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12

th
IFToMM World Congress, Besancon (France), June 17-21, 2007

Terminology and Classification of Geometrical Parameters
of Facial Gears, Their Processing Methods and Regimes

Garik N. Raikhman
1
Michael Bartov
3
Victor E. Starzhinsky
2

The Immigrant Scientists The Immigrant Scientists V.A.Beliy Metal Polymer Research Institute
Association of Israel (ISAI) Association of Israel (ISAI) of National Academy of Sciences of Belarus
vad_men@hotmail.com mkleinbard@012.net.il star_mpri@mail.ru

ABSTRACT Set forth herein are the terms,
designations and definitions of the main
geometrical elements and parameters of facial
gears (FG). Definitions are provided for non-round,
non-round/round FG. The main terms and
definitions of the methods and processing regimes,
interplay between blanks and tools, schemes of
facial tooth formation are given. Described is the
classification of processing methods with respect to
the generalizing kinematic features.

Key words: terms, classification, methods and
modes of facial gear processing

1. INTRODUCTION
Detailed classification of different types of
gearing, toothed mechanisms, gear pairs, gears and
their elements is given in [1] and contains the main
terms concerning facial gearings. Facial toothed
gearings and joints as an independent type of
toothed mechanisms have been recently developed
in papers [2-11,22,23].
Millions of adjusting, fixing, focusing,
regulating, rotary and dividing appliances for
machines and devices of various applications are
being produced daily throughout the world..
As it was noted before [2-6], there is a
considerable variety of terms:
Facial teeth: "hirth teeth", "curvic teeth", "mouse
tooth", "face spline", "v-tooth" etc.
Facial gears: "crown gear", "face gear" etc.
Facial toothed gearings: "plate gear", "circular
gear rack", "plane level gearing", etc.
Facial toothed couplings: "plane clutch with
facial teeth", "face clutch v-tooth", etc.
The reason for such diversity of terms and their
interpretation is the lack of standards and
regulations for FTJ&G, both at the international
(IFToMM, ISO) and national levels (Russian
GOST, US AGMA, Swiss VSM, German DIN, UK
BS).
The present article herewith is aimed at
elaboration of the terms for basic geometrical
elements and classification of the methods and
regimes for facial teeth formation.

2. Terms of basic geometrical elements
and FTJ&G parameters
One of the basic indices affecting gear size,
geometrical parameters quality and loading
capacity of gearings is the displacement coefficient
x
(1,2)
of gears 1 and 2. Depending on the type of
gear comprising in FTJ&G, gearings are classified
as those without displacement and those equally,
positively and negatively displaced (Table 1).
Proceeding from X

= 0 to X

0, angles of the
initial cones

preserve their initial values, and


angles of the indexing cones undergo changes.
Terms and definitions of geometrical elements of
FTJ&G are provided in Table 2 [28].
Terms and definitions of facial non-round, non-
round/round gears are provided in Table 3 [24-26].

3. Formulation of terms and definitions for
methods and regimes of facial tooth
processing
Development of methods and forms of facial
tooth processing is based on the principle of
classification derived from the typology as
provided in [4-5]. The relevant notions can be
"form-building" (Table 4, 1-4) and "rolling" (Table
4, 5-6). The notion of "kinematic process of form-
building" is derived by adding "form-building" as
providing classification to the "kinematic process"
type.

4. Facial tooth processing method classification
This classification is based on summarizing
kinematic features, the process of indexing, both
periodical and continuous (Table 4,1-2) [19,20,27].

5. Facial tooth processing methods and regimes
The choice of the method is preconditioned by
the type of production, as well as by the facial
tooth geometrical parameters.
A summary of characteristics of the main
technological methods of facial tooth processing is
provided in Table 4 [19, 20, 21, 27].

A. Method of periodical indexing
The method implies facial tooth processing by
milling (Table 4,1, Table 5,1-4), planning (Table
4,1, Table 5,5-6), circular stretching (Table 4,1,
Table 5,7), profile grinding (Table 4,1, Table 5,8).

