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This handout is designed to provide some background and information on the analysis and

interpretation of interaction effects in the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). This is a complex topic

and the handout is necessarily incomplete. In practice, be sure to consult the text and other

references on ANOVA (Kirk, 1982; Rosenthal & Rosnow, 1991; Stevens, 1990; Winer, Brown,

& Michels, 1991) for additional information.

Interaction effects represent the combined effects of factors on the dependent measure. When an

interaction effect is present, the impact of one factor depends on the level of the other factor. Part

of the power of ANOVA is the ability to estimate and test interaction effects. As Pedhazur and

Schmelkin note, the idea that multiple effects should be studied in research rather than the isolated

effects of single variables is one of the important contributions of Sir Ronald Fisher. When

interaction effects are present, it means that interpretation of the main effects is incomplete or

misleading.

Kinds of Interactions. For example, imagine a study that tests the effects of a treatment on an

outcome measure. The treatment variable is composed of two groups, treatment and control. The

results are that the mean for the treatment group is higher than the mean for the control group.

But what if the researcher is also interested in whether the treatment is equally effective for

females and males. That is, is there a

difference in treatment depending on

gender group? This is a question of

interaction. Inspect the results below.

Interaction results whose lines do not

cross (as in the figure at left) are called

ordinal interactions. If the slope of lines

is not parallel in an ordinal interaction,

the interaction effect will be significant,

given enough statistical power. If the

lines are parallel, then there is no

interaction effect. In this case, a

difference in level between the two lines

would indicate a main effect of gender; a

difference in level for both lines between

treatment and control would indicate a

main effect of treatment. When ordinal

interactions are significant, it is necessary to follow up the omnibus F-test with one of the focused

comparison procedures described below. Usually, the main effects can also be interpreted and

tested further when they are significant.

However, when an interaction is significant and disordinal, main effects can not be sensibly

interpreted. The first graph below shows an example of a disordinal interaction. Disordinal

interactions involve crossing lines. Generally speaking, one should not interpret main effects in the

presence of a significant disordinal interaction. For example, in the results shown in the next graph

-2-

at bottom left, the results of the main

effect of treatment seem to show that

the treatment mean is higher than the

control mean. However, one really

cant say whether the treatment is

effective or not in general the effect

of treatment must be qualified

depending on which gender is

considered; as shown in the graph of

the interaction at left. Similarly,

differences in gender overall are

misleading. While the female mean

(averaged over treatments) is higher

than the male mean (averaged over

treatments (see below right), this main

effect result is not really the true state

of affairs. Whether females score higher than males depends on the treatment condition. This is

the essence of an interaction effect: results and interpretations of one variables effect or impact

must be qualified in terms of the impact of the second variable. This phenomenon is especially

pronounced in the case of disordinal

interactions and as a result, one should avoid interpreting or

discussing main effects when significant disordinal interactions are present. For example, in the

present case, results for the F tests of the main effects should be reported, but interpretation

should be limited to the significant interaction effect. To determine exactly which parts of the

interaction are significant, the omnibus F test must be followed by more focused tests or

comparisons.

-3-

FOCUSED TESTS OF INTERACTIONS

Whenever interactions are significant, the next question that arises is exactly where are the

significant differences? This situation is similar to the issues in finding focused tests of main

effects, but it is also more complex in that interactions represent the combined effects of two

forces or dimensions in the data not just one. The following section describes four common

approaches to obtaining more focused, specific information on where differences are in the

interaction effect.

Method 1. Oneway ANOVA. In essence this method assumes that all relevant variance is

located in the cells and there is no meaningful variance associated with the main effects. Given this

assumption, it is reasonable to analyze the difference among the a by b cell means as though they

are separate groups in a one-factor design. To accomplish this analysis in SPSS it is necessary to

recode the ab cells into a one factor design by creating a new grouping variable. For the example

above testing the interaction of gender and treatment, the ONEWAY analysis of the eight cell

means starts by creating a new, four-level variable named interact:

compute interact=0.

formats interact (F5.0).

if (gender eq 1 and treatment eq 1) interact=1.

if (gender eq 1 and treatment eq 2) interact=2.

if (gender eq 2 and treatment eq 1) interact=3.

if (gender eq 2 and treatment eq 2) interact=4.

execute.

