The exact Hebrew wording of this biblical phrase is lo tirtzack which accurately translates as "any kind of killing whatsoever


The exact Hebrew wording of this biblical phrase is lo tirtzack. One of the greatest scholars of Hebrew/English linguistics (in the Twentieth Century) -Dr. Reuben Alcalay has written in his mammoth book the Complete Hebrew /English Dictionary that "tirtzach" refers to "any kind of killing whatsoever." The word "lo," as you might suspect, means "thou shalt not." Many Bible scholars persist with the theory that Christ ate animal flesh, obviously swayed in their opinions by personal habits. The desire to accede to prejudice and uphold existing tradition has been a human characteristic for many centuries, but truth appears now even more important as man exerts his independence in so many aspects of life. Respected Bible scholar Rev. V.A. Holmes-Gore has researched the frequent use of the word "meat" in the New Testament Gospels. He traced its meaning to the original Greek. His findings were first published in World Forum of Autumn, 1947. He reveals that the nineteen Gospel references to "meat" should have been more accurately translated thus: Greek word, number of references and actual meaning.
• • • • • •

Broma 4 "Food" Brosis 4 "The act of eating" Phago 3 "to eat" Brosimos 1 "That which is eaten" Trophe 6 "Nourishment" Prosphagon 1 "Anything to eat"

Thus, the Authorized Version of John 21:5, .'Have ye any meat?" is incorrect. It should have been translated: "Have ye anything to eat?" "Fish" is another frequently mistranslated word in the Bible. Its reference is often not to the form of swimming life, but to the symbol by which early Christians could identify each other. It was a secret sign, needed in times of persecution, prior to official acceptance of Christianity as a state religion. The sign of the fish was a mystical symbol and conversational password. Its name deriving from the Greek word for fish, "ichthus" Much later it was represented an acrostic, composed of leading letters of the Greek phrase, "Iesous Christos Theou Uios Soter"-"Jesus Christ, Son of God, Saviour." Frequent references to fish are intended as symbolic of The Christ and have nothing to do with the act of eating a dead fish. But the symbol of the fish did not meet with Roman approval. They preferred the sign of the cross, choosing to concentrate more on the death

of Christ than on His brilliant life. Perhaps this is one reason only ten percent of His life record appears in the canonical scriptures. Most of His first thirty years has been omitted.

Various "Translations" of the 6th Commandment
'Thou shalt not kill any living thing,' for life is given to all by God, and that which God has given, let not man taketh it away. ~Jesus, Gospel of the Holy Twelve, (earliest known recorded words of Jesus) "Thou shalt not kill." ~Exodus 20:13 Authorized version of King James "You shall not murder." ~New International Version

What is Veganism?
The following is an excerpt from Vegan Vittles written by Joanne Stepaniak, M.S.Ed. Simply stated, veganism is the conviction and practice of compassionate living. Veganism is a way of living which excludes all forms of exploitation and cruelty to the animal kingdom and includes reverence for all life. By definition, a vegetarian is one whose diet consists of vegetables, fruits, grains, beans, nuts, and sometimes animal products such as eggs, milk, or cheese. A vegan is someone who lives solely on the products of the plant kingdom without the addition of eggs, dairy or animal products. The term "vegetarian" refers only to what one eats and does not pertain to any other aspect of one's life. The impetus for becoming a vegetarian however, may be based on ethical, religious, health, environmental, or economic concerns, or any combination of these. The motivation for becoming vegan however, is fundamentally rooted in a compelling set of ethical beliefs. Both total vegetarians and vegans abstain from eating all meat, fish, or fowl, as well as any other foods of animal origin such as butter, milk, yogurt, honey, eggs, gelatin, or lard, and any prepared foods containing these ingredients. But veganism encompasses far more than just diet. The Vegan Society in England defines veganism as follows: "Veganism is a way of living which excludes all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, the animal kingdom, and includes a reverence for life. It applies to the practice of living on the products of the plant kingdom to the exclusion of flesh, fish, fowl, eggs, honey, animal

milk and its derivatives, and encourages the use of alternatives for all commodities derived wholly or in part from animals." Therefore, in addition to adopting a total vegetarian diet, vegans make a conscious effort to avoid all forms of exploitation, harm, and cruelty to animals regardless of any "beneficial" end result or any perceived "value" to society. Thus, vegans do not hunt or fish and abhor the unnatural confinement, cruel training, and degrading use of animals in circuses, zoos, rodeos, races, and other forms of "entertainment." Vegans oppose the unnecessary and barbarous testing of cosmetics, drugs, and household products on animals. They also denounce experiments performed on animals for the alleged potential benefit to human health. Vegans make every effort to abstain from medical procedures or drugs that have involved animal suffering. The use of animal products for adornment such as pearls, ivory, or tortoise shell; or clothing including items made from silk, wool, leather, or fur is also shunned. Furthermore, vegans do not use soaps, cosmetics, or household products which contain animal fats or oils, perfumes which are made from animal products, brushes made of animal hair, or pillows, comforters, or parkas stuffed with feathers. Although this may appear to be a lengthy list of "don'ts," it illustrates the extent to which human beings have come to rely on animal-based products and will advocate animal exploitation when it involves making a profit. Nevertheless, vegans do not bemoan what they cannot have and instead view their philosophy and lifestyle as surprisingly liberating. Some people might argue that it is impossible to be totally vegan in today's modern society, and technically, they would be right. The use of animal products and the byproducts of meat, dairy, and egg production are, sadly, tremendously pervasive. For instance, animal fats are used in the production of steel, rubber, vinyl, and plastics. Hence, cars, buses, and even bicycles are not vegan items. Animal products are used in bricks, plaster, cement, and many home insulation materials. They can also be found extensively in everyday products including over-the-counter and prescription drugs, glue, antifreeze, hydraulic brake fluid, videotape, photographic film, tennis rackets, musical instruments, and innumerable other items. Even wine may be clarified with fish meal or egg whites. Vegans acknowledge that purity in an industrial country is not only unattainable but unrealistic, and to maintain the impossible as an objective may very well be counterproductive. Participating in a society which is founded on animal exploitation places vegans in a continual ethical dilemma. The goal, in effect, becomes trying not to capitalize on, promote, or in any way contribute further to this anthropocentric perspective. Vegans are, at times, inevitably forced to choose between the minutia of ethical consistency, and a realistic approach. Embracing veganism compels practitioners to confront their attitudes towards all forms of life.

According to the American Vegan Society, the primary motive behind veganism is dynamic harmlessness, the tenet of doing the least harm and the most good. This philosophy encourages vegans to search for options which will protect and improve the lives of all living beings on this planet, eliminate suffering, bring about the responsible use of natural resources, and inspire peace and harmony among people. Consequently, veganism is not passive self-denial. On the contrary, it instills active and vibrant responsibility for initiating positive social change by presenting a constant challenge to consistently seek out the highest ideal.

Body of Evidence
"Humans aren’t physiologically designed to eat meat" Cardiologist William C. Roberts hails from the famed cattle state of Texas, but he says this without hesitation: Humans aren’t physiologically designed to eat meat. “I think the evidence is pretty clear. If you look at various characteristics of carnivores versus herbivores, it doesn't take a genius to see where humans line up.”

As further evidence, Roberts cites the carnivore’s short intestinal tract, which reaches about three times its body length. An herbivore’s intestines are 12 times its body length, and humans are closer to herbivores, he says. Roberts rattles off other similarities between human beings and herbivores. Both get vitamin C from their diets (carnivores make it internally). Both sip water, not lap it up with their tongues. Both cool their bodies by perspiring (carnivores pant). Human beings and herbivorous animals have little mouths in relation to their head sizes, unlike carnivores, whose big mouths are all the better for “seizing, killing and dismembering prey,” argues nutrition specialist Dr. Milton R. Mills, associate director of preventive medicine for the Washington, D.C.-based Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM). People and herbivores extensively chew their food, he says, whereas swallowing food whole is the preferred method of carnivores and omnivores. Dr. Neal D. Barnard, PCRM’s founder and president, says humans lack the raw abilities to be good hunters. “We are not quick and don't have claws like cats, hawks or other predators,” he says. “It was not until the advent of arrowheads, hatchets and other implements that killing and capturing prey became possible.”

Got Milk?
Milk, another animal product, can also be problematic for people. That’s why, in response to the popular “Got Milk?” ad campaign, Barnard’s organization sponsored billboards this past summer that read, “Got Diarrhea?”

“Dairy foods are definitely not a natural part of our diet,” contends vegetarian dietitian and author Virginia Messina, who fields the public’s nutritional questions at “We only started consuming them about 10,000 years ago, which is very recent in our evolution. Our physiology suggests that we really did not evolve to consume dairy beyond early childhood.” Three out of 10 adults are lactose intolerant, meaning they can’t digest the sugar in milk. So they likely suffer gas or diarrhea when undigested lactose reaches the large intestine, according to an April report in the Nutrition Action Healthletter. While celebrities sport milk mustaches in ad campaigns, some research raises questions as to whether milk is a better source of calcium than, say, spinach or collard greens. Echoing the conclusions of research elsewhere, a Harvard University study of more than 75,000 nurses found no evidence that nurses who drank the most milk enjoyed fewer broken bones. Milk’s high protein actually could leach calcium from bones, according to Dr. Walter Willett, of the Harvard School of Public Health, speaking on the PBS program HealthWeek. “Drinking cow milk has been linked to iron-deficiency anemia in infants and children; it has been named as the cause of cramps and diarrhea in much of the world’s population and the cause of multiple forms of allergies as well. The possibility has been raised that it may play a central role in the origins of atherosclerosis and heart attacks,” Dr. Frank Oski, former director of the Johns Hopkins University Department of Pediatrics, From his latest book, Don’t Drink Your Milk!

The Protein Myth
The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine

Facts about Vegetarian Diets
Protein is an important nutrient required for the building, maintenance, and repair of tissues in the body. Amino acids, the building blocks of protein, can be synthesized by the body or ingested from food. There are 20 different amino acids in the food we eat, but our body can only make 11 of them. The 9 essential amino acids which cannot be produced by the body must be obtained from the diet. A variety of grains, legumes, and vegetables can also provide all of the essential amino acids our bodies require. It was once thought that various plant foods had to be eaten together to get their full protein value, otherwise known as protein combining or protein complementing. Intentional combining is not necessary to obtain all of the essential amino acids.1 As long as the diet contains a variety of grains, legumes, and vegetables, protein needs are easily met.

Protein Requirements

With the traditional Western diet, the average American consumes about double the protein her or his body needs. Additionally, the main sources of protein consumed tend to be animal products which are also high in fat and saturated fat. Most individuals are surprised to learn that protein needs are actually much less than what they have been consuming. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for protein for the average, sedentary adult is only 0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight.2 To find out your average individual need, simply perform the following calculation:

Body weight (in pounds) X 0.36 = recommended protein intake

However, even this value has a large margin of safety, and the body’s true need is even lower. Protein needs are increased for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. In addition, needs are also higher for active persons. As these groups require additional calories, increased protein needs can easily be met through larger intake of food consumed daily. Extra serving of legumes, tofu, meat substitutes, or other high protein sources can help meet needs that go beyond the current RDA.

The Problems with High-Protein Diets
High protein diets for weight loss, disease prevention, and enhanced athletic performance have been greatly publicized over recent years. However, these diets are supported by little scientific research. Studies show that the healthiest diet is one that is highcarbohydrate, low-fat, and moderate in protein. Increased intake of whole grains, fruits, and vegetables are recommended for weight control3 and preventing diseases such as cancer4 and heart disease.5 High-carbohydrate, low-fat, moderate-protein diets are also recommended for optimal athletic performance.6 Contrary to the fad diets currently promoted by some popular books, a diet that is high in protein can actually contribute to disease and other health problems. Osteoporosis. Diets that are rich in protein, especially animal protein,7 are known to cause people to excrete more calcium than normal through their urine and increase the risk of osteoporosis. Plant-based diets, which provide adequate protein in addition to calcium through the consumption of leafy green vegetables, beans, and fortified fruit juices, can help protect against osteoporosis. Cancer. Although fat is the dietary substance most often singled out for increasing one’s risk for cancer, animal protein also plays a role. Specifically, certain proteins present in meat, fish, and poultry, cooked at high temperatures, especially grilling and frying, have been found to produce compounds called heterocyclic amines. These substances have been linked to various cancers including those of the colon and breast.8-10 A diet rich in whole grains, fruits, and vegetables is important in decreasing cancer risk,4 not to mention adding more healthful sources of protein in the diet. Kidney Disease. When people eat too much protein, it releases nitrogen into the blood or is digested and metabolized. This places a strain on the kidneys which must expel the

waste through the urine. Kidney problems may result in individuals who are susceptible to disease. Cardiovascular Disease. Diets high in fat and saturated fat can increase one’s risk of heart disease. High-protein diets often encourage consumption of meat, eggs, and dairy products, which are all high in cholesterol, fat, and saturated fat. The most popular of the high-protein diets have been described as containing excessive amounts of these arteryclogging products.11 Adequate protein can be consumed through a variety of plant products which are cholesterol-free and contain only small amounts of fat. Weight Loss Sabotage. Many individuals see almost immediate weight loss as a result of following a high-protein diet. In fact, the weight loss is not a result of consuming more protein, but by simply consuming less calories. Over the long run, consumption of this type of diet is not practical as it can result in the aforementioned health problems. As with any temporary diet, weight gain is often seen when previous eating habits are resumed. To achieve permanent weight loss while promoting optimal health, the best strategy involves lifestyle changes including a low-fat diet of grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables combined with regular physical activity.

Protein Checklist
High protein animal flesh diets are unhealthy. Adequate amounts of protein to maintain body tissues, including muscle, are important and can be easily achieved on a vegetarian diet. If you are uncertain about the adequacy of protein in your diet, take inventory. Although all protein needs are individual, the following guidelines can help you to meet, but not exceed, your needs.

Aim for 5 or more servings of grains each day. This may include 1/2 cup of hot cereal, 1 oz. of dry cereal, or 1 slice of bread. Each serving contains roughly 3 grams of protein. Aim for 3 or more servings of vegetables each day. This may include 1 cup of raw vegetables, 1/2 cup of cooked vegetables, or 1/2 cup of vegetable juice. Each serving contains about 2 grams of protein. Aim for 2 to 3 servings of legumes each day. This may include 1/2 cup of cooked beans, 4 oz. of tofu or tempeh, 8 oz. of soymilk, and 1 oz. of nuts. Protein content can vary significantly, particularly with soy and rice milks, so be sure to check labels. Each serving may contain about 4 grams to 10 grams of protein. Meat analogues and substitutes are also great sources of protein that can be added to your daily diet.

Calcium in Plant-Based Diets
The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine

Facts about Vegetarian Diets

Many people choose to avoid milk because it contains fat, cholesterol, allergenic proteins, lactose sugar, and frequent traces of contamination. Milk is also linked to juvenile-onset diabetes and other serious conditions. Thankfully, there are plenty of other good plant based sources of calcium. Keeping your bones strong depends more on preventing the loss of calcium from your body than on boosting your calcium intake. Some cultures consume no dairy products and typically ingest only 175 to 475 milligrams of calcium per day. However, these people generally have low rates of osteoporosis. Many scientists believe that exercise and other factors have more to do with osteoporosis than calcium intake does.

Calcium in the Body
Almost all of the calcium in the body is in the bones. There is a tiny amount in the blood stream which is responsible for important functions such as muscle contraction, maintenance of the heartbeat, and transmission of nerve impulses. We constantly lose calcium from our bloodstream through urine, sweat, and feces. It is renewed with calcium from bone. In this process, bones continuously lose calcium. This bone calcium must be replaced from food. Calcium needs change throughout life. Up until the age of 30 or so, we consume more calcium than we lose. Adequate calcium intake during childhood and adolescence is especially important. Later, the body begins to slip into “negative calcium balance,” and the bones start to lose more calcium than they take up. The loss of too much calcium can lead to soft bones or osteoporosis. How rapidly calcium is lost depends, in part, on the kind and amount of protein you eat as well as other diet and lifestyle choices.

Reducing Calcium Loss
A number of factors affect calcium loss from the body:

• • • •

Diets that are high in protein cause more calcium to be lost through the urine. Protein from animal products is much more likely to cause calcium loss than protein from plant foods. This may be one reason that vegetarians tend to have stronger bones than meat eaters. Caffeine increases the rate at which calcium is lost through urine. Diets high in sodium increase calcium losses in the urine. Alcohol inhibits calcium absorption. The mineral boron may slow the loss of calcium from bones.

Exercise slows bone loss and is one of the most important factors in maintaining bone health.

