
Ans: -


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
For | |
}
+
C
xdy dx x y cos ) sin (
Here x
x y
x x y sin , 1 cos , sin =
c
c
=
c
c
= =
|
|
So, by Greens theorem | | dxdy
y x
xdy dx x y
E C
} } } |
|
.
|

\
|
c
c

c
c
= +
|
cos ) sin (
| |
} } }
=
=
=
=
= +
2 /
0
/ 2
0
) 1 sin ( cos ) sin (
t t x
x
x y
y C
dxdy x xdy dx x y
| | | |
} }
=
=
= +
2 /
0
/ 2
0
) 1 sin ( cos ) sin (
t
t
x
x
x
C
dx y x xdy dx x y
| |
} } }
=
=
=
=
+ = = +
2 /
0
2 /
0
) 1 (sin
2 2
) 1 sin ( cos ) sin (
t t
t t
x
x
x
x C
dx x x dx
x
x xdy dx x y
| |
2 /
0
2
2
sin ) cos (
2
cos ) sin (
t
t
(

+ + = +
}
x
x x x x xdy dx x y
C

| |
(

+ + |
.
|

\
|
+ = +
}
0 0 0
8
1
2
0
2
2
cos ) sin (
2
t t t
t
C
xdy dx x y
| | |
.
|

\
|
+ =
(

+ = +
}
t
t t
t
2
4
1
8
2
cos ) sin (
2
C
xdy dx x y (Ans).

37. Find the work done in moving a particle in the force field k z j y xz i x F

) 2 (

3
2
+ + =


along:
i. The straight line from(0, 0, 0) to (2, 1, 3).
ii. The curved defined by z x y x 8 3 , 4
3 2
= = from 0 = x to 2 = x .
Ans: - Theequation of straight line joining (0, 0, 0) and (2, 1, 3) is

0 0 0
2 , , 3
2 0 1 0 3 0
x y z
t x t y t z t

= = = = = =

where 0 t = to 1 t =
So, Work done .
C
F dr =
}



1
2
0
Work done 3(2) .2 (4 (3 )) 3.3 t dt t t t dt t dt = + +
}


( ) ( )
1 1
2 2 2
0 0
Work done 24 12 8 36 8 t t t dt t t dt = + + = +
} }


1
3 2
0
Work done 12 4 12 4 0 0 16 t t ( = + = + =


i. The curved defined by z x y x 8 3 , 4
3 2
= = from 0 = x to 2 = x .

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
Ans: -
2 3
4 ,3 8 x y x z = =
Let
2 3
3
,
4 8
t t
x t y z = = = where 0, 2 t t = =
So, Work done .
C
F dr =
}



1 4 2 3 2
2
0
3 3 9
Work done 3 .
4 4 2 8 8
t t t t t
t dt dt dt
| |
= + +
|
\ .
}


1 1 5 3 5 3 5
2 2
0 0
3 27 51
Work done 3 3
8 8 64 8 64
t t t t t
t dt t dt = + + = +
} }


2
4 6
3
0
17 16 17 64 1 17
Work done 8 8 16
32 128 32 128 2 2
t t
t
(
= + = + = + =
(

(Ans)

(May-Jun-2011)
38. What are irrational and solenoidal vectors?
Irrotational Field (Conservative): -If F is irrotational field, then
1. 0

= V F and
}
R d F

is path independent.
2. 0 =
}
C
R d F

i.e. circulation along every closed surface is zero.
3. | V = F , where | is a scalar function.
Solenoidal Field (Incompressible): - If F is solenoidal field, then
1. 0 = V F .
2. Flux
}
ds N F

across every closed surface is zero.
3. V F

V = , where V

is a Vector function.

39. The temperature of points in space is given by I(x,y,z) = x
2
+ y
2
z. A mosquito
located at (1,1,2) desires of fly in such a direction that it will get warm as soon as
possible. In what direction should it move?
Ans:The temperature of points in space is given by I(x,y,z) = x
2
+ y
2
z. A
mosquito located at (1,1,2) desires of fly in such a direction that it will get warm as soon
as possible. In direction of directional derivative of surface I(x,y,z) = x
2
+ y
2
z.
The direction will be given by T V
( )
(1,1,2)

T i j k T
x y z
| | c c c
V = + +
|
c c c
\ .


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
( ) ( )
(1,1,2)
2 2

T i j k
x y z
x y z
| | c c c
V = + +
|
\ .
+
c c

c

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
(1,1,2
2 2
)
2 2 2 2

T i j k
x y
x y z x y z x y
z
z
| | c c c
V = + + + + +
|
c c c
\ .

( )
( )
(1,1,2)

2 2 2 T xi yj zk V = +
( )
( )
(1,1,2)

2 2 4 T i j k V = +
A mosquito located at (1,1,2) desires of fly in direction along the vector
( )

2 2 4 i j k +
40. Verify Greens theorem for
[(3x 8y
2
)Jx +(4y 6xy)Jy]
C
where C is the
boundary of the region bounded by x=0, y=0 and x+y=1.
Ans: -

By Greens theorem
2 1
1 2
C S
F F
Fdx F dy dxdy
x y
| | c c
+ =
|
c c
\ .
} }}


(5) Here
2
(3 8 ) (4 6 )

F i x j x y y y + =


So,
2 1
6 , 16
F F
x y
x y
c c
= =
c c

( )
1
2 1
0 0
1
6 16
S
x
F F
dxdy y y dxdy
x y

| | c c
= +
|
c c
\ .
}} } }

( )
1
2 1
0 0
1
10
S
x
F F
dxdy y dxdy
x y

| | c c
=
|
c c
\ .
}} } }

( )
2 1
0
0
1
1
2
5
S
x
F F
dxdy y dx
x y

| | c c
=
|
c c
\ .
}} }

( )
2 1
0
1
2
5 1
S
F F
dxdy x dx
x y
| | c c
=
|
c c
\ .
}} }

( )
2 1
0
1
2
5 1 2
S
F F
dxdy x x dx
x y
| | c c
= +
|
c c
\ .
}} }


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
1
2 1
0
3
2
5 5 5
3
S
F F x
dxdy x x
x y
| |
| | c c
| = +
|
|
c c
\ .
\ .
}}

2 1
5 5
5 5
3 3
S
F F
dxdy
x y
| | c c | |
= + =
| |
c c
\ .
\ .
}}
----------------(1)
Verification of Greens theorem by line integral
2
(3 8 ) ( 6 ) . 4 x y dx y xy dy F dr = +


So,
2
(3 . 8 ) (4 6 )
C C OA AB BO
x y dx y F r xy d dy = + = + +
} } } } }




1
0
2
0
1
(3 8 ) (4 6 ) 3 4
OA AB BO AB
x y xd dx y xy dy x ydy + + = + + +
} } } } } }


( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
0
1
(3 8 ) (4 6 ) (3 8 1 ) (4 1 6 1 )( )
AB
x y dx y xy dy x x dx x x x dx = + +
} }


( ) ( ) ( )
1 0 0
0 1
2
1
(3 8 1 ) (4 1 6 1 ) 4 ( 3 )
OA AB BO
x x d xdx x x x ydy x dx + + = + + +
} } } } } }


( ) { }
( ) ( ) { }
1 0
0 2 2
2
1 0 1
3 8 1 2 4 1 1
2
6 3 4
2
OA AB BO
x x dx x x x d
x y
x x +
( (
+ + = + +
( (

} } } }

{ } ( ) ( ) { }
| |
0
2 2
1
19 8 8
3
2
2
4 4 6 6
OA AB BO
x x dx x x dx x + + = +
} } } }

{ } | |
0
2 2
1
19 8 8 4 4 6 2 6
3
2
OA AB BO
x x x dx x x + + = + + +
} } } }

| | | |
0 0
2 3
0
1
1 1
29 1
3
2
2 2
4 12
3
OA AB BO
x
x
x ( (
+ + = +
( (




`


)
} } }

| |
3 29 14
2
2 2
1 1
3
2
OA AB BO
( (
+ + = + +
( (


+
`
)
} } }

| |
3 29 14
2
2 2
1 1
3
2
OA AB BO
( (
+ + = + +
( (


+
`
)
} } }
=
5
3
.2
From 1 and 2 Greens theorem verified
41. Apply divergence theorem to evaluate .
S
F ndS
}

where
2 2

4 2 F xi y j z k = +

and S is the
surface bounding the region
2 2
4 x y + = , 0, 3 z z = = .

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
Ans: -






By divergence theorem .
S V
F ds divFdv =
} }


2 2
. (4 ) ( 2 ) ( )
S V
F ds x y z dv
x y z
( c c c
= + +
(
c c c

} }
| | . 4 4 2
S V
F ds y z dxdydz = +
} } } }


| |
2
2
2 4 3
2 0
4
. 4 4 2
x
S
x
F ds y z dxdydz


= +
} } } }
2
2
2 4
3
2
0
2
4
. 4 4
x
z
S
x
F ds z yz z dxdy


( = +
} } }


| | | |
2 2
2 2
2 4 2 4
2 2
4 4
. 12 12 9 21 12
x x
S
x x
F ds y dxdy y dxdy



= + =
} } } } }


2
2
2
4
2
4
2
. 21 6
x
x
S
F ds y y dx

( =
} }
2
2
2
. 42 4 0
S
F ds x dx

(
=

} }


2
2
2
. 42 4
S
F ds x dx

=
} }
2
2
1
2
4 4
. 42 sin
2 2 2
S
x x x
F ds

= + (
(

}


1 1
. 42 0 0 2sin 1 2sin ( 1)
S
F ds

( = +
}
1
. 42 4sin 1 42 4 84
2
S
F ds
t
t

( = = =
}
(Ans).
(Nov Dec 2011)

42. State the Gauss Divergent theorem

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
Ans: Gauss Divergence Theorem: - If F is a continuously differentiable vector function in
region E bounded by closed surface S, then ( )
S E
F Nds div F dv =
} }

Where N

is the unit
normal vector at any point of S and k f j f i f F

3 2 1
+ + =
3 1 2
1 2 3
( )
S E
f f f
f dydz f dzdx f dxdy dxdydz
x y z
| | c c c
+ + = + +
|
c c c
\ .
} } }}}


43. Prove that :
2
2
( ) ''( ) '( ) f r f r f r
r
V = +
Ans: -
2 2 2

z y x k z j y i x R r + + = + + = =


( ) V = V V
2
( ) . ( ) f r f r
V ( ) f r = ( )
| | c c c
+ +
|
c c c
\ .

( ) i j k f r
x y z

( ) ( ) ( )
| | c c c
V = + +
|
c c c
\ .

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) f r i f r j f r k f r
x y z

| | c c c
V = + +
|
c c c
\ .

/ / /

( ) ( )
r r r
f r f r i f j f k
x y z

| |
V = + +
|
\ .

/

( ) ( )
y x z
f r f r i j k
r r r

V =

/
( )
( )
f r R
f r
r

( )
| |
|
V = V V V
|
|
\ .

2
/
( )
( ) . ( ) .
f r R
f r f r
r

| | | | | | | |
V = V + V
| | | |
|
\ . \ . \ . \ .

2 / /
( ) ( ) . . ( )
R R
f r f r f r
r r

( ( | | | | | | | | c c c c c c
V = + + + + +
( ( | | | |
c c c c c c
( \ . \ . \ . \ .

2 / /

( ) ( ) . ( )
R R
f r f r i j k i j k f r
x y z r r x y z

( | |
( | | | | | | c c c c c c
( |
V = + + + + + + +
( | | |
( c c c c c c |
\ . \ . \ . + + + + + +
\ .

2 / /

( ) ( ) . ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
x x x R
f r f r i j k i j k i j k f r
x y z r x y z
x y z x y z x y z


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
( | | | | | | | |
( | | | | c c c c c c
( | | | |
V = + + + + +
( | |
( | c c c c c c | | |
\ . \ . + + + + + +
\ . \ . \ . \ .

2 / / /

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
y x z R r r r
f r f r f r i j k
x y z r x y z
x y z x y z x y z

( | | | |
( | | | | c c c c
( | |
V = + + +
( | |
( | c c c c |
\ . \ . + +
\ . \ .


2 / / /

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
x R r r r
f r f r f r i j k
x r x y z
x y z

( ) ( )
( )
( | | | |
c c
+ + + + ( | |
| |
( | |
c c
( | | V = + + +
| |
(
( | \ . |
\ .
+ +
| |
(
\ . \ .


2
2 2 2 2 2 2
/ / /

( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2 2
x y z x x x y z
y R x z
x x
f r f r f r i j k
r r r r
x y z

( )
( )
( | | | |
+ +
( | |
( | | | | + +
( | |
V = +
( | |
( | |
(
\ . \ .
( | + + |
| |
(
\ . \ .


2
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2
/ / /
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2 2
x
x y z x
x y z R R
f r f r f r
r r
x y z

( )
( )
( )
( | | | |
( + + | | ( | |
V = ( + | | ( |
( ( | \ . |
+ + + +
| |
(
\ . \ .


2
2 2 2 2 2
/ / /
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
x y z x
R
f r f r f r
r
x y z x y z

( )
( )
( | | | |
( | |
( | |
( | |
V = +
( |
( | |
(
\ .
+ +
+ +
( | |
\ . \ .


2
2
2
1
/ / /
( ) ( ) ( )
3/ 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
x R
f r f r f r
r
x y z
x y z

( )
( )
( | |
( |
( | | + +
( |
V = +
( |
( |
(
\ .
+ +
+ +
| (
\ .