B. Method of continuous indexing
The method presupposes facial tooth processing
by milling (Table 4,2, Table 5,9-15), hobbing
(Table 4,2, Table 5,16), sharpening (Table 4,2,
Table 5,17), rolling (Table 4,2, Table 5,18),
lapping (Table 4,2, Table 5,19), grinding (Table
4,2, Table 5,20).

C. Spheroid pressing of facial gears
In the process of spheroid pressing (Table 5,21)
straining punch 1, as related to the blank product,
perceives, in addition to the forward advancing
movement P, that of additional rolling-out .

6. Conclusion
Hereinabove the terms, designations and
definitions of the main geometrical elements and
parameters of FTJ&G and the classification of
facial teeth form-building methods and regimes are
proposed.
The results of this elaboration can serve a basis
for international and national terminological
standards and corresponding professional literature.




































Fig. 1. Facial Toothed Joints and Gearings

a facial hypoid cylindrical gearing; b facial cylindrical gearing; c facial gearing with round facial gears of internal engagement; d facial bevel
gearing; e facial harmonic drive; f facial toothed joint (coupling). 1 gear 1; 2 gear 2; 3,5 reference surfaces of gears 1 and 2; 4,6 pitch
surfaces of gears 1 and 2; 7,8 axoids of gears 1 and 2; 9 wave generator (Fig.1e); 10 vertex of gear 2; 11 intersection point of axes I-I and II-II
of gears 1 and 2 (Fig.1b; 1d) and vertex of gear 1 (Fig.1c; 1e; 1f); 12, 13, 14 generatrices of external, middle and internal supplementary surfaces (of
circle, cylinder, cone); 15 shaft base line; 16, 17 base planes of gears 1 and 2; 18 facial tooth; 19 facial wave toothed engagement; 20 frame;
I-I and II-II axes of gears 1 and 2; a

inter-axial distance (Fig.1c); a


n
hypoid shift (Fig.1a); a
h
inter-axial distance (hypoid shift) at X

=0
(Table 1); A
1
, A
2
base distances of gears 1 and 2; Amr
1
, Amr
2
mounting sizes of gears 1 and 2; b

center distance; C
1
, C
2
heights of facial
gears 1 and 2; C
e1
, C
e2
external clearance; h
ae1
, h
ae2
external tooth addendum; h
d
(h
de
, h
dm
, h
di
) teeth engagement depth of the gear (external,
middle and internal); p-p momentary axis of relative motion of gears 1 and 2;
(1,2)
,
(1,2)
,
ax(1,2)
angles of reference, pitch and axoid surfaces of
gears 1 and 2; - shaft angle; m-m general tangent line of teeth; O the tangent point of coaxial circles of gears 1 and 2; V
1
, V
2
circumferential
velocity vectors of point O around axes I-I and II-II of gears 1 and 2 (Fig.1c);
1
,

2
vectors of angular velocities of gears 1 and 2;
12 =

1
-
2
,
21 =

2
-
1
vector of relative angular velocity. Gear 1 cylindrical (Fig.1b), facial (Fig.1c), bevel (cone) (Fig.1d), flexible (Fig.1e), facial (Fig.1f). Gear 2
facial (for the old term "flat gear"). Reference surface 3 and pitch surface 4 of gear 1 cylindrical (Fig.1b), facial (Fig.1c), conic (Fig.1d), facial
(Fig.1f). Reference 5 and pitch 6 surfaces of gear 2 coaxial plane (Fig.1b; 1c; 1d, 1f). Axoid 7 of gear 1 conic (Fig.1b; 1d) and cylindrical (Fig.1c)
surfaces. Axoid 8 gear 2 = cone (Fig.1b; 1d); cylindrical (Fig.1c) surfaces.



