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The version of the "four-direction throw" (shihnage) with standing

attacker and seated defender (hanmi-handachi). The receiver of the
throw (uke) is taking a breakfall (ukemi) to safel reach the ground.
Focus !rappling
Country of origin Japan
Creator "orihei #eshiba
Aiki-jjutsu$ Ju%utsu$ Kenjutsu$
Aikido ( aikid
) is a Japanese martial art developed b "orihei #eshiba as a
snthesis of his martial studies, philosoph, and religious beliefs. &ikido is often
translated as "the 'a of unifing (with) life energ"
or as "the 'a of harmonious
#eshiba,s goal was to create an art that practitioners could use to defend
themselves while also protecting their attacker from in%ur.
&ikido is performed b blending with the motion of the attacker and redirecting the force
of the attack rather than opposing it head-on. This re-uires ver little phsical energ, as
the aikidka (aikido practitioner) "leads" the attacker,s momentum using entering and
turning movements. The techni-ues are completed with various throws or %oint locks.

&ikido can be categori/ed under the general umbrella of grappling arts.
&ikido derives mainl from the martial art of 0ait1-r2 &iki-%2%utsu, but began to diverge
from it in the late )3+4s, partl due to #eshiba,s involvement with the 5moto-k1
religion. #eshiba,s earl students, documents bear the term aiki-jjutsu.
"an of
#eshiba,s senior students have different approaches to aikido, depending on when the
studied with him. Toda aikido is found all over the world in a number of stles, with
broad ranges of interpretation and emphasis. 7owever, the all share techni-ues learned
from #eshiba and most have concern for the well-being of the attacker. This attitude has
been at the core of criticisms of aikido and related arts.
Etymology and basic philosophy
The word "aikido" is formed of three kan%i:
- ai - %oining, unifing, harmoni/ing
- ki - spirit, life energ
- d - wa, path
The term d1 connects the practice of aikido with the philosophical concept of Tao, which
can be found in martial arts such as %udo and kendo, and in more peaceful arts such as
Japanese calligraph (shod1), flower arranging (kad1) and tea ceremon (chad1 or sad1).
The term aiki refers to the martial arts principle or tactic of blending with an attacker,s
movements for the purpose of controlling their actions with minimal effort.
9ne applies
aiki b understanding the rhthm and intent of the attacker to find the optimal position
and timing to appl a counter-techni-ue. 7istoricall, aiki was mastered for the purpose
of killing$ however in aikido one seeks to control an aggressor without causing harm.

The founder of aikido declared: "To control aggression without inflicting in%ur is the &rt
of :eace."
& number of aikido practitioners interpret aikido metaphoricall, seeing
parallels between aikido techni-ues and other methods for conflict resolution.

These kan%i are identical to the >orean versions of the characters that form the word
hapkido, a >orean martial art. &lthough there are no known direct connections between
the two arts, it is suspected that the founders of both arts trained in 0ait1-r2 &iki-
[edit] History
"orihei #eshiba, founder of aikido.
&ikido was created b "orihei #eshiba ( Ueshiba Morihei, )6 0ecember
)==.?+; &pril )3;3), referred to b some aikido practitioners as sensei ("!reat
#eshiba envisioned aikido not onl as the snthesis of his martial training,
but also an e@pression of his personal philosoph of universal peace and reconciliation.
0uring #eshiba,s lifetime and continuing toda, aikido has evolved from the kory (old-
stle martial arts) that #eshiba studied into a wide variet of e@pressions b martial
artists throughout the world.
[edit] nitial de!elopment
Takeda Aokaku
#eshiba developed aikido primaril during the late )3+4s through the )3.4s through the
snthesis of the older martial arts that he had studied.
The core martial art from which
aikido derives is 0ait1-r2 aiki-%2%utsu, which #eshiba studied directl with Takeda
Aokaku, the reviver of that art. &dditionall, #eshiba is known to have studied Ten%in
Ahin,1-r2 with To/awa Tokusabur1 in Toko in )34), !ot1ha Bag2 Ahingan-r2
under Cakai "asakatsu in Aakai from )34. to )34=, and %udo with >ioichi Takagi (
Takagi Kiyoichi, )=36?)3<+) in Tanabe in )3)).