2
2
2 2 2
3
/ / /
( ) ( ) ( )
3/ 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
x y z R
f r f r f r
r
x y z
x y z

( ) ( )
( | |
( | ( | |
V = + ( | ( |
( ( \ . |
+ +
|
(
\ .

2
2
2
3
/ / /
( ) ( ) ( )
3/ 2
2 2 2 2
r R
f r f r f r
r
x y z r

( )
( | |
( | ( | |
V = + ( | ( |
( ( \ . |
+ +
|
(
\ .

2
2
3 1
/ / /
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
R
f r f r f r
r r
x y z


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
( ) ( )
( | |
( | ( | |
V = + ( | ( |
( ( \ . |
+ + + +
|
(
\ .

2
2
3 1
/ / /
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
R
f r f r f r
r
x y z x y z

( )
( | |
( | ( | |
V = + ( | ( |
( ( \ . |
+ +
|
(
\ .

2
2
2
/ / /
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
R
f r f r f r
r
x y z

( )
( ) ( )
( | |
( |
( | |
V = + = + + + + = + + = ( |
|
(
\ .
( |
+ +
|
(
\ .

2
2
2
2
/ / / 2 2 2 2

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ).( )
2 2 2
r
f r f r f r R xi yj zk xi yj zk x y z r
r
x y z

( | |
V = +
|
(
\ .
2
2
/ / /
( ) ( ) ( ) Pr f r f r f r Hence oved
r



44. Evaluate F

Jr

by Stokes theorem, where F

= y
2
t + x
2
(x +z)k

and c is the
boundary of the triangle with vertices at (0,0,0), (1,0,0) and (1,1,0).
Ans: We know that fromStokes theorem . ( ).
C S
F dr curl F nds =
} }}



As . ( ).
C S
F dr curl F nds =
} }}


Therefore ( ) ( ) curl F F = V



DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
( )
( )
2 2


2 2
i j k
F j x y k
x y z
y x x z
c c c
V = = +
c c c
+


( )

2 2 F j x y k V = +


( )
( )

( ). 2 2
S S
curl F nds j x y k kdxdy = +
}} } }


( ) ( )
( ). 2 2
S S
curl F nds x y dxdy =
}} } }


( ) ( )
11
0 0
( ). 2 2
x
S
curl F nds x y dxdy

=
}} } }


1
1 2
0 0
( ). 2
2
x
S
y
curl F nds xy dx

| |
=
|
\ .
}} }


( )
( )
2
1
0
1
( ). 2 1
2
S
x
curl F nds x x dx
| |

= |
|
\ .
}} }


( )
( )
2
1
2
0
1 2
( ). 2 2
2
S
x x
curl F nds x x dx
| |
+
| =
|
\ .
}} }


( ) ( )
1
2 2
0
1
( ). 4 4 1 2
2
S
curl F nds x x x x dx = +
}} }


( )
1
2
0
1
( ). 6 5 1
2
S
curl F nds x x dx =
}} }


1
2 3
0
1 3 5
( ).
2 2 3
S
x x
curl F nds x
(
=
(

}}


1
0
1 3 5 1 9 10 6 13
( ). 1
2 2 3 2 2 4
S
curl F nds
( ( (
= = =
( ( (

}}


Therefore . ( ).
C S
F dr curl F nds =
} }}

=
13
4
(
(

Ans.

45. Evaluate (y
2
z
2
t + z
2
x
2
+z
2
y
2
k

).n Js
S
where S is the point if the sphere
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
=1 above XY-plane and bounded by this plane.
Ans:
By divergence theorem .
S V
F ds divFdv =
} }


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2 2 2 2 2 2
. ( )
S V
y z i z x F ds i j k dv
x
z
y
k
z
j y
| | c c c
= + +
|
c c c
\ .
+ +
} }


( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
V
dv
x y z
y z z x z y
| | c c c
+ +
|
c c c
\ .
}
( )
2
2
V
zy dv
}

( )
2
2 2
2 1
1
2
1
1 0
2
1
x y
x
dxd zy ydz
x


} } }
( )
2 2
2
1 1
2 2
1
0
1
2
1
x
x y
dxd z y y
x


} }

( ) ( )
2 2 2
2
1 1
1
1
2
1
x
x y dxdy
x
y


} }
( )
2 4 2 2
2
1 1
1
2
1
x
x y dxdy y y
x


} }

( ) ( )
2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2
0
2 2
1 1 1 1
2
1 1
2
1
x x
x y dxdy x y dxdy y y
x
y y

} } } }

( ) ( ) { }
2 4 2 4
0
2 2 2
2 2
1 1 1 1
2
1 1
2
1
1
x x
x y dxdy x y dxdy y y
x
y


} } } }

( )
3 5
2
0
2
1
1
2
3 5
1
1
x
y y
x dx



`
)


}

( )
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2 2
2
1
1 1 1 1
2
3 5
1
1
x x x x
x dx




`

)
}

( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 2
2 2 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 4
2
3 3 5 15 3
1 1
x x x
x x
dx dx

| |

= |
` `
|

\ .
) )
} }

( )
2
2 2
0
1
8
1 1
15
x x dx
}

sin cos , x dx d then u u u = =

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
( )
2
2 2 6
0 0
1 /2
8 8
1 1 cos
15 15
x x dx d
t
u u =
} }

By using reduction formula we will have

2 2 2 2 2 2
( ) .
12
S V
y z i z x j z y F ds i j k dv
y z
k
x
t
+
| | c c c
= + + =
|
c c c
\ .
+
} }


April -May, 2012
46. State Gauss divergence theorem.
Ans: Gauss Divergence Theorem: - If F is a continuously differentiable vector function in
region E bounded by closed surface S, then ( )
S E
F Nds div F dv =
} }

Where N

is the unit
normal vector at any point of S and k f j f i f F

3 2 1
+ + =
3 1 2
1 2 3
( )
S E
f f f
f dydz f dzdx f dxdy dxdydz
x y z
| | c c c
+ + = + +
|
c c c
\ .
} } }}}

47. Find the directional derivative of
2 2
4 x yz xz | = + at the point (1, 2,1) in the direction of the
vector2 2 I J k .
Ans: The directional derivative of
2 2
4 x yz xz | = + at the point (1, 2,1) in the direction of
the vector2 2 I J k is given by

( )

2 2
4 A i j k x yz xz A
x y z
|
| | c c c
V = + + +
|
c c c
\ .

where A is 2 2 I J k ..1

( )
2 2
4 i j k x yz xz
x y z
|
| | c c c
V = + + +
|
c c c
\ .


( ) ( )

( )

( )
2 2 2
2 4 8 xyz z i x z j x y xz k | V = + + + +


( )

( )

( )

4 4 2 8 6
(1, 2,1)
i j k j k | V = + + + + = +


..2

2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 3 9
I J k I J k I J k
A
I J k

= = =

3
From1,2 and 3 we will have directional derivative of
2 2
4 x yz xz | = + at the point (1, 2,1) in
the direction of the vector2 2 I J k

( )

2 2
4 A i j k x yz xz A
x y z
|
| | c c c
V = + + +
|
c c c
\ .

=

( )
2 2
6 .
3
I J k
j k
| |
+
|
\ .


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

A | V ==

( )
6 . j k +
2 2
13/ 3
3
I J k | |
=
|
\ .

48. Verify Green theorem for
2 2
,
c
xy y dx x dy ( + +
}
where C is bounded by
2
, y x y x = =
Ans: -

By Greens theorem
2 1
1 2
C S
F F
Fdx F dy dxdy
x y
| | c c
+ =
|
c c
\ .
} }}


(6) Here
2 2

( ) F xy y i x j = + +


So,
2 1
2 , 2
F F
x x y
x y
c c
= = +
c c

( )
2
1
2 1
0
2 2
x
S x
F F
dxdy x x y dxdy
x y
| | c c
=
|
c c
\ .
}} } }

2
1
2 2 1
0
x
x
S
F F
dxdy xy y dx
x y
| | c c
( =
|

c c
\ .
}} }

( )
1
2 2 3 4 2 1
0 S
F F
dxdy x x x x dx
x y
| | c c
= +
|
c c
\ .
}} }

( )
1
1 5 4
4 3 2 1
0 0
5 4
S
F F x x
dxdy x x dx
x y
( | | c c
= =
| (
c c
\ .
}} }

2 1
1 1 1
5 4 20
S
F F
dxdy
x y
| | c c
= =
|
c c
\ .
}}
----------------(1)
Now we have to find line integral along two curves.
Along
2
, 2 y x dy xdx = = .
So,
1 1
2 2
1 2
( )
C C
Fdx F dy xy y dx x dy ( + = + +
} }

1
1
2 4 2
1 2
0
( . ) .2
C
Fdx F dy x x x dx x xdx ( + = + +
} }

1
1
1 4 5
3 4
1 2
0 0
3
(3 )
4 5
C
x x
Fdx F dy x x dx
(
( + = + = +
(


} }
1
1 2
3 1 19
4 5 20
C
Fdx F dy + = + =
}

Along , y x dy dx = =

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
So,
2 2
2 2
1 2
( )
C C
Fdx F dy xy y dx x dy ( + = + +
} }

2
0
2 2
1 2
1
( . ) .
C
Fdx F dy x x x dx x dx ( + = + +
} }

2
0
0
2 3
1 2
1
1
3 0 1 1
C
Fdx F dy x dx x ( ( + = = = =
} }

Now,
1 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
19 1
1
20 20
C C C
Fdx F dy Fdx F dy Fdx F dy + = + + + = =
} } }
----------(2)
From(1) and (2) it verifies Greens theorem.
49. Find the work done in moving a particle in the force field
2
3 (2 ) F x I xz y J zK = + + , along
the straight line from (0,0,0) to (2,1,3).
Ans: Theequation of straight line joining (0, 0, 0) and (2, 1, 3) is

0 0 0
2 , , 3
2 0 1 0 3 0
x y z
t x t y t z t

= = = = = =

where 0 t = to 1 t =
So, Work done .
C
F dr =
}



1
2
0
Work done 3(2) .2 (4 (3 )) 3.3 t dt t t t dt t dt = + +
}


( ) ( )
1 1
2 2 2
0 0
Work done 24 12 8 36 8 t t t dt t t dt = + + = +
} }


1
3 2
0
Work done 12 4 12 4 0 0 16 t t ( = + = + =


Nov-Dec, 2012
50. Evaluate divF and curl of F at point (1,2,3) where F is
2 2 2

F x yzi xy zj xyz k
(
= + +


Ans:
2 2 2

F x yzi xy zj xyz k
(
= + +


( ) 6 2 2 8 2 div F xyz xy xyz xyz xy = + + = +



(1,2,3)
( ) 8 2 52 div F xyz xy = + =

(Ans).
Now,

2 2 2

( )
i j k
curl F
x y z
x yz xy z xyz
c c c
=
c c c



DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2 2 2 2 2 2

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) curl F i xz xy j yz yx k yz zx = +



(1,2,3)

( ) 16 15 curl F i j k = +

(Ans).

51. Find the directional derivative of
2 2
4 x yz xz | = + at (1, 2,1,) in the direction of vector

2 2 i j k .
Ans: The directional derivative of
2 2
4 x yz xz | = + at the point (1, 2,1) in the direction of
the vector2 2 I J k is given by

( )

2 2
4 A i j k x yz xz A
x y z
|
| | c c c
V = + + +
|
c c c
\ .

where A is 2 2 I J k ..1

( )
2 2
4 i j k x yz xz
x y z
|
| | c c c
V = + + +
|
c c c
\ .


( ) ( )

( )

( )
2 2 2
2 4 8 xyz z i x z j x y xz k | V = + + + +


( )

( )

( )

4 4 2 8 6
(1, 2,1)
i j k j k | V = + + + + = +


..2

2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 3 9
I J k I J k I J k
A
I J k

= = =

3
From1,2 and 3 we will have directional derivative of
2 2
4 x yz xz | = + at the point (1, 2,1) in
the direction of the vector2 2 I J k

( )

2 2
4 A i j k x yz xz A
x y z
|
| | c c c
V = + + +
|
c c c
\ .

=

( )
2 2
6 .
3
I J k
j k
| |
+
|
\ .

A | V ==

( )
6 . j k +
2 2
13/ 3
3
I J k | |
=
|
\ .


52. Find the value of a if the vector
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 ax z yz i xy z x j xyz x y k + + + has zero
divergence find the curl of the above vector which has zero divergence.
Ans:
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 F ax z yz i xy z x j xyz x y k = + + +

it is given that divF is Zero



( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2
( ) 2 2 0 div F ax z yz i xy z x j xyz x y k
(
= V + + + =



( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 2 2 0 div F ax xy xy
(
= + + =


( ) ( )
( ) 2 4 0 div F ax xy
(
= + =


2 a y =
Curl of above vector whose divergence is equal to zero is given by

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2

( )
2 2 2
i j k
curl F
x y z
yx z yz xy z x xyz x y
c c c
=
c c c
+


( ) { } ( ) ( ) { } ( ) ( ) { }
2 2 2 2 2 2

( ) 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 curl F xz x y xz i yz xy yx y j y z x z z k = + + + +


( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2

( ) 4 4 2 4 2 2 curl F xz x y i yz y xy yx j y z x z z k = + + + + +



53. Evaluate F

.Js
s
where F

=4xt - 2y
2
+z
2
k
`
and s is the surface bounding the region x
2
+y
2
=4,
z =0 and z =3.
Ans: -






By divergence theorem .
S V
F ds divFdv =
} }


2 2
. (4 ) ( 2 ) ( )
S V
F ds x y z dv
x y z
( c c c
= + +
(
c c c

} }
| | . 4 4 2
S V
F ds y z dxdydz = +
} } } }


| |
2
2
2 4 3
2 0
4
. 4 4 2
x
S
x
F ds y z dxdydz


= +
} } } }
2
2
2 4
3
2
0
2
4
. 4 4
x
z
S
x
F ds z yz z dxdy


( = +
} } }


| | | |
2 2
2 2
2 4 2 4
2 2
4 4
. 12 12 9 21 12
x x
S
x x
F ds y dxdy y dxdy



= + =
} } } } }


2
2
2
4
2
4
2
. 21 6
x
x
S
F ds y y dx

( =
} }
2
2
2
. 42 4 0
S
F ds x dx

(
=

} }


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2
2
2
. 42 4
S
F ds x dx

=
} }
2
2
1
2
4 4
. 42 sin
2 2 2
S
x x x
F ds

= + (
(

}


1 1
. 42 0 0 2sin 1 2sin ( 1)
S
F ds

( = +
}
1
. 42 4sin 1 42 4 84
2
S
F ds
t
t

( = = =
}

(Ans).