Facial toothed joints and gearings
without displacement equally displaced positive negative
Coefficients of displacement
x

=x
1
=x
2
=0 x

=x
2
x
1
=0 x

=x
2
x
1
>0 x

=x
2
x
1
<0
Shaft angle
=
1
+
2
=
1
+
2
=(
1
+
2
)>(
1
+
2
) =(
1
+
2
)<(
1
+
2
)


Types of facial toothed
joints and gearings

Center a

(base b

) distance and hypoid a


n
displacement
Facial gearing (Fig.1c) a


Facial cylindrical gear pair (Fig.1b)
Facial bevel gear pair (Fig.1d)
a

= 0

a
h
= a
h
a
h
> a
h
a
h
< a
h
Facial hypoid cylindrical gear pair
(Fig.1a)
a
h
center distance (hypoid shift) under x

= 0
Facial harmonic drive (Fig.1e)
Facial toothed joint (coupling) (Fig.1f)

b



Table 1. Elements and parameters of facial toothed joints and gearings


1 Facial gear pitch apex Point of intersection of facial reference (pitch) plane with the facial gear axis.
2 Facial gear depth
(1,2)
[5]

The distance from the facial gear base plane 17 to the flat circle (Fig.1b; Fig.1c) or to the
conic base plane of the teeth pitch.
3 Facial gear basic distance
(1,2)
[5]

The distance from the facial gear pitch 10 to its basic plane 17 (Fig.1b; Fig.1c, Fig.1d;
Fig.1e, Fig.1f).
4 Base plane (Fig.1) Plane 16, 17, perpendicular to the facial gear axis, used as the basic one in processing,
mounting and checking.
5 Depth engagement of gear teeth h
d

(semi-coupling) of the facial tooth joint
(coupling) (Fig.1f)
The distance between the teeth pitch circle of facial gears (semi-couplings) measured due to
the straight line parallel to the inter-base line [19, 7.11, p.87] and the coinciding with
generatrix lines forming their additional cylinders.
6 Depth engagement of gear teeth h
d

of the facial harmonic drive (Fig.1e)
The distance between the teeth pitch circle of flexible and rigid gears measured due to the
straight line parallel to the inter-base line 15 and the coinciding with generatrix lines
forming their additional cylinders (Fig.1e; Fig.1f).
7 Depth engagement of gear teeth h
d

of the facial bevel drive (Fig.1d)

The distance between the teeth pitch circle of bevel and facial gears measured due to the
straight line coinciding with generatrix lines forming their additional cones and additional
cylinders.
8 Depth engagement of gear teeth h
d

of the facial cylindrical drive (Fig.1b)
The distance between the teeth pitch circle of cylindrical and facial gears measured due to
the straight line coinciding with generatrix lines forming their additional circles and
cylinders.
9 Depth engagement of facial gear teeth h
d
of
the facial drive (Fig.1c)
The distance between the teeth pitch circle of facial gears measured due to the straight line
parallel to the inter-base line, which coincide coinciding with generatrix lines forming their
additional cylinders.
10 Facial gear reference pitch

The distance between the basic supporting and facial reference planes of the facial gear.
Comment: in the facial gear the basic distance A
2
and the reference pitch A
r
coincide.
11 Facial gear reference circle The facial gear reference circle intersection with additional cylinder.
12 Facial gear additional cylinder Co-axial cylinder of the facial gear.
13 Angle of the facial gear reference cone The angle between the facial gear axis and its facial reference plane.
14 Facial gear co-axial cylinder The cylinder of the facial gear, the axis of which coincides with the facial gear axis.
15 Facial gear facial section Section of the facial gear by an additional cylinder.
16 Facial profile of the facial gear tooth The facial section tooth profile in of the facial gear tooth side plane.
17 Facial angle of the facial gear tooth profile The acute angle between the tangent to the teeth facial profile of the facial gear in a given
point and the generatrix of the facial gear additional cylinder passing through this point.
18 Normal section of the facial gear tooth

Section of the facial gear tooth side surface by a normal plane to the reference theoretical
line.
19 Normal profile of the facial gear tooth Tooth profile in normal section of the facial gear tooth side surface.