Sources of Calcium
Exercise and a diet moderate in protein will help to protect your bones. People who eat plant-based diets and who lead an active lifestyle probably have lower calcium needs. However, calcium is an essential nutrient for everyone. It is important to eat calcium-rich foods every day. The “Calcium in Foods” chart below page gives the amount of calcium found in some excellent plant sources. A quick glance shows how easy it is to meet calcium needs. The following sample menus each provide close to 1,000 milligrams of calcium. CALCIUM IN FOODS
(content in milligrams)

Grains Brown rice (1 cup, cooked) Corn bread (1 2-oz. piece) Corn tortilla English muffin Pancake mix (1/4 cup; 3 pancakes; Aunt Jemima

20 133 42 92 140 18 18 22 238 40 10 7 269 56 300* 19 53 94 56

Pita bread (1 piece) Wheat bread (1 slice) Wheat flour, all-purpose (1 cup) Wheat flour, Pillsbury’s Best (1 cup) Whole wheat flour (1 cup)

Apple (1 medium) Banana (1 medium) Dried figs (10 figs; 187 grams) Naval orange (1 medium) Orange juice, calcium-fortified (8 oz.) Pear (1 medium) Raisins (2/3 cup)

Broccoli (1 cup, boiled, frozen) Brussels sprouts (1 cup, boiled, 8 sprouts)

Butternut squash (1 cup, boiled) Carrots (2 medium, raw) Cauliflower (1 cup, boiled) Celery (1 cup, boiled) Collards (1 cup, boiled, frozen) Kale (1 cup, boiled) Onions (1 cup, boiled) Potato (1 medium, baked) Romaine lettuce (1 cup) Sweet potato (1 cup, boiled)

84 38 34 64 348 94 46 20 20 70 103 78 121 58 44 50 37 32 128 82 175 258 128 174 161

Black turtle beans (1 cup, boiled) Chick peas (1 cup, canned) Great Northern beans (1 cup, boiled) Green beans (1 cup, boiled) Green peas (1 cup, boiled) Kidney beans (1 cup, boiled) Lentils (1 cup, boiled) Lima beans (1 cup, boiled) Navy beans (1 cup, boiled) Pinto beans (1 cup, boiled) Soybeans (1 cup, boiled) Tofu (1/2 cup, raw, firm) Vegetarian baked beans (1 cup) Wax beans (1 cup, canned) White beans (1 cup, boiled)

The bodies requirement for vitamin B12 is actually very low. Non-animal sources include Red Star Vegetarian Support Formula or T-6635+ nutritional yeast (a little less than 1 Tablespoon supplies the adult RDA), and vitamin B12 fortified soymilk. It is especially important for pregnant and lactating women, infants, and children to have reliable sources of vitamin B12 in their diets.

The Need for Vitamin B12
Vitamin B12 is needed for cell division and blood formation. Plant foods do not contain vitamin B12 except when they are contaminated by microorganisms. Thus, vegans need

to look to other sources to get vitamin B12 in their diet. Although the minimum requirement for vitamin B12 is quite small, 1/1,000,000 of a gram (1 microgram) a day for adults [1], a vitamin B12 deficiency is a very serious problem leading ultimately to irreversible nerve damage. Prudent vegans will include sources of vitamin B12 in their diets. However, vitamin B12 deficiency is actually quite rare even among long-term vegans. Normally, vitamin B12 is secreted into the small intestine along with bile and other secretions and is reabsorbed, but this does not add to the body's vitamin B12 stores. Since small amounts of vitamin B12 are not reabsorbed, it is possible that eventually vitamin B12 stores will be used up. However, we may be quite efficient at re-using vitamin B12 so that deficiency is rare. Bacteria in the human intestinal tract do make vitamin B12. The majority of these bacteria are found in the large intestine. Vitamin B12 does not appear to be absorbed from the large intestine [1].

Possible Vitamin B12 Sources
Some bacteria in the small intestine do produce vitamin B12 [2]. The amount of vitamin B12 which is produced does not appear adequate to prevent vitamin B12 deficiency [3]. Although some vegans may get vitamin B12 from inadequate hand washing, this is not a reliable vitamin B12 source. Vegans who previously ate animal-based foods may have vitamin B12 stores that will not be depleted for 20 to 30 years [1] or more. However, long-term vegans, infants, children, and pregnant and lactating women (due to increased needs) should be especially careful to get enough vitamin B12.

Reliable Vegan Sources of Vitamin B12
A number of reliable vegan food sources for vitamin B12 are known. One brand of nutritional yeast, Red Star T-6635+, has been tested and shown to contain active vitamin B12. This brand of yeast is often labeled as Vegetarian Support Formula with or without T-6635+ in parentheses following this new name. It is a reliable source of vitamin B12. Nutritional yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a food yeast, grown on a molasses solution, which comes as yellow flakes or powder. It has a cheesy taste. Nutritional yeast is different from brewer's yeast or torula yeast. It can often be used by those sensitive to other yeasts. The RDA (which includes a safety factor) for adults for vitamin B12 is 2.4 micrograms daily [4]. 2.4 micrograms of vitamin B12 are provided by a little less than 1 Tablespoon of Vegetarian Support Formula (Red Star T-6635+) nutritional yeast. A number of the recipes in this book contain nutritional yeast.

Another source of vitamin B12 is fortified cereal. We recommend checking the label of your favorite cereal since manufacturers have been known to stop including vitamin B12. Other sources of vitamin B12 are vitamin B12-fortified soy milk, vitamin B12-fortified meat analogues (food made from wheat gluten or soybeans to resemble meat, poultry or fish), and vitamin B12 supplements. There are vitamin supplements which do not contain animal products. Vegans who choose to use a vitamin B12 supplement, either as a single supplement or in a multi-vitamin should use supplements at least several times a week. Even though a supplement may contain many times the recommended level of vitamin B12, when vitamin B12 intake is high, not as much appears to be absorbed. This means in order to meet your needs, you should take the vitamin several times a week. Tempeh, miso, and sea vegetables often are reported to have large amounts of vitamin B12. These products, however, are not reliable sources of the vita-min because the amount of vitamin B12 present depends on the type of processing the food undergoes [1, 5]. The standard method for measuring vitamin B12 in foods measures both active and inactive forms of vitamin B12. The inactive form (also called analogues) actually interferes with normal vita-min B12 absorption and metabolism [1, 6]. Fermented foods and sea vegetables may contain more inactive than active vitamin B12. Vitamin D, calciferol, is a fat-soluble vitamin. It is made in your body after exposure to ultraviolet rays from the sun, and also can be found in food. Vitamin D exists in several forms, each with a different activity. Some forms are relatively inactive in the body, and have limited ability to function as a vitamin. The liver and kidney help convert vitamin D to its active hormone form.

The major biologic function of vitamin D is to maintain normal blood levels of calcium and phosphorus. Vitamin D aids in the absorption of calcium, helping to form and maintain strong bones. It promotes bone mineralization in concert with a number of other vitamins, minerals, and hormones. Without vitamin D, bones can become thin, brittle, soft, or misshapen. Vitamin D prevents rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults, which are skeletal diseases that result in defects that weaken bones.

What are the sources of vitamin D?
Exposure to sunlight
Exposure to sunlight is an important source of vitamin D. Ultraviolet (UV) rays from sunlight trigger vitamin D synthesis in the skin. Season, latitude, time of day, cloud cover, smog, and suncreens affect UV ray exposure. For example, in Boston the average amount of sunlight is insufficient to produce significant vitamin D synthesis in the skin from November through February. Sunscreens with a sun protection factor of 8 or greater will block UV rays that produce vitamin D, but it is still important to routinely use sunscreen

whenever sun exposure is longer than 10 to 15 minutes. It is especially important for individuals with limited sun exposure to include good sources of vitamin D in their diet.

Is there a Recommended Dietary Allowance for vitamin D for adults?
The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is the average daily dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97-98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. There is insufficient evidence to establish a RDA for vitamin D. Instead, an Adequate Intake (AI), a level of intake sufficient to maintain healthy blood levels of an active form of vitamin D, has been established. The 1998 AIs (4) for vitamin D for adults, in micrograms (mcg) and International Units (IUs) are: Life-Stage Ages 19-50 Ages 51-69 Ages 70 + Men 5 mcg* or 200 IU 10 mcg* or 400 IU 15 mcg* or 600 IU Women 5 mcg* or 200 IU 10 mcg* or 400 IU 15 mcg* or 600 IU

*1 mcg vitamin D = 40 International Units (IU)

Estimates of vitamin D intake in the United States are not available because dietary surveys do not assess vitamin D intake. Dietary intake of vitamin D is largely determined by the intake of fortified food.

When can vitamin D deficiency occur?
A deficiency of vitamin D can occur when dietary intake of vitamin D is inadequate, when there is limited exposure to sunlight, when the kidney cannot convert vitamin D to its active form, or when someone cannot adequately absorb vitamin D from the gastrointestinal tract. The classic vitamin D deficiency diseases are rickets and osteomalacia. In children, vitamin D deficiency causes rickets, which results in skeletal deformities. In adults, vitamin D deficiency can lead to osteomalacia, which results in muscular weakness in addition to weak bones .

Who may need extra vitamin D to prevent a deficiency?
Older Americans (greater than age 50) are thought to have a higher risk of developing vitamin D deficiency(9). The ability of skin to convert vitamin D to its active form decreases as we age. The kidneys, which help convert vitamin D to its active form, sometimes do not work as well when people age. Therefore, some older Americans may need vitamin D from a supplement. It is important for individuals with limited sun exposure to include good sources of vitamin D in their diets. Homebound individuals, people living in northern latitudes such as in New England and Alaska, women who cover their body for religious reasons, and individuals working in occupations that prevent exposure to sunlight are at risk of a

vitamin D deficiency. If these individuals are unable to meet their daily dietary need for vitamin D, they may need a supplement of vitamin D. Individuals who have reduced ability to absorb dietary fat (fat malabsorption) may need extra vitamin D because it is a fat soluble vitamin. Some causes of fat malabsorption are pancreatic enzyme deficiency, Crohn’s disease, cystic fibrosis, sprue, liver disease, surgical removal of part or all of the stomach, and small bowel disease (6). Symptoms of fat malabsorption include diarrhea and greasy stools. Vitamin D supplements are often recommended for exclusively breast-fed infants because human milk may not contain adequate vitamin D. The Institute of Medicine states that "With habitual small doses of sunshine breast- or formula-fed infants do not require supplemental vitamin D." Mothers of infants who are exclusively breastfed and have a limited sun exposure should consult with a pediatrician on this issue. Since infant formulas are routinely fortified with vitamin D, formula fed infants usually have adequate dietary intake of vitamin D.

What are some current issues and controversies about vitamin D?
Vitamin D and osteoporosis
It is estimated that over 25 million adults in the United States have, or are at risk of developing osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by fragile bones. It results in increased risk of bone fractures. Having normal storage levels of vitamin D in your body helps keep your bones strong and may help prevent osteoporosis in elderly, non-ambulatory individuals, in post-menopausal women, and in individuals on chronic steroid therapy. Researchers know that normal bone is constantly being remodeled (broken down and rebuilt). During menopause, the balance between these two systems is upset, resulting in more bone being broken down (resorbed) than rebuilt. Estrogen replacement, which limits symptoms of menopause, can help slow down the development of osteoporosis by stimulating the activity of cells that rebuild bone. Vitamin D deficiency, which occurs more often in post-menopausal women and older Americans, has been associated with greater incidence of hip fractures. A greater vitamin D intake from diet and supplements has been associated with less bone loss in older women. Since bone loss increases the risk of fractures, vitamin D supplementation may help prevent fractures resulting from osteoporosis. In a group of women with osteoporosis hospitalized for hip fractures, 50 percent were found to have signs of vitamin D deficiency. Treatment of vitamin D deficiency can result in decreased incidence of hip fractures, and daily supplementation with 20 mcg (800 IU) of vitamin D may reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures in elderly populations with low blood levels of vitamin D. Your physician will discuss your need for vitamin D

supplementation as part of an overall plan to prevent and/or treat osteoporosis when indicated.

Vitamin D and cancer
Laboratory, animal, and epidemiologic evidence suggest that vitamin D may be protective against some cancers. Some dietary surveys have associated increased intake of dairy foods with decreased incidence of colon cancer. Another dietary survey associated a higher calcium and vitamin D intake with a lower incidence of colon cancer. Well-designed clinical trials need to be conducted to determine whether vitamin D deficiency increases cancer risk, or if an increased intake of vitamin D is protective against some cancers. Until such trials are conducted, it is premature to advise anyone to take vitamin D supplements to prevent cancer.

Vitamin D and steroids
Corticosteroid medications are often prescribed to reduce inflammation from a variety of medical problems. These medicines may be essential for a person’s medical treatment, but they have potential side effects, including decreased calcium absorption. There is some evidence that steroids may also impair vitamin D metabolism, further contributing to the loss of bone and development of osteoporosis associated with steroid medications. For these reasons, individuals on chronic steroid therapy should consult with their physician or registered dietitian about the need to increase vitamin D intake through diet and/or dietary supplements.

Vitamin D and Alzheimer’s Disease
Adults with Alzheimer’s disease have increased risk of hip fractures. This may be because many Alzheimer’s patients are homebound, and frequently sunlight deprived. Alzheimer’s disease is more prevalent in older populations, so the fact that the ability of skin to convert vitamin D to its active form decreases as we age also may contribute to increased risk of hip fractures in this group. One study of women with Alzheimer’s disease found that decreased bone mineral density was associated with a low intake of vitamin D and inadequate sunlight exposure. Physicians evaluate the need for vitamin D supplementation as part of an overall treatment plan for adults with Alzheimer’s disease.

What is the health risk of too much vitamin D?
There is a high health risk associated with consuming too much vitamin D. Vitamin D toxicity can cause nausea, vomiting, poor appetite, constipation, weakness, and weight loss. It can also raise blood levels of calcium , causing mental status changes such as confusion. High blood levels of calcium also can cause heart rhythm abnormalities. Calcinosis, the deposition of calcium and phosphate in soft tissues like the kidney can be caused by vitamin D toxicity. Consuming too much vitamin D through diet alone is not likely unless you routinely consume large amounts of cod liver oil. It is much more likely to occur from high intakes of vitamin D in supplements. The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine considers an intake of 25 mcg (1,000 IU) for infants up to 12 months of age and 50 mcg (2,000 IU) for children, adults, pregnant, and lactating women to be the tolerable upper

intake level (UL). A daily intake above the UL increases the risk of adverse health effects and is not advised. A substantial body of scientific evidence raises concerns about health risks from cow’s milk products. These problems relate to the proteins, sugar, fat, and contaminants in dairy products, and the inadequacy of whole cow’s milk for infant nutrition.

A substantial body of scientific evidence raises concerns about health risks from cow’s milk products. These problems relate to the proteins, sugar, fat, and contaminants in dairy products, and the inadequacy of whole cow’s milk for infant nutrition. Health risks from milk consumption are greatest for infants less than one year of age, in whom whole cow’s milk can contribute to deficiencies in several nutrients, including iron, essential fatty acids, and vitamin E. The American Academy of Pediatrics1 recommends that infants under one year of age not receive whole cow’s milk. Cow’s milk products are very low in iron,2 containing only about one-tenth of a milligram (mg) per eight-ounce serving. To get the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowance of 15 mg of iron, an infant would have to drink more than 31 quarts of milk per day. Milk can also cause blood loss from the intestinal tract, which, over time, reduces the body’s iron stores. Researchers speculate that the blood loss may be a reaction to proteins present in milk.3 Pasteurization does not eliminate the problem. Researchers from the University of Iowa recently wrote in the Journal of Pediatrics that “in a large proportion of infants, the feeding of cow milk causes a substantial increase of hemoglobin loss. Some infants are exquisitely sensitive to cow milk and can lose large quantities of blood.”3 Although concerns are greatest for children in the first year of life, there are also health concerns related to milk use among older children and some problems associated with cow’s milk formulas.