The art of 0ait1-r2 is the primar technical influence on aikido. &long with empt-
handed throwing and %oint-locking techni-ues, #eshiba incorporated training movements
with weapons, such as those for the spear (yari), short staff (j), and perhaps the baonet
( jken
). 7owever, aikido derives much of its technical structure from the art of
swordsmanship (kenjutsu).
#eshiba moved to 7okkaid1 in )3)+, and began studing under Takeda Aokaku in )3)8.
7is official association with 0ait1-r2 continued until )3.<.
7owever, during the latter
part of that period, #eshiba had alread begun to distance himself from Takeda and the
0ait1-r2. &t that time #eshiba was referring to his martial art as "&iki Dud1". Et is
unclear e@actl when #eshiba began using the name "aikido", but it became the official
name of the art in )36+ when the !reater Japan "artial Firtue Aociet (Dai Nion
!utoku Kai) was engaged in a government sponsored reorgani/ation and centrali/ation of
Japanese martial arts.
[edit] "eligious influences
9nisaburo 0eguchi
&fter #eshiba left 7okkaid1 in )3)3, he met and was profoundl influenced b
9nisaburo 0eguchi, the spiritual leader of the 5moto-k1 religion (a neo-Ahinto
movement) in &abe.
9ne of the primar features of 5moto-k1 is its emphasis on the
attainment of utopia during one,s life. This was a great influence on #eshiba,s martial arts
philosoph of e@tending love and compassion especiall to those who seek to harm
others. &ikido demonstrates this philosoph in its emphasis on mastering martial arts so
that one ma receive an attack and harmlessl redirect it. En an ideal resolution, not onl
is the receiver unharmed, but so is the attacker.
En addition to the effect on his spiritual growth, the connection with 0eguchi gave
#eshiba entr to elite political and militar circles as a martial artist. &s a result of this
e@posure, he was able to attract not onl financial backing but also gifted students.
Aeveral of these students would found their own stles of aikido.
[edit] nternational dissemination
&ikido was first brought to the rest of the world in )38) b "inoru "ochi/uki with a
visit to Grance where he introduced aikido techni-ues to %udo students.
7e was
followed b Tadashi &be in )38+ who came as the official &ikikai 7ombu
representative, remaining in Grance for seven ears. >en%i Tomiki toured with a
delegation of various martial arts through fifteen continental states of the #nited Atates in
Hater in that ear, >oichi Tohei was sent b &ikikai 7ombu to 7awaii, for a full
ear, where he set up several do%o. This was followed up b several further visits and is
considered the formal introduction of aikido to the #nited Atates. The #nited >ingdom
followed in )388$ Etal in )3;6$ !erman and &ustralia in )3;8. 0esignated "9fficial
0elegate for Iurope and &frica" b "orihei #eshiba, "asamichi Coro arrived in Grance
in Aeptember )3;). Toda there are aikido do%o available throughout the world.
[edit] Proliferation of independent organisations
Gurther information: &ikido stles
Aee also: Hist of aikid1ka
The biggest aikido organisation is the &ikikai Goundation which remains under the
control of the #eshiba famil. 7owever, aikido has man stles, mostl formed b
"orihei #eshiba,s ma%or students.
The earliest independent stles to emerge were Boseikan &ikido, begun b "inoru
"ochi/uki in )3.),
Boshinkan &ikido founded b !o/o Ahioda in )388,
Ahodokan &ikido, founded b >en%i Tomiki in )3;<.
The emergence of these stles
pre-dated #eshiba,s death and did not cause an ma%or upheavals when the were
formali/ed. Ahodokan &ikido, however, was controversial, since it introduced a uni-ue
rule-based competition that some felt was contrar to the spirit of aikido.
&fter #eshiba,s death in )3;3, two more ma%or stles emerged. Aignificant controvers
arose with the departure of the &ikikai 7ombu 0o%o,s chief instructor >oichi Tohei, in
)3<6. Tohei left as a result of a disagreement with the son of the founder, >isshomaru
#eshiba , who at that time headed the &ikikai Goundation. The disagreement was over
the proper role of ki development in regular aikido training. &fter Tohei left, he formed
his own stle, called Ahin Ahin Toitsu &ikido, and the organi/ation which governs it, the
>i Aociet (Ki no Kenkykai).