Table 2. Elements and parameters of facial toothed gears, joints and gearings


1 Facial non-round gear

Facial gear with teeth disposed in the non-round section of the link [20, 1.04, p.82]; the
pitch and reference surfaces of the gear are facial planes [20, 3.05, 3.06, p.83] confined
with a curve line of variable radius.
2 Facial non-round/round gear

Facial gear with teeth disposed in the non-round/round section of the link; the pitch and
reference surfaces of the gear are facial planes confined with a curve line of
variable/constant radius.
3 Facial surface spiroid non-round gear.

Facial gear with teeth disposed on a facial closed helical surface of variable pitch [20, 5.08,
p.86]..

Table 3. Non-round facial gears




TERM Definition
1 METHOD OF PERIODICAL INDEXING
(Table 5, pp. 1-8)

Kinematic process of facial teeth (FT) formation by copying as transferring from formation
of one tooth to formation of the next one and of every following one occurs after formation
of the previous tooth is over.
2 METHOD OF CONTINUOUS INDEXING
(Table 5, pp. 9-20)

Kinematic process of FT formation by generating (bending around) as transferring from
formation of one tooth to formation of the next one and of every following one occurs
continuously.
3 COPYING METHOD (Table 5, pp. 1-8)


FT formation by periodical indexing by a cutting tool, shape or projection of cutting bits of
which coincide with the shape of cavities of the facial gear (FG) being cut, or cutting FT by
a template.
4 GENERATING (BENDING AROUND)
METHOD (Table 5, pp. 9-16)
Formation of lateral sides of FT as enveloping curves of successive positions of a cutting
bit of a gear cutting tool by periodical or continuous indexing.
5 FREE GENERATING METHOD (Table 5,
pp. 18, 19)
Generating process with no rigid kinematic constraint between a FG being cut and a tool.
6 FORCED GENERATING METHOD
(Table 5, pp. 9-16, 17, 20)
Generating process with existing rigid kinematic constraint between a FG being cut and a
tool.
7 METHOD OF MULTIBLADE GEAR
PLANING (Table 5, p. 6)

Multi-blade gear planning by periodical indexing method by a multiple tooth head,
mechanism of which is based on using a curve known as a conchoid of Nicomedes and
transforming in one of the sections of the teeth motion trajectory into rectangular one, when
the cutting process by copying occurs.
8 PLANETARY GEAR CUTTING
METHOD (Table 5, pp. 13, 20)


FT gear cutting by forced generating method by periodical indexing. In addition to rotation
around its own axis, the tool is imposed with rotation around the axis of the tool spindle of
a machine, which is parallel to the axis of the tool. A rigid kinematic constraint is set
between a blank part and a tool, and it conforms with a gear engagement with a K-thread
worm, where K is the number of millers regularly situated in one plane, perpendicular to
the axis of its rotation.

Table 4. Basic terms and definitions of methods and ways of facial tooth formation

REFERENCES

[1] Ionescu T.G. Terminology for the Mechanism and Machine
Science. Special Issue .Standardization of Terminology. Vol.
38, 2003, Nos. 7-10, pp. 597-1111.
[2] Raikhman G. Facial Toothed Joints and Gearings. In: Proc. of
the 27
th
Israel Conference on Mechanical Engineering, Haifa,
Israel, May 19-20, 1998, pp. 463-469.
[3] Raikhman G. Terminology of Facial Toothed Joints and
Gearings. Proc. of the 10
th
World Congress on the Theory of
Machines and Mechanisms, Vol. 6, Oulu, Finland, June 20-24,
1999, pp. 2251-2256.
[4] Raikhman G. Terminology of Facial Toothed Joints and
Gearings. Proc. of the 11
th
World Congress in Mechanism and
Machine Science. Vol.2, Tianjin, China, April 1-4, 2004, pp.
882-887.
[5] Raikhman G. Classification of Facial Toothed Joints and
Gearings. Proc. of the 11
th
World Congress in Mechanism and
Machine Science. Vol.2, Tianjin, China, April 1-4, 2004, pp.
867-871.
[6] Raikhman G. Design of Conic Toothed Clutch. In: Proc. of the
9
th
IFToMM International Symposium on Theory of Machines
and Mechanisms, Vol.2, Bucharest, Romania, September 1-4,
2005, pp. 387-392.
[7] Raikhman G. Theory of Conjugate Surfaces Formation by
Generating Lines. Mechanism and Machine Teory. Vol.37,
No.9, 2002, pp. 999-1005.
[8] G. Basstein, A. Sijtstra. New Developments in Design,
Manufacturing and Applications of Cylkro