Milk Proteins and Diabetes
Several reports link insulin-dependent diabetes to a specific protein in dairy products. This form of diabetes usually begins in childhood. It is a leading cause of blindness and contributes to heart disease, kidney damage, and amputations due to poor circulation. Studies of various countries show a strong correlation between the use of dairy products and the incidence of diabetes.4 A recent report in the New England Journal of Medicine5 adds substantial support to the long-standing theory that cow’s milk proteins stimulate the production of the antibodies6 which, in turn, destroy the insulin-producing pancreatic cells.7 In the new report, researchers from Canada and Finland found high levels of antibodies to a specific portion of a cow’s milk protein, called bovine serum albumin, in 100 percent of the 142 diabetic children they studied at the time the disease was diagnosed. Non-diabetic children may have such antibodies, but only at much lower levels. Evidence suggests that the combination of a genetic predisposition and cow’s milk

exposure is the major cause of the childhood form of diabetes, although there is no way of determining which children are genetically predisposed. Antibodies can apparently form in response to even small quantities of milk products, including infant formulas. Pancreatic cell destruction occurs gradually, especially after infections, which cause the cellular proteins to be exposed to the damage of antibodies. Diabetes becomes evident when 80 to 90 percent of the insulin-producing beta cells are destroyed. Milk proteins are also among the most common causes of food allergies. Often, the cause of the symptoms is not recognized for substantial periods of time.

Milk Sugar and Health Problems
Many people, particularly those of Asian and African ancestry, are unable to digest the milk sugar, lactose. The result is diarrhea and gas. For those who can digest lactose, its breakdown products are two simple sugars: glucose and galactose. Galactose has been implicated in ovarian cancer8 and cataracts.9,10 Nursing children have active enzymes that break down galactose. As we age, many of us lose much of this capacity.

Fat Content
Whole milk, cheese, cream, butter, ice cream, sour cream, and all other dairy products aside from skim and non-fat products contain significant amounts of saturated fat, as well as cholesterol, contributing to cardiovascular diseases and certain forms of cancer. The early changes of heart disease have been documented in American teenagers. While children do need a certain amount of fat in their diets, there is no nutritional requirement for cow’s milk fat. On the contrary, cow’s milk is high in saturated fats, but low in the essential fatty acid linoleic acid.

Milk contains frequent contaminants, from pesticides to drugs. About one-third of milk products have been shown to be contaminated with antibiotic traces. The vitamin D content of milk has been poorly regulated. Recent testing of 42 milk samples found only 12 percent within the expected range of vitamin D content. Testing of ten samples of infant formula revealed seven with more than twice the vitamin D content reported on the label, one of which had more than four times the label amount.11 Vitamin D is toxic in overdose.12

Dairy products offer a false sense of security to those concerned about osteoporosis. In countries where dairy products are not generally consumed, there is actually less osteoporosis than in the United States. Studies have shown little effect of dairy products on osteoporosis.13 The Harvard Nurses’ Health followed 78,000 women for a 12-year period and found that milk did not protect against bone fractures. Indeed, those who

drank three glasses of milk per day had more fractures than those who rarely drank milk.14 There are many good sources of calcium. Kale, broccoli, and other green leafy vegetables contain calcium that is readily absorbed by the body. A recent report in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that calcium absorbability was actually higher for kale than for milk, and concluded that “greens such as kale can be considered to be at least as good as milk in terms of their calcium absorbability.”15 Beans are also rich in calcium. Fortified orange juice supplies large amounts of calcium in a palatable form.16 Calcium is only one of many factors that affect the bone. Other factors include hormones, phosphorus, boron, exercise, smoking, alcohol, and drugs.17-20 Protein is also important in calcium balance. Diets that are rich in protein, particularly animal proteins, encourage calcium loss.21-23

There is no nutritional requirement for dairy products, and there are serious problems that can result from the proteins, sugar, fat, and contaminants in milk products. Therefore, the following recommendations are offered: 1. Breast-feeding is the preferred method of infant feeding. As recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics, whole cow?s milk should not be given to infants under one year of age. 2. Parents should be alerted to the potential risks to their children from cow?s milk use. 3. Cow?s milk should not be required or recommended in government guidelines. 4. Government programs, such as school lunch programs and the WIC program, should be consistent with these recommendations Many Americans, including some vegetarians, still consume large amounts of dairy products. Here are eight important reasons to eliminate dairy products from your diet.

1. Osteoporosis
Milk is touted for preventing osteoporosis, yet clinical research shows otherwise. The Harvard Nurses’ Health Study,1 which followed more than 75,000 women for 12 years, showed no protective effect of increased milk consumption on fracture risk. In fact, increased intake of calcium from dairy products was associated with a higher fracture risk. An Australian study2 showed the same results. Additionally, other studies3,4 have also found no protective effect of dairy calcium on bone. You can decrease your risk of osteoporosis by reducing sodium and animal protein intake in the diet,5-7 increasing intake of fruits and vegetables,8 exercising,9 and ensuring adequate calcium intake from plant

foods such as leafy green vegetables and beans, as well as calcium-fortified products such as breakfast cereals and juices.

2. Cardiovascular Disease
Dairy products—including cheese, ice cream, milk, butter, and yogurt—contribute significant amounts of cholesterol and fat to the diet.10 Diets high in fat and saturated fat can increase the risk of several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease. A lowfat vegetarian diet that eliminates dairy products, in combination with exercise, smoking cessation, and stress management, can not only prevent heart disease, but may also reverse it.11 Non-fat dairy products are available, however, they pose other health risks as noted below.

3. Cancer
Several cancers, such as ovarian cancer, have been linked to the consumption of dairy products. The milk sugar lactose is broken down in the body into another sugar, galactose. In turn, galactose is broken down further by enzymes. According to a study by Daniel Cramer, M.D., and his colleagues at Harvard,12 when dairy product consumption exceeds the enzymes’ capacity to break down galactose, it can build up in the blood and may affect a woman’s ovaries. Some women have particularly low levels of these enzymes, and when they consume dairy products on a regular basis, their risk of ovarian cancer can be triple that of other women. Breast and prostate cancers have also been linked to consumption of dairy products, presumably related, at least in part, to increases in a compound called insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I).13-15 IGF-I is found in cow’s milk and has been shown to occur in increased levels in the blood by individuals consuming dairy products on a regular basis.16 Other nutrients that increase IGF-I are also found in cow’s milk. A recent study showed that men who had the highest levels of IGF-I had more than four times the risk of prostate cancer compared with those who had the lowest levels.14

4. Diabetes
Insulin-dependent diabetes (Type I or childhood-onset) is linked to consumption of dairy products. Epidemiological studies of various countries show a strong correlation between the use of dairy products and the incidence of insulin-dependent diabetes.17,18 Researchers in 199218 found that a specific dairy protein sparks an auto-immune reaction, which is believed to be what destroys the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas.

5. Lactose Intolerance
Lactose intolerance is common among many populations, affecting approximately 95 percent of Asian Americans, 74 percent of Native Americans, 70 percent of African Americans, 53 percent of Mexican Americans, and 15 percent of Caucasians.19 Symptoms, which include gastrointestinal distress, diarrhea, and flatulence, occur

because these individuals do not have the enzymes that digest the milk sugar lactose. Additionally, along with unwanted symptoms, milk-drinkers are also putting themselves at risk for development of other chronic diseases and ailments.

6. Vitamin D Toxicity
Consumption of milk may not provide a consistent and reliable source of vitamin D in the diet. Samplings of milk have found significant variation in vitamin D content, with some samplings having had as much as 500 times the indicated level, while others had little or none at all.20,21 Too much vitamin D can be toxic and may result in excess calcium levels in the blood and urine, increased aluminum absorption in the body, and calcium deposits in soft tissue.

7. Contaminants
Synthetic hormones such as recombinant bovine growth hormone (rBGH) are commonly used in dairy cows to increase the production of milk.13 Because the cows are producing quantities of milk nature never intended, the end result is mastitis, or inflammation of the mammary glands. The treatment requires the use of antibiotics, and traces of these and hormones have been found in samples of milk and other dairy products. Pesticides and other drugs are also frequent contaminants of dairy products.

8. Health Concerns of Infants and Children
Milk proteins, milk sugar, fat, and saturated fat in dairy products may pose health risks for children and lead to the development of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and formation of athersclerotic plaques that can lead to heart disease. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that infants below one year of age not be given whole cow’s milk, as iron deficiency is more likely on a dairy-rich diet. Cow’s milk products are very low in iron. If they become a major part of one’s diet, iron deficiency is more likely.10 Colic is an additional concern with milk consumption. One out of every five babies suffers from colic. Pediatricians learned long ago that cows’ milk was often the reason. We now know that breastfeeding mothers can have colicky babies if the mothers are consuming cow’s milk. The cows’ antibodies can pass through the mother’s bloodstream into her breast milk and to the baby.22 Additionally, food allergies appear to be common results of milk consumption, particularly in children. A recent study23 also linked cow’s milk consumption to chronic constipation in children. Researchers suggest that milk consumption resulted in perianal sores and severe pain on defecation, leading to constipation. Milk and dairy products are not necessary in the diet and can, in fact, be harmful to your health. Consume a healthful diet of grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes, and fortified foods including cereals and juices. These nutrient-dense foods can help you meet your calcium, potassium, riboflavin, and vitamin D requirements with ease—and without the health risks.

Testimony of the Early Christian Church
to the Universal Abstinence From Flesh Diet and Strong Drink
WHEN St. John Chrysostom (D. 407), in his homily on Matthew xxii, 1-14, tells us that "flesh-meats and wine serve as materials for sensuality, and are a source of danger, sorrow, and disease," he does not stand alone. Writing, in confutation of Jovinian, a monk of Milan, who abandoned asceticism, St. Jerome (D. A.V. 440) holds up vegetarianism as the Christian ideal and the restoration of the primeval rule of life. The passage may be rendered :--" As to his argument that in God's Second Blessing permission was given to eat flesh- a permission not given in the first Blessing- let him know that just as permission to put away a wife was, according to the words of the Saviour, not given from the beginning, but was granted to the human race by Moses because of the hardness of our hearts. So also in like manner the eating of flesh was unknown until the flood, but after the Flood, just as quails were given to the people when they murmured in the desert, so have sinews and the offensiveness of flesh been given to our teeth. The Apostle, writing to the Ephesians, teaches us that God had purposed that in the fullness of time he would restore all things, and would draw to their beginning, even to Christ Jesus, all things that are in heaven or that are on earth. Whence also, the Saviour Himself, in the Apocalypse of John, says, ' I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end.' From the beginning of human nature, we neither fed upon flesh nor did we put away our wives, nor were our foreskins taken away from us for a sign. We kept on in this course until we arrived at the Flood. But after the Flood, together with the giving of the Law, which no man could fulfill, the eating of flesh was brought in; and the putting away of wives was conceded to hardness of heart; and the knife of circumcision is brought into use; as if the hand of God had created in us more than is necessary. But now that Christ has come in the end of time, and has turned, back Omega to Alpha, and drawn back the end to the beginning, neither is it permitted to us to put away our wives, nor are we circumcised, nor do we eat flesh; hence the Apostolic saying, ' It is a good, thing not to drink wine, and not to eat flesh.' For wine also, together with flesh, began to be used after the Flood." Not less striking is the testimony of St. Basil (D. 379) : " With sober living," he says, " well-being increases in the household, animals are in safety, there is no shedding of blood, nor putting animals to death. The knife of the cook is needless; for the table is spread only with the fruits that Nature gives, and with them they are content. John the Baptist, he continues, "had neither bed, nor table, nor inheritance, nor ox, nor grain, nor baker, nor other things regarded as the necessaries of life; and yet it was to him that the Son of God gave the eulogy that he was the greatest of the children of men." The Gospel according to the Hebrews was that which was in use amongst the first Christians of Jerusalem, and the Gospel according to the Egyptians is thought to have been in close relation to it. It has been said that there are traces of it in the Talmud before

A.D. 130., It has even been conjectured that it was the Hebrew source from which the present Gospel according to Matthew was derived. This Gospel, according to the Nazarenes, was widely. circulated in the early Church, and was held in high esteem by the Jewish Christians. Hegesippus gives a remarkable account of James, the brother of the Lord, and the first ruler of the Christian Church in Jerusalem. James, we are told was Holy from birth. He drank no wine nor strong liquor, nor ate he any living thing. A razor never went upon his head, and neither used the bath nor anointing with oil. Even his clothes were free from any taint of death for he wore no woolen but linen garments only., " It is a remarkable fact that Instead of being represented as a sectary at the head of a new school of religious thought antagonistic to the ancient Hebrew faith, we are told that he, and he alone, was permitted to enter the sanctuary. That the physical puritanism of abstainence from intoxicants and flesh-meats was not an ideal foreign to Judaism we know from the examples of the Rechabites, the Nazarites, the Nazarenes, and the Essenes. The accounts that have come down to us of the last named sect are very interesting and suggestive. They lived in a brotherly community, they cultivated the land, they observed the Sabbath strictly, they refused to swear, they abstained from intoxicants and flesh. There are striking parallelisms between Essenism and Christianity. Seek first the kingdom of God was the aim of the Essenes (Matt, vi, 33, Luke, xii, 31). Sell your possessions and give to the poor (Matt vi, 33)., They despised riches (Matt vi, 19-21). The brotherly spirit amongst them was a wonder to the Jewish people, and a test of Christianity is "we know that we have passed from death to life because we love the brethren" (I John iii, 14). The Essenes and the Christians in Jerusalem lived in communities where each man had a share in the common. No wonder that De Quincey with his love of paradox should declare the Essenes to be "neither more or less than the new-born brotherhood of Christians.

Jesus Condemneth the Ill Treatment of Animals
Gospel of the Holy Twelve; Lection 38
And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, they who partake of benefits which are gotten by wronging one of God's creatures, cannot be righteous: nor can they touch holy things, or teach the mysteries of the kingdom, whose hands are stained With blood, or whose mouths are defiled with flesh.

1. AND some of his disciples came and told him of a certain Egyptian, a son of Belial, who taught that it was lawful to torment animals, if their sufferings brought any profit to men.

2. And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, they who partake of benefits which are gotten by wronging one of God's creatures, cannot be righteous: nor can they touch holy things, or teach the mysteries of the kingdom, whose hands are stained With blood, or whose mouths are defiled with flesh. 3. God giveth the grains and the fruits of the earth for food: and for righteous man truly there is no other lawful sustenance for the body. 4. The robber who breaketh into the house made by man is guilty, but they who break into the house made by God, even of the least of these are the greater sinners. Wherefore I say unto all who desire to be my disciples, keep your hands from bloodshed and let no flesh meat enter your mouths, for God is just and bountiful, who ordaineth that man shall live by the fruits and seeds of the earth alone. 5. But if any animal suffer greatly, and if its life be a misery unto it. or if it be dangerous to you, release it from its life quickly, and with as little pain as you can, Send it forth in love and mercy, but torment it not, and God the Father-Mother will shew mercy unto you, as ye have shown mercy unto those given into your hands. 6. And whatsoever ye do unto the Cast of these my children, ye do it unto me. For I am in them and they are in me, Yea, I am in all creatures and all creatures are in me. In all their joys I rejoice, in all their afflictions I am afflicted. Wherefore I say unto you: Be ye kind one to another, and to all the creatures of God. 7. AND it came to pass the day after, that he came into a city called Nain; and many of his disciples went with him, and much people. 8. Now when he came nigh to the gate of the city, behold there was a dead man carried out the only son of his mother, and she was a widow: and much people of the city was with her. 9. And when the Lord saw her, he had compassion on her, and said unto her, Weep not, thy son sleepeth. And he came and touched the bier: and they that bare him stood still. And he said, Young man, I say unto thee, Arise. 10. And he that was esteemed dead sat up, and began to speak. And he delivered him to his mother. And there came an awe upon all: and they glorified God, saying, A great prophet is risen up among us; and God hath visited his people. Several hundred years after prophets like Isaiah, Jeremiah, Amos, and Hosea had denounced the sacrificial slaughter of animals, Jesus carried out what is euphemistically called the Cleansing of the Temple. It was just before Passover and he disrupted the buying and selling of animals that were being purchased for slaughter. And because Christian scholars and religious leaders continue to ignore biblical denunciations of that bloody worship, they also try to obscure the reason for Christ's assault on the system. They have done this by focusing on the moneychangers, although they were only minor players in the drama that took place. It was the cult of sacrifice that Jesus tried to dismantle, not the system of monetary exchange. In all three gospel accounts of the event, those who provided the animals for sacrifice are mentioned first: they were the primary focus of Christ's outrage. The Gospel of John gives the most detailed account of the event.

