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TUTORIAL PROBLEMS

TUTORIAL1
1 An air jet at 300K has sonic velocity !eter"ine the #ollo$in%
a velocity o# so&n' at 300K
( velocity o# so&n' at sta%nation con'itions
c "a)i"&" velocity o# the jet
' sta%nation enthal*y
e +rocco n&"(er
Ta,e -.1/ 0 R.12345K%K
1 The *ress&re0 te"*erat&re0 an' #l&i' velocity o# air at entry o# the #lo$ *assa%e are
3(ar0 120K0 an' 1/0"5sThe *ress&re0 te"*erat&re0 an' velocity at e)it o# a #lo$ *assa%e
are 1(ar0 160K0 an' 170"5sthe area o# cross section at entry is 600c"
1
!eter"ine #or
a'ia(atic #lo$
a sta%nation te"*erat&re
( "a)i"&" velocity
c "ass #lo$ rate
' area o# cross section at e)it
TUTORIAL81
1 Stea" at a section o# a *i*e has a *ress&re o# 10 (ar0 te"*erat&re o# 770K0 velocity o#
117"5s an' 'at&" hei%ht o# 10" +alc&late the #ollo$in%
a Mach n&"(er
( sta%nation *ress&re
c sta%nation te"*erat&re
' co"*are the sta%nation *ress&re val&e $ith that o(taine' #ro" Berno&lli e9&ation
an' co""ent on the 'i##erence
1 The *ress&re0 te"*erat&re0 an' Mach no at the entry o# a #lo$ *assa%e are 1/7 (ar0
167:+ is 1/ res*ectively I# the e)it Mach no is 170 'eter"ine the #ollo$in% #or
a'ia(atic #lo$ o# a *er#ect %as ;-.130 R./6<K45K%K=
a sta%nation te"*erat&re
( Te"*erat&re an' velocity o# %as at e)it
c The #lo$ rate *er s9&are "eter o# the inlet cross section
TUTORIAL83
1 Air ;-.1/0 R.12345K%K= enters a strai%ht a)is sy""etric '&ct at 300K0 3/7(ar an'
170"5s an' it at 133K01072 (ar an' 160"5s The area o# cross section at entry is
700c"
1
Ass&"in% a'ia(atic #lo$ 'eter"ine
a sta%nation te"*erat&re
( "a)i"&" velocity
c "ass #lo$ rate
' Area o# cross section at e)it
1 >as ;-.130 an' +*.11 K45K% K= #lo$s thro&%h a '&ct o# 'ia"eter 6<7"" At a
section static *ress&re 170KPa0 an' static te"*erat&re is /27:+ The #lo$ rate is
30K%5"in?in' the Mach n&"(er an' velocity o# %as
TUTORIAL8/
1 The *ress&re0 te"*erat&re0 an' Mach no at the entry o# a no@@le are 1 (ar0 300K an'
1/ res*ectively The e)it Mach n&"(er is 1/ !eter"ine the #ollo$in% #or isentro*ic
#lo$
a velocity o# so&n' at sta%nation con'ition
( the "a)i"&" velocity
c the "ach n&"(er M
1
A
an' M
1
A

' te"*erat&re an' *ress&re at e)it Ta,e -.130 R.071K45K%K


1 The *ress&re0 te"*erat&re0 an' Mach no at the entry o# a 'i##&ser 03 (ar0 3/7K an'
1<0"5s res*ectively The entry 'ia"eter o# 'i##&ser is 17c" an' e)it 'ia"eter is 37c"
!eter"ine the #ollo$in%
a e)it *ress&re
( e)it velocity
c #orce e)erte' on the 'i##&ser $alls Ass&"in% isentro*ic #lo$ an' ta,e -.1/0 an'
+*.1007 45K% K