-(Face) Gears.
AGMA paper 93FTM7, 1993.
[9] Y.-J.D. Chen. Kinematic Study of the Face Gear. ASME
Design Automation Conference 1990 (90-DAC-95).
[10] F.L. Litvin, Y.Zhang, J.-C.Wang, R.B.Bossler Jr., Y.-J.D.
Chen. Design and Geometry of Face Gear Drives. Transaction
of ASME, Vol.114, December 1992, pp. 642-647.
[11] F.L.Litvin, J.-C.Wang, R.B.Bossler Jr., Y.-J.D. Chen, G.Heath,
D.G.Lewicky. Face Gear Drives: Design, Analysis and Testing
for Helicopter Transmission Applications. AGMA paper
92FTM2, 1992.
[12] A.C. 249904, USSR, 1969.
[13] A.C. 433975, USSR, 1974.
[14] A.C. 1166929, USSR, 1985.
[15] A.C. 462673, USSR, 1975.
[16] A.C. 638667, USSR, 1978.
[17] A.C. 552154, USSR, 1977.
[18] A.C. 1060360, USSR, 1983.
[19] Raikhman G., On Compiling a Terminological Illustrated
Reference Dictionary of Facial Toothed Joints and Gearings.
Proc. of International Scientific Conference, VSB -Technical
University, Ostrava, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
Session 8 Applied Mechanics. Ostrava, Czech Republic,
September 7-9, 2005, pp.67-72.
[20] Starzhinsky V., Antonyuk V., Kane M., Shipko S., Goman A.,
Raikhman G., Soliterman Yu., Shalobayev E. Dictionary
Reference Book on Gearing: Russian-English--German-
French, 3
rd
edition corrected and enlarged. Edited by V.E.
Starzhinsky, Minsk-Gomel, BelGISS, 2005, 114 pp.
[21] G. Basstein. Technology Behind Cylkro

-(Face) Gears and


Their Applications. Proc. of the International Conference and
Exhibition on Gearing, Transmissions and Mechanical
Systems. Nottingham, UK, July 3-6, 2000, pp. 41-54.
[22] David G.Lewicky, Robert F.Handschuh. Evaluation of
Carburized and Ground Face Gears. US Army Research
Laboratory, Ohio, NASA/TM-1999-209183 (APL-TR-1998),
May 1999.
[23] Gabiccini M., Guiggiani M., Dipuccio F. Geometry and
Kinematics of Face Gears Mating with a Helical Involute
Pinion. In: Proc. of the Eleventh World Congress in
Mechanism and Machine Science. Vol. 2, Tianjin, China, April
1-4, 2004, pp. 741-747.
[24] Raikhman G.N., Varsimashvili R.Sh. Patent 3174 (Georgia).
Facial Toothed Transmissions. Published in Bull. 2003, No.13
(137).
[25] G.N.Raikhman, R.Sh.Varsimashvili. Investigation of Facial
Gearing of External Engagement. Proc. of International
Conference "Power Transmissions'03". Vol.1, Warna, Bulgaria,
September 11-12, 2003, pp.261-269.
[26] G.N.Raikhman, R.Sh.Varsimashvili. Investigation of Facial
Gearing of Internal Engagement. Proc. of International
Scientific Conference VSB Technical University, Ostrava,
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. Session 8 Applied
Mechanics, Ostrava, Czech Republic, September 7-9, 2005,
pp.73-76.
[27] Raikhman G., Starzhinsky V. Terminology and Classification of
Principal Methods and Modes of Facial Gears Processing. In:
Proc. of the 2
nd
International Conference "Power Transmissions
- 06", Novi Sad, Serbia&Montenegro, April 25-26, 2006,
pp.331-338.
[28] Bartov M., Raikhman G. Principal Terms and Definitions of
Geometrical Components nd Parameters of Facial Gears,
Joints and Gearings. In: Proc. of the 2
nd
International
Conference "Power Transmissions - 06", Novi Sad,
Serbia&Montenegro, April 25-26, 2006, pp.245-252.