Unit V Theory Of Equations
April -May, 2006

1. If O, A, B, C are the four point on a straight line such that the distance of A, B and C from
O are the roots of the equation
3 2
3 3 0 ax bx cx d + + + = . If B is the middle point of AC show
that
3 3
3 2 0 a d abc b + =
Ans . Let us assume , , o | are the roots of the equation
3 2
3 3 0 ax bx cx d + + + = and
, , OA OB OC o | = = =


According to the given condition | o | =

2| o = + --------------(1)

According to the property of roots
Now,
3b
a
o |

+ + = --------------(2)

3c
a
o| | o + + = ------------(3)
d
a
o|

= -------------(4)
From 2 and 3 we will have
3
3
b b
a a
| |

= = -------------(5)
( )
3 3 c c
a a
o| | o | o o + + = + + =

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
From 1
2
2
3 3
2 2
c b c
a a a
| o o
| |
+ = + =
|
\ .

2
2
3
2
c b
a a
o = -------------(6)
again from 4 we have

d
a
o|

=

( )
d
a
| o

=

From 5 and 6 we have
2
2
3
2
b c b d
a a a a
| | | |
=
| |
\ .
\ .

By solving above we will have
( )
2
2
3 2 ca b
b d
a
| |
=
|
\ .

Hence we will have
3 3
3 2 0 a d abc b + =
2. Solve by Cardans method of equation
3 2
3 3 0 x x + = .
Ans:
3 2
3 3 0 x x + = --------------(1)
Here we can remove second termof equation (1) by diminishing its roots by

3
1
3 1
b
h
na

= = =


We can diminished each root by 1 by synthetic division method



DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
Hence the transformed equation is
3
3 1 0 y y + = ---------(2)where 1 y x =
Let
1/3 1/3
y p q = + be the solution of equation (2).

( )
3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3
3 y p q p q p q = + + +

3 1/3 1/3
3 y p q p q y = + +

3 1/3 1/3
3 ( ) 0 y p q y p q + = -------------(3)
By comparing equation (2) and (3) we get

1/3 1/3
1, ( ) 1 p q p q = + =
1, ( ) 1 pq p q = + =
So, p and q are the roots of the equation
2
1 0 t t + + =

1 1 4 1 3
2 2
i
t

= = .
So, let
1 3 1 3
,
2 2
i i
p q
+
= = .
So roots of given cubic equation (1) are
(i)
1/3 1/3
1/3 1/3
1 3 1 3
2 2
i i
p q
| | | |
+
+ = +
| |
| |
\ . \ .


1/3 1/3
2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
3 3 3 3
i i
t t t t | | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .


2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
9 9 9 9
i i
t t t t | | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .


2
2cos
9
t
=
(ii)
1/3 1/3
1/3 2 1/3
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
2 2 2 2
i i i i
wp w q
| || | | || |
+ +
+ = +
| | | |
| | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ .


4/3 4/3
1 3 1 3
2 2
i i
| | | |
+
= +
| |
| |
\ . \ .


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

4/3 4/3
2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
3 3 3 3
i i
t t t t | | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .


8 8 8 8
cos sin cos sin
9 9 9 9
i i
t t t t | | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .
8
2cos
9
t
=
(iii)
1/3 1/3
2 1/3 1/3
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
2 2 2 2
i i i i
w p wq
| || | | | | |
+ +
+ = +
| | | |
| | | |
\ .\ . \ . \ .


1/3 1/3
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin cos sin cos sin
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
i i i i
t t t t t t t t | || | | || |
= + + +
| | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ .


2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin cos sin cos sin
3 3 9 9 3 3 9 9
i i i i
t t t t t t t t | || | | || |
= + + +
| | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ .


2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
9 3 9 3 9 3 9 3
i i
t t t t t t t t | | | | | | | | | | | |
= + +
| | | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .


4 4 4 4
cos sin cos sin
9 9 9 9
i i
t t t t | | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .


4 4 14
2cos 2cos 2 2cos
9 9 9
t t t
t
| |
= = =
|
\ .

So, roots of equation (2) are
2 8 14
2cos , 2cos , 2cos
9 9 9
t t t

Now, roots of given equation (1) are
2 8 14
1 2cos , 1 2cos , 1 2cos
9 9 9
t t t
+ + + (Ans)
3. Solve the equation by Ferraris method:
4 3 2
12 41 18 72 0 x x x x + = .
Ans:
4 3 2
12 41 18 72 0 x x x x + =
Let
4 3 2 2 2 2
( ) 12 41 18 72 ( 6 ) ( ) 0 f x x x x x x x mx n = + = + + = ----------(1)

4 3 2 4 2 2 3 2 2 2 2
12 41 18 72 36 12 12 2 2 x x x x x x x x x m x mnx n + = + + +


4 3 2 4 3 2 2 2 2
12 41 18 72 12 (36 2 ) ( 12 2 ) x x x x x x m x mn x n + = + + + +

Equating the coefficients we get

2 2 2
(36 2 ) 41, ( 12 2 ) 18, 72 m mn n + = = =

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2 2 2
2 5, 9 6 , 72 m mn n = = = +
( )( ) ( )
2
2
2 5 72 9 6 + =

3 2 2
2 144 5 360 81 36 108 0 + + =

3 2
2 41 252 441 0 + =

2
( 3)(2 35 147) 0 + =

21
2
3,7, =
By taking 3 1, 9 m n = = = equation (1) becomes

4 3 2 2 2 2
12 41 18 72 ( 6 3) ( 9) 0 x x x x x x x + = + =

2 2
( 6 3 9)( 6 3 9) 0 x x x x x x + + + + =

2 2
( 5 6)( 7 12) 0 x x x x + =
( 6)( 1)( 3)( 4) 0 x x x x + =
1,3,4,6 x = (Ans)

Nov-Dec, 2006
4. Solve by Cardans method of equation
3 2
3 3 0 x x + = .
Ans:
3 2
3 3 0 x x + = --------------(1)
Here we can remove second termof equation (1) by diminishing its roots by

3
1
3 1
b
h
na

= = =


We can diminished each root by 1 by synthetic division method


Hence the transformed equation is
3
3 1 0 y y + = ---------(2)where 1 y x =
Let
1/3 1/3
y p q = + be the solution of equation (2).

( )
3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3
3 y p q p q p q = + + +

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

3 1/3 1/3
3 y p q p q y = + +

3 1/3 1/3
3 ( ) 0 y p q y p q + = -------------(3)
By comparing equation (2) and (3) we get

1/3 1/3
1, ( ) 1 p q p q = + =
1, ( ) 1 pq p q = + =
So, p and q are the roots of the equation
2
1 0 t t + + =

1 1 4 1 3
2 2
i
t

= = .
So, let
1 3 1 3
,
2 2
i i
p q
+
= = .
So roots of given cubic equation (1) are
(i)
1/3 1/3
1/3 1/3
1 3 1 3
2 2
i i
p q
| | | |
+
+ = +
| |
| |
\ . \ .


1/3 1/3
2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
3 3 3 3
i i
t t t t | | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .


2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
9 9 9 9
i i
t t t t | | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .


2
2cos
9
t
=
(ii)
1/3 1/3
1/3 2 1/3
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
2 2 2 2
i i i i
wp w q
| || | | || |
+ +
+ = +
| | | |
| | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ .


4/3 4/3
1 3 1 3
2 2
i i
| | | |
+
= +
| |
| |
\ . \ .


4/3 4/3
2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
3 3 3 3
i i
t t t t | | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .


8 8 8 8
cos sin cos sin
9 9 9 9
i i
t t t t | | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .
8
2cos
9
t
=

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
(iii)
1/3 1/3
2 1/3 1/3
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
2 2 2 2
i i i i
w p wq
| || | | | | |
+ +
+ = +
| | | |
| | | |
\ .\ . \ . \ .


1/3 1/3
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin cos sin cos sin
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
i i i i
t t t t t t t t | || | | || |
= + + +
| | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ .


2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin cos sin cos sin
3 3 9 9 3 3 9 9
i i i i
t t t t t t t t | || | | || |
= + + +
| | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ .


2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
9 3 9 3 9 3 9 3
i i
t t t t t t t t | | | | | | | | | | | |
= + +
| | | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .


4 4 4 4
cos sin cos sin
9 9 9 9
i i
t t t t | | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .


4 4 14
2cos 2cos 2 2cos
9 9 9
t t t
t
| |
= = =
|
\ .

So, roots of equation (2) are
2 8 14
2cos , 2cos , 2cos
9 9 9
t t t

Now, roots of given equation (1) are
2 8 14
1 2cos , 1 2cos , 1 2cos
9 9 9
t t t
+ + + (Ans)
5. Solve the equation
5 4 3 2
6 43 43 6 0 x x x x x + + + = .
Ans:
5 4 3 2
6 43 43 6 0 x x x x x + + + =
The given equation is a reciprocal equation of odd degree having coefficient of terms
equidistance frombeginning and end.
So, 1 x = is its root.
4 3 2
( 1)(6 5 38 5 6) 0 x x x x x + + =
4 3 2
(6 5 38 5 6) 0 x x x x + =
Dividing by
2
x we get
2
2
5 6
6 5 38 0 x x
x x
+ =
2
2
1 1
6 5 38 0 x x
x x
| | | |
+ + =
| |
\ . \ .

2
1 1
6 2 5 38 0 x x
x x
| |
| | | |
+ + =
|
| |
|
\ . \ .
\ .


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
( )
2
6 2 5 38 0 t t = where
1
x t
x
| |
+ =
|
\ .

2
6 5 50 0 t t =
10 5
(3 10)(2 5) 0 ,
3 2
t t t + = =
1 10 1 5
3 2
x and x
x x
+ = + =
2 2
3 3 10 2 2 5 x x and x x + = + =
2 2
3 10 3 0 2 5 2 0 x x and x x + = + + =
10 100 36 5 25 16
6 4
x and x

= =
10 8 5 3
6 4
x and x

= =
1 1
3, 2,
2 2
x and x = =
So, roots are
1 1
2, 1, , , 3
2 2
x = (Ans)
6. If , , o | are the roots of the equation
3
0 x qx r + + = . Find the equation whose roots are
, ,
| o o |
| o | o
+ + + .
Ans: Given that , , o | are the roots of the equation
3
0 x qx r + + = .
Now, 0 o | + + = --------------(1)
q o| | o + + = ------------(2)
r o| = -------------(3)
Now
2 2 2 2
( ) 2( ) 0 q q o | o | o| | o + + = + + + + = = ----------(4)
Let , , A B C
| o o |
| o | o
= + = + = +
A B C
| o o |
| o | o
+ + = + + + + +

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
2 2 2 2 2 2
A B C
| o | o
| o |o
+ + +
+ + = + +
2 2 2 2 2 2
A B C
| o | o
| o |o
+ + +
+ + = + +
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
A B C
o | | o | o
o|
+ + + + +
+ + =
( ) ( ) ( )
A B C
o| o | o o | |
o|
+ + + + +
+ + =
A B C
o| o| o|
o|

+ + = as 0 o | + + =
3
3 A B C
o|
o|

+ + = = ------------------(5)
AB BC CA
| o o o | o | |
| o o | o | o |
| || | | || | | || |
+ + = + + + + + + + +
| | | | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ . \ .\ .

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
AB BC CA
| o o o | o | |
| o o o| o| |
| || | | || | | || | + + + + + +
+ + = + +
| | | | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ . \ .\ .

( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
AB BC CA
| o o o | o | |
o| o o| | o|
+ + + + + +
+ + = + +


( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
q q q q q q
AB BC CA
r r r
o | | o
o |

+ + = + +


( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
q q q q q q
AB BC CA
r r r
o | | o
o |
+ + + + + +
+ + = + +


( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
( ) ( ) ( ) q q q q q q
AB BC CA
r r r
o | o | | | o o
o |
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + = + +



DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
( ) ( ) ( )
2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2
q q q q q q q q q
AB BC CA
r r r
o | o | | o
o |
+ + +
+ + = + +



( ) ( ) ( )
2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2
q q q q q q q q q
AB BC CA
r
o| o | | o | o | o
o|
+ + + + +
+ + =

2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
( )( ) ( ) q q q
AB BC CA
r
o| | o o| o | o | | o
o|
+ + + + + + +
+ + =



( )
2 3 2
( ) ( ) 0 ( ) ( ) 3 ( ) q q q q r
AB BC CA
r
o| | o o| | o o| o| | o
o|
+ + + + + + +
+ + =


( )
3 4 2
3( )
( )
q q q q r q
AB BC CA
r r
+
+ + =



3 4 2
2
2 3 q q q r
AB BC CA
r
+
+ + = -----------(6)
ABC
| o o |
| o | o
| || || |
= + + +
| | |
\ .\ .\ .