"When it was almost time for the Jewish Passover, Jesus went up to Jerusalem. In the Temple courts he found men selling cattle, sheep and doves and others sitting at tables exchanging money. So he made a whip out of cords and drove all from the Temple, both sheep and cattle; he scattered the coins of the money changers and overturned their tables. To those who sold doves he said: 'Get out of here.' (John 2:13-16) Matthew's gospel does not detail the kind of animals that were being sold for slaughter, but it gives the same order of events. "Jesus entered the Temple area and drove out all who were buying and selling there. He overturned the tables of the money changers and the benches of those selling doves. 'It is written,' he said to them, 'My house will be called a house of prayer but you are making it a den of robbers.'" (Matthew21:12-13) The same account is given in the gospel of Mark who, like Matthew, also reports that Jesus accused those at the Temple of making God's house into a "den of robbers." And there is universal acknowledgement that in both gospels, when Jesus said this, he was quoting from the prophet Jeremiah (7:11). That prophet had hurled the same accusation at the people of his own time, almost six hundred years earlier. He said it while standing at the Temple entrance, after he had already warned the people "do not shed innocent blood in this place." And when Jeremiah said God's house had been turned into a den of robbers it could not have had anything to do with moneychangers--they did not exist in his time. In the time of Jeremiah, as in the time of Jesus, there was a great distinction made between "robbers" and "thieves." In contemporary times that distinction can best be understood by comparing the crime of petty theft with crimes of armed robbery by those who violently attack/kill their victims. But in ancient Israel there was an even greater distinction. A thief could be anyone who succumbed to a momentary impulse to steal something, but a robber was someone for whom violent crime and killing was a lifestyle. Both Jesus and Jeremiah were indignant about the violence of sacrificial worship, not the possibility of petty theft by moneychangers. When they said God's house had become a den of "robbers" the Hebrew word that was used (here, transliterated) was "per-eets'" defined as "violent, i.e., a tyrant--destroyer, ravenous, robber." It was the violence of the system, the killing of innocent victims in the name of God, that they were condemning. The moneychangers operating in the time of Jesus were driven out of the Temple because they were taking part in the process of sacrificial religion, not because they may have been cheating the pilgrims. The gospel of Mark correlates Christ's attempt to dismantle the sacrificial system with the plot to kill him. Like Matthew's gospel, Mark's account of the Temple Cleansing starts by saying that Jesus "began driving out those who were buying and selling there." It goes on to relate how he explained to the people why he was doing this, by quoting Jeremiah's opposition to animal sacrifice: "My house will be called a house of prayer for all nations.

But you have made it a 'den of robbers.'" And in the verse of scripture immediately following that statement, Mark reports that "The chief priests and the teachers of the law heard about this and began looking for a way to kill him, for they feared him because the whole crowd was amazed at his teachings."(Mark 11:18) It is ridiculous to claim that the religious leaders of Christ's time would have plotted his death because he undermined the function of the moneychangers. Nor would the crowd have been "amazed at his teachings" if Jesus was simply telling them to make sure they were not short-changed when they purchased Temple coins. What the people were amazed at was his condemnation of animal sacrifice; it had been hundreds of years since that kind of condemnation had been heard in Jerusalem. And it would not be allowed. A few days after he tried to overthrow the cult of animal sacrifice, Jesus was crucified. The religious leaders of his time were determined to preserve the belief that it had been ordained by God, who demanded its continuance. That determination is echoed in the teachings of contemporary Christian leaders. In spite of Jesus, and in spite of the many biblical denunciations of animal sacrifice they continue to maintain the ancient fiction that it was God who demanded His creatures be killed and butchered as an act of worship. It is understandable that in the time of Jesus the religious leaders were committed to upholding the system of Temple sacrifice at all costs: it was the center around which their lives revolved and their livelihood depended. And in biblical times, most people were illiterate and dependant on what their religious leaders taught them concerning the scriptures. But it is not easy to understand why contemporary Christians uphold the validity of the cult of animal sacrifice. In an age of widespread literacy, there is a choice to be made. The bible clearly presents an ongoing conflict between those forces that demanded sacrificial victims in the name of God, and those forces that opposed it as a man-made perversion. And because there is a choice to be made, it is deeply disturbing to see Christian leaders joining hands across the centuries with their ancient counterparts, in order to validate a system of worship in which the house of God became a giant slaughterhouse, awash in the blood of its victims. AND the Jews' Passover was at hand, and Jesus went up again from Bethany into Jerusalem. And he found in the temple those that sold oxen and sheep and doves, and the changers of money sitting. 2. And when he had made a scourge of seven cords, he drove them all out of the temple and loosed the sheep and the oxen, and the doves, and poured out the changers' money, and overthrew the tables; 3. And said unto them, Take these things hence; make not my Father's House an House of

merchandise. Is it not written, My House is a House of prayer, for all nations? but ye have made it a den of thieves, and filled it with all manner of abominations. 4. And he would not suffer that any man should carry any vessel of blood through the temple, or that any animals should be slain. And the disciples remembered that it was written, Zeal for thine house hath eaten me up. 5. Then answered the Jews, and said unto him, What sign shewest thou unto us, seeing that thou doest these things? Iesus answered and said unto them, Again I say unto you, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up. 6. Then said the Jews, Forty and six years was this temple in building and wilt thou rear it up in three days? But he spake of the temple of his Body. 7. When therefore he was risen from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said this unto them; and believed the scripture and the word which Iesus had said. 8. But the scribes and the priests saw and heard, and were astonished and sought how they might destroy him, for they feared him, seeing that all the people were attentive to his doctrines. 9. And when even was come he went out of the city. For by day he taught in the Temple and at night he went out and abode on the Mount of Olives, and the people came early in the morning to hear him in the Temple courts. 10. Now when he was in Jerusalem at the passover, many believed in his Name, when they saw the miracles which he did. 11. But Iesus did not commit himself unto them, because he knew all men. And needed not that any should testify of man; for he knew what was in man. 12. And Iesus seeing the passover night was at hand, sent two of his disciples, that they should prepare the upper room where he desired to eat with his twelve, and buy such things as were needful for the feast which he purposed thereafter. The temple and the three great feasts, Passover, Pentecost and Tabernacles, were the holiest of events for the Jewish people when "every able bodied man was commanded by the law of Moses to present himself before the Lord in Jerusalem" (Deuteronomy 16:16) The journey to Jerusalem was often long and arduous and bringing a goat, sheep or cattle (or a dove for the poor) to be slaughtered would have been most difficult. The selling of animals to be sacrificed was a lucrative business and central to the temple economy. In addition, this was also the time that the temple priests began to collect the temple tax, which was supposed to atone the donor's sins and contributed to the running and maintenance of the temple.

Matthew, Mark, and Luke mention those selling doves and the money changers. John gives us a fuller picture. John tells us that, "In the temple courts he found men selling cattle, sheep and doves, and others sitting at tables exchanging money." Those selling animals were providing a service to those who needed a sacrifice during Feast time. This had been approved by the Jewish leaders in the temple and was considered a great convenience to Jews traveling great distances. Since they did not have to have livestock in tow, they could buy the necessary sacrificial animals right at the temple. Places to change money were also needed; for the tax was also being collected from every Israelite who was twenty years old, Exod. 30:11-16. This was due during the month preceding the Passover (17:24, etc.) and was either sent in by those who lived at a distance or paid in person by those who attended the festival, who then, however, had to have Jewish coin, which fact compelled those who came from foreign parts to have their money exchanged. The money changers were providing a profitable service to the Jewish worshipers by exchanging Hebrew currency for Roman coin which would not be accepted by the temple priests.

The Sacrifices in the Temple
The animal, after being purchased, was then washed, hung upside down by its back legs and its throat slit. The blood of the animal would then be drained into a vessel to later be carried through the temple and sprinkled upon the alter along with the animals internal organs. The temple priests would cast lots to decide who will slaughter and who will sprinkle the blood. This comes from Chapter III of the Tractate Tamid. The Mishnah goes on to state that the forelegs, the right leg etc., are each given to the priest who, by the drawing of lots, had been assigned those body parts. The slaughterer then tore open the carcass so that it was all exposed before him. He then put the fat on top of the place where the head had been severed. The Mishnah goes on to describe the carving of the entire animal, the breast, the flanks, the spine, neck, ribs, tail, kidneys, etc. and the distribution of the body parts to the correct priests. After the slaughtering, blood sprinkling, and separation of limbs and organs, the priests leave the body parts on the side of the altar and recite the Shema, a Jewish prayer.

Blood Wrung from the Animals Heart
Chapter III, Mishnah 2 provides us with the detail of how the animals heart would then be wrung over the alter, the direction of the flow of blood, and bears witness to the quantity of blood that issues forth from the Temple sacrifices.

The line of worshippers and animals waiting to be slaughter stretched for as far as the eye could see, and a river of blood flowed from the temple, while the money changers made great profits for the temple priests. Truly, the house of the Lord, a house of prayer, had been turned into a slaughter house and a den of thieves. Seeing this, Jesus would "make a scourge of seven cords and drive them out of the temple and loosed the sheep and the oxen, and the doves, and poured out the changers' money, and overthrew the tables." This act of "cleansing the temple" would outrage the temple priests and seal the final fate of the Nazarene wenty-eight spartan dwellings on the edge of the Ein Gedi oasis in southern Israel may have been the home of a community of Essenes, the Jewish sect thought by some to have collected the Dead Sea Scrolls. While no inscriptions have been found positively linking the site to the group, its proximity to the village of Ein Gedi a mile away is grounds for assuming that its inhabitants belonged to the same community, says Yitzhar Hirschfeld of Hebrew University, the site's excavator. Descriptions of the Essenes by ancient authors such as Pliny the Elder "fit the character of the site," he says. Another clue is the presence of a mikveh, or Jewish ritual bath. The Essenes are thought to have flourished between the second century B.C. and the destruction of the temple in Jerusalem by the Romans in A.D. 70. Ancient sources describe them as a tightly knit group of men, possibly celibate, who practiced communal ownership of property. "The people who lived here worked the fields of the oasis," says Hirschfeld, who suspects that the site was a permanent, rather than seasonal, settlement. The dwellings were built for one person only and measure six by nine feet. They appear to have been occupied twice, in the first and early second centuries A.D., and between the fourth and sixth centuries. Three larger buildings possibly had a communal use; one, likely a kitchen, had three stoves and a thick layer of ash on the floor. While the site yielded a fairly rich collection of pottery vessels, glass sherds, and seven coins from the early Roman and Byzantine eras, it is most remarkable for its complete lack of animal bones. "Although we worked carefully, sifting everything, we didn't find any," says Hirschfeld, adding that the settlers might have been vegetarian. Although Josephus noted that the dietary restrictions of the Essenes were stringent, the nearby village appears not to have been bound by vegetarianism. "We've found 4,000 animal bones in the village of Ein Gedi," he notes. Judaism has historically advocated vegetarianism only occasionally for ascetic reasons or during periods of mourning. Excavations will continue in the winter of 2000.--SPENCER P.M. HARRINGTON For of the fruits of the trees and the seeds of the herbs alone do I partake, and these are changed by the Spirit into my flesh and my blood. Of these alone and their like shall ye eat who believe in me, and are my disciples, for of these, in the Spirit come life and health and healing unto man.

1. AND it came to pass as he sat at supper with his disciples one of them said unto him: Master, how sayest thou that thou wilt give thy flesh to eat and thy blood to drink, for it is a hard saying unto many? 2. And Jesus answered and said: The words which I spake unto you are Spirit and they are Life. To the ignorant and the carnally minded they savour of bloodshed and death, but blessed are they who understand. 3. Behold the corn which groweth up into ripeness and is cut down, and ground in the mill, and baked with fire into bread! of this bread is my body made, which ye see: and lo the grapes which grow on the vine unto ripeness, and are plucked and crushed in the winepress and yield the fruit of the vine! of this fruit of the vine and of water is made my blood. 4. For of the fruits of the trees and the seeds of the herbs alone do I partake, and these are changed by the Spirit into my flesh and my blood. Of these alone and their like shall ye eat who believe in me, and are my disciples, for of these, in the Spirit come life and health and healing unto man. 5. Verily shall my Presence be with you in the Substance and Life of God, manifested in this body, and this blood; and of these shall ye all eat and drink who believe in me. 6. For in all places I shall be lifted up for the life of the world, as it is written in the prophets; From the rising up of the sun unto the going down of the same, in every place a pure Oblation with incense shall be offered unto my Name. 7. As in the natural so in the spiritual. My doctrine and my life shall be meat and drink unto you, —the Bread of Life and the Wine of Salvation. 8. As the corn and the grapes are transmuted into flesh and blood, so must your natural minds be changed into spiritual. Seek ye the Transmutation of the natural into the Spiritual. 9. Verily I say unto you, in the beginning, all creatures of God did find their sustenance in the herbs and the fruits of the earth alone, till the ignorance and the selfishness of man turned many of them from the use which God had given them to that which was contrary to their original use, but even these shall yet return to their natural food, as it is written in the prophets, and their words shall not fail. 10. Verily God ever giveth of the Eternal Life and Substance to renew the forms of the universe. It is therefore of the flesh and blood, even the Substance and Life of the Eternal, that ye are partakers unto life, and my words are spirit and they are life. 11. And if ye keep My commandments and live the life of the righteous, happy shall ye be in this life, and in that which is to come. Marvel not therefore that I said unto you, Except ye eat of the flesh and drink the blood of God, ye have no life in you. 12. And the disciples answered saying: Lord, evermore give us to eat of this bread, and to drink of this cup, for thy words are meat and drink indeed;. By thy Life and by thy Substance may we live forever. Verily I say unto you, for this end have I come into the world, that I may put away all blood offerings and the eating of the flesh of the beasts and the birds that are slain by men.

1. AND at evening the Master cometh into the house, and there are gathered with him the Twelve and their fellows; Peter and Jacob and Thomas and John and Simon and Matthew and Andrew and Nathanael and James and Thaddeus and Jude and Philip and their companions ( and there was also Judas Iscariote, who by men was numbered with the twelve, till the time when he should be manifested). 2. And they were all clad in garments of white linen, pure and clear, for linen is the righteousness of the saints; and each had the colour of his tribe. But the Master was clad in his pure white robe, over all, without seam or spot. 3. And there arose contention among them as to which of them should be esteemed the greatest, wherefore he said unto them, He that is greatest among you let him be as he that doth serve. 4. And Iesus said, With desire have I desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer. and to institute the Memorial of my Oblation for the service and salvation of all. For behold the hour cometh when the Son of man shall be betrayed into the hands of sinners. 5. And one of the twelve said unto him, Lord, is it I ? And he answered, He to whom I give the sop the same is he. 6. And Iscariot said unto him, Master, behold the unleaven bread, the mingled wine and the oil and the herbs, but where is the lamb that Moses commanded? (for Judas had bought the lamb, but Iesus had forbidden that it should be killed). 7. And John spake in the Spirit, saying, Behold the Lamb of God, the good Shepherd which giveth his life for the sheep. And Judas was troubled at these words, for he knew that he should betray him. But again Judas said, Master, is it not written in the law that a lamb must be slain for the passover within the gates? 8. And Iesus answered, If I am lifted up on the cross then indeed shall the lamb be slain; but woe unto him by whom it is delivered into the hands of the slayers; it were better of him had he not been born. 9. Verily I say unto you, for this end have I come into the world, that I may put away all blood offerings and the eating of the flesh of the beasts and the birds that are slain by men. 10. In the beginning, God gave to all, the fruits of the trees, and the seeds, and the herbs, for food; but those who loved themselves more than God, or their fellows, corrupted their ways, and brought diseases into their bodies, and filled the earth with lust and violence. 11. Not by shedding innocent blood, therefore, but by living a righteous life, shall ye find the peace of God. Ye call me the Christ of God and ye say well, for I am the Way, the Truth and the Life. 12. Walk ye in the Way, and ye shall find God. Seek ye the Truth, and the Truth shall make you free. Live in the Life, and ye shall see no death. All things are alive in God, and the Spirit of God filleth all things. 13. Keep ye the commandments. Love thy God with all thy heart, and love thy neighbour as thyself. On these hang all the law and the prophets. And the sum of the law is this—Do not ye unto others as ye would not that others should do unto you. Do ye unto others, as ye would that others should do unto you. 14. Blessed are they who keep this law, for God is manifested in all creatures. All creatures live in God, and God is hid in them.

15. After these things, Iesus dipped the sop and gave it to Judas Iscariot, saying, What thou doest, do quickly. He then, having received the sop, went out immediately, and it was light. 16. And when Judas Iscariot had gone out, Iesus said, Now is the Son of man glorified among his twelve, and God is glorified in him. And verily I say unto you, they who receive you receive me, and they who receive me receive the Father-Mother Who sent me, and ye who have been faithful unto the truth shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. 17. And one said unto him, Lord, wilt thou at this time restore the kingdom unto Israel? And Iesus said, My kingdom is not of this world, neither are all Israel which are called Israel. 18. They in every nation who defile not themselves with cruelty, who do righteousness, love mercy, and reverence all the works of God, who give succour to all that are weak and oppressed—the same are the Israel of God. The Nazarene Way of Essenic Studies

The Sanctity of Nature and Reverence for All Life
The doctrine of refraining from harming any living thing All religions prescribe an ethic proper to the sanctity of nature and reverence for all life. All living things are God's sacred creations, each endowed with spirit, and each with its own purpose and end. Reverence for life begins with the recognition that man is but one of many species of living beings which share and inhabit this world. The first principle of ahimsa is the doctrine of refraining from harming any living thing. Vegetarianism is also motivated by this ethic. It is through this understanding that the intent of dominion is realized as proper stewardship, and that the natural world has been created for all life as a means for the spirit to experience the diversity of the physical.