& final ma%or stle evolved from #eshiba,s retirement in Ewama, Ebaraki, and the teaching
methodolog of long term student "orihiro Aaito. Et is unofficiall referred to as the
"Ewama stle", and at one point a number of its followers formed a loose network of
schools the called Ewama Ju. &lthough Ewama stle practitioners remained part of the
&ikikai until Aaito,s death in +44+, followers of Aaito subse-uentl split into two groups$
one remaining with the &ikikai and the other forming the independent organi/ation the
Ahinshin &ikishuren >ai, in +446 around Aaito,s son 7itohiro Aaito.
Toda, the ma%or stles of aikido are each run b a separate governing organi/ation, have
their own head-uarters ( honbu dj
) in Japan, and have an international
[edit] #raining
En aikido, as in virtuall all Japanese martial arts, there are both phsical and mental
aspects of training. The phsical training in aikido is diverse, covering both general
phsical fitness and conditioning, as well as specific techni-ues.
Decause a substantial
portion of an aikido curriculum consists of throws, the first thing most students learn is
how to safel fall or roll.
The specific techni-ues for attack include both strikes and
grabs$ the techni-ues for defense consist of throws and pins. &fter basic techni-ues are
learned, students stud freestle defense against multiple opponents, and in certain stles,
techni-ues with weapons.
[edit] Fitness
:hsical training goals pursued in con%unction with aikido include controlled rela@ation,
fle@ibilit, and endurance, with less emphasis on strength training. En aikido, pushing or
e@tending movements are much more common than pulling or contracting movements.
This distinction can be applied to general fitness goals for the aikido practitioner.
Kertain anaerobic fitness activities, such as weight training, emphasi/e contracting
movements. En aikido, specific muscles or muscle groups are not isolated and worked to
improve tone, mass, and power. &ikido-related training emphasi/es the use of
coordinated whole-bod movement and balance similar to oga or pilates. Gor e@ample,
man do%o begin each class with warm-up e@ercises ( junbi tais
), which ma
include stretching and break falls.
[edit] "oles of uke and tori
&ikido training is based primaril on two partners practicing pre-arranged forms (kata)
rather than freestle practice. The basic pattern is for the receiver of the techni-ue (uke)
to initiate an attack against the person who applies the techni-ue - the tori, or shite
, (depending on aikido stle) also referred to as ( nage (when appling a
throwing techni-ue), who neutralises this attack with an aikido techni-ue.
Doth halves of the techni-ue, that of uke and that of nage, are considered essential to
aikido training.
Doth are studing aikido principles of blending and adaptation. Nage
learns to blend with and control attacking energ, while uke learns to become calm and
fle@ible in the disadvantageous, off-balance positions in which nage places them. This
"receiving" of the techni-ue is called ukemi.
Uke continuousl seeks to regain balance
and cover vulnerabilities (e.g., an e@posed side), while nage uses position and timing to
keep uke off-balance and vulnerable. En more advanced training, uke will sometimes
appl reversal techni-ues ( kaeshi-"a#a
) to regain balance and pin or throw nage.
Ukemi (
) refers to the act of receiving a techni-ue. !ood ukemi involves a parr or
breakfall that is used to avoid pain or in%ur, such as %oint dislocations.
[edit] nitial attacks
&ikido techni-ues are usuall a defense against an attack$ therefore, to practice aikido
with their partner, students must learn to deliver various tpes of attacks. &lthough
attacks are not studied as thoroughl as in striking-based arts, "honest" attacks (a strong
strike or an immobili/ing grab) are needed to stud correct and effective application of
"an of the strikes (!" uchi
) of aikido are often said to resemble cuts from a sword or
other grasped ob%ect, which indicates its origins in techni-ues intended for armed combat.
9ther techni-ues, which appear to e@plicitl be punches (tsuki), are also practiced as
thrusts with a knife or sword. >icks are generall reserved for upper-level variations$
reasons cited include that falls from kicks are especiall dangerous, and that kicks (high
kicks in particular) were uncommon during the tpes of combat prevalent in feudal Japan.
Aome basic strikes include:
Front$of$the$head strike (#$!" shmen$uchi
) a vertical knifehand strike to
the head.
%ide$of$the$head strike (%$!" yokomen$uchi
) a diagonal knifehand strike to
the side of the head or neck.