TUTORIAL87
1 A 'i##&ser has e)it to throat area ratio o# 17 to 1 the inlet Mach n&"(er is 0initial
*ress&re an' te"*erat&re are 1 (ar an' 17:+ Ass&"in% the #lo$ to (e isentro*ic
+alc&late the #ollo$in% #or e)it air
a e)it *ress&re
( e)it te"*erat&re
c e)it Mach n&"(er
1 Air is 'ischar%e' #ro" a receiver at Po.6<1 (ar an' To. 317:+ thro&%h a no@@le to an
e)it *ress&re o# 0<2 (ar I# the #lo$ rate is 3600K%5hr!eter"ine #or isentro*ic #lo$
a Area0 *ress&re an' velocity at throat
( Area an' Mach n&"(er at e)it
c Ma)i"&" *ossi(le velocity
TUTORIAL86
1 A conver%ent 'iver%ent 'i##&ser has an e)it area to throat area o# 1 Air enter the
'i##&ser $ith sta%nation *ro*erties Po.1MPa (ar an' To. /00KThe throat area is 6c"
1
!eter"ine the "ass #lo$ rate o# #lo$ an' e)it *ro*erties
1 The sta%nation *ro*erties o# air enterin% a conver%ent no@@le are 100KPa an'
/00KThe throat area is 7c"
1
?in' the "ass the #lo$ rate #or the #ollo$in% (ac,
*ress&res a 1076

KPa ( <7

KPa c130KPa

TUTORIAL83
1 Air at a *ress&re o# 17 (ar0 8113:+ an' velocity o# 117"5s #lo$s thro&%h a constant
area '&ct 'ia(atically an' leaves $ith a velocity o# 17"5s ?in' the heat trans#erre' an'
the *ro*erties o# air at e)it Ta,e -.1/0 R.12345K%K
1 A constant area co"(&stion cha"(er receives air at 33:+0 077(ar an' 37"5s I# the
air leaves the co"(&stion cha"(er at a Mach no o# 0270 'eter"ine con'itions o# air an'
the a"o&nt o# heat trans#erre' an' also #in' chan%e in entro*y
TUTORIAL82
1 Air is heate' in a constant area '&ct #ro" a Mach no o# 01 to 02 The inlet sta%nation
con'itions are 1(ar an' <3:+ !eter"ine the sta%nation con'itions o# air at e)it0 the
a"o&nt o# heat trans#erre' *er &nit #lo$ an' chan%e in entro*y
1 Ina heat e)chan%er the sta%nation te"*erat&re o# air is raise' #ro" 13:+ to 133:+ The
inlet *ress&re is 103(ar an' the inlet Mach n&"(er is 003Be%lectin% the e##ect o# $all
#riction !eter"ine the #inal Mach no
TUTORIAL8<
1 Air is #lo$in% into an ins&late' '&ct $ith a velocity o# 170"5s The te"*erat&re an'
*ress&re at the inlet are 120:+ an' 12(arres*ectively ?in' the te"*erat&re at a section in
the '&ct $here the *ress&re is 173(ar I# the '&ct 'ia"eter is 17c" an' #riction #actor is
00070 #in' the 'istance (et$een the t$o sections
1 The #riction #actor #or a 70"" 'ia"eter steel *i*e is 0007At the inlet to the *i*e the
velocity is 30"5s0 te"*erat&re is 20:+ an' the *ress&re is 10(ar ?in' the te"*erat&re0
*ress&re an' Mach no at e)it i# the *i*e is 17" lon% Also 'eter"ine the "a)i"&"
*ossi(le len%th
TUTORIAL810
1 Air at a "ach no o# 16 *ress&re o# 0<(ar0 an' te"*erat&re o# 330K *asses thro&%h a
nor"al shoc, +alc&late the 'ensity a#ter the shoc, +o"*are this val&e $ith isentro*ic
co"*ression thro&%h the sa"e *ress&re ratio
1Air is enter to s&*er sonic $in' t&nnel at no@@le throat area o# 100 c"
1
an' test cross
sectional area o# 330

c"
1
I# the nor"al shoc, is locate' in the test section0 #in' the
#ollo$in%
a Test section Mach no
( !i##&ser throat area