All are under heaven. Regard heaven as your father, earth as your mother, and all things as your brothers and sisters. Shinto. Oracle of the Kami of Atsuta The mode of living which is founded upon a total harmlessness towards all living creatures is of the highest morality. Hinduism. Mahabharata, Shantiparva One should not injure, subjugate, enslave, torture, or kill any animal, living being, organism, or sentient being. This doctrine of nonviolence is immaculate, immutable, and

eternal. Just as suffering is painful to you, in the same way it is painful, disquieting, and terrifying to all animals, living beings, organisms, and sentient beings. Jainism. Acarangasutra A horse or a cow has four feet. That is Nature. Put a halter around the horse's head and put a ring through the cow's nose, that is man. Let man not destroy Nature. Let not cleverness destroy the destiny of the natural order." Taoism. Chuang Tzu And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, they who partake of benefits which are gotten by wronging one of God's creatures cannot be righteous: nor can they touch holy things, or teach the mysteries of the kingdom, whose hands are stained with blood, or whose mouths are defiled with flesh. Jesus, Gospel of the Holy Twelve According to Abu Hurairah, the Messenger of God said, "A man traveling along a road felt extremely thirsty and went down a well and drank. When he came up he saw a dog panting with thirst and licking the moist earth around the well. "This animal," the man said, "is suffering from thirst just as much as I was." So he went down the well again, filled his shoe with water, and taking it in his teeth climbed out of the well and gave the water to the dog. God was pleased with his act and granted him pardon for his sins." Islam. Hadith of Bukhari If one is trying to practice meditation and is still eating meat, he would be like a man closing his ears and shouting loudly and then asserting that he heard nothing... Pure and earnest bhikshus, when walking a narrow path, will never so much as tread on the growing grass beside the path. How can a bhikshu, who hopes to become a deliverer of others, himself be living on the flesh of other sentient beings? Pure and earnest bhikshus will never wear clothing made of silk, nor wear boots made of leather for it involves the taking of life. Neither will they partake from milk or cheese for these are not intended for man. Buddhism. Surangama Sutra This is the quintessence of wisdom: not to kill anything. Know this to be the legitimate conclusion from the principle of reciprocity with regard to non-killing. He should cease to injure living beings whether they move or not, on high, below, and on earth. For this has been called the Nirvana, which consists in peace.... A true monk should not accept such food and drink as has been especially prepared for him involving the slaughter of living beings. He should not partake of a meal which

contains but a particle of forbidden food: this is the Law of him who is rich in control. Whatever he suspects, he may not eat. A man who guards his soul and subdues his senses, should never assent to anybody killing living beings. Jainism. Sutrakritanga And all the creatures, which are under heaven, each according to its nature, serve, know and obey their Creator better than you. · And even the demons did not crucify Christ, but you together with them have crucified Him and even now you crucify (Him) by delighting in vices and sins. Saint Francis of Assisi A man should not breed a savage dog, nor place a shaking ladder in his house. Judaism. Talmud, Ketubot And none shall hurt or destroy in my holy mountain, for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Holy One even as the waters cover the bed of the sea. And in that day I will make again a covenant with the beasts of the earth and the fowls of the air, and the fishes of the sea and with all created things. And will break the bow and the sword and all the instruments of warfare will I banish from the earth, and will make them to lie down in safety, and to live without fear. Jesus, Gospel of the Holy Twelve The earth is the Lord's and the fulness thereof, the world and those who dwell therein. Judaism and Christianity. Bible, Psalm 24.1 Without doing injury to living beings, meat cannot be had anywhere; and the killing of living beings is not conducive to heaven; hence eating of meat should be avoided. Hinduism. Laws of Manu 5.48 May no living creatures, not even insects, Be bound unto samsaric life; nay, not one of them; But may I be empowered to save them all. Buddhism. Milarepa Enoch looked upon the earth; and he heard a voice from the bowels thereof, saying, "Woe, woe is me, the mother of men; I am pained, I am weary, because of the wickedness of my children. When shall I rest, and be cleansed from the filthiness which is gone forth out of me? When will my Creator sanctify me, that I may rest, and righteousness for a

season abide upon my face?" And when Enoch heard the earth mourn, he wept, and cried unto the Lord, saying, "O Lord, wilt Thou not have compassion upon the earth?" Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Pearl of Great Price, Moses The wolf shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid, and the calf and the lion and the fatling together, and a little child shall lead them. Judaism and Christianity. Bible, Isaiah 11.6-9 Buy captive animals and give them freedom. How commendable is abstinence that dispenses with the butcher! While walking be mindful of worms and ants. Be cautious with fire and do not set mountain woods or forests ablaze. Do not go into the mountain to catch birds in nets, nor to the water to poison fishes and minnows. Do not butcher the ox that plows your field. Taoism. Tract of the Quiet Way God's hand has touched even every small blade of grass which grows in the field.... All creatures we see contain God's deep heart and tell the story of God's deep love. Unification Church. Sun Myung Moon This earth is a garden, The Lord its gardener, Cherishing all, none neglected. Sikhism. Adi Granth, Mahj Ashtpadi They in every nation who defile not themselves with cruelty, who do righteousness, love mercy, and reverence all the works of God, who give succour to all that are weak and oppressed—the same are the Israel of God. Jesus, Gospel of the Holy Twelve Even in a single leaf of a tree, or a tender blade of grass, the awe-inspiring Deity manifests Itself. Shinto. Urabe-no-Kanekuni

The stream crosses the path, the path crosses the stream: Which of them is the elder? Did we not cut the path to go and meet this stream? The stream had its origin long, long ago. It had its origin in the Creator. He created things pure, pure, tano. African Traditional Religions. Ashanti Verse Have you considered the soil you till? Do you yourselves sow it, or are We the Sowers? Did We will, We would make it broken orts, and you will remain bitterly jesting-"We are debt-loaded; nay, we have been robbed." Have you considered the water you drink? Did you send it down from the clouds, or did We send it? Did We will, We would make it bitter; so why are you not thankful? Have you considered the fire you kindle? Did you make its timber to grow, or did We make it? We Ourselves made it for a reminder, and a boon to the desert-dwellers. Islam. Qur'an Not by shedding innocent blood, therefore, but by living a righteous life, shall ye find the peace of God. Jesus, Gospel of the Holy Twelve No creature is there crawling on the earth, no bird flying with its wings, but they are nations like yourselves. We have neglected nothing in the Book; then to their Lord they shall be mustered. Islam. Qur'an I say, "Just as the consciousness of a man born without any sense organs [i.e., one who is blind, deaf, dumb, crippled, etc. from birth] is not manifest, likewise the consciousness of beings of earth-body [e.g., atoms, minerals] is also not manifest. Nevertheless such a man experiences pain when struck or cut by a weapon, and so also do the beings of earthbody. Likewise for water-beings... fire-beings... plants... animals... air beings: their consciousness and experiences of pain are [actual though] not manifest."

Jainism. Acarangasutra Tao gave them birth; The power of Tao reared them, Shaped them according to their kinds, Perfected them, giving to each its strength. Therefore of the ten thousand things there is not one that does not worship Tao and do homage to its power. Yet no mandate ever went forth that accorded to Tao the right to be worshipped, nor to its power the right to receive homage. It was always and of itself so. Therefore as Tao bore them and the power of Tao reared them, made them grow, fostered them, harbored them, brewed for them, so you must Rear them, but do not lay claim to them; Control them, but never lean upon them, Be their steward, but do not manage them. This is called the Mysterious Power. Taoism. Tao Te Ching Yea, I am in all creatures and all creatures are in me. In all their joys I rejoice, in all their afflictions I am afflicted. Wherefore I say unto you: Be ye kind one to another, and to all the creatures of God. Jesus, Gospel of the Holy Twelve Come back, O Tigers!, to the woods again, and let it not be leveled with the plain. For without you, the axe will lay it low. You, without it, forever homeless go. Buddhism. Khuddaka Patha And whosoever careth for one of the least of these, and giveth it to eat and drink in its need, the same doeth it unto me, and whoso willingly suffereth one of these to be in want, and defendeth it not when evilly entreated, suffereth the evil as done unto me; for as ye have done in this life, so shall it be done unto you in the life to come. Jesus, Gospel of the Holy Twelve They gave the sacrifice to the East, the East said, "Give it to the West," the West said, "Give it to God," God said, "Give it to Earth, for Earth is senior."

African Traditional Religions. Idoma Prayer The solid sky, the cloudy sky, the good sky, the straight sky. The earth produces herbs. The herbs cause us to live. They cause long life. They cause us to be happy. The good life, may it prevail with the air. May it increase. May it be straight to the end. Sweet Medicine's earth is good. Sweet Medicine's earth is completed. Sweet Medicine's earth follows the eternal ways. Sweet Medicine's earth is washed and flows. Native American Religions. Cheyenne Song Blessed are they who keep this law, for God is manifested in all creatures. All creatures live in God, and God is hid in them. Jesus, Gospel of the Holy Twelve The cow and the bear shall feed; their young shall lie down together; and the lion shall eat straw like the ox. The sucking child shall play over the hole of the asp, and the weaned child shall put his hand on the adder's den. They shall not hurt or destroy in all My holy mountain; for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord as the waters cover the sea. Judaism and Christianity. Bible As a mother with her own life guards the life of her own child, let all- embracing thoughts for all that lives be thine. Buddhism. Khuddaka Patha, Metta Sutta Have benevolence towards all living beings. Jainism. Tattvarthasutra The Exalted One was entering Savatthi when he saw some youths ill-treating a snake with a stick. Then he uttered these verses of uplift, Whoso wreaks injury with a rod On creatures fain for happiness, When the self hereafter he seeks happiness, Not his, it may be, happiness to win.

Buddhism. Udana At the openings of ant hills Please have trustworthy men Always put food and water, Sugar and piles of grain. Before and after taking food Offer appropriate fare To hungry ghosts, dogs, Ants, birds, and so forth. Buddhism. Nagarjuna, Precious Garland "He that is wise, wins souls" (Proverbs 11.30). The rabbis said, "This refers to Noah, for in the Ark he fed and sustained the animals with much care. He gave to each animal its special food, and fed each at its proper period, some in the daytime and some at night. Thus he gave chopped straw to the camel, barley to the ass, vine tendrils to the elephant, and glass to the ostrich. So for twelve months he did not sleep by night or day, because all the time he was busy feeding the animals." Judaism. Midrash, Tanhuma, Noah 15a The Lord God took the man and put him in the garden of Eden to till it and keep it. Judaism and Christianity. Bible, Genesis Never does a Muslim plant trees or cultivate land, and birds or men or beasts eat out of them, but that is a charity on his behalf. Islam. Hadith of Muslim For six years you shall sow your land and gather in its yield; but in the seventh year you shall let it rest and lie fallow, that the poor of your people may eat; and what they leave the wild beasts may eat. You shall do likewise with your vineyard, and with your olive orchard. Judaism and Christianity. Bible, Exodus A certain priest had been killed by the bite of a snake, and when they announced the matter to the Blessed One, he said, "Surely now, O priests, that priest never suffused the four royal families of snakes with his friendliness. For if that priest had suffused the four royal families of the snakes with his friendliness, that priest would not have been killed by the bite of a snake....

Creatures without feet have my love, And likewise those that have two feet, And those that have four feet I love, And those, too, that have many feet. May those without feet harm me not, And those with two feet cause no hurt; May those with four feet harm me not, Nor those who many feet possess. Let creatures all, all things that live, All beings of whatever kind, See nothing that will bode them ill! May naught of evil come to them!" Buddhism. Vinaya Pitaka I am come to end the sacrifices and feasts of blood, and if ye cease not offering and eating of flesh and blood, the wrath of God shall not cease from you. Jesus, Gospel of the Holy Twelve The cows have come and brought us good fortune, may they stay in the stall and be pleased with us; may they live here, mothers of calves, many-colored, and yield milk for Indra on many dawns.... They are not lost, nor do robbers injure them, nor the unfriendly frighten, nor wish to assail them; the master of cattle lives together long with these, and worships the gods and offers gifts. The charger, whirling up dust, does not reach them, they never take their way to the slaughtering stool, the cows of the worshipping man roam about over the widespread pastures, free from all danger. To me the cows are Bhaga, they are Indra, they [their milk] are a portion of the first-poured Soma. These that are cows are Indra, O people! the Indra I long for with heart and spirit. Ye cows, you fatten the emaciated, and you make the unlovely look beautiful, make our house happy, you with pleasant lowings, your power is glorified in our assemblies.

Hinduism. Rig Veda When you besiege a city for a long time, making war against it in order to take it, you shall not destroy its trees by wielding an axe against them; for you may eat of them, but you shall not cut them down. Are the trees in the field men that they should be besieged by you? Judaism and Christianity. Bible, Deuteronomy The destruction of vegetable growth is an offense requiring expiation. Buddhism. Pacittiya There is a type of man whose... aim everywhere is to spread mischief through the earth and destroy crops and cattle. But God loves not mischief. Islam. Qur'an Rabbi Yohanan ben Zakkai used to say, "If there be a plant in your hand when they say to you, 'Behold the Messiah!', go and plant the plant, and afterwards go out and greet him." Judaism. Talmud Rajah Koravya had a king banyan tree called Steadfast, and the shade of its widespread branches was cool and lovely. Its shelter broadened to twelve leagues.... None guarded its fruit, and none hurt another for its fruit. Now there came a man who ate his fill of fruit, broke down a branch, and went his way. Thought the spirit dwelling in that tree, "How amazing, how astonishing it is, that a man should be so evil as to break off a branch of the tree, after eating his fill. Suppose the tree were to bear no more fruit." And the tree bore no more fruit. Buddhism. Anguttara Nikaya A man should wander about treating all creatures as he himself would be treated. Jainism. Sutrakritanga Verily I say unto you, for this end have I come into the world, that I may put away all blood offerings and the eating of the flesh of the beasts and the birds that are slain by men.

Biblical Opposition to Flesh Eating

According to the Bible, when God created the Garden of Eden all creatures lived peacefully together and never killed one another. Food was provided in abundance in the form of plants, fruits, seeds and herbs, as written in Genesis 1:29-30: "And God said, Behold I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree-yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat. And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is a living soul, I have given every green herb for food: and it was so." However, after The Fall (Genesis 3) the Bible contains many references to the consumption of flesh and to animal sacrifices which according to many observers thereby links sin and the killing of our harmless fellow creatures inextricably to one another. A tragic description of the world after The Fall was given by MARK TWAIN in his "Diary of Adam and Eve" when Adam said: "About an hour after sun-up, as I was riding through a flowery plain where thousands of animals were grazing, slumbering, or playing with each other, according to their wont, all of a sudden they broke into a tempest of frightful noises, and in one moment the plain was a frantic commotion and every beast was destroying its neighbor. I knew what it meant - Eve had eaten that fruit, and death was come into the world."

There are many passages in the Bible which support the obvious spirituality of a pure vegetarian life-style (see footnote 1*). Some observers have commented that the many inconsistencies in the Bible in respect to vegetarianism and veganism could probably be attributable to a variety of reasons. For example, they said that one should bear in mind that a very large number of writers have contributed to the Scriptures, spread out over a great many generations. Obviously each writer would have had his own personal perspective on historical events and religious codes. For instance, beyond the confines of the Bible such diametrically opposite views are clearly visible in the works of the Greek philosophers, PYTHAGORAS and ARISTOTLE. Pythagoras (like his contemporary Buddha) taught his students to be compassionate to man as well as to his fellow animals, and accordingly was a strict vegetarian. Aristotle by contrast proclaimed: I. "The slave is a living instrument who, though remaining a human being, is also an article of property." II. "Since nature makes nothing purposeless or in vain, it is undeniably true that she has made all animals for the sake of man." (That is to say to be exploited and killed by man at his whim.)