Chest thrust (&'( mune-tsuki
) a punch to the torso. Apecific targets include
the chest, abdomen, and solar ple@us. Aame as "middle-level thrust" ()*'(
), and "direct thrust" (+'( choku-tsuki
Face thrust (,$'( ganmen-tsuki
) a punch to the face. Aame as "upper-level
thrust" (-*'( jdan-tsuki
Deginners in particular often practice techni-ues from grabs, both because the are safer
and because it is easier to feel the energ and lines of force of a hold than a strike. Aome
grabs are historicall derived from being held while tring to draw a weapon$ a techni-ue
could then be used to free oneself and immobili/e or strike the attacker who is grabbing
the defender.
The following are e@amples of some basic grabs:
%ingle$hand grab (. katate-dori
) one hand grabs one wrist.
&oth$hands grab (/ morote-dori
) both hands grab one wrist.
&oth$hands grab (0 ryte-dori
) both hands grab both wrists. Aame as
"double single-handed grab" (0. rykatate-dori
%houlder grab (1 kata-dori
) a shoulder grab. "Doth-shoulders-grab" is
rykata-dori (01
Chest grab (& mune-dori or muna-dori
) grabbing the (clothing of the)
chest. Aame as "collar grab" (2 eri-dori
[edit] &asic techni'ues
0iagram of ikky, or "first techni-ue". %onky has a similar mechanism of action,
although the upper hand grips the forearm rather than the elbow.
The following are a sample of the basic or widel practiced throws and pins. The precise
terminolog for some ma var between organisations and stles, so what follows are the
terms used b the &ikikai Goundation. Cote that despite the names of the first five
techni-ues listed, the are not universall taught in numeric order.
First techni'ue (34 ikky
) a control using one hand on the elbow and one
hand near the wrist which leverages uke to the ground.
This grip also applies
pressure into the ulnar nerve at the wrist.
%econd techni'ue (54 niky
) a pronating wristlock that tor-ues the arm and
applies painful nerve pressure. (There is an adductive wristlock or L-lock in ura
#hird techni'ue (64 sanky
) a rotational wristlock that directs upward-
spiraling tension throughout the arm, elbow and shoulder.
Fourth techni'ue (74 yonky
) a shoulder control similar to ikky, but with
both hands gripping the forearm. The knuckles (from the palm side) are applied to
the recipient,s radial nerve against the periosteum of the forearm bone.
Fifth techni'ue (84 goky
) visuall similar to ikky, but with an inverted grip
of the wrist, medial rotation of the arm and shoulder, and downward pressure on
the elbow. Kommon in knife and other weapon take-awas.
Four$direction thro( (79 shihnage
) The hand is folded back past the
shoulder, locking the shoulder %oint.
Forearm return (: kotegaeshi
) a supinating wristlock-throw that
stretches the e@tensor digitorum.
&reath thro( (;< kokynage
) a loosel used term for various tpes of
mechanicall unrelated techni-ues, although the generall do not use %oint locks
like other techni-ues.
Entering thro( (= iriminage
) throws in which nage moves through the
space occupied b uke. The classic form superficiall resembles a "clothesline"
Hea!en$and$earth thro( (>? tenchinage
) beginning with ryte-dori$
moving forward, nage sweeps one hand low ("earth") and the other high
("heaven"), which unbalances uke so that he or she easil topples over.
Hip thro( (@ koshinage
) aikido,s version of the hip throw. Nage drops his
or her hips lower than those of uke, then flips uke over the resultant fulcrum.
Figure$ten thro( (AB jjinage
) or figure$ten entanglement (ABCD
) a throw that locks the arms against each other (The kan%i for ")4" is a
cross-shape: A).
"otary thro( (EF kaitennage
) nage sweeps the arm back until it locks
the shoulder %oint, then uses forward pressure to throw.
[edit] mplementations
0iagram showing two versions of the ikky techni-ue: one moving forward (the omote
version) and one moving backward (the ura version). Aee te@t for more details.
&ikido makes use of bod movement (tai sabaki) to blend with uke. Gor e@ample, an
"entering" (irimi) techni-ue consists of movements inward towards uke, while a "turning"
(FG tenkan
) techni-ue uses a pivoting motion.
&dditionall, an "inside" (H uchi
techni-ue takes place in front of uke, whereas an "outside" (I soto
) techni-ue takes
place to his side$ a "front" (J omote
) techni-ue is applied with motion to the front of
uke, and a "rear" (K ura
) version is applied with motion towards the rear of uke, usuall
b incorporating a turning or pivoting motion. Ginall, most techni-ues can be performed
while in a seated posture (sei#a). Techni-ues where both uke and nage are sitting are
called su"ari-"a#a, and techni-ues performed with uke standing and nage sitting are
called hanmi handachi.