2 2 2 2 2 2
ABC
| o o |
| o o|
| || || | + + +
=
| | |
\ .\ .\ .


2 2 2
q q q
ABC
o |
| o o|
| || || |
=
| | |
\ .\ .\ .


3 2
2 2 2
( ) ( ) q q q
ABC
o | o| | o o|
o |
+ + + + +
=

3 2 3 2
2 2
0 q q r q q r
ABC
r r
+ +
= =
Equation whose roots are A, B, C is

3 2
( ) ( ) 0 x A B C x AB BC CA x ABC + + + + + =

3 4 2 3 2
3 2
2 2
2 3
3 0
q q q r q q r
x x x
r r
+ +
+ + =

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2 3 2 2 3 4 2 3 2
3 (2 3 ) ( ) 0 r x r x q q q r x q q r + + + + = (Ans)
7. Solve by Cardans method of equation
3 2
3 3 0 x x + = .
Ans:
3 2
3 3 0 x x + = --------------(1)
Here we can remove second termof equation (1) by diminishing its roots by

3
1
3 1
b
h
na

= = =


We can diminished each root by 1 by synthetic division method


Hence the transformed equation is
3
3 1 0 y y + = ---------(2)where 1 y x =
Let
1/3 1/3
y p q = + be the solution of equation (2).

( )
3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3
3 y p q p q p q = + + +

3 1/3 1/3
3 y p q p q y = + +

3 1/3 1/3
3 ( ) 0 y p q y p q + = -------------(3)
By comparing equation (2) and (3) we get

1/3 1/3
1, ( ) 1 p q p q = + =
1, ( ) 1 pq p q = + =
So, p and q are the roots of the equation
2
1 0 t t + + =

1 1 4 1 3
2 2
i
t

= = .

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
So, let
1 3 1 3
,
2 2
i i
p q
+
= = .
So roots of given cubic equation (1) are
(i)
1/3 1/3
1/3 1/3
1 3 1 3
2 2
i i
p q
| | | |
+
+ = +
| |
| |
\ . \ .


1/3 1/3
2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
3 3 3 3
i i
t t t t | | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .


2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
9 9 9 9
i i
t t t t | | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .


2
2cos
9
t
=
(ii)
1/3 1/3
1/3 2 1/3
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
2 2 2 2
i i i i
wp w q
| || | | || |
+ +
+ = +
| | | |
| | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ .


4/3 4/3
1 3 1 3
2 2
i i
| | | |
+
= +
| |
| |
\ . \ .


4/3 4/3
2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
3 3 3 3
i i
t t t t | | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .


8 8 8 8
cos sin cos sin
9 9 9 9
i i
t t t t | | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .
8
2cos
9
t
=
(iii)
1/3 1/3
2 1/3 1/3
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
2 2 2 2
i i i i
w p wq
| || | | | | |
+ +
+ = +
| | | |
| | | |
\ .\ . \ . \ .


1/3 1/3
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin cos sin cos sin
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
i i i i
t t t t t t t t | || | | || |
= + + +
| | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ .


2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin cos sin cos sin
3 3 9 9 3 3 9 9
i i i i
t t t t t t t t | || | | || |
= + + +
| | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ .


2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
9 3 9 3 9 3 9 3
i i
t t t t t t t t | | | | | | | | | | | |
= + +
| | | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

4 4 4 4
cos sin cos sin
9 9 9 9
i i
t t t t | | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .


4 4 14
2cos 2cos 2 2cos
9 9 9
t t t
t
| |
= = =
|
\ .

So, roots of equation (2) are
2 8 14
2cos , 2cos , 2cos
9 9 9
t t t

Now, roots of given equation (1) are
2 8 14
1 2cos , 1 2cos , 1 2cos
9 9 9
t t t
+ + + (Ans)

8. Solve the equation
5 4 3 2
6 43 43 6 0 x x x x x + + + = .
Ans:
5 4 3 2
6 43 43 6 0 x x x x x + + + =
The given equation is a reciprocal equation of odd degree having coefficient of terms
equidistance frombeginning and end.
So, 1 x = is its root.
4 3 2
( 1)(6 5 38 5 6) 0 x x x x x + + =
4 3 2
(6 5 38 5 6) 0 x x x x + =
Dividing by
2
x we get
2
2
5 6
6 5 38 0 x x
x x
+ =
2
2
1 1
6 5 38 0 x x
x x
| | | |
+ + =
| |
\ . \ .

2
1 1
6 2 5 38 0 x x
x x
| |
| | | |
+ + =
|
| |
|
\ . \ .
\ .

( )
2
6 2 5 38 0 t t = where
1
x t
x
| |
+ =
|
\ .

2
6 5 50 0 t t =
10 5
(3 10)(2 5) 0 ,
3 2
t t t + = =
1 10 1 5
3 2
x and x
x x
+ = + =
2 2
3 3 10 2 2 5 x x and x x + = + =
2 2
3 10 3 0 2 5 2 0 x x and x x + = + + =
10 100 36 5 25 16
6 4
x and x

= =

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
10 8 5 3
6 4
x and x

= =
1 1
3, 2,
2 2
x and x = =
So, roots are
1 1
2, 1, , , 3
2 2
x = (Ans)

9. If , , o | are the roots of the equation
3
0 x qx r + + = . Find the equation whose roots are
, ,
| o o |
| o | o
+ + + .
Ans: Given that , , o | are the roots of the equation
3
0 x qx r + + = .
Now, 0 o | + + = --------------(1)
q o| | o + + = ------------(2)
r o| = -------------(3)
Now
2 2 2 2
( ) 2( ) 0 q q o | o | o| | o + + = + + + + = = ----------(4)
Let , , A B C
| o o |
| o | o
= + = + = +
A B C
| o o |
| o | o
+ + = + + + + +
2 2 2 2 2 2
A B C
| o | o
| o |o
+ + +
+ + = + +
2 2 2 2 2 2
A B C
| o | o
| o |o
+ + +
+ + = + +
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
A B C
o | | o | o
o|
+ + + + +
+ + =
( ) ( ) ( )
A B C
o| o | o o | |
o|
+ + + + +
+ + =
A B C
o| o| o|
o|

+ + = as 0 o | + + =

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
3
3 A B C
o|
o|

+ + = = ------------------(5)
AB BC CA
| o o o | o | |
| o o | o | o |
| || | | || | | || |
+ + = + + + + + + + +
| | | | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ . \ .\ .

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
AB BC CA
| o o o | o | |
| o o o| o| |
| || | | || | | || | + + + + + +
+ + = + +
| | | | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ . \ .\ .

( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
AB BC CA
| o o o | o | |
o| o o| | o|
+ + + + + +
+ + = + +


( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
q q q q q q
AB BC CA
r r r
o | | o
o |

+ + = + +


( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
q q q q q q
AB BC CA
r r r
o | | o
o |
+ + + + + +
+ + = + +


( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
( ) ( ) ( ) q q q q q q
AB BC CA
r r r
o | o | | | o o
o |
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + = + +


( ) ( ) ( )
2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2
q q q q q q q q q
AB BC CA
r r r
o | o | | o
o |
+ + +
+ + = + +



( ) ( ) ( )
2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2
q q q q q q q q q
AB BC CA
r
o| o | | o | o | o
o|
+ + + + +
+ + =

2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
( )( ) ( ) q q q
AB BC CA
r
o| | o o| o | o | | o
o|
+ + + + + + +
+ + =



DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

( )
2 3 2
( ) ( ) 0 ( ) ( ) 3 ( ) q q q q r
AB BC CA
r
o| | o o| | o o| o| | o
o|
+ + + + + + +
+ + =


( )
3 4 2
3( )
( )
q q q q r q
AB BC CA
r r
+
+ + =



3 4 2
2
2 3 q q q r
AB BC CA
r
+
+ + = -----------(6)
ABC
| o o |
| o | o
| || || |
= + + +
| | |
\ .\ .\ .


2 2 2 2 2 2
ABC
| o o |
| o o|
| || || | + + +
=
| | |
\ .\ .\ .


2 2 2
q q q
ABC
o |
| o o|
| || || |
=
| | |
\ .\ .\ .


3 2
2 2 2
( ) ( ) q q q
ABC
o | o| | o o|
o |
+ + + + +
=

3 2 3 2
2 2
0 q q r q q r
ABC
r r
+ +
= =
Equation whose roots are A, B, C is

3 2
( ) ( ) 0 x A B C x AB BC CA x ABC + + + + + =

3 4 2 3 2
3 2
2 2
2 3
3 0
q q q r q q r
x x x
r r
+ +
+ + =

2 3 2 2 3 4 2 3 2
3 (2 3 ) ( ) 0 r x r x q q q r x q q r + + + + = (Ans)

May-June, 2007
10. Solve the equation by Ferraris method:
4 3 2
12 41 18 72 0 x x x x + = .
Ans:
4 3 2
12 41 18 72 0 x x x x + =
Let
4 3 2 2 2 2
( ) 12 41 18 72 ( 6 ) ( ) 0 f x x x x x x x mx n = + = + + = ----------(1)

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

4 3 2 4 2 2 3 2 2 2 2
12 41 18 72 36 12 12 2 2 x x x x x x x x x m x mnx n + = + + +


4 3 2 4 3 2 2 2 2
12 41 18 72 12 (36 2 ) ( 12 2 ) x x x x x x m x mn x n + = + + + +

Equating the coefficients we get

2 2 2
(36 2 ) 41, ( 12 2 ) 18, 72 m mn n + = = =

2 2 2
2 5, 9 6 , 72 m mn n = = = +
( )( ) ( )
2
2
2 5 72 9 6 + =

3 2 2
2 144 5 360 81 36 108 0 + + =

3 2
2 41 252 441 0 + =

2
( 3)(2 35 147) 0 + =

21
2
3,7, =
By taking 3 1, 9 m n = = = equation (1) becomes

4 3 2 2 2 2
12 41 18 72 ( 6 3) ( 9) 0 x x x x x x x + = + =

2 2
( 6 3 9)( 6 3 9) 0 x x x x x x + + + + =

2 2
( 5 6)( 7 12) 0 x x x x + =
( 6)( 1)( 3)( 4) 0 x x x x + =
1,3,4,6 x = (Ans)

11. Solve by Cardans method of equation
3
15 126 0 x x = .
Ans:
3
15 126 0 x x =
Here the equation having terms involving
2
x termmissing.
Let
1/3 1/3
x p q = + be the solution of equation (1).

( )
3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3
3 x p q p q p q = + + +

3 1/3 1/3
3 x p q p q x = + +

3 1/3 1/3
3 ( ) 0 x p q x p q + = -------------(2)
By comparing equation(1) and (2) we get

1/3 1/3
5, ( ) 126 p q p q = + = 125, ( ) 126 pq p q = + =
So, p and q are the roots of the equation
2
126 125 0 t t + =
( 1)( 125) 0 1,125 t t t = = . So, let p =1 and q =125.
So roots of given cubic equation (1) are
(i)
1/3 1/3
1 5 6 p q + = + =

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
(ii)
1/3 2 1/3
1 3 1 3 6 4 3
5 3 2 3
2 2 2
i i i
wp w q i
| | | | | |
+
+ = + = =
| | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

(iii)
2 1/3 1/3
1 3 1 3 6 4 3
5 3 2 3
2 2 2
i i i
w p wq i
| | | | | |
+ +
+ = + = = +
| | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

So, roots are 6, 3 2 3, 3 2 3 i i + (Ans).

12. Solve
3 2
4 20 48 0 x x x + = given that the roots , o | are connected by the relation
2 0 o | + = .
Ans: Let , , o | are the roots of
3 2
4 20 48 0 x x x + = .
Given that 2 0 2 o | o | + = =
Now, 4 o | + + = --------------(1)
20 o| | o + + = ------------(2)
48 o| = -------------(3)
From(1) 2 4 4 | | | + + = = + ----------(4)
From(3) 2 . .(4 ) 48 | | | + =

3 2
4 24 | | + =

3 2
4 24 0 | | + =

2
( 2)( 6 12) 0 | | | + + =

6 36 48
2, 2, 3 3
2
i |

= =
So, 2 4, 6 | o = = =
So, roots are -4, 2, 6.

Nov-Dec, 2007
13. Find the number of real roots the equation
3 2
x x 4x 4 0 + + =
Ans: number of real roots the equation
3 2
x x 4x 4 0 + + = are 3 , two positive roots and 1
negative roots.
14. Find the condition that the equation
3 2
x x 4x 4 0 p + + + = had roots , , o | which satisfy
1 0 o| + = .
Ans: Let , , o | are the roots of
3 2
0 x px qx r + + + = .
Given that 1 0 1 o| o| + = = --------------(1)
Now, p o | + + = --------------(2)
4 o| | o + + = ------------(3)
4 o| = -------------(4)
From(1) and (4) 4 = ----------(4)

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

Putting the value of 4 = in the equation
3 2
0 x px qx r + + + = we will have
64 16 16 4 0 p + + + =
84 21
16 4
p

= =

15. If , , o | are roots of the equation
3
0 x qx r + + = Find the equation whose roots are
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
, , o | | o
Ans: Let , , o | are the roots of
3
0 x qx r + + = (1)

Now, 0 o | + + = --------------(2)
q o| | o + + = ------------(3)
r o| = -------------(4)
Let ( )
2
y o | =
( ) ( )
2 2
4 o | o | o| = +
( ) ( )
2 2 4o|
o | o |

= + +
( ) ( )
2 2 4
0
r
o |

= +
( ) ( )
2
2
4r
x
x
o | = +
( )
2
4r
y x
x
= +
3
4 0 x yx r + = ..(5)
Subtracting 4 from 1 we will have
( ) 3 0 q y x r + =
( )
3r
x
q y
=
+
..(6)
Put the value of x in the equation 1 we will have
3
3 3
0
r r
q r
q y q y
| | | |
+ + =
| |
+ +
\ . \ .