Many have asked why such advocacy by Aristotle of the exploitation of slaves as well as the brutality against defenseless animals would not justifiably be regarded as a most shockingly callous philosophy. It, therefore, has been of deep concern to many Christians that it was Aristotle, rather than the vegetarian Pythagoras, who influenced many Christian theologians. St. THOMAS AQUINAS (1125-1274 AD), for instance, referred deferentially throughout his writings in the "Summa Theologica" to Aristotle as "the Philosopher" and he mirrored his views (I and II) when he wrote: "The order of things is such that the imperfect are for the perfect."

Aquinas thereby reassured Christians of the mediaeval period that the killing of animals was authorized by divine providence. However, as one Bible researcher wrote: "Perhaps Aquinas’ personal habits had an effect on his opinions, for although he was a genius and an ascetic in many ways, his biographers also describe him as a glutton." (Ref. ‘Diet for Transcendence’, S. Rosen) The same researcher reminds the reader that "Aquinas was famous for his doctrine on the various kinds of souls a body may possess." For instance, in accordance with official church opinion "Aquinas begrudgingly agreed that women do indeed have a soul qualifying that they were a step above the beasts - who (Aquinas maintained) certainly had no soul. Many Christian leaders grew to accept this perspective."

Some Christian readers asked why they should not consider that these were grossly insensitive proclamations by St.Thomas Aquinas, and staggering in their import. They felt, therefore, that these surely deserve very serious analysis and discussion throughout the Christian hierarchy.

For instance, relative to Aquinas’ assertion that ‘animals have no soul’, some researchers have specifically pointed to Reuben Alcalay’s ‘The Complete Hebrew-English Dictionary’. In said dictionary the reader is apparently informed that the verse in Genesis "and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, etc" was in fact not correctly translated from the Hebrew: "The exact Hebrew words in this verse are nefesh (soul) and chayah (living)." Therefore the verse should read: "and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth wherein there is a living soul, etc." Such researchers concluded that this translation clearly contradicts Aquinas because the original Hebrew Bible verses leave no doubt of the fact that animals have a soul. Some observers added that based on the foregoing it was also most unfortunate for the world's environment and the health of mankind, not to mention the protection of animals, that the philosophy of Aristotle was so pre-eminent amongst early Christian theologians. If this had not been the case, Pythagoras might today be universally recognized as a

highly enlightened philosopher. Instead, he is primarily known as having been the mathematician who gave the world the Pythagoras’ Theorem.

Such disconcerted readers wondered as well what additional evidence could possibly be required other than said revealing proclamations (I-II) by Aristotle which establish his jarring lack of compassion for animals, and for slaves. How reassuring it was for such analytical Christian observers to read that at least the great PROPHET ISAIAH appears to have been opposed to cruelty of any kind. In several verses of the Book of Isaiah he apparently deplored the killing of animals (much earlier even than Pythagoras) when he was inspired to write: Isaiah 66:3. "He that killeth an ox is as if he slew a man."

Such observers also noted that one should bear in mind that any writers in the Bible who deplored the slaughter of animals would have been most hesitant to have advanced such controversial views. After all, wealth and its accompanying power have throughout history been connected to the ownership of cattle. This would therefore have made any philosopher or prophet who preached against the killing of animals for either sacrifice or food highly unpopular with the leaders of his community. Moreover, this would also have included the religious leaders who were always given what were considered the best parts of the animals for their own consumption after a burnt offering. Or in the words of early Church writer Origen (185-254 AD): "..I believe that animal sacrifices were invented by men to be a pre-text for eating flesh." (Stromata, ‘On Sacrifices’, book VII.)

Therefore, in those even more primitive times, anyone wishing to write on the subject of the victimization of animals knew, if they persisted in this, that it could lead to a threatening state of affairs with other contemporaries in powerful positions. Indeed, it can be taken for granted, there-fore, that some contributors to the Old Testament would have criticized the victimization of animals as the very antithesis of compassion and therefore spirituality, if they had not feared for their own safety. After all, rulers during those days were not renowned for their leniency, as testified to countless times in the Bible, with dissenters being stoned, flayed, impaled or beheaded, or put to other forms of sadistic execution.

They added that in view of the above, it is perhaps not surprising that most references in the Bible against animal sacrifices were made by Isaiah. Such observers felt that his outspokenness in this respect would appear to be explained by an observation made by the REV. JAMES L. DOW M.A. who wrote: "Isaiah did not hesitate to defy kings in pursuit of his convictions". (Ref. The Dictionary of the Bible, Collins.) Therefore, by virtue of Isaiah's courage and integrity as a powerful statesman he seems to have been one of the few contributors to the Bible who indicated that God strongly disapproved of the sacrifice of animals when he also wrote:

Isaiah 1: 11 and 15. "Saith the Lord: I am full of the burnt offerings of rams, and the fat of fed beasts; and I delight not in the blood of bullocks, or of lambs, or of hegoats. - When ye spread forth your hands, I will hide Mine eyes from you: yea, when ye make many prayers, I will not hear: for your hands are full of blood."

Unfortunately, there seems to have been some ambivalence on this subject in other verses in the Book of Isaiah in the Old Testament. The aforesaid observers advanced that this seeming inconsistency might perhaps also have been attributable to some occasional political expediency, even in the case of this great Prophet. Because when Isaiah described his vision of an ideal world he leaves no doubt about the fact that it would be a world free of killing of any kind whatsoever, for animals, as well as man:

Isaiah 11:6-9. "The wolf shall also dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them. And the cow and the bear shall feed; their young ones shall lie down together: and the lion shall eat straw like the ox. And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, and the weaned child shall put his hand on the cockatrice' den. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain: for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea."

This prophecy (relevant to the previous articles on the unprincipled evils of the ‘food chain’) will be most encouraging to all religions which do not approve of savagery in any form. Accordingly, they despair of such a "chain of tyranny", and pray that some day it will come to an end. The great Prophet Isaiah obviously was inspired to believe that the world some day could return to the harmonious state of the Garden of Eden. It is assumed that the Prophets of all religions would share this dream of universal harmony between people of all creeds and philosophies, as well between mankind and all other species culminating in peace and harmony between all animals. Such a blessed state would end forever the night-mare of what is now known as the ‘food chain’. It is hardly surprising, in view of the above verses in which Isaiah described a world free of killing that when he foretold the coming of Christ, he wrote:

Isaiah 7:14-15 "Behold a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel. Butter and honey shall he eat, that he may know to refuse the evil and choose the good."

Tragically, according to ‘The Ascension of Isaiah’, an Ethiopic manuscript, even Isaiah’s statesmanship in the end did not save him. (Ref. The Apocryphal Old Testament, by PROF. H. SPARKS.) The Ascension (also called Isaiah’s Martyrdom) relates how Judah’s new King Manasseh, abandoned "the service of God and served Satan and his angels and hosts". Isaiah ‘prophesied against him and his helpers’, and because of this, he was imprisoned and martyred. For the purpose of this article it is interesting to note that Ch. 2 of ‘The Ascension’ relates how Isaiah and other Prophets (in order to escape ‘the lawlessness of Jerusalem’) ‘settled on a mountain and ‘ate nothing save wild herbs and lived thereon’. As an observer commented, all these great Prophets, Isaiah, Micaiah, Ananias, Joel and Habakkuk chose to be vegans.

Increasing numbers of people around the world are convinced that all the greatest Prophets, including Jesus Christ, were vegans or at the very least vegetarians. This is because they are convinced that genuine compassion could never be only restricted to mankind, but indeed would include all animals, particularly those which are harmless.

Spiritual contemplatives have asked, in view of the foregoing: "as to how members of the Christian faith, or any other religions, expect to enter the Kingdom of Heaven if they continue to be party directly or indirectly to the violation of the right to life of a trusting harmless animal. Moreover, even if such a creature were hypothetically anaesthetized entirely before it was put to death this would make no difference whatsoever to such a betrayal. Such a death sentence would still contravene the most basic requirements of human justice - precisely as the animal never committed any crime. For anyone to dismiss this by saying that because animals are of a different species they are therefore not subject to human justice can only be regarded as the most hideous favouritism."

Such contemplatives added "God gave us dominion (see footnote 2*) over the animals in order that we would care for them and cherish them as the weaker vessels on His planet. Instead, mankind has defiled this custodianship by devouring his fellow creatures insatiably. Therefore, regardless of our interpretation of the great Prophet Isaiah's writings or any other verses in the Scriptures, we must beware above all of appeasing our con-sciences into believing that we have the moral license to inflict horrifying suffering, terror and death on God’s innocent creatures." They concluded: "Moreover, we are all morally obliged to spread this message and not merely pass the burden of this responsibility on to others."

OnVegetarianism (1901)
By Elisée Reclus (1830-1905) First printed in the HUMANE REVIEW, January, 1901.

MEN of such high standing in hygiene and biology having made a profound study of questions relating to normal food, I shall take good care not to display my incompetence by expressing an opinion as to animal and vegetable nourishment. Let the cobbler stick to his last. As I am neither chemist nor doctor, I shall not mention either azote or albumen, nor reproduce the formulas of analysts, but shall content myself simply with giving my own personal impressions, which, at all events, coincide with those of many vegetarians. I shall move within the circle of my own experiences, stopping here and there to set down some observation suggested by the petty incidents of life. First of all I should say that the search for truth had nothing to do with the early impressions which made me a potential vegetarian while still a small boy wearing babyfrocks. I have a distinct remembrance of horror at the sight of blood. One of the family had sent me, plate in hand, to the village butcher, with the injunction to bring back some gory fragment or other. In all innocence I set out cheerfully to do as I was bid, and entered the yard where the slaughtermen were. I still remember this gloomy yard where terrifying men went to and fro with great knives, which they wiped on blood-besprinkled smocks. Hanging from a porch an enormous carcase seemed to me to occupy an extraordinary amount of space; from its white flesh a reddish liquid was trickling into the gutters. Trembling and silent I stood in this blood-stained yard incapable of going forward and too much terrified to run away. I do not know what happened to me ; it has passed from my memory. I seem to have heard that I fainted, and that the kind-hearted butcher carried roe into his own house ; I did not weigh more than one of those lambs he slaughtered every morning. Other pictures cast their shadows over my childish years, and, like that glimpse of the slaughter-house, mark so many epochs in my life. I can see the sow belonging to some peasants, amateur butchers, and therefore all the more cruel. I remember one of them bleeding the animal slowly, so that the blood fell drop by drop; for, in order to make really good black puddings, it appears essential that the victim should have suffered proportionately. She cried without ceasing, now and then uttering groans and sounds of despair almost human; it seemed like listening to a child. And in fact the domesticated pig is for a year or so a child of the house ; pampered that he may grow fat, and returning a sincere affection for all the care lavished on him, which has but one aim - so many inches of bacon. But when the affection is reciprocated by the good woman who takes care of the pig, fondling him and speaking in terms of endearment to him, is she not considered ridiculous - as if it were absurd, even degrading, to love an animal that loves us? One of the strongest impressions of my childhood is that of having witnessed one of those rural dramas, the forcible killing of a pig by a party of villagers in revolt against a dear old woman who would not consent to the murder of her fat friend. The village crowd burst into the pigstye and dragged the beast to the slaughter place where all the apparatus for the deed stood waiting, whilst the unhappy dame sank down upon a stool weeping quiet tears. I stood beside her and saw those tears without knowing whether I should sympathise with her grief, or think with the crowd that the killing of the pig was just, legitimate, decreed by common sense as well as by destiny. Each of us, especially those who have lived in a provincial spot, far away from vulgar ordinary towns, where everything is methodically classed and disguised - each of us has seen something of these barbarous acts committed by flesh-eaters against the beasts they

eat. There is no need to go into some Porcopolis of North America, or into a saladero of La Plata, to contemplate the horrors of the massacres which constitute the primary condition of our daily food. But these impressions wear off in time; they yield before the baneful influence of daily education, which tends to drive the individual towards mediocrity, and takes out of him anything that goes to the making of an original personality. Parents, teachers, official or friendly, doctors, not to speak of the powerful individual whom we call "everybody," all work together to harden the character of the child with respect to this "four-footed food," which, nevertheless, loves as we do, feels as we do, and, under our influence, progresses or retrogresses as we do. It is just one of the sorriest results of our flesh-eating habits that the animals sacrificed to man's appetite have been systematically and methodically made hideous, shapeless, and debased in intelligence and moral worth. The name even of the animal into which the boar has been transformed is used as the grossest of insults ; the mass of flesh we see wallowing in noisome pools is so loathsome to look at that we agree to avoid all similarity of name between the beast and the dishes we make out of it. What a difference there is between the moufflon's appearance and habits as he skips about upon the mountain rocks, and that of the sheep which has lost all individual initiative and becomes mere debased flesh-so timid that it dares not leave the flock, running headlong into the jaws of the dog that pursues it. A similar degradation has befallen the ox, whom now-adays we see moving with difficulty in the pastures, transformed by stock-breeders into an enormous ambulating mass of geometrical forms, as if designed beforehand for the knife of the butcher. And it is to the production of such monstrosities we apply the term "breeding"! This is how man fulfils his mission as educator with respect to his brethren, the animals. For the matter of that, do we not act in like manner towards all Nature? Turn loose a pack of engineers into a charming valley, in the midst of fields and trees, or on the banks of some beautiful river, and you will soon see w hat they would do. They would do everything in their power to put their own work in evidence, and to mask Nature under their heaps of broken stones and coal. All of them would be proud, at least, to see their locomotives streaking the sky with a network of dirty yellow or black smoke. Sometimes these engineers even take it upon themselves to improve Nature. Thus, when the Belgian artists protested recently to the Minister of Railroads against his desecration of the most beautiful parts of the Meuse by blowing up the picturesque rocks along its banks, the Minister hastened to assure them that henceforth they should have nothing to complain about, as he would pledge himself to build all the new workshops with Gothic turrets! In a similar spirit the butchers display before the eyes of the public, even in the most frequented streets, disjointed carcasses, gory lumps of meat, and think to conciliate our æstheticism by boldly decorating the flesh they hang out with garlands of roses! When reading the papers, one wonders if all the atrocities of the war in China are not a bad dream instead of a lamentable reality. How can it be that men having had the happiness of being caressed by their mother, and taught in school the words "justice" and "kindness," how can it be that these wild beasts with human faces take pleasure in tying Chinese together by their garments and their pigtails before throwing them into a river? How is it that they kill off the wounded, and make the prisoners dig their own graves before shooting them? And who are these frightful assassins? They are men like ourselves, who study and read as we do, w ha have brothers, friends, a wife or a

sweetheart ; sooner or later we run the chance of meeting them, of taking them by the hand without seeing any traces of blood there. But is there not some direct relation of cause and effect between the food of these executioners, who call themselves "agents of civilisation," and their ferocious deeds? They, too, are in the habit of praising the bleeding flesh as a generator of health, strength, and intelligence. They, too, enter without repugnance the slaughter house, where the pavement is red and slippery, and where one breathes the sickly sweet odour of blood. Is there then so much difference between the dead body of a bullock and that of a man? The dissevered limbs, the entrails mingling one with the other, are very much alike : the slaughter of the first makes easy the murder of the second, especially when a leader's order rings out, or from afar comes the word of the crowned master, "Be pitiless." A French proverb says that "every bad case can be defended." This saying had a certain amount of truth in it so long as the soldiers of each nation committed their barbarities separately, for the atrocities attributed to them could afterwards be put down to jealousy and national hatred. But in China, now, the Russians, French, English, and Germans have not the modesty to attempt to screen each other. Eyewitnesses, and even the authors themselves, have sent us information in every language, some cynically, and others with reserve. The truth is no longer denied, but a new morality has been created to explain it. This morality says there are two laws for mankind, one applies to the yellow races and the other is the privilege of the white. To assassinate or torture the first named is, it seems, henceforth permissible, whilst it is wrong to do so to the second. Is not our morality, as applied to animals, equally elastic? Harking on dogs to tear a fox to pieces teaches a gentleman how to make his men pursue the fugitive Chinese. The two kinds of hunt belong to one and the same "sport" ; only, when the victim is a man, the excitement and pleasure are probably all the keener. Need we ask the opinion of him who recently invoked the name of Attila, quoting this monster as a model for his soldiers? It is not a digression to mention the horrors of war in connection with the massacre of cattle and carnivorous banquets. The diet of individuals corresponds closely to their manners. Blood demands blood. On this point any one who searches among his recollections of the people whom he has known will find there can be no possible doubt as to the contrast which exists between vegetarians and coarse eaters of flesh, greedy drinkers of blood, in amenity of manner, gentleness of disposition and regularity of life. It is true these are qualities not highly esteemed by those "superior persons," who, without being in any way better than other mortals, are always more arrogant, and imagine they add to their own importance by depreciating the humble and exalting the strong. According to them, mildness signifies feebleness : the sick are only in the way, and it would be a charity to get rid of them. If they are not killed, they should at least be allowed to die. But it is just these delicate people who resist disease better than the robust. Full-blooded and high-coloured men are not always those who live longest : the really strong are not necessarily those who carry their strength on the surface, in a ruddy complexion, distended muscle, or a sleek and oily stoutness. Statistics could give us positive information on this point, and would have done so already, but for the numerous interested persons who devote so much time to grouping, in battle array, figures, whether true or false, to defend their respective theories. But, however this may be, we say simply that, for the great majority of vegetarians, the question is not whether their biceps and triceps are more solid than those of the flesh-