Way of processing Scheme of processing Structure of movements Equipment Tool Field of application
Periodicity indexing method

1. Feeding
along
the tooth

A miller rotation
(main movement)
B feed along a tooth
C fast return of a blank part
to the initial position
D indexing (one tooth rotation)

Horizontal
or universal
milling machine

Cutting of straight
teeth of any shape
in limited or single-unit
production


2. Cross-cut
feeding

A miller rotation
(main movement)
B feed of a setting-in
progressive motion
C fast return of a blank part
to the initial position
D indexing (one tooth rotation)


Special
semi-automated
machine
3. Cross-cut
feeding
with two
disc-shaped
angular
milling
cutters







A miller rotation
(main movement)
B feed of a setting-in
progressive motion
C fast return of a blank part
to the initial position
D indexing (one tooth rotation)


Gear-cutting
semi-automated
machine








Angular
disk
cutter





Cutting of straight
teeth of any shape
in high-volume
production

4. Incut
Teeth
milling
by means
of facial
cutter








A cutter head rotation
(main movement)
B feed of a setting-in
progressive motion
of a cutter head
C fast return of a cutter head
to the initial position
D indexing (one tooth rotation)



Gear-cutting
machine



Facial
cutter head


Cutting of circular
teeth of any shape
in high-volume
production


5. Gear
tooth
planing






A cutting bit reciprocating
motion (main movement)
B feed of setting-in progressive
motion of a blank part
C fast removal of a blank part
D indexing (one tooth rotation)

Gear-tooth
planning
machine

Gear-tooth
planning
profiled
blade


Straight teeth cutting
in limited production

6. Multi-edge
tooth
planing

A tool rotation
(main movement)
B setting-in feed
C fast return of a tool
D indexing (one tooth rotation)

Special
semi-automated
machine

Conchoid
head
Straight teeth cutting
of any shape
in high-volume
and mass production


7. Circular
stretching


A broach rotation
(main movement)
B setting-in feed
C one tooth indexing (rotation)
passing the broach section
with no cutters

Special
broaching
machine

Disk broach
with draft and
finishing teeth

Straight teeth cutting
in mass production















G
E
A
R


C
U
T
T
I
N
G


C
O
P
Y
I
N
G


M
E
T
H
O
D



8. Profile
tooth
grinding

A grinding wheel rotation
(main movement)
B vertical feed
C feed along the tooth
D one tooth indexing (rotation)
E fast return of a grinding
wheel to the initial position


Grinding
machine


Disk
grinding
wheel


Straight teeth cutting
in serial production
Continuous indexing method
9. Tooth
hobbing
with a fly
cutter or
a disk worm
milling
cutter

A tool rotation
(main movement)
B radial table feed or tool feed
C vertical tool feed
D blank part rotation
kinematically coordinated
with tool rotation

Upgraded
or special
gear-hobbing
machine [11]

Fly cutter
of disk worm
milling
cutter
[12,13]

Cutting of straight
dome-shaped tangential
teeth of any shape
in limited production
10. Tooth
hobbing
with
a worm
milling
cutter with
a limited
number
of laps


A tool rotation
(main movement)
B blank part rotation
kinematically coordinated
with tool rotation
C feed along the tool
D feed along the tool axis
kinematically coordinated
with feed C




Gear-hobbing
machine

Worm
milling
cutter with
limited
number
of laps


Cutting of straight
evalvent teeth
of any shape
in limited production





G
E
N
E
R
A
T
I
N
G


M
E
T
H
O
D


11. Tooth pair
hobbing with
a worm milling
cutter (right /
left-handed)


A tool rotation
(main movement)
B blank part rotation
kinematically coordinated
with tool rotation



