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Semester 1 Review

Napoleon was known to be a child of the revolution and enlightenment.


European Expansion Portugal became an early explorer and conquered the Spice Islands by beating the
Arabs/Muslims.
Fichte German philosopher who awakened the German national spirit (nationalism)
Ottoman invasions Ottomans attacked/threatened Vienna, Austrian in 1529 and 1683.
Rousseau Said the society was greater than individuals.
The Fall of the House of Usher Edgar Allan Poe
Baroque artists Rubens used violent motion, heavily flashed nudes, and rich pigments.
Las Casas advocated the rights of American Natives
Louis XIV Put all the nobles in Versailles, and hired new people/followers to run things and they were
loyal to him.
The old order 18
th
century in the beginning, the enlightenment was going on, and Absolutism was very
strong in Europe.
American system Interchangeable parts
1850 British industrial output Germany, Belgium, France and USA were close to industrialization of
Britain.
Latin American independence British naval power helped stop the Europeans control Latin America
Gustavus Adolphus King of Sweden
Zwingli a person from Switzerland who founded a protestant religion.
Montefeltro skilled independent leader who was really loved by his people
Romanticism Beethoven was the most famous Romantic composer.
The National Convention September of 1792, abolished monarchy and established a republic.
Sleeping Giant Ottoman Empire was the Sleeping Giant of the Eastern Europe.
The Edict of Nantes Religious toleration for Huguenots (French Calvinists) and established Catholicism
as French religion
Carnival Celebrated several weeks before lent.
Britains Great Exhibition Was held at Crystal Palace
Renaissance technology metallurgy (metal working) and mining
Donatello Sculpture of David
Michelangelo Sculpture of David
18
th
century Italy Austria influenced Italy the most, since it controlled it.
Metternich A conservative that was the Austrian prince that made the Congress of Vienna, also believed
monarchs had divine power and bring stability.
Humanism secularization of history
new monarchies centralization of power by Ferdinand and Isabella, Spider King Louis XI, Henry
VII of England, Ferdinand of Aragon.
Peter the Great Westernized/Europeanized Russia
William Harvey Circulation of blood, refuted the ideas of Galen who said the blood started in liver
Philosophes philosophers of the enlightenment who wanted to change people to think more rationally.
The Reformation In Germany reformation was an urban phenomenon.
Catherine the Great an enlightened despot whose Instruction was gotten rid of because it caused too
many problems.
Cardinal Richelieu understood that he needed to get rid of the nobles since they were the most resistant
setback.
Thirty Years War Wallenstein fought for Emperor Ferdinand
Wallenstein - Wallenstein fought for Emperor Ferdinand
Age of Exploration Portugal and Spain had strong religious crusades during exploration
Margaret Cavendish Attacked the idea that humans were masters of nature through science
Versailles Constructed by Louis XIV, which was used to exclude the real power of the nobles.
The Schmalkaldic War ended by the Peace of Augsburg
Pascal In his work, Pensees Pascal showed a rational explanation of religion.
The partition of Poland Austria, Russia, and Prussia participated in the partition of Poland
New attitudes toward children Games and toys were developed, new clothes, children were more than
small adults, less breastfeeding by mothers and mostly done by wet nurses.
Ptolemaic universe Earth centered universe / Geocentric Universe
Domestic System Also known as Cottage system in England
Ferdinand and Isabella finished the Reconquista
Malthus Population had to be held in check. Said that population would outstrip food supply
Glorious Revolution in 1688 in England was significant for no bloodshed
Industrial Revolution Began in Great Britain
18
th
Century cities dirty, filthy, and lacked proper sanitation
Slavery in Renaissance Italians got slaves from Africa and Eastern Mediterranean.
Spanish Exploration was best exemplified by the conquests of Hernando Cortes.
U.S. Constitution 1789 established separation of power
18
th
century trade and commerce Trade within Europe was greater than International
Jamestown First permanent English town in America was Jamestown
French financial problems Frances debt was of all government spending
Haiti Successful slave rebellion was in Haiti
Middle class was moving to suburban places to escape low classes.
Working class - workers worked under terrible and dangerous conditions.