eaters, nor whether their organism is better able to resist the risks of life and the chances of death, which is even more important : for them the important point is the recognition of the bond of affection and goodwill that links man to the so-called lower animals, and the extension to these our brothers of the sentiment which has already put a stop to cannibalism among men. The reasons which might be pleaded by anthropophagists against the disuse of human flesh in their customary diet would be as well-founded as those urged by ordinary flesh-eaters today. The arguments that were opposed to that monstrous habit are precisely those we vegetarians employ now. The horse and the cow, the rabbit and the cat, the deer and the hare, the pheasant and the lark, please us better as friends than as meat. We wish to preserve them either as respected fellow-workers, or simply as companions in the joy of life and friendship. "But," you will say, "if you abstain from the flesh of animals, other flesh-eaters, men or beasts, will eat them instead of you, or else hunger and the elements will combine to destroy them." Without doubt the balance of the species will be maintained, as formerly, in conformity with the chances of life and the inter-struggle of appetites ; but at least in the conflict of the races the profession of destroyer shall not be ours. We will so deal with the part of the earth which belongs to us as to make it as pleasant as possible, not only for ourselves, but also for the beasts of our household. We shall take up seriously the educational rôle which has been claimed by man since prehistoric times. Our share of responsibility in the transformation of the existing order of things does not extend beyond ourselves and our immediate neighbourhood. If we do but little, this little will at least be our work. One thing is certain, that if we held the chimerical idea of pushing the practice of our theory to its ultimate and logical consequences, without caring for considerations of another kind, we should fall into simple absurdity. In this respect the principle of vegetarianism does not differ from any other principle; it must be suited to the ordinary conditions of life. It is clear that we have no intention of subordinating all our practices and actions, of every hour and every minute, to a respect for the life of the infinitely little; we shall not let ourselves die of hunger and thirst, like some Buddhist, when the microscope has shown us a drop of water swarming with animalculæ. We shall not hesitate now and then to cut ourselves a stick in the forest, or to pick a flower in a garden; we shall even go so far as to take a lettuce, or cut cabbages and asparagus for our food, although we fully recognise the life in the plant as well as in animals. But it is not for us to found a new religion, and to hamper ourselves with a sectarian dogma ; it is a question of making our existence as beautiful as possible, and in harmony, so far as in us lies, with the æsthetic conditions of our surroundings. Just as our ancestors, becoming disgusted with eating their fellow-creatures, one fine day left off serving them up to their tables; just as now, among flesh-eaters, there are many who refuse to eat the flesh of man's noble companion, the horse, or of our fireside pets, the dog and cat-so is it distasteful to us to drink the blood and chew the muscle of the ox, whose labour helps to grow our corn. We no longer want to hear the bleating of sheep, the bellowing of bullocks, the groans and piercing shrieks of the pigs, as they are led to the slaughter. We aspire to the time when we shall not have to walk swiftly to shorten that hideous minute of passing the haunts of butchery with their rivulets of blood and rows of sharp hooks, whereon carcasses are hung up by blood-stained men, armed with horrible knives. We want some day to live in a city where we shall no longer see

butchers' shops full of dead bodies side by side with drapers' or jewellers', and facing a druggist's, or hard by a window filled with choice fruits, or with beautiful books, engravings or statuettes, and works of art. We want an environment pleasant to the eye and in harmony with beauty. And since physiologists, or better still, since our own experience tells us that these ugly joints of meat are not a form of nutrition necessary for our existence, we put aside all these hideous foods which our ancestors found agreeable, and the majority of our contemporaries still enjoy. We hope before long that flesh-eaters will at least have the politeness to hide their food. Slaughter houses are relegated to distant suburbs ; let the butchers' shops be placed there too, where, like stables, they shall be concealed in obscure corners. It is on account of the ugliness of it that we also abhor vivisection and all dangerous experiments, except when they are practised by the man of science on his own person. It is the ugliness of the deed which fills us with disgust when we see a naturalist pinning live butterflies into his box, or destroying an ant-hill in order to count the ants. We turn with dislike from the engineer who robs Nature of her beauty by imprisoning a cascade in conduit-pipes, and from the Californian woodsman who cuts down a tree, four thousand years old and three hundred feet high, to show its rings at fairs and exhibitions. Ugliness in persons, in deeds, in life, in surrounding Nature-this is our worst foe. Let us become beautiful ourselves, and let our life be beautiful! What then are the foods which seem to correspond better with our ideal of beauty both in their nature and in their needful methods of preparation? They are precisely those which from all time have been appreciated by men of simple life; the foods which can do best without the lying artifices of the kitchen. They are eggs, grains, fruits; that is to say, the products of animal and vegetable life which represent in their organisms both the temporary arrest of vitality and the concentration of the elements necessary to the formation of new lives. The egg of the animal, the seed of the plant, the fruits of the tree, are the end of an organism which is no more, and the beginning of an organism which does not yet exist. Man gets them for his food without killing the being that provides them, since they are formed at the point of contact between two generations. Do not our men of science who study organic chemistry tell us, too, that the egg of the animal or plant is the best storehouse of every vital element? Omne vivum ex ovo.
The Nazarene Way of Essenic Studies

~ Vegetarianism in the Bible ~
By Denis Giron

When I first began to study the bible, the people I studied with told me that it was wrong for me to be a vegetarian. I have found a common attack by Christians, and even Muslims on vegetarianism goes along the lines of "God said we could eat meat. Are you trying to say you are more merciful than God?" The answer to that question is "surely

not", God should be the most merciful being. To help faith-based vegetarians, this article will discuss how vegetarianism relates to the bible, animals, and God. I will be quoting from the NIV translation of the bible, unless otherwise noted.

In The Beginning
According to the bible, the first people were vegetarians. The first two chapters of Genesis tell a story of man and animal being companions, and trees being the source of food. In Genesis chapter 1, verse 29, God commands man to only eat fruits and vegetables..... Genesis 1:29 Then God said, "I give you every seed-bearing plant on the face of the whole earth and every tree that has fruit with seed in it. They will be yours for food. It is very clear, that right there it says God gave the first people the plants and the trees for food. Some people try to twist this scripture to mean other things, and try to argue that this does not prove people were eating only the fruits and plants. One popular argument is that it was allowing man to eat vegetables as well as meat, but this is wrong. Humans did not meat eat until after the flood. To prove this we need to turn to the 9th chapter of Genesis..... Genesis 9:3 Everything that lives and moves will be food for you. Just as I gave you the green plants, I now give you everything. Now notice God says "just as I gave you the green plants, I now give you everything". This is proof that before this point, people were only eating fruits and vegetables. At any rate, at this point God allowed man to eat meat, which opens up the argument that abstaining from meat is a subconscious form of questioning God's mercy. This is not true at all. In fact, vegetarians who believe in the bible are merely preparing themselves for heaven. When the kingdom of heaven is established, all beings will become herbivores. Some might argue that we will not need to eat in heaven, but the bible teaches that even in heaven, beings must eat. For example, in Genesis 19:1-3, angels from heaven ate a meal made of bread. So in heaven, beings will continue to eat. The prophet Isaiah gave many descriptions of this kingdom, and all his visions point to all beings being vegetarian. If all beings in heaven are going to be herbivores, then it would be safe to say that vegetarians living today are merely more prepared for that time. Isaiah chapter 11 gives a lengthy description of the peaceful kingdom, and the 65th chapter has a particular verse that strongly supports the idea of a kingdom filled with nothing but herbivores.... Isaiah 65:25 "The wolf and the lamb will feed together, and the lion will eat straw like the ox, but dust will be the serpent's food. They will neither hunt nor destroy on all my holy mountain," says the LORD.

Man's Dominion over Animals
The bible, on many occasions, says that man was given "dominion" over the animals. People have twisted this to mean that they can do anything they wish to animals. What is meant by "dominion" is the ability to impose our will. We do indeed rule over all animals, as we are the most powerful species on the planet. This however, does not mean it is okay to abuse this power, through animal abuse, and other wicked acts. God, without a doubt, wants us to show mercy for animals. Throughout the bible there are many stories that have a strong moral value. Whenever you read a story in the bible, ask yourself what the moral of that story was. It has to have a moral, because if there is no moral, then the story has no relevance. Surely nothing in the bible is irrelevant. In the 22nd chapter of the book of Numbers, there is the story of Balaam beating his donkey. Within in these verses is a strong story about animal abuse, suffering, and animal rights. Lets look at this story closely (the story of Balaam abusing his donkey can be found in Numbers 22:21-33) Numbers 22:21-23 Balaam got up in the morning, saddled his donkey and went with the princes of Moab. But God was very angry when he went, and the angel of the LORD stood in the road to oppose him. Balaam was riding on his donkey, and his two servants were with him. When the donkey saw the angel of the LORD standing in the road with a drawn sword in his hand, she turned off the road into a field. Balaam beat her to get her back on the road. Now, it should be noted that God was not angry with Balaam only because he abused animals. No, God was angry for many other reasons as well, but in the above verses, the angel tests Balaam's morals by diverting the path of his donkey. Balaam failed this first test as he beat his donkey for not staying on the path. Numbers 22:24-25 Then the angel of the LORD stood in a narrow path between two vineyards, with walls on both sides. When the donkey saw the angel of the LORD, she pressed close to the wall, crushing Balaam's foot against it. So he beat her again. So, the donkey kept on moving, but the angel again diverted her path. This time the donkey's weight crushed Balaam's foot against the wall of a vineyard. In his rage, Balaam again beat the animal, not knowing that an angel was watching his wicked act. Numbers 22:26-27 Then the angel of the LORD moved on ahead and stood in a narrow place where there was no room to turn, either to the right or to the left. When the donkey saw the angel of the LORD, she lay down under Balaam, and he was angry and beat her with his staff. This third time, the angel makes sure that the donkey cannot go left or right, and she therefore chooses to lay down. This time Balaam beat the donkey with his staff. This is particularly viscous, as in those times staffs were usually used by shepards to fend off

wolves. They were made to protect sheep by severely hurting predators, sometimes even breaking bones, so the donkey must have been in terrible pain when Balaam beat her with his staff. The beatings are getting worse and worse, and both God and the angel have seen enough..... Numbers 22:28-30 Then the LORD opened the donkey's mouth, and she said to Balaam, "What have I done to you to make you beat me these three times?" Balaam answered the donkey, "You have made a fool of me! If I had a sword in my hand, I would kill you right now." The donkey said to Balaam, "Am I not your own donkey, which you have always ridden, to this day? Have I been in the habit of doing this to you?" "No," he said. So God allowed the donkey to speak. The donkey expressed her suffering, showing that the bible teaches that animals indeed suffer and feel pain. In verse 29, Balaam lets the donkey know how cold his heart is, telling her he would have killed her if he had his sword. In verse 30, Balaam agrees that the donkey had never before disobeyed orders. Those beatings were rather severe for first time offenses... Numbers 22:31-34 Then the LORD opened Balaam's eyes, and he saw the angel of the LORD standing in the road with his sword drawn. So he bowed low and fell facedown. The angel of the LORD asked him, "Why have you beaten your donkey these three times? I have come here to oppose you because your path is a reckless one before me. The donkey saw me and turned away from me these three times. If she had not turned away, I would certainly have killed you by now, but I would have spared her." Balaam said to the angel of the LORD, "I have sinned. I did not realize you were standing in the road to oppose me." Once Balaam saw the angel, he realized he had made a mistake. The angel is disgusted by Balaam's actions, and tells him that had the donkey kept walking he would have killed Balaam, but spared her. Abusing is animals is wrong, and the angel even asked Balaam why he would do such a thing as beating his donkey. In verse 34, Balaam said to the angel "I have sinned". What was Balaam's sin? It is clear his sin was beating his donkey. Even Balaam realized this. So, these verses show us it is wrong to abuse animals, and abuse the power we have been given over them.

Animal Sacrifices
We have just discussed the concept of God having mercy on animals, and not wanting us to abuse them. The idea of animal rights being expressed in the bible comes under fire from those who point to instances of animal sacrifice. I admit the many mentionings of animal sacrifice in the bible have troubled me in the past. How can a merciful God command us to sacrifice animals? The truth of the matter is, we are NOT supposed to sacrifice animals. God does not command us to do this. The truth is, in Moses' time, after the Jews came out of Egypt, God allowed animal sacrifices for that time period. The great Jewish philosopher Abarbanel believed animal sacrifice was briefly allowed by

God in order to end the idolatry the Jews practiced in Egypt. He cited a Jewish writing that indicated that the Jews had become accustomed to sacrifices in Egypt. To wean them from these idolatrous practices, God tolerated the sacrifices but commanded that they be offered in one central sanctuary: Thereupon the Holy One, blessed be He, said "Let them at all times offer their sacrifices before Me in the Tabernacle, and they will be weaned from idolatry, and thus be saved." (Rabbi J. H. Hertz, The Pentateuch and Haftorahs, p. 562) This was after the Jews had come out of Egypt. One Jewish theologian indicated that God did not want the Israelites to bring sacrifices; it was their choice. He based this on a biblical verse read on the Sabbath when the book of Leviticus (which discusses sacrifices) is read: Isaiah 43:23 I have not burdened thee with a meal-offering, Nor wearied thee with frankincense. The bible teaches that animal sacrifices were voluntary. Many have taken the scriptures to mean that we must sacrifice animals in order to please God. This is not what pleases God. We are commanded to obey his laws. This can be see in the book of Jeremiah: Jeremiah 7:22-23 For I spoke not unto your fathers, nor commanded them on the day that I brought them out of the land of Egypt, concerning burnt-offerings or sacrifices; but this thing I commanded them, saying, "Obey my voice, and I will be your God, and ye shall be my people; and walk ye in all the ways that I have commanded you, that it may be well unto you. God never commanded us to sacrifice animals. His message was "obey my voice". Nowhere in the Ten Commandments is there any reference to sacrifice, and even when sacrifices are first mentioned (Leviticus 1:2) the expression used is "when any man of you bringeth an offering," the first Hebrew word ki being literally "if", implying that it was a voluntary act. I say it again: animal sacrifices were never a law of God. Infact God prefers we don't sacrifice animals. That is what is meant by "To do charity and justice is more acceptable to the Lord than sacrifice" (Proverbs 21:3). Also, in Hosea 6:6, God said "What I want is mercy, not sacrifice." As was stated before, animal sacrifices were permitted only for a brief time after the exodus from Egypt. After that, God began to hate animal sacrifice. Consider the following verses from the book of Isaiah.... Isaiah 1:11-16 "The multitude of your sacrifices-- what are they to me?" says the LORD. "I have more than enough of burnt offerings, of rams and the fat of fattened animals; I have no pleasure in the blood of bulls and lambs and goats. When you come to appear before me, who has asked this of you, this trampling of my courts? Stop bringing meaningless offerings! Your

incense is detestable to me. New Moons, Sabbaths and convocations-- I cannot bear your evil assemblies. Your New Moon festivals and your appointed feasts my soul hates. They have become a burden to me; I am weary of bearing them. When you spread out your hands in prayer, I will hide my eyes from you; even if you offer many prayers, I will not listen. Your hands are full of blood; wash and make yourselves clean. Take your evil deeds out of my sight! Stop doing wrong!