( ) ( )
2 3
3
27 3 0 r rq q y r q y + + + + =
( ) ( )
3 2 2 3 3 2 2
27 3 2 3 3 0 r rq q r rq r q r r q rq + + + + + + + =
3 3 3 2 2 3 4 3 2 2
27 3 3 6 3 3 0 r rq r q r q rq r r q r q + + + + + + + =

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
3 3 3 2 2 4
27 4 6 9 0 r rq r q r q r + + + + =

16. Solve by Cardans methods:
3
15 126 0 x x =
Ans:
3
15 126 0 x x =
Here the equation having terms involving
2
x termmissing.
Let
1/3 1/3
x p q = + be the solution of equation (1).

( )
3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3
3 x p q p q p q = + + +

3 1/3 1/3
3 x p q p q x = + +

3 1/3 1/3
3 ( ) 0 x p q x p q + = -------------(2)
By comparing equation(1) and (2) we get

1/3 1/3
5, ( ) 126 p q p q = + = 125, ( ) 126 pq p q = + =
So, p and q are the roots of the equation
2
126 125 0 t t + =
( 1)( 125) 0 1,125 t t t = = . So, let p =1 and q =125.
So roots of given cubic equation (1) are
(i)
1/3 1/3
1 5 6 p q + = + =
(ii)
1/3 2 1/3
1 3 1 3 6 4 3
5 3 2 3
2 2 2
i i i
wp w q i
| | | | | |
+
+ = + = =
| | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

(iii)
2 1/3 1/3
1 3 1 3 6 4 3
5 3 2 3
2 2 2
i i i
w p wq i
| | | | | |
+ +
+ = + = = +
| | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

So, roots are 6, 3 2 3, 3 2 3 i i + (Ans).

April -May 2008
17. Form the equation whose roots are 1, 2, 3.
Ans .The equation will be ( )( )( ) 1 2 3 x x x

( ) ( )( )
3 2
1 2 3 6 11 6 x x x x x x = +

18. Solve the equation 2x
2
+x
2
-7x-6 =0 when the difference of two roots is 3.
Ans: Let , , o | are the roots of
3
+ =
2
2x x 7x 6 0 .
Given that 3 o | = -------------- (1)
Now, 1/ 2 o | + + = -------------- (2)
7/ 2 o| | o + + = ------------ (3)

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
3 o| = ------------- (4)
From(1) and (2) 2 7/ 2 | + = ------------- (5)
From(4) and (1) . .(3 ) 3 | | + = ------------- (6)
From(5) and (6)
7
2 .(3 ) 3
2
| | |
| |
+ =
|
\ .

From

3 2
4 24 | | + =

3 2
4 24 0 | | + =

2
( 2)( 6 12) 0 | | | + + =

6 36 48
2, 2, 3 3
2
i |

= =
So, 2 4, 6 | o = = =
So, roots are -4, 2, 6.

19. If u,,y are the roots of the cubic
3 2
0 x px qx r + = find the equation whose roots are

1 1 1
, , o| | o
o |
+ + +
Ans. As , , o | are the roots of the cubic
3 2
0 x px qx r + = .
Here , , p q r o | o| | o o| + + = + + = =
Let root of the new equation is y, and according to the given condition
1 1 1 r
y y
x
o|
o|

+ +
= + = =
1 1 r r
y x
x y
+ +
= = and x is the root of the equation
3 2
0 x px qx r + =
3 2
1 1 1
0
r r r
p q r
y y y
| | | | | | + + +
+ =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

( ) ( ) ( )
3 2
2 3
1 1 1 0 r p r y q r y ry + + + + =
( ) ( ) ( )
3 2 2 2 3
1 3 3 1 2 1 0 r r r p r r y q r y ry + + + + + + + =
( ) ( ) ( )
3 2 2 3 2
1 1 2 1 3 3 0 ry q r y p r r y r r r + + + + + + + + =
Required equation will be
( ) ( ) ( )
3 2 2 3 2
1 1 2 1 3 3 0 ry q r y p r r y r r r + + + + + + + =
20.
Solve by Cardans methods:
3 2
9 +6x -1=0 x

Ans:
3 2
9 +6x -1=0 x


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
Here the equation having terms involving
2
x term. We can have another equation
1
= y
x

And by putting the value of y in the equation
3 2
9 +6x -1=0 x we will have
3 2
3
1 1
9 +6 -1=0 y 6 9 0 y
y y
| | | |
=
| |
\ . \ .

Here in the
3
y 6 9 0 y = (2)
equation term involving
2
y is missing .
Let y u v = + be the solution of equation (2).
( )
3 3 3
3 y u v uv u v = + + +

3 3 3
3 y u v uvy = + +

( )
3 3 3
3 0 y uvy u v + = -------------(2)
By comparing equation(1) and (2) we get

3 3
2, ( ) 9 uv u v = + = ------------(3)
3 3 3 3 3 3
2, ( ) 9 8, ( ) 9 uv u v u v u v = + = = + =
So,
3
u and
3
v are the roots of the equation
2
9 8 0 t t + =
( )
2
9 8 0 ( 8) 1 t t t t + = = .
So, let
3
u =8 and
2
2,2 ,2 u w w = therefore from3 we will have
2
1, , v w w =
So roots of given cubic equation (1) are
(i) 2 1 3 u v + = + =
(ii)
2
1 3 1 3 3 3
2 2
2 2 2
i i i
u v w w
| | | | | |
+ +
+ = + = + =
| | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

(iii)
2
1 3 1 3 3 3
2 2
2 2 2
i i i
u v w w
| | | | | |
+
+ = + = + =
| | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

So, roots of the equation
3
y 6 9 0 y = are
3 3 3 3
3, ,
2 2
i i
| | | |
+
| |
| |
\ . \ .

And roots of the equation
3 2
9 +6x -1=0 x are
1 1
1 3 3 3 3
, ,
3 2 2
i i

| | | |
+
| |
| |
\ . \ .
as
1
= y
x

Nov -Dec 2008

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
21. From the equation whose roots are reciprocal of the roots of the equation
5 3 2
2 4 3 7 6 0 x x x x + + + =
Ans: The equation whose roots are reciprocal of the roots of the equation
5 3 2
2 4 3 7 6 0 x x x x + + + = is y
1
y
x
= by putting the value of y in the above equation we will have
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
5 3 2
2 1/ 4 1/ 3 1/ 7 1/ 6 0 x x x x + + + =
4 3 5 2
6 7 3 4 2 0 x x x x + + + =
22. If
1 2 3
, , r r r are the root of the equation
3 2
2 3 1 0 x x kx + = find constant k if sum of
two roots is 1.
Let
1 2 3
, , r r r are the roots of
3 2
2 3 1 0 x x kx + = .
Given that
1 2
1 r r + = -------------- (1)
Now,
1 2 3
3/ 2 r r r + + = -------------- (2)

1 2 2 3 1 3
/ 2 r r r r r r k + + = ------------ (3)

1 2 3
1/ 2 r r r = ------------- (4)
From(1) and (2)
3
1/ 2 r = ------------- (5)
From(5) and (4)
1 2
1 r r = ------------- (6)
From(5) and (6)we can construct a quadratic equation that is
2
1 0 x x + =
By solving equation
2
1 0 x x + = we will have
2
4 1 3
2 2
b b ac i
x
a

= =
1 2 3
1 3 1 3
2
, , 1/ 2
2
i i
r r r = = =
+


23. Find the equation whose roots are the roots of x
4
+x
3
3x
2
x +2 =.each
diminished by 3.
Ans. The above equation can be solved by using synthetic division then we will have
3 y x =

Let , , , o | o are the roots of x
4
+x
3
3x
2
x +2 =.
Now, 1 o | o + + + = -------------- (1)
As roots are diminished by 3 therefore new root will be 3, 3, 3, 3 y o | o =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 3 3 3 3 1 12 o | o + + + =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 3 3 3 3 13 o | o + + + =

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
3 1 1 3 1 2
0 3 12 27 78
1 4 9 26 80
0 3 21 90
1 7 30 116
0 3 30
1 10 60
0 3
1 13


Hence the new equation is
4 3 2
13 60 116 80 x x x x + + + +

24. Solve by Cardans method of equation
3
15 126 0 x x = .
Ans:
3
15 126 0 x x =
Here the equation having terms involving
2
x termmissing.
Let
1/3 1/3
x p q = + be the solution of equation (1).

( )
3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3
3 x p q p q p q = + + +

3 1/3 1/3
3 x p q p q x = + +

3 1/3 1/3
3 ( ) 0 x p q x p q + = -------------(2)
By comparing equation(1) and (2) we get

1/3 1/3
5, ( ) 126 p q p q = + = 125, ( ) 126 pq p q = + =
So, p and q are the roots of the equation
2
126 125 0 t t + =
( 1)( 125) 0 1,125 t t t = = . So, let p =1 and q =125.
So roots of given cubic equation (1) are
(i)
1/3 1/3
1 5 6 p q + = + =
(ii)
1/3 2 1/3
1 3 1 3 6 4 3
5 3 2 3
2 2 2
i i i
wp w q i
| | | | | |
+
+ = + = =
| | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

(iii)
2 1/3 1/3
1 3 1 3 6 4 3
5 3 2 3
2 2 2
i i i
w p wq i
| | | | | |
+ +
+ = + = = +
| | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

So, roots are 6, 3 2 3, 3 2 3 i i + (Ans).

May-June 2009

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

25. Write the relation between roots and coefficients of the equation.
1 2
0 1 2 1
.......... 0
n n n
n n
a x a x a x a x a

+ + + + + =
Ans: Let
1 2
, ,.........,
n
o o o are roots of
1 2
0 1 2 1
.......... 0
n n n
n n
a x a x a x a x a

+ + + + + = .
Then
1
1
0
i
i n
a
a
o
s s
=

,
2 2
0
( 1)
i j
i j
a
a
o o
=
=



3 3
0
( 1)
i j k
i j k
a
a
o o o
= =
=


Similarly,
1 2
0
......... ( 1)
n n
n
a
a
o o o =
26. If , , o | are the roots of the cubic
3
0 x px q + + = . Show that
i.
5 5 5
5 o | o| o| + + =


ii.
2 5 3 4
3 5 o o o o =


Ans: As , , o | are the roots of the cubic
3
0 x px q + + = .--------(1)
So, 0, , p q o o| o| = = =


Now,
( )
2
2
2 0 2 2 p p o o o| = = =

.

2
2p o =

-----------(2)
As
3 3
0 3 0 3( ) 0 q o o o| o = = =



3
3q o =

-------------(3)
Let us multiply equation (1) by x we get

4 2
0 x px qx + + =

4 2
0 p q o o o + + =



4 2 2
( 2 ) (0) 2 p q p p q p o o o = = =



4 2
2p o =

---------------(3)
(i)
5 5 5
5 o | o| o| + + =


Ans: Now by multiplying (1) by
2
x we get
5 3 2
0 x px qx + + =

5 3 2
0 p q o o o + + =



5 3 2
( 3 ) ( 2 ) 5 p q p q q p pq o o o = = =

----------(4)

5
5( ) q p o =



5
5 o o| o| =



5 5 5
5 o | o| o| + + =

(Proved)
(ii)
2 5 3 4
3 5 o o o o =



DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
Ans:
2 5 2
3 3.( 2 ).(5 ) 30 p pq p q o o = =

-------------(5)

3 4 2 2
5 5( 3 )(2 ) 30 q p p q o o = =

------------(6)
From(5) and (6)
2 5 3 4
3 5 o o o o =

(Proved)

27. Show that the equation
4 3 2
10 23 6 15 0 x x x x + = can be transformed into reciprocal
equation by diminishing the roots by 2. Hence solve the equation.
Ans: Let us diminished the roots of
4 3 2
10 23 6 15 0 x x x x + = --------------(1) by 2.
Putting 2 2 y x x y = = +
By Using synthetic division method

The transformed equation is
4 3 2
2 13 2 1 0 y y y y + = ------------(2)
Equation (2) is a reciprocal equation of even degree having coefficients of terms
equidistant fromthe beginning and end equal.
Dividing equation (2) by
2
y we get
2
2
2 1
2 13 0 y y
y y
+ =

2
2
1 1
2 13 0 y y
y y
| | | |
+ + =
| |
\ . \ .