18
th
century science offered new means to maintain social order and make profits
Pocket Borough One person or family controlling a legislative district
National Assembly secularized France by passing the Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Reformation changed conception of the family making family/marriage the center of life
London was the largest city in the 18
th
century in Europe
Industrialization in Britain worked better since the government didnt take part in the business whereas
the government controlled industries in continental Europe.
Martin Luther Zwingli said the ceremony of Sacrament was only symbolic, Martin believed the body
and blood were there.
Pico della Mirandola stated that man could be whatever he chose to be
Philip II Philip was unable to defeat the Dutch Republic because of England.
18
th
century society Nuclear families continued to succeed.
Portugal / China European national that had the first contact with China was china
July 4, 1776 Declaration of Independence
Mary Astell wrote A Serious Proposal to the Ladies
The Pole Star was useless below the equator
Johann Sebastian Bach Baroque musician, religious music was a way to worship God.
Mannerism most famous of the mannerism movement was El Greco.
Diderot Encyclopedia was written by him in the battle against religious intoleration.
Factory owners new set of rules, discipline, and schedule for workers that were quite vigorous.
Galen Ancient Greece thinkers relied on by scholars
Plato - Ancient Greece thinkers relied on by scholars
Ptolemy - Ancient Greece thinkers relied on by scholars
Aristotle - Ancient Greece thinkers relied on by scholars
The African slave trade depopulated African cities, increase in warfare
Charles V his chief concern was Francis I
Francis I - chief concern of Charles V
Systematic observation = Galileo
How did Portuguese gain control of Malacca = by crushing Arabs
Newton = Calculus
Jacob Burckhardt = Renaissance was a rebirth, break from Medieval Ages
Peter the Great = westernize Europe (Western Europe)
James II was deposed because of the birth of his Catholic son.
Edict of Nantes gave Huguenots political rights and religious freedom; to end religious wars in France
Geocentric = earth in center Ptolemy
Millenarianism = world was coming to an end
Gutenberg = movable printing press
England conquered Spanish Armada
Mary I killed Protestants
Donatello and Michelangelo = sculpture of David
Gustavus Adolphus = Swedish king
Martin Luther = Bible only source of truth
Pizarro = conquered Inca
Habsburg Empire = Austria
Frederick the Elector of Saxony protected Martin Luther at Diet of Worms (1521)
Tycho Brahe = built castle, 20 years of observation of stars,
Slavery reintroduced in 14
th
because of the Black Death
Martin Luthers ideas accepted in Scandinavia immediately
Science appealing because it had promising profits and maintain social order
Rene Descartes stressed separation of mind and matter, rationalism
Colbert, Louis XIVs controller of finances, mercantilism, government regulation of economic affairs
Benedict de Spinoza = God is the universe
Dialogue of. Galileo wrote it in Italian and supported Copernicuss ideas
Copernicuss heliocentric problem was that the planets revolved in circles, Kepler later proved elliptical
Galileo = Principle of inertia
Newtons ideas readily accepted in England, but not in Europe
Third Estate = peasants mostly
Anabaptists believed mostly in adult Baptism
Frederick the Great Elector = (Prussia) General War Commissionaire
Witchcraft craze = old women
Erasmus = inner piety
Immediate response of clerics to Copernicuss work = Protestants condemned his ideas, Catholics
remained silent
Zwingli = last supper, symbolic
Galileo placed under house arrest for disagreeing with Catholic Church and Ptolemy conception of
universe
Portuguese took lead in exploration because of funding of Henry the Navigator
Renaissance marriage = arranged marriages to help family in social status
Renaissance papacy = corrupt, nepotism
European nation to have first direct contact with China since Marco Polo was = Portugal
Henry VIII became head of the church + reformation because his wife didnt have a son, wanted a divorce
Italian Renaissance was a rebirth of an ancient antiquity
1440s, first profits from African slave
Frederigo de Montefeltro = prince of Urbino, liked by a lot of people, kept his promises even if papacy
ordered him to do something against his promise (so disobeyed papacy), was a condottieri,
Calvin = predestination, absolute sovereignty of God
Scientific revolution was based on the accomplishment of previous centuries
Sale of indulgences prompted Luther to reform
Religious organizations rejected science because of opposition of Christian view of universe
Renaissance Popes = patrons of arts, lead governments or armies, controlled kings