Thus, from fewer than twent basic techni-ues, there are thousands of possible
implementations. Gor instance, ikky can be applied to an opponent moving forward with
a strike (perhaps with an ura tpe of movement to redirect the incoming force), or to an
opponent who has alread struck and is now moving back to reestablish distance (perhaps
an omote-"a#a version). Apecific aikido kata are tpicall referred to with the formula
Gor instance, katate-dori ikky refers to an ikky
techni-ue e@ecuted when uke is holding one wrist. This could be further specified as
katate-dori ikky omote, referring to an forward-moving ikky techni-ue from that grab.
Atemi (LM) are strikes (or feints) emploed during an aikido techni-ue. Aome view
atemi as attacks against "vital points" meant to cause damage in and of themselves. Gor
instance, !1/1 Ahioda described using atemi in a brawl to -uickl down a gang,s leader.
9thers consider atemi, especiall to the face, to be methods of distraction meant to
enable other techni-ues. & strike, whether or not it is blocked, can startle the target and
break his or her concentration. The target ma also become unbalanced in attempting to
avoid the blow, for e@ample b %erking the head back, which ma allow for an easier
"an saings about atemi are attributed to "orihei #eshiba, who considered
them an essential element of techni-ue.
[edit] Weapons
0isarming an attacker using a "sword taking" (NO tachi-dori
) techni-ue.
'eapons training in aikido traditionall includes the short staff (j), wooden sword
(bokken), and knife (tant).
Toda, some schools also incorporate firearms-disarming
techni-ues. Doth weapon-taking and weapon-retention are sometimes taught, to integrate
armed and unarmed aspects, although some schools of aikido do not train with weapons
at all. 9thers, such as the Ewama stle of "orihiro Aaito, usuall spend substantial time
with bokken and j, practised under the names aiki-ken, and aiki-j, respectivel. The
founder developed much of empt handed aikido from traditional sword and spear
movements, so the practice of these movements is generall for the purpose of giving
insight into the origin of techni-ues and movements, as well as vital practice of these
basic building blocks.
[edit] )ultiple attackers and randori
Techni-ue performed against two attackers.
9ne feature of aikido is training to defend against multiple attackers, often called
tanin#udori, or tanin#ugake. Greestle (randori, or jiy"a#a) practice with multiple
attackers is a ke part of most curricula and is re-uired for the higher level ranks.

&andori e@ercises a person,s abilit to intuitivel perform techni-ues in an unstructured
Atrategic choice of techni-ues, based on how the reposition the student
relative to other attackers, is important in randori training. Gor instance, an ura techni-ue
might be used to neutralise the current attacker while turning to face attackers
approaching from behind.
En Ahodokan &ikido, randori differs in that it is not performed with multiple persons with
defined roles of defender and attacker, but between two people, where both participants
attack, defend, and counter at will. En this respect it resembles %udo randori.
[edit] n*uries
En appling a techni-ue during training, it is the responsibilit of nage to prevent in%ur to
uke b emploing a speed and force of application that is commensurate with their
partner,s proficienc in ukemi.
En%uries (especiall those to the %oints), when the do
occur in aikido, are often the result of nage mis%udging the abilit of uke to receive the
throw or pin.
& stud of in%uries in the martial arts showed that while the tpe of in%uries varied
considerabl from one art to the other, the differences in overall rates of in%ur were
much less pronounced. Aoft tissue in%uries are one of the most common tpes of in%uries
found within aikido although a few deaths from repetitive "shihnage" have been
[edit] )ental training
&ikido training is mental as well as phsical, emphasi/ing the abilit to rela@ the mind
and bod even under the stress of dangerous situations.
This is necessar to enable the
practitioner to perform the bold enter-and-blend movements that underlie aikido
techni-ues, wherein an attack is met with confidence and directness.
"orihei #eshiba
once remarked that one "must be willing to receive 33M of an opponent,s attack and stare
death in the face" in order to e@ecute techni-ues without hesitation.
&s a martial art
concerned not onl with fighting proficienc but also with the betterment of dail life,
this mental aspect is of ke importance to aikido practitioners.