Now putting
2 2
2
1 1
2 y z y z
y y
+ = + =

2
2 2 13 0 z z =

2
2 15 0 ( 5)( 3) 0 z z z z = + =
3,5 z =

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

1
3 y
y
+ =
1
5 y
y
+ =

2
1 3 y y + =
2
1 5 y y + =
2
3 1 0 y y + + =
2
5 1 0 y y + =
3 9 4
2
y

=
5 25 4
2
y

=
3 5
2
y

=
5 21
2
y

=
3 5 3 5 5 21 5 21
, , ,
2 2 2 2
y
+ +
=
So, solution for 2 x y = +
3 5 3 5 5 21 5 21
2, 2, 2, 2
2 2 2 2
x
+ +
= + + + +
1 5 1 5 9 21 9 21
, , ,
2 2 2 2
x
+ +
= (Ans)

28. Solve by Cardans method, the equation
3 2
27 54 198 73 0 x x x + + = .
Ans:
3 2
27 54 198 73 0 x x x + + =

3 2
22 73
2 0
3 27
x x x + + = ------------(1)
Let us compare this equation with
3 2
0 ax bx cx d + + + =
Then
22 73
1, 2, ,
3 27
a b c d = = = =
Putting
2 2
3 3
z ax b x x z = + = + = in (1) we get

3 2
2 2 22 2 73
2 0
3 3 3 3 27
z z z
| | | | | |
+ + =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .


3 2 2
4 8 8 8 22 44 73
2 2 0
3 27 3 9 3 9 27
z z z z z z + + + + =

3
6 7 0 z z + = ------------------------(2)
Now comparing with
3
3 0 z Hz G + + =
Where 2, 7 H G = =
| |
3 2
1 1 1
4 7 32 49 7 9 8
2 2 2
p G H G
(
(
= + + = + + = + =



So roots of given cubic equation (2) are

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
(i)
1/3
1/3
2
2 1
2
H
p
p
= =
(ii)
1/3 2 2 2
1/3
2
2 2 2( ) 3
2
H
wp w w w w w w
wp w
= = = +
1/3
1/3
1 3 4 3 3 3 1 3 3
2 3
2 2 2
H i i i
wp
wp
| |
+ + +
= = =
|
|
\ .

(iii)
2 1/3 2 2 2
2 1/3 2
2
2 2 2( ) 3
2
H
w p w w w w w w
w p w
= = = +
2 1/3
2 1/3
1 3 4 3 3 3 1 3 3
2 3
2 2 2
H i i i
w p
w p
| |
+ +
= = =
|
|
\ .

So, roots of equation (2) are
1 3 3 1 3 3
1, ,
2 2
i i
| | | |
+
| |
| |
\ . \ .
.
Now, roots of given equation (1) are
2 1 3 3 2 1 3 3 2
1 , ,
3 2 3 2 3
i i +


1 3 9 3 4 3 9 3 4
, ,
3 6 6
i i +
=

1 7 9 3 7 9 3
, ,
3 6 6
i i +
= (Ans).


Nov-Dec, 2009

29. Write the relation between roots and coefficients of the equation.
1 2
0 1 2 1
.......... 0
n n n
n n
a x a x a x a x a

+ + + + + =
Ans: Let
1 2
, ,.........,
n
o o o are roots of
1 2
0 1 2 1
.......... 0
n n n
n n
a x a x a x a x a

+ + + + + = .
Then
1
1
0
i
i n
a
a
o
s s
=

,
2 2
0
( 1)
i j
i j
a
a
o o
=
=



3 3
0
( 1)
i j k
i j k
a
a
o o o
= =
=


Similarly,
1 2
0
......... ( 1)
n n
n
a
a
o o o =
30. If | o , , are the roots of the equation
3
0 x px q + + = , then show that
i.
5 5 5
5 o | o| o| + + =


ii.
2 5 3 4
3 5 o o o o =

.
Ans: As , , o | are the roots of the cubic
3
0 x px q + + = .--------(1)

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
So, 0, , p q o o| o| = = =


Now,
( )
2
2
2 0 2 2 p p o o o| = = =

.

2
2p o =

-----------(2)
As
3 3
0 3 0 3( ) 0 q o o o| o = = =



3
3q o =

-------------(3)
Let us multiply equation (1) by x we get

4 2
0 x px qx + + =

4 2
0 p q o o o + + =



4 2 2
( 2 ) (0) 2 p q p p q p o o o = = =



4 2
2p o =

---------------(3)
(i)
5 5 5
5 o | o| o| + + =


Ans: Now by multiplying (1) by
2
x we get
5 3 2
0 x px qx + + =

5 3 2
0 p q o o o + + =



5 3 2
( 3 ) ( 2 ) 5 p q p q q p pq o o o = = =

----------(4)

5
5( ) q p o =



5
5 o o| o| =



5 5 5
5 o | o| o| + + =

(Proved)
(ii)
2 5 3 4
3 5 o o o o =


Ans:
2 5 2
3 3.( 2 ).(5 ) 30 p pq p q o o = =

-------------(5)

3 4 2 2
5 5( 3 )(2 ) 30 q p p q o o = =

------------(6)
From(5) and (6)
2 5 3 4
3 5 o o o o =

(Proved)
31. Show that the equation
4 3 2
10 23 6 15 0 x x x x + = can be transformed into reciprocal
equation by diminishing the roots by 2. Hence solve the equation
Ans: Let us diminished the roots of
4 3 2
10 23 6 15 0 x x x x + = --------------(1) by 2.
Putting 2 2 y x x y = = +
By Using synthetic division method

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

The transformed equation is
4 3 2
2 13 2 1 0 y y y y + = ------------(2)
Equation (2) is a reciprocal equation of even degree having coefficients of terms
equidistant fromthe beginning and end equal.
Dividing equation (2) by
2
y we get
2
2
2 1
2 13 0 y y
y y
+ =

2
2
1 1
2 13 0 y y
y y
| | | |
+ + =
| |
\ . \ .

Now putting
2 2
2
1 1
2 y z y z
y y
+ = + =

2
2 2 13 0 z z =

2
2 15 0 ( 5)( 3) 0 z z z z = + =
3,5 z =

1
3 y
y
+ =
1
5 y
y
+ =

2
1 3 y y + =
2
1 5 y y + =
2
3 1 0 y y + + =
2
5 1 0 y y + =
3 9 4
2
y

=
5 25 4
2
y

=
3 5
2
y

=
5 21
2
y

=

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
3 5 3 5 5 21 5 21
, , ,
2 2 2 2
y
+ +
=
So, solution for 2 x y = +
3 5 3 5 5 21 5 21
2, 2, 2, 2
2 2 2 2
x
+ +
= + + + +
1 5 1 5 9 21 9 21
, , ,
2 2 2 2
x
+ +
= (Ans)

32. Solve by Cardans method, the equation
3 2
27 54 198 73 0 x x x + + = .
Ans:
3 2
27 54 198 73 0 x x x + + =

3 2
22 73
2 0
3 27
x x x + + = ------------(1)
Let us compare this equation with
3 2
0 ax bx cx d + + + =
Then
22 73
1, 2, ,
3 27
a b c d = = = =
Putting
2 2
3 3
z ax b x x z = + = + = in (1) we get

3 2
2 2 22 2 73
2 0
3 3 3 3 27
z z z
| | | | | |
+ + =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .


3 2 2
4 8 8 8 22 44 73
2 2 0
3 27 3 9 3 9 27
z z z z z z + + + + =

3
6 7 0 z z + = ------------------------(2)
Now comparing with
3
3 0 z Hz G + + =
Where 2, 7 H G = =
| |
3 2
1 1 1
4 7 32 49 7 9 8
2 2 2
p G H G
(
(
= + + = + + = + =



So roots of given cubic equation (2) are
(i)
1/3
1/3
2
2 1
2
H
p
p
= =
(ii)
1/3 2 2 2
1/3
2
2 2 2( ) 3
2
H
wp w w w w w w
wp w
= = = +
1/3
1/3
1 3 4 3 3 3 1 3 3
2 3
2 2 2
H i i i
wp
wp
| |
+ + +
= = =
|
|
\ .

(iii)
2 1/3 2 2 2
2 1/3 2
2
2 2 2( ) 3
2
H
w p w w w w w w
w p w
= = = +

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
2 1/3
2 1/3
1 3 4 3 3 3 1 3 3
2 3
2 2 2
H i i i
w p
w p
| |
+ +
= = =
|
|
\ .

So, roots of equation (2) are
1 3 3 1 3 3
1, ,
2 2
i i
| | | |
+
| |
| |
\ . \ .
.
Now, roots of given equation (1) are
2 1 3 3 2 1 3 3 2
1 , ,
3 2 3 2 3
i i +


1 3 9 3 4 3 9 3 4
, ,
3 6 6
i i +
=

1 7 9 3 7 9 3
, ,
3 6 6
i i +
= (Ans).
May-June 2010
33. If | o , , are the roots of the equation 0 8 12 6
2 3
= + x x x , find an equation whose
roots are 2 , 2 , 2 | o .
Ans: - It is same as to find an equation whose roots are diminished by 2 of
0 8 12 6
2 3
= + x x x 0 ) 2 (
3
= x -----------------(1) Let 2 2 + = = y x x y ,
so eqn (1) becomes 0
3
= y . Then the equation is
3
0 x = .
34. If the roots of the equation 0
2 3
= + r qx px x are in H.P., then prove that
0 2 9 27
3 2
= + q pqr r .
Ans: - Let | o , , are the roots of the equation 0
2 3
= + r qx px x .
Here , , p q r o | o| | o o| + + = + + = =
Given that roots are in HP.
So,
1 1 2
o |
+ =

2
2 3
o
o| | o o| | o o
o |
+
= + = + + =
( )
( )
3 3
3
r
q
o|
| o| | o o| |
o| | o
+ + = = =
+ +

As | is a root of the given eqn so it must satisfy the equation.
Hence
3 2
0 p q r | | | + =

3 2
3 2 3
3
3 3 3 27 9 2
0 0
r r r r pqr rq
p q r
q q q q
| | | | | | +
+ = =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .


3 2 3
27 9 2 0 r pqr rq + =

2 3
27 9 2 0 r pqr q + = (Proved).

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

35. If | o , , are the roots of the equation 0
3
= + + r qx x , form an equation whose roots are:
(i)

o|
|
o
o
|
, , .
(ii)
2 2 2
, ,
| o o |
o |
+ + +

Ans: - Here 0, , q r o | o| | o o| + + = + + = =

i. , ,
| o o|
o |

Let
2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
, , , , , ,
r r r r r
y x
x y
| o o| o| o| o|
o | o | o |

= = = = =
Now, 0
3
= + + r qx x
3 6 4 2 2 2
2 x qx r x qx q x r + = + + =
3 2
2 2
2
r r r
q q r
y y y
| | | |
+ + =
| |
\ . \ .
3 2
2 2
3 2
2
r r r
q q r
y y y

+ =
2 2 2 3
2 r qry q y ry + =
3 2 2 2
2 0 ry q y qry r + + =
New eqn is
3 2 2 2
2 0 rx q x qrx r + + =
(ii)
2 2 2
, ,

| o
|
o
o
| + + +

Ans: - Here 0, , q r o | o| | o o| + + = + + = =
Let
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1
, , , , y
| o o | o | o | o |
o | o o | |
+ + + + + + + + +
= =
| o | o
1
,
1
,
1 1
0 ,
1
0 ,
1
0 = = y as 0 o | + + =
y
x
x
y
1 1
= =
So, eqn 0
3
= + + r qx x becomes 0 1 0
1 1
3 2
3
= + = +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
ry qy r
y
q
y

0 1
2 3
= qy ry
New eqn is 0 1
2 3
= qx rx


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
36. Solve by Cardans method: 0 1 9 28
2 3
= + x x
Ans: - 0 1 9 28
2 3
= + x x ------------------(1)
Let
1 1
y x
x y
= = , then eqn (1) becomes
3
9 28 0 y y + = ---------------(2)
Here the equation having terms involving
2
y termmissing.
Let y u v = + be the solution of equation (2).
3 3 3
3 ( ) y u v uv u v = + + +
3 3 3
3 y u v uvy = + +
( )
3 3 3
3 0 y uvy u v + = -------------(3)
By comparing equation(2) and (3) we get
3 3
3, 28 uv u v = + =
3 3 3 3
27, 28 u v u v = + =
So,
3 3
, u v are the roots of the equation
2
28 27 0 t t + + =
( 1)( 27) 0 1, 27 t t t + + = = . So, let
3 3
1, 27 u v = = .
2
1, , u w w = , then
2
3
3, 3 , 3 v w w
u
= =
Then
2 2
1 3, 3 , 3 y u v w w w w = + =
2
4,1 2 ,1 2 y u v w w = + =
1 3 1 3
4,1 2 ,1 2
2 2
i i
y u v
| | | |
+
= + =
| |
| |
\ . \ .

4,2 3,2 3 y i i = +

1 1 2 3 2 3
, ,
4 7 7
i i
x
y
+
= =
So, roots are
1 2 3 2 3
, ,
4 7 7
i i
x
+
= . (Ans).
Nov-Dec 2010
37. State the intermediate property.
Ans Intermediate property of roots says that for the equation ( ) 0 f x = for two numbers
let a and b such that, ) (a f and ) (b f have different sign then equation 0 ) ( = x f has at least
one root lies between a and b.
38. If | o , , are the roots of the equation
3
0 x px q + + = , then show that
i.
5 5 5
5 o | o| o| + + =



DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
ii.
2 5 3 4
3 5 o o o o =

.
Ans: As , , o | are the roots of the cubic
3
0 x px q + + = .--------(1)
So, 0, , p q o o| o| = = =


Now,
( )
2
2
2 0 2 2 p p o o o| = = =

.