The SPSS ONEWAY procedure (or a one factor ANOVA using GLM-Univariate) can now be

used to analyze the relationship of the four-group variable interact with the dependent measure.

Contrast procedures or post hoc procedures can be requested in SPSS to test specific differences

between cell means. The advantage of this procedure is that it is easily implemented in SPSS. The

disadvantage of the procedure is that it fails to separately partition out variance due to the main

effects from variance due to the interaction effect ( a complex topic somewhat beyond the scope

of this class) and it loses the structural or dimensional information about the interaction (i.e., in

this case, theyre not really four groups but two different dimensions or facets of the data).

Method 2. Post Hoc Tests. This method is a direct extension of the application of post hoc tests

for main effects. When the omnibus F test for the interaction is significant, it may be followed by

the application of a post hoc procedure to explore which pairs of cell means are significantly

different. Tukeys can be implemented using the oneway procedures described above. For most

general applications, Tukeys HSD procedure is the post hoc procedure of choice as it provides

true correction of alpha slippage for the number of comparisons made but does not sacrifice

statistical power. As the number of cell means becomes large, however, the procedure gets

cumbersome. The formula for Tukeys is:

-4-

where HSD is the minimum difference between cell means for significance, q = the studentized

range statistic value for the desired alpha and the given number of cell means and denominator

degrees of freedom, MSE is the denominator for the F test for the interaction effect, and n* is the

number of scores per cell (when cell sizes are unequal the harmonic mean may be used). In SPSS

you must use the oneway coding of the interaction described above to perform Tukeys or other

post hoc procedures. SPSS will not compute post hoc tests on interaction effects. One

disadvantage of pair-wise, post hoc tests is that they do not distinguish the two-dimensional

structure (in our two-factor examples) of the interaction effect in any way; all pairs of means are

treated and tested equally.

Method 3. Simple Effects Tests. Simple effects procedures attempt to maintain the essential

structure or nature of the interaction effect. This approach essentially breaks the interaction effect

into component parts and then tests the separate parts for significance. In our present example,

1 2

differences in levels of Factor A (treatment) would be tested at B (female) and then at B (male).

1 2

Differences in levels of Factor B (gender) would then be tested at A (treatment) and then at A

(control). The most convenient way to implement simple effects tests in SPSS is using the

following syntax language which invokes an older analysis procedure, MANOVA:

MANOVA score BY gender (1,2) treatment (1,2)

/PRINT=CELLINFO (MEANS)

/DESIGN = gender treatment gender BY treatment

/DESIGN = gender treatment WITHIN gender(1), treatment WITHIN gender(2)

/DESIGN = treatment gender WITHIN treatment(1), gender WITHIN treatment(2).

Since multiple tests are being performed, some adjustment to alpha is usually recommended. One

common procedure to protect alpha by dividing the desired alpha level by the number of simple

effects tests performed within each factor (see Pedhazur & Schmelkin, p. 527). In the present

example, there are two simple effects tests within the gender effect so alpha = .05 / 2 = .025. The

same is true for the treatment factor in this particular example. Any of the simple effects tests with

a p-value less than .025 would be considered significant at a protected alpha level of .05 (note that

this procedure for alpha adjustment is an application of Bonferronis procedure).

Method 4. Planned Comparisons. Another alternative to the procedures above is the use of

planned comparisons instead of the omnibus F test for the interaction. These procedures can also

be implemented using the oneway procedures described above. As we have discussed previously,

if a set of comparisons is orthogonal, no alpha adjustment is needed. If the comparisons are

nonorthogonal, Bonferronis or Sidaks adjustment procedures should be used.

Stevens, 1999

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