Gear-hobbing
machine


Worm
milling
cutter


Cutting of circular teeth
of any shape in serial
production

Table 5. Basic ways and methods of facial tooth processing (beginning)


12. Tooth
hobbing
with a facial
cutter head

A tool rotation
(main movement)
B tool rotation around
the blank part center
C blank part rotation
kinematically coordinated
with tool rotation

Upgraded
gear-hobbing
machine

Facial
cutter head
Cutting of straight teeth
outlined by cycloidal
curves in serial
or high-volume
production


13. Planetary
tooth
hobbing

A planetary head rotation
B table or head radial feed
C head vertical feed
D blank part rotation
kinematically coordinated
with head rotation
E tool rotation

Upgraded
or special
gear-hobbing
machine


Planetary
head [14]

Cutting of straight
tangential dome-shaped
teeth of any shape
in serial production

14. Tooth
hobbing of a
facial non-
round gear



A tool rotation
B blank part rotation
with variable rotating speed
C displacement of a tool
with variable linear speed,
kinematically coordinated
with blank part rotation


Upgraded
gear-hobbing
machine


Cylindrical
worm
milling
cutter


Teeth cutting
for a facial
non-round gear [15]

15. Tooth
hobbing
of deformed
flexible
facial gears



A tool rotation
B tool or table radial feed
C tool vertical feed
D blank part rotation
kinematically coordinated
with tool rotation
E head additional
displacements

Upgraded
or special
gear-hobbing
machine [16]

Disc
worm
milling
cutter

Teeth cutting
for a flexible
facial gear
16. Tooth
hobbing
with
a slotting
tool
or a shaping
cutter
A tool reciprocating motion
(main movement)
B setting-in feed
C blank part rotation
coordinated with the main
tool movement
D shaping cutter rotation


Gear shaping
machine


Slotting tool
or shaping
cutter


Teeth cutting
for gears of decreased
accuracy


17. Tooth
sharpening

A tool rotation
(main movement)
B blank part rotation
kinematically coordinated
with tool rotation
C feed along the gear tooth


Gear-cutting
machine

Gear-shaping
cutter
(multiple
tooth head)

Cutting of straight teeth
of any shape
in high-volume
production

18. Tooth
rolling

A tool rotation
(main movement)
B feeding movement
C blank part rotation

Gear-rolling
machine

Threading
roll
Rolling of teeth
of any shape
in highvolume
or mass production


19. Tooth
lapping


A tool rotation
B tool oscillating movement
in the horizontal plane
C tool oscillating movement
in the vertical plane
D blank part rotation
M
T
decelerating torque



Gear-lapping
machine



Gear lap


Processing
of straight teeth
of any shape































G
E
N
E
R
A
T
I
N
G


M
E
T
H
O
D


20. Tooth
grinding

A tool rotation
B tool or head radial feed
C head vertical feed
D blank part rotation
kinematically coordinated
with head rotation
E planetary head rotation


Upgraded
gear-hobbing
machine


Planetary
head

Grinding of straight
dome-shaped
and tangential
teeth of any shape
Principle of facial rolling-out without blank part rotation

21. Spheroid
pressing
of facial
gears


P punch 1forward replacement
relative to blank part 2
- additional rolling-out
replacement of punch 1
angle of punch 1 vibration


PXW-100AAB
press (Poland)


Straining
punch

Rolling-out of facial
gears by roughness:
2.50.63 mkm

Precision 812

Productivity up to 12
Principle of thermal processing of facial gears assembled and constrained

22. Thermal
processing
of facial
gears
Gears 1 and 2, their facial teeth
having been cut, are assembled
and constrained so as to enable
the teeth of one gear to enter the
cavities of the other [17].
Thermal processing
in a non-oxidized
environment up to hardness
HRe>60 with deformation
less than 10 mkm

Table 5. Basic ways and methods of facial tooth processing (continuation)