2
2p o =

-----------(2)
As
3 3
0 3 0 3( ) 0 q o o o| o = = =



3
3q o =

-------------(3)
Let us multiply equation (1) by x we get

4 2
0 x px qx + + =

4 2
0 p q o o o + + =



4 2 2
( 2 ) (0) 2 p q p p q p o o o = = =



4 2
2p o =

---------------(3)
(i)
5 5 5
5 o | o| o| + + =


Ans: Now by multiplying (1) by
2
x we get
5 3 2
0 x px qx + + =

5 3 2
0 p q o o o + + =



5 3 2
( 3 ) ( 2 ) 5 p q p q q p pq o o o = = =

----------(4)

5
5( ) q p o =



5
5 o o| o| =



5 5 5
5 o | o| o| + + =

(Proved)
(ii)
2 5 3 4
3 5 o o o o =


Ans:
2 5 2
3 3.( 2 ).(5 ) 30 p pq p q o o = =

-------------(5)

3 4 2 2
5 5( 3 )(2 ) 30 q p p q o o = =

------------(6)
From(5) and (6)
2 5 3 4
3 5 o o o o =

(Proved)
39. Solve:
5 4 3 2
6 41 97 97 41 6 0 x x x x x + + = .
Ans:
5 4 3 2
6 43 43 6 0 x x x x x + + + =
The given equation is a reciprocal equation of odd degree having coefficient of terms
equidistance frombeginning and end.
So, 1 x = is its root.

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
4 3 2
( 1)(6 5 38 5 6) 0 x x x x x + + =
4 3 2
(6 5 38 5 6) 0 x x x x + =
Dividing by
2
x we get
2
2
5 6
6 5 38 0 x x
x x
+ =
2
2
1 1
6 5 38 0 x x
x x
| | | |
+ + =
| |
\ . \ .

2
1 1
6 2 5 38 0 x x
x x
| |
| | | |
+ + =
|
| |
|
\ . \ .
\ .

( )
2
6 2 5 38 0 t t = where
1
x t
x
| |
+ =
|
\ .

2
6 5 50 0 t t =
10 5
(3 10)(2 5) 0 ,
3 2
t t t + = =
1 10 1 5
3 2
x and x
x x
+ = + =
2 2
3 3 10 2 2 5 x x and x x + = + =
2 2
3 10 3 0 2 5 2 0 x x and x x + = + + =
10 100 36 5 25 16
6 4
x and x

= =
10 8 5 3
6 4
x and x

= =
1 1
3, 2,
2 2
x and x = =
So, roots are
1 1
2, 1, , , 3
2 2
x = (Ans)
40. Solve by Ferraris method: 0 3 10 5 2
2 3 4
= + x x x x .
Ans: - 0 3 10 5 2
2 3 4
= + x x x x
---------------------------(1)
Equation (1) can be written as by combining
x
4
and x
3
into perefect square
0 ) ( ) (
2 2 2
= + + n mx x x ----------------------------(2)
0 ) 2 2 ( ) 1 2 ( 2
2 2 2 2 3 4
= + + + + n mn x m x x x ----------(3)
From (1)onJ (3)

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

+ = =
= =
+ = = +

3 3
5 10 2 2
6 2 5 1 2
2 2 2 2
2 2



n n
mn mn
m m
--------------------(4)
From(4)
2 2 2
) ( . mn n m =
2 2
) 5 ( ) 3 ).( 6 2 ( = + +
0 7 4 5 2
2 3
= +
Then 1 = is one of the root.
So, 2 4 6 ) 1 ( 2
2
= = + = m m (one of the value)
2 4 5 = = = n mn
So, (2) can be written as 0 ) 2 2 ( ) 1 (
2 2 2
= x x x
0 ) 2 2 1 )( 2 2 1 (
2 2
= + + x x x x x x
0 ) 1 3 )( 3 (
2 2
= + + x x x x
0 ) 1 3 ( , 0 ) 3 (
2 2
= + = + x x x x
2
4 9 3
,
2
12 1 1
=
+
= x x
2
5 3
,
2
13 1
=

= x x (Ans)

April -May-2011
41. What is geometrical meaning of root of the equation f(x)=0
Ans. For any value of x which satisfies 0 ) ( = x f are called as solution of 0 ) ( = x f or root of
0 ) ( = x f .
Example: - For 0 6 2 = + x
a. If 2 = x , it is not satisfies 0 6 2 = + x . So, 2 = x is not a solution of 0 6 2 = + x .
If 3 = x , it is not satisfies 0 6 2 = + x . So, 3 = x is a solution of 0 6 2 = + x .
Geometrically for the curve f(x) =0 the roots are the curve of , , ,................ x a x b x c = = =
which touches the curve at a, b, and c respectively.

42. Solve the following equations : 6x
5
-41x
4
+97x
3
-97x
2
+41x-6=0
Ans:
5 4 3 2
6 43 43 6 0 x x x x x + + + =
The given equation is a reciprocal equation of odd degree having coefficient of terms
equidistance frombeginning and end.
So, 1 x = is its root.

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
4 3 2
( 1)(6 5 38 5 6) 0 x x x x x + + =
4 3 2
(6 5 38 5 6) 0 x x x x + =
Dividing by
2
x we get
2
2
5 6
6 5 38 0 x x
x x
+ =
2
2
1 1
6 5 38 0 x x
x x
| | | |
+ + =
| |
\ . \ .

2
1 1
6 2 5 38 0 x x
x x
| |
| | | |
+ + =
|
| |
|
\ . \ .
\ .

( )
2
6 2 5 38 0 t t = where
1
x t
x
| |
+ =
|
\ .

2
6 5 50 0 t t =
10 5
(3 10)(2 5) 0 ,
3 2
t t t + = =
1 10 1 5
3 2
x and x
x x
+ = + =
2 2
3 3 10 2 2 5 x x and x x + = + =
2 2
3 10 3 0 2 5 2 0 x x and x x + = + + =
10 100 36 5 25 16
6 4
x and x

= =
10 8 5 3
6 4
x and x

= =
1 1
3, 2,
2 2
x and x = =
So, roots are
1 1
2, 1, , , 3
2 2
x = (Ans)

43. Find the equation of squared difference of the roots of the cubic
3 2
x 6x 7x 2 0. + + + =
Ans: Let , , o | are the roots of
3 2
x 6x 7x 2 0. + + + = (1)

Now, 6 o | + + = --------------(2)
7 o| | o + + = ------------(3)
2 o| = -------------(4)

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
As sum of the roots is -6 therefore to remove the 2
nd
term we will make a new equation
whose roots will be increased by 2
Here by removing the term containing
2
x
We will have
2 1 6 7 2
0 2 8 2
1 4 1 4
0 2 4
1 2 5
0 2
1 0


The transformed equation will be
3
-5y 4 0. y + = and roots of it will be 2, 2, 2 o | + + + (5)
Let 2, 2, 2 a b c o | = + = + = +
Now, 0 a b c + + = --------------(6)
5 ab bc ca + + = ------------(7)
4 abc = -------------(8)
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
2 2
b c
c a
a b
| |
o o
o o |
= + + =
= + + =
= + + =

And we are here to find
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
, , o | | o
which is equivalent to
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
, , a b b c c a if z be the root of the equation squared differences we will have
( ) ( )
2 2
4 z b c b c bc = = +
( ) ( )
2 2
4 z b c b c bc = = + from equation 6 and 8 we will have
( ) ( ) ( )
3
2 2 2 4 16
4
abc a
z b c b c bc a
a a
+
= = + =
3
16 a
z
a
+
=
3
16 y
z
y
+
= as y is the root of the equation
3
-5y 4 0. y + = and equivalent to a, b, and c
3
16 0 y zy + = (9)
Subtracting the equation 9 from equation 8 we will have ( )
( )
12
5 12 0
5
z y y
z
= =



DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
Putting the value of y in the equation 8 we will have
( ) ( )
3
12 12
-5 4 0.
5 5 z z
| | | |
+ =
| |
| |

\ . \ .

3 2
-30z 225 68 0. z z + = and roots of the obtained equation are ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
, , a b b c c a
which is equivalent to ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
, , o | | o .
Hence
3 2
-30z 225 68 0. z z + = is the required equation.


44. Solve by Cardans methods: x
3
-3x+1=0.
Ans:
3
3 1 0 x x + = --------------(1)
Hence the transformed equation is
3
3 1 0 x x + = ---------(2)where
Let
1/3 1/3
x p q = + be the solution of equation (2).

( )
3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3
3 x p q p q p q = + + +

3 1/3 1/3
3 x p q p q x = + +

3 1/3 1/3
3 ( ) 0 y p q y p q + = -------------(3)
By comparing equation (2) and (3) we get

1/3 1/3
1, ( ) 1 p q p q = + =
1, ( ) 1 pq p q = + =
So, p and q are the roots of the equation
2
1 0 t t + + =

1 1 4 1 3
2 2
i
t

= = .
So, let
1 3 1 3
,
2 2
i i
p q
+
= = .
So roots of given cubic equation (1) are
(i)
1/3 1/3
1/3 1/3
1 3 1 3
2 2
i i
p q
| | | |
+
+ = +
| |
| |
\ . \ .


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

1/3 1/3
2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
3 3 3 3
i i
t t t t | | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .


2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
9 9 9 9
i i
t t t t | | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .


2
2cos
9
t
=
(ii)
1/3 1/3
1/3 2 1/3
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
2 2 2 2
i i i i
wp w q
| || | | || |
+ +
+ = +
| | | |
| | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ .


4/3 4/3
1 3 1 3
2 2
i i
| | | |
+
= +
| |
| |
\ . \ .


4/3 4/3
2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
3 3 3 3
i i
t t t t | | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .


8 8 8 8
cos sin cos sin
9 9 9 9
i i
t t t t | | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .
8
2cos
9
t
=
(iii)
1/3 1/3
2 1/3 1/3
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
2 2 2 2
i i i i
w p wq
| || | | | | |
+ +
+ = +
| | | |
| | | |
\ .\ . \ . \ .


1/3 1/3
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin cos sin cos sin
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
i i i i
t t t t t t t t | || | | || |
= + + +
| | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ .


2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin cos sin cos sin
3 3 9 9 3 3 9 9
i i i i
t t t t t t t t | || | | || |
= + + +
| | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ .


2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
9 3 9 3 9 3 9 3
i i
t t t t t t t t | | | | | | | | | | | |
= + +
| | | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .


4 4 4 4
cos sin cos sin
9 9 9 9
i i
t t t t | | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .


4 4 14
2cos 2cos 2 2cos
9 9 9
t t t
t
| |
= = =
|
\ .

So, roots of equation (2) are
2 8 14
2cos , 2cos , 2cos
9 9 9
t t t



DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
Dec-Jan-2011
45. Explain Descartes rule of sign of equation.
Ans Descartes Rule of Sign:-
a. Maximum number of positive real root of 0 ) ( = x f is same as the number of sign changes
in ) (x f .
b. Maximum number of negative real root of 0 ) ( = x f is same as the number of sign changes
in ) ( x f .
c. If an equation having degree n such that at most p number of positive roots, at most q
number of negative roots, then equation has atleast ) ( q p n + number of imaginary
roots.

46. If O, A, B, C are the four point on a straight line such that the distance of A, B and C from
O are the roots of the equation
3
3 0 ax cx d + + = . If B is the middle point of AC show that
3 3
3 2 0 a d abc b + =
Ans . Let us assume , , o | are the roots of the equation
3 2
3 3 0 ax bx cx d + + + = and
, , OA OB OC o | = = =


According to the given condition | o | =

2| o = + --------------(1)

According to the property of roots
Now,
3b
a
o |

+ + = --------------(2)

3c
a
o| | o + + = ------------(3)
d
a
o|

= -------------(4)
From 2 and 3 we will have
3
3
b b
a a
| |

= = -------------(5)
( )
3 3 c c
a a
o| | o | o o + + = + + =
From 1
2
2
3 3
2 2
c b c
a a a
| o o
| |
+ = + =
|
\ .


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
2
2
3
2
c b
a a
o = -------------(6)
again from 4 we have

d
a
o|

=

( )
d
a
| o

=

From 5 and 6 we have
2
2
3
2
b c b d
a a a a
| | | |
=
| |
\ .
\ .

By solving above we will have
( )
2
2
3 2 ca b
b d
a
| |
=
|
\ .

Hence we will have
3 3
3 2 0 a d abc b + =

47. Solve by Cardans methods : X
3
3X
2
+3 =0.
Ans:
3 2
3 3 0 x x + = --------------(1)
Here we can remove second termof equation (1) by diminishing its roots by

3
1
3 1
b
h
na

= = =


We can diminished each root by 1 by synthetic division method


Hence the transformed equation is
3
3 1 0 y y + = ---------(2)where 1 y x =
Let
1/3 1/3
y p q = + be the solution of equation (2).

( )
3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3
3 y p q p q p q = + + +

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

3 1/3 1/3
3 y p q p q y = + +

3 1/3 1/3
3 ( ) 0 y p q y p q + = -------------(3)
By comparing equation (2) and (3) we get

1/3 1/3
1, ( ) 1 p q p q = + =
1, ( ) 1 pq p q = + =
So, p and q are the roots of the equation
2
1 0 t t + + =

1 1 4 1 3
2 2
i
t

= = .
So, let
1 3 1 3
,
2 2
i i
p q
+
= = .
So roots of given cubic equation (1) are
(i)
1/3 1/3
1/3 1/3
1 3 1 3
2 2
i i
p q
| | | |
+
+ = +
| |
| |
\ . \ .


1/3 1/3
2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
3 3 3 3
i i
t t t t | | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .


2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
9 9 9 9
i i
t t t t | | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .


2
2cos
9
t
=
(ii)
1/3 1/3
1/3 2 1/3
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
2 2 2 2
i i i i
wp w q
| || | | || |
+ +
+ = +
| | | |
| | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ .


4/3 4/3
1 3 1 3
2 2
i i
| | | |
+
= +
| |
| |
\ . \ .


4/3 4/3
2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
3 3 3 3
i i
t t t t | | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .


8 8 8 8
cos sin cos sin
9 9 9 9
i i
t t t t | | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .
8
2cos
9
t
=

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
(iii)
1/3 1/3
2 1/3 1/3
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
2 2 2 2
i i i i
w p wq
| || | | | | |
+ +
+ = +
| | | |
| | | |
\ .\ . \ . \ .


1/3 1/3
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin cos sin cos sin
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
i i i i
t t t t t t t t | || | | || |
= + + +
| | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ .


2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin cos sin cos sin
3 3 9 9 3 3 9 9
i i i i
t t t t t t t t | || | | || |
= + + +
| | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ .


2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
9 3 9 3 9 3 9 3
i i
t t t t t t t t | | | | | | | | | | | |
= + +
| | | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .


4 4 4 4
cos sin cos sin
9 9 9 9
i i
t t t t | | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .


4 4 14
2cos 2cos 2 2cos
9 9 9
t t t
t
| |
= = =
|
\ .

So, roots of equation (2) are
2 8 14
2cos , 2cos , 2cos
9 9 9
t t t

Now, roots of given equation (1) are
2 8 14
1 2cos , 1 2cos , 1 2cos
9 9 9
t t t
+ + + (Ans)

48. Solve by Ferraris method:
4 3 2
12 41 18 72 0 x x x x = .
Ans:
4 3 2
12 41 18 72 0 x x x x + =
Let
4 3 2 2 2 2
( ) 12 41 18 72 ( 6 ) ( ) 0 f x x x x x x x mx n = + = + + = ----------(1)

4 3 2 4 2 2 3 2 2 2 2
12 41 18 72 36 12 12 2 2 x x x x x x x x x m x mnx n + = + + +


4 3 2 4 3 2 2 2 2
12 41 18 72 12 (36 2 ) ( 12 2 ) x x x x x x m x mn x n + = + + + +

Equating the coefficients we get

2 2 2
(36 2 ) 41, ( 12 2 ) 18, 72 m mn n + = = =

2 2 2
2 5, 9 6 , 72 m mn n = = = +
( )( ) ( )
2
2
2 5 72 9 6 + =

3 2 2
2 144 5 360 81 36 108 0 + + =

3 2
2 41 252 441 0 + =

2
( 3)(2 35 147) 0 + =

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

21
2
3,7, =
By taking 3 1, 9 m n = = = equation (1) becomes

4 3 2 2 2 2
12 41 18 72 ( 6 3) ( 9) 0 x x x x x x x + = + =

2 2
( 6 3 9)( 6 3 9) 0 x x x x x x + + + + =

2 2
( 5 6)( 7 12) 0 x x x x + =
( 6)( 1)( 3)( 4) 0 x x x x + =
1,3,4,6 x = (Ans)

April -May-2012
49. Solve the equation
3
6x 20 0 x + + = , one root being 1 3. i
Ans . As we know that from the general properties of roots of an equation that In an equation
with real coefficients, if | o i + is a root then | o i is also one of the root, therefore two
roots of the equation
3
( ) 6x 20 f x x = + + are 1 3. i and 1 3. i +
( ) ( ) | | ( ) 1-3i 1+3i f x x x x a = ( (


( ) ( ) | | ( ) 1 3 1 3 f x x i x i x a = + ( (

( ) ( ) | | ( ) 1 3 1 3 f x x i x i x a = + ( (

( ) | |
2
( ) 1 9 f x x x a
(
=


| |
2
( ) 2 1 9 f x x x x a ( = +


| |
2
( ) 2 8 f x x x x a ( =


| |
2
( )
2 8
f x
x a
x x
=
(



| |
3
2
6x 20
2 8
x
x a
x x
( + +

=
(


| | | | 2 2 x x a a + = =
Roots of the equation
3
6x 20 x ( + +

are 1 3.,1 3 2 i i and + and
50. Solve the equation Solve the equation
3 2
x 4x 20x 48 0 + = , given that the roots o onJ [
are connected by the relation 0 o | + =
Ans . Let us assume , , o | are the roots of the equation
3 2
x 4x 20x 48 0 + = and
According to the given condition 0 | o o | + = = --------------(1)
According to the property of roots
Now, 4 o | + + = --------------(2)

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
From 1 we will have 0 4 4 + = =
20 o| | o + + = ------------(3)
48 o| = -------------(4)
From 2 and 4 we will have ( ) 4 48 12 o| o| = = -------------(5)
By using the equation 1 and 5 we 0 o | + = and 12 o| =
We can have quadratic equation from above i.e
2
-12 0 y = and 2 3 y =
2 3 2 3 and o | = = and three roots of the equation
3 2
x 4x 20x 48 0 + = are
2 3 , 2 3 4 and o | = = =
51. Solve the equation
3 2
6x 11x 3x 2 0 + = , given that its roots are in H.P.
Ans. We know that H.P is reciprocal of A.P then by taking 1/ y x = the new equation will be
3 2
3 2
1 1 1
6 11 3 2 0 2 3y 11 6 0 y y
y y y
| | | | | |
+ = + =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

now roots of the equation
3 2
2 3y 11 6 0 y y + = are in A.P As , , d d o o o + are the roots of the cubic equation
3 2
2 3y 11 6 0 y y + = .
By properties of relation between roots and coefficient of the equation we will have
( ) ( ) ( ) 3/ 2 d d o o o + + + =
3 3/ 2 1/ 2 o o = =
Again we will have ( ) ( ) ( ) 3 d d o o o + =
( ) ( )
2 2
3 d o o =
2
2
1 1
3
2 2
d
| |
| | | |
=
|
| |
|
\ . \ .
\ .

2
1
6
4
d
| | | |
=
| |
\ . \ .

2
1 25
6
4 4
d
| |
= + =
|
\ .

5
2
d = by putting the value of 5/ 2 d = in , , d d o o o + we will have roots of the
equation
3 2
2 3y 11 6 0 y y + = are 2,1/ 2,3 and roots of the equation
3 2
6x 11x 3x 2 0 + = are 1/ 2, 2 1/ 3 and
52. Solve by Cardans methods:
3
x 18x 35 0. + =
Ans:
3
x 18x 35 0. + =


DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
Here the equation having terms involving
2
x termmissing.
Let x u v = + be the solution of equation (1).
( )
3 3 3
3 x u v uv u v = + + +

3 3 3
3 x u v uvx = + +

( )
3 3 3
3 0 x uvx u v + = -------------(2)
By comparing equation(1) and (2) we get
3 3
6, ( ) 35 uv u v = + = ------------(3)
3 3 3 3 3 3
6, ( ) 35 216, ( ) 35 uv u v u v u v = + = = + =
So,
3
u and
3
v are the roots of the equation
2
35 216 0 t t + + =

2
35 216 ( 27)( 8) 27, 8 t t t t t + + = + + = .
So, let
3
u =-27 and
2
3, 3 , 3 u w w = therefore from3 we will have
2
2, 2 , 2 v w w =
So roots of given cubic equation (1) are
(iv) 3 2 5 u v + = =
(v)
2
1 3 1 3 5 3
3 2 3 2
2 2 2
i i i
u v w w
| | | | | |
+
+ = = =
| | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

(vi)
2
1 3 1 3 5 3
3 2 3 2
2 2 2
i i i
u v w w
| | | | | |
+ +
+ = = =
| | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

So, roots are
5 3 5 3
5, ,
2 2
i i
| | | |
+

| |
| |
\ . \ .
(Ans).

Dec Jan -2012
53. From the equation of the fourth degree whose roots are 3 +i and 7 .
Ans . As we know that from the general properties of roots of an equation that In an equation
with real coefficients, if | o i + is a root then | o i is also one of the root, and for the
irrational roots if an equation has b a + is one of the root, then b a is also another root.
Therefore two roots of the equation we will have 3 iand3-i, 7 7 and + and the
equation will be
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) 3+i 3-i 7 7 f x x x x x
( (
= ( (



( ) ( ) ( ) 3 3 7 7 f x x i x i x x
( (
= + + ( (



( )
( )
2
2
2 2
( ) 3 7 f x x i x
(
(
=
(



DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
( )
( )
2
2
2 2
( ) 3 7 f x x i x
(
(
=
(


2 2
( ) 9 6 1 7 f x x x x ( ( = + +


4 2 2 3 2
( ) 7 9 63 6 42 7 f x x x x x x x = + + +

4 3 2
( ) 6 3 42 70 f x x x x x = + +
54. Solve the equations:
5 4 3 2
6x x 43x 43x 6 0. x + + + =
Ans:
5 4 3 2
6 43 43 6 0 x x x x x + + + =
The given equation is a reciprocal equation of odd degree having coefficient of terms
equidistance frombeginning and end.So, 1 x = is its root.
4 3 2
( 1)(6 5 38 5 6) 0 x x x x x + + =
4 3 2
(6 5 38 5 6) 0 x x x x + =
Dividing by
2
x we get
2
2
5 6
6 5 38 0 x x
x x
+ =
2
2
1 1
6 5 38 0 x x
x x
| | | |
+ + =
| |
\ . \ .

2
1 1
6 2 5 38 0 x x
x x
| |
| | | |
+ + =
|
| |
|
\ . \ .
\ .

( )
2
6 2 5 38 0 t t = where
1
x t
x
| |
+ =
|
\ .

2
6 5 50 0 t t =
10 5
(3 10)(2 5) 0 ,
3 2
t t t + = =
1 10 1 5
3 2
x and x
x x
+ = + =
2 2
3 3 10 2 2 5 x x and x x + = + =
2 2
3 10 3 0 2 5 2 0 x x and x x + = + + =
10 100 36 5 25 16
6 4
x and x

= =
10 8 5 3
6 4
x and x

= =
1 1
3, 2,
2 2
x and x = =

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
So, roots are
1 1
2, 1, , , 3
2 2
x = (Ans)
55.
Solve by Cardans methods :
3
27x 54=0 x +


Ans:
3
27x 54=0 x +

Here the equation having terms involving
2
x termmissing.
Let x u v = + be the solution of equation (1).
( )
3 3 3
3 x u v uv u v = + + +

3 3 3
3 x u v uvx = + +

( )
3 3 3
3 0 x uvx u v + = -------------(2)
By comparing equation(1) and (2) we get

3 3
9, ( ) 54 uv u v = + = ------------(3)
3 3 3 3 3 3
9, ( ) 54 729, ( ) 54 uv u v u v u v = + = = + =
So,
3
u and
3
v are the roots of the equation
2
54 729 0 t t + + =

2 2 2
54 27 ( 27) 27 t t t t + + = + = .
So, let
3
u =-27 and
2
3, 3 , 3 u w w = therefore from3 we will have
2
3, 3 , 3 v w w =
So roots of given cubic equation (1) are
(i) 3 3 6 u v + = =
(ii)
2
1 3 1 3 6
3 3 3 3 3
2 2 2
i i
u v w w
| | | |
+ | |
+ = = = =
| |
|
| |
\ .
\ . \ .

(iii)
2
1 3 1 3 6
3 3 3 3 3
2 2 2
i i
u v w w
| | | |
+ | |
+ = = = =
| |
|
| |
\ .
\ . \ .

So, roots are 6, 3, 3 (Ans).
56. Solve by Ferrari;s method : X
4
4X
3
X
2
+16X 12=0.
Ans:
4 3 2
4x 16x 12 0. x x + =
Let
4 3 2 2 2 2
( ) 4x 16x 12 ( 2 ) ( ) 0 f x x x x x mx n = + = + + = ----------(1)

4 3 2 4 2 2 3 2 2 2 2
4x 16x 12 4 4 4 2 2 x x x x x x x m x mnx n + = + + +
4 3 2 4 3 2 2 2 2
4x 16x 12 4 (4 2 ) ( 4 2 ) x x x x m x mn x n + = + + + +
Equating the coefficients we get

2 2 2
(4 2 ) 1, ( 4 2 ) 16, 12 m mn n + = = =

2 2 2
2 5, 8 2 , 12 m mn n = + = = + ..(2)

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT
( )( ) ( )
2
2
2 5 12 8 2 + + =
3 2 2
2 24 5 60 64 4 32 + + + = + +
3 2
2 8 4 0 + =
By solving the above equation we will have
2, 2, 1/ 2 =
By taking 2, = in the equation 2 we will have
2 2
9, 12, 16 m mn n = = =
2
3, 12, 4 m mn n = = =
( ) ( )
3, 4 3, 4 m n or m n = = = =
By putting the value of above in the equation 1 we will have
4 3 2 2 2 2
( ) 4x 16x 12 ( 2 2) (3 4) 0 f x x x x x x = + = + =
4 3 2 2 2
( ) 4x 16x 12 ( 2 2) (3 4) ( 2 2) (3 4) f x x x x x x x x x ( ( = + = + + +

4 3 2 2 2
( ) 4x 16x 12 2 2 3 4 2 2 3 4 f x x x x x x x x x ( ( = + = + + + +


4 3 2 2 2
( ) 4x 16x 12 5 6 2 f x x x x x x x ( ( = + = + +


( )( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
5 6 3 2 , 2 2 1 x x x x x x x x + = + = +
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
4 3 2
( ) 4x 16x 12 3 2 2 1 f x x x x x x x = + = +
Roots of the equation
4 3 2
4x 16x 12 0. x x + =

3,2,-2and 1