TUTORIAL811
1 A conver%ent 'iver%ent no@@le is 'esi%ne' to e)*an' air #ro" a reservoir in $hich the
*ress&re is 300KPa an' te"*erat&re is 7:+ an' the no@@le inlet Mach no is 01 The
no@@le throat area is /6 c"
1
an' the e)it area is 130 c"
1
A nor"al shoc, a**ears at a
section $here the area is 137 c"
1
?in' the e)it *ress&re an' te"*erat&re Also #in' the
increase in entro*y across the shoc,
1 A conver%ent 'iver%ent air no@@le has to throat area ratio o# 3 A nor"al shoc, a**ears
at the 'iver%ent section $here the e)istin% area ratio is 11 ?in' the Mach n&"(er0 (e#ore
an' a#ter the shoc, I# the inlet sta%nation *ro*erties are 700KPa an' /70KPa0 #in' the
*ro*erties o# air at e)it an' entro*y increase across the shoc,
TUTORIAL811
1 A conver%ent 'iver%ent '&ct is o*eratin% &n'er o## 'esi%ne' con'itions as it con'&cts
air #ro" a hi%h *ress&re tan, $here Po.110KPa an' To.33:+ A nor"al shoc, is *resent
in the 'iver%ent section o# no@@le ?in' the e)it *ress&re0 loss in sta%nation *ress&re0 an'
increase in entro*y #or the #ollo$in% areas
1 Air enters a conver%ent 'iver%ent no@@le $ith a sta%nation *ress&re o# 1<(ar an'
te"*erat&re o# 70:+ In the 'iver%in% *art at a section j&st (e#ore a nor"al shoc,0 the
*ress&re j&st (ehin' the shoc, C ?in' the air #lo$ rate *er &nit area at the throat

TUTORIAL813
1 A roc,et has the #ollo$in% 'ataD Pro*ellant #lo$ rate .7K%5sEa"(ient
*ress&re.1103(arEno@@le e)it 'ia"eter.10c"Eno@@le e)it *ress&re.101(arE
thr&st cha"(er *ress&re.10(arEthr&st.3KB!eter"ine the e##ective jet velocity 0act&al
jet velocity 0 s*eci#ic i"*&lse an' s*eci#ic *ro*ellant cons&"*tion
1A roc,et no@@le has a throat area o# 10 c"
1
0 co"(&stion cha"(er *ress&re o# 1/(ar an'
$ei%ht #lo$ rate is /7B5sI# the s*eci#ic i"*&lse is 110s0'eter"ine
a thr&st coe##icient
( *ro*ellant $ei%ht #lo$ coe##icient
c s*eci#ic *ro*ellant cons&"*tion
' characteristic velocity
TUTORIAL81/
1 A roc,et o*eratin% at an altit&'e o# 1<," $ith the #ollo$in% 'ataD
Pro*ellant #lo$ rate .1K%5s
Thr&st cha"(er *ress&re.12(ar
Thr&st cha"(er te"*erat&re.1700K
Bo@@le area ratio.1011
+alc&late
a thr&st
( e##ective jet velocity
c s*eci#ic i"*&lse
Ta,e -.13 0 R.37745K%K
1 A roc,et no@@le has a throat area o# 12 c"
1
0 co"(&stion cha"(er *ress&re o# 17(ar
an' rate o# #lo$ o# *ro*ellant is //1/7B5sI# the s*eci#ic i"*&lse is 113/1s0'eter"ine
a thr&st coe##icient
( *ro*ellant $ei%ht #lo$ coe##icient
c s*eci#ic *ro*ellant cons&"*tion
' characteristic velocity
TUTORIAL817
1+alc&late the thr&st 0 s*eci#ic i"*&lse0 *ro*&lsive e##iciency0 ther"al an' overall
e##iciencies o# a roc,et en%ine #ro" the #ollo$in% 'ata
a e##ective jet velocity.1170"5s
( #li%ht to jet s*ee' ratio.2
c o)i'i@er #lo$ rate.37 K%5s
' #&el #lo$ rate.1 K%5s
e heat o# reaction o# e)ha&st %ases.1700K45K%
1The e##ective jet velocity #ro" a roc,et is 1300 "5s The #or$ar' #li%ht velocity is
1370"5s an' the *ro*ellant cons&"*tion is 326K%5s +alc&late thr&st0 thr&st *o$er0
*ro*&lsive e##iciency