[edit] Criticisms
The most common criticism of aikido is that it suffers from a lack of realism in training.
The attacks initiated b uke (and which nage must defend against) have been critici/ed as
being "weak," "slopp," and "little more than caricatures of an attack."
'eak attacks
from uke cause a conditioned response from nage, and result in underdevelopment of the
strength and conditioning needed for the safe and effective practice of both partners.

To counteract this, some stles allow students to become less compliant over time but, in
keeping with the core philosophies, this is after having demonstrated proficienc in being
able to protect themselves and their training partners. Ahodokan &ikido addresses the
issue b practising in a competitive format.
Auch adaptations are debated between
stles, with some maintaining that there is no need to ad%ust their methods because either
the criticisms are un%ustified, or that the are not training for self-defence or combat
effectiveness, but spiritual, fitness or other reasons.
&nother criticism is that after the end of #eshiba,s seclusion in Ewama from )36+ to the
mid )384s, he increasingl emphasi/ed the spiritual and philosophical aspects of aikido.
&s a result, strikes to vital points b nage, entering (irimi) and initiation of techni-ues b
nage, the distinction between omote (front side) and ura (back side) techni-ues, and the
practice of weapons, were all deemphasi/ed or eliminated from practice. Hack of training
in these areas is thought to lead to an overall loss of effectiveness b some aikido
&lternatel, there are some who critici/e aikido practitioners for not placing enough
importance on the spiritual practices emphasi/ed b #eshiba. The premise of this
criticism is that "9-AenseiNs aikido was not a continuation and e@tension of the old and
has a distinct discontinuit with past martial and philosophical concepts."
That is, that
aikido practitioners who focus on aikido,s roots in traditional %u%utsu or kenjutsu are
diverging from what #eshiba taught. Auch critics urge practitioners to embrace the
assertion that "(#eshiba,s* transcendence to the spiritual and universal realit was the
fundamentals (sic* of the paradigm that he demonstrated."
[edit] +i
This was the kan%i for ki until )36;, when it was changed to .
The stud of ki is a critical component of aikido, and its stud defies categori/ation as
either "phsical" or "mental" training, as it encompasses both. The original kanji for ki
was P (shown right), and is a smbolic representation of a lid covering a pot full of rice$
the "nourishing vapors" contained within are ki.
The character for ki is used in everda Japanese terms, such as "health" (Q genki
), or
"shness" (H uchiki
). Ki is most often understood as unified phsical and mental
intention, however in traditional martial arts it is often discussed as "life energ". !1/1
Ahioda,s Boshinkan &ikido, considered one of the "hard stles," largel follows
#eshiba,s teachings from before 'orld 'ar EE, and surmises that the secret to ki lies in
timing and the application of the whole bod,s strength to a single point.
En later ears,
#eshiba,s application of ki in aikido took on a softer, more gentle feel. This was his
Takemusu &iki and man of his later students teach about ki from this perspective.
>oichi Tohei,s >i Aociet centers almost e@clusivel around the stud of the empirical
(albeit sub%ective) e@perience of ki with students ranked separatel in aikido techni-ues
and ki development.
[edit] ,niforms and ranking
&ikido practitioners (commonl called aikidka outside of Japan) generall progress b
promotion through a series of "grades" (ky), followed b a series of "degrees" (dan),
pursuant to formal testing procedures. "ost aikido organisations use onl white and
black belts to distinguish rank, but some use various belt colors. Testing re-uirements
var, so a particular rank in one organi/ation is not alwas comparable or interchangeable
with the rank of another.
Aome do%os do not allow students to take the test to obtain a
dan unless the are ); or older.
The uniform worn for practicing aikido (aikidgi) is
similar to the training uniform (keikogi) used in most
other modern martial arts$ simple trousers and a
wraparound %acket, usuall white. Doth thick ("%udo-
stle"), and thin ("karate-stle") cotton tops are used.
&ikido-specific tops are also
available with shorter sleeves which reach to %ust below the elbow.
"ost aikido sstems also add a pair of wide pleated black or indigo trousers called a
hakama. En man stles its use is reserved for practitioners with black belt (dan) ranks or
for instructors, while others allow all practitioners or female practitioners to wear a
hakama regardless of rank.
rank belt color type
ky white mudansha
dan black ydansha