Jesus was a vegetarian
Now this is a touchy subject. Across the globe, there is a small handful of vegetarian Christians who assert that Jesus was a vegetarian. The bible, and other sources, seems to support this belief. Vegetarianism is not without precedent in the Christian, or even Catholic faiths: Many early church fathers were vegetarian, including St. Basil, St. John Chrysostom, and St. Francis of Assisi. Many Biblical scholars believe Jesus was a member of the Nazarene Essenes, a Jewish religious sect that followed a vegetarian diet and rejected animal sacrifices. This is possible when one looks at the Shroud of Turin, a centuries old linen cloth that bears the image of a crucified man, whom many believe to be Jesus. If Jesus was indeed a member of the Nazarene Essenes, he would also have taken the vow of a Nazarene, thus not cut his hair (Numbers 6:5). In the imprint found in the shroud of turin, there is a man with west-asian features (Nazareth is in west Asia), who has long hair, further supporting the claim Jesus was a member of the Nazarene Essenes. Of course, there is no definite proof the Shroud of Turin is legitimate, so in order to prove Jesus was a Nazarene Essene, or a vegetarian, we need to look into the bible. Now Jesus was loved by some, and hated by others, and accused of blasphemy by the priests of his time. This was because he claimed to be the Jewish Messiah that was prophesized about in the TaNaKh (Jewish bible, or "old testament"). Lets take a look at the Old Testament description of the Messiah to come... Note: For these scriptures, I will use the King James Translation, which I feel is more accurate. Isaiah 7:14-15 (KJV) Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign; Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel. Butter and honey shall he eat, so that he may know to refuse the evil, and choose the good. First of all, it says God's sign of the Messiah will be a virgin giving birth to a son. Jesus was born of a virgin mother. It says his name shall be Immanuel, which means "God is with us". Jesus' real name was Yeshua, which means "God is salvation". The name "Immanuel" is meant to signify that this will be the Messiah, regardless of what his name is. At any rate, in verse 15, the pre-messianic prophesy of Jesus, it says he will eat butter and honey, so that he can know the difference between good and evil.

Now the question is, what does eating butter and honey have to do with knowing how to choose between good and evil. To answer this question, we must have an understanding of Jewish beliefs about dietary laws, and vegetarianism. Throughout history there has been many vegetarian jews. Even today, only India has more faith-based vegetarians than Israel. These vegetarian jews believed meat corrupted your soul. Eating meat was permitted by God, but so was drinking alcohol. Infact, just like alcohol, the bible teaches, meat makes you "stumble", or corrupts your heart. That is why Jesus, the Messiah, would eat butter and honey, instead of meat, so that his heart would not be corrupted. Before, during, and after Jesus' time Jews argued wether or not meat was good for people. Consider the 14th chapter of Romans... Romans 14:21 It is better not to eat meat or drink wine or to do anything else that will cause any man to stumble. There were many vegetarian jews, so why not Jesus? Especially considering he was from Nazareth. Jesus is even called a Nazarene in Matthew 2:23. Want an example of another vegetarian Jew from the bible? How about the prophet Daniel. The name Daniel means "God is my judge", showing how confident he was that his actions were righteous in the eyes of God. Well, Daniel also was a vegetarian. In the first chapter of the book of Daniel, Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylon has imprisoned Daniel. In verse 8, Daniel refused to defile himself by eating the meat being served to him in the prison. Some have said that this is because the meat was offered to Babylonian gods, but this is incorrect, as vegetables were also offered in the name of these same Gods. Daniel abstained from the meat offered because he was a vegetarian. He knew the benefits of such a diet. Consider the following verses... Daniel 1:11-16 Daniel then said to the guard whom the chief official had appointed over him: "Please test your servants for ten days: Give us nothing but vegetables to eat and water to drink. Then compare our appearance with that of the young men who eat the royal food, and treat your servants in accordance with what you see." So he agreed to this and tested them for ten days. At the end of the ten days they looked healthier and better nourished than any of the young men who ate the royal food. So the guard took away their meat and the wine they were to drink and gave them vegetables instead. It's pretty clear Daniel was a vegetarian. So why not Jesus? The prophesy in Isaiah 7:15 said he would eat butter and honey (rather than meat) to be able to know the difference between good and evil. If Jesus ate meat, then he does not fit the Messianic prophesy of the Jews. Nowhere in the bible does it ever mention Jesus eating meat. In the King James translation, there are a few verses that mention Jesus eating meat, but in those cases, meat is translated from the Greek word "Broma" which literally means "food". All other translations of those same exact verses do not use the word "meat", rather they say Jesus sat down and ate "food".

Nowhere does it say Jesus ate meat. Now, knowing that the bible never mentions him eating meat, and taking into account the fact that Jesus taught love and kindness, how hard is it to assume he might have been a vegetarian? Also, Jesus was against animal sacrifice. He quoted Hosea 6:6, saying "For I desire mercy, not sacrifice, and acknowledgment of God rather than burnt offerings." He quoted Hosea in Matthew 9:13, and Matthew 12:6-7. He did this in a challenge to the Pharisees. Could this have been a hint into him being a vegetarian? What about Fish? In the 14th chapter of Matthew (verses 13-21) Jesus takes his boat to a remote island. Thousands follow him there. Jesus tells his disciples to feed these people, but the tell him that they only have five loaves of bread and two fish (verse 17). Jesus gave thanks for the food, and it multiplied into enough to feed five thousand people. Now the question is, if Jesus was a vegetarian, why was he giving fish to his followers? It should be noted that some scholars contend that the Greek word for "fish weed" (a dried seaweed) has been mistranslated in this story as "fish". It is certainly true that dried fishweed would be more likely in a basket with bread, and fishweed remains a popular food among Palestinian peasants like the people to whom Jesus was speaking. Also, in the beginning of the story (Matthew 14:13) it says Jesus got to this place by boat. These people were right by the sea. If they were out of fish, why not just go on a quick fishing expedition? Surely with 5,000 men present it would not be that hard to go fishing. With this in mind, it further supports the thought that fishweed was being used, not actual fish. Also, when one considers that the disciples did not even think about trying to catch some fish, this helps explain Matthew 4:18-20, where Jesus gets his first disciples by telling some fishermen to give up their profession and follow him. Jesus even says to them "I will make you a fisher of men". Could this be Jesus was having them give up their barbaric line of work to do something more righteous? It may sound absurd, but it starts to make a little more sense when you take it in the same context as the story of feeding five thousand, where the disciples never even considered trying to catch some fish, despite being beside the sea. Why didn't they go fishing? Did Jesus teach it was wrong to eat fish? Finally, there is the story of after the resurrection, in Luke 24:42-43, where Jesus eats some fish. This is an interesting story. Some scholars however, have stated that in this verse, the Greek word for fish is "ixous", which happens to be an acronym for the phrase "Jesus Christ Son of God Savior." Indeed, the fish is still a symbol of Christianity today. This argument could go on and on. I would not totally dismiss the concept of Jesus eating fish. Maybe it was possible. There are vegetarians who eat fish, they are called "pescovegetarians". Also, it should be noted that in the Catholic church you are not allowed to eat meat on Fridays, but you are still allowed to eat fish. Could this be the result of Jesus' pesco-vegetarian life-style?

Vatican: Antichrist is a

A leading candidate to succeed Pope John Paul II has warned that the Antichrist is already among us and was most likely now disguised as a philanthropist supporting creeds like vegetarianism, animal rights and pacifism. A leading conservative candidate to succeed Pope John Paul II has warned that the Antichrist foreseen in the Book of Revelations is already among us. Cardinal Giacomo Biffi, 71, said that the modern Antichrist, identified in the Book of Revelations as a seven-headed beast, was most likely now disguised as a philanthropist supporting creeds like vegetarianism, animal rights, pacifism, and advocating dialogue with Orthodox or Anglican believers. But his true aim was to undermine the Catholic church, the Cardinal argued. Papal contender As Archbishop of Bologna, one of Italy's most populous and richest dioceses, Cardinal Biffi is a clear contender for the papacy, given that his fellow cardinals may well decide to select an Italian as successor to the present Pope. However, Cardinal Biffi is also deeply conservative in his views and his remarks are likely to offend some progressive Catholics.

As the Pope becomes frailer, questions about the succession are more pressing

He was speaking at a conference of academics in Bologna last weekend, on the 19th century Russian mystic Vladimir Solovyov, who predicted horror and disaster in the 20th century. The cardinal reminded those attending the conference that the 20th century had seen many massacres. As well as the killing of six million Jews in the Nazi holocaust, Cardinal Biffi mentioned the killing of millions of Armenians in Turkey and the victims of Stalin's purges in the former

Cadinal Biffi says the Anti-Christ is among us

Soviet Union. The cardinal said the 20th century had also witnessed what he called a selfish, unwise, sexual revolution and unparalleled vulgarity and shamelessness.

Eggs and Laying Hens
The Causation of "Just Eating Eggs" "There are approximately 300 million egg laying hens in the U.S. confined in battery cages — small wire cages stacked in tiers and lined up in rows inside huge warehouses. Laying more than 250 eggs per year each, laying hens' bodies are severely taxed. After one year in egg production, the 'spent hens' are sent off to slaughter. They usually end up in soups, pot pies, or similar low-grade chicken meat products in which their bodies can be shredded to hide injuries and deformities from consumers."

In accordance with the USDA's recommendation to give each hen four inches of 'feeder space,' hens are commonly packed four to a cage measuring just 16 inches wide. In this tiny space, the birds cannot stretch their wings or legs, and they cannot fulfill normal behavioral patterns or social needs. Constantly rubbing against the wire cages, they suffer from severe feather loss, and their bodies are covered with bruises and abrasions.

In order to reduce injuries resulting from excessive pecking — an aberrant behavior that occurs when the confined hens are under stress or frustrated — practically all laying hens have part of their beaks cut off. Debeaking is a painful procedure that involves cutting through bone, cartilage, and soft tissue.

Laying more than 250 eggs per year each, laying hens' bodies are severely taxed. They suffer from "fatty liver syndrome" when their liver cells work overtime to produce the fat and protein required for egg yolks. They also suffer from what the industry calls 'cage layer fatigue,' and many become 'egg bound' and die when their bodies are too weak to pass another egg. Osteoporosis is another common ailment afflicting egg laying hens, whose bodies lose more calcium to form egg shells than they can assimilate from their diets. One industry journal, Feedstuffs, explains, "...the laying hen at peak eggshell cannot absorb enough calcium from her diet..." while another (Lancaster Farming) states, "... a hen will use a quantity of calcium for yearly egg production that is greater than her entire skeleton by 30-fold or more." Inadequate calcium contributes to broken bones, paralysis, and death. After one year in egg production, the birds are classified as 'spent hens' and are sent off to slaughter. Their brittle, calcium-depleted bones often shatter during handling or at the slaughterhouse. They usually end up in soups, pot pies, or similar low-grade chicken meat products in which their bodies can be shredded to hide bruises and deformities from consumers. With a growing supply of broiler chickens keeping slaughterhouses busy, egg producers have had to find new ways to dispose of spent hens. One entrepreneur has developed the 'Jet-Pro' system to turn spent hens into animal feed. As described in Feedstuffs, "Company trucks would enter layer operations, pick up the birds, and grind them up, on site, in a portable grinder... it (the ground up hens) would go to Jet-Pro's new extrudertexturizer, the 'Pellet Pro.'"

In one notorious case of extraordinary cruelty at Ward Egg Ranch in February 2003 in San Diego County, California, more than 15,000 spent laying hens were tossed alive into a wood-chipping machine to dispose of them. Despite tremendous outcry from a horrified public, the district attorney declined to prosecute the owners of the egg farm, calling the use of a wood-chipper to kill hens a "common industry practice." In some cases, especially if the cost of replacement hens is high, laying hens may be 'force molted' to extend their laying capacity. This process involves starving the hens for up to 18 days, keeping them in the dark, and denying them water to shock their bodies into another egg-laying cycle. Commonly, between 5 and 10% of birds die during the molt, and those who live may lose more than 25% of their body weight. For every egg-laying hen confined in a battery cage, there is a male chick who was killed at the hatchery. Because egg-laying chicken breeds have been genetically selected exclusively for maximum egg production, they don't grow fast or large enough to be raised profitably for meat. Therefore, male chicks of egg-laying breeds are of no economic value, and they are literally discarded on the day they hatch — usually by the cheapest, most convenient means available. Thrown into trash cans by the thousands, male chicks suffocate or are crushed under the weight of others. Another common method of disposing of unwanted male chicks is grinding them up alive. This can result in unspeakable horrors, as described by one research scientist who observed that "even after twenty seconds, there were only partly damaged animals with whole skulls". In other words, fully conscious chicks were partially ground up and left to slowly and agonizingly die. Eyewitness accounts at commercial hatcheries indicate similar horrors of chicks being slowly dismembered by machinery blades en route to trash bins or manure spreaders.

The Causation of "Just Eating Eggs"

Milk, Veal and Dairy Cows
The Causations of Drinking Milk "Like humans, all dairy cows must give birth in order to begin producing milk. Dairy cows are artificially impregnated while they are still lactating from their previous birthing, so their bodies are always producing milk. The calves that are born female are raised to replace exhausted dairy cows. The calves that are male are slaughtered and used for veal."

Traditional small dairies, located primarily in the Northeast and Midwest, are going out of business. They are being replaced by intensive 'dry lot' dairies, which are typically located in the Southwest U.S. Regardless of where they live, however, all dairy cows must give birth in order to begin producing milk. Today, dairy cows are forced to have a calf every year. Like human beings, cows have a nine-month gestation period, and so giving birth every twelve months is physically demanding. The cows are also artificially re-impregnated while they are still lactating from their previous birthing, so their bodies are continually producing milk during their nine-month pregnancy. With genetic manipulation and intensive production technologies, it is common for modern dairy cows to produce 100 pounds of milk a day — ten times more than they would produce naturally. As a result, the cows' bodies are under constant stress, and they are at risk for numerous health problems. Approximately half of the country's dairy cows suffer from mastitis, a bacterial infection of their udders. This is such a common and costly ailment that a dairy industry group, the National Mastitis Council, was formed specifically to combat the disease. Other diseases, such as Bovine Leukemia Virus, Bovine Immunodeficiency Virus, and Johne's disease (whose human counterpart is Crohn's disease) are also rampant on modern dairies, but they commonly go unnoticed because they are either difficult to detect or have a long incubation period. A cow eating a normal grass diet could not produce milk at the abnormal levels expected on modern dairies, and so today's dairy cows must be given high energy feeds. The unnaturally rich diet causes metabolic disorders including ketosis, which can be fatal, and

laminitis, which causes lameness. Another dairy industry disease caused by intensive milk production is "Milk Fever." This ailment is caused by calcium deficiency, and it occurs when milk secretion depletes calcium faster than it can be replenished in the blood. In a healthy environment, cows would live in excess of twenty-five years, but on modern dairies, they are slaughtered and made into ground beef after just three or four years. The abuse wreaked upon the bodies of dairy cows is so intense that the dairy industry also is a huge source of "downed animals" — animals who are so sick or injured that they are unable to walk even stand. Investigators have documented downed animals routinely being beaten, dragged, or pushed with bulldozers in attempts to move them to slaughter. Although the dairy industry is familiar with the cows' health problems and suffering associated with intensive milk production, it continues to subject cows to even worse abuses in the name of increased profit. Bovine Growth Hormone (BGH), a synthetic hormone, is now being injected into cows to get them to produce even more milk. Besides adversely affecting the cows' health, BGH also increases birth defects in their calves.

~ Veal ~
The By-Product of the Dairy Industry Calves born to dairy cows are separated from their mothers immediately after birth. The half that are born female are raised to replace older dairy cows in the milking herd. The other half of the calves are male, and because they will never produce milk, they are raised and slaughtered for veal.

The veal industry was created as a by-product of the dairy industry to take advantage of an abundant supply of unwanted male calves. Veal calves commonly live for eighteen to twenty weeks in wooden crates that are so small that they cannot turn around, stretch their legs, or even lie down comfortably. The calves are fed a liquid milk substitute, deficient in iron and fiber, which is designed to make the animals anemic, resulting in the light-colored flesh that is prized as veal. In addition to this high-priced veal, some calves

are killed at just a few days old to be sold as low-grade 'bob' veal for products like frozen TV dinners. The Causations of Drinking Milk

Inside the Pork Industry
The Causation of Eating Pork, Ham and Bacon

"With corporate hog factories replacing traditional hog farms, pigs raised for food are being treated more as inanimate tools of production than as living, feeling animals."

Approximately 100 million pigs are raised and slaughtered in the U.S. every year. As babies, they are subjected to painful mutilations without anesthesia or pain relievers. Their tails are cut off to minimize tail biting, an aberrant behavior that occurs when these highly-intelligent animals are kept in deprived factory farm environments. In addition, notches are taken out of the piglets' ears for identification. By two to three weeks of age, 15% of the piglets will have died. Those who survive are taken away from their mothers and crowded into pens with metal bars and concrete floors. A headline from National Hog Farmer magazine advises, "Crowding Pigs Pays...", and this is exemplified by the intense overcrowding in every stage of hog confinement systems. Pigs will live this way, packed into giant, warehouse-like sheds, until they reach a slaughter weight of 250 pounds at 6 months old. The air in hog factories is laden with dust, dander, and noxious gases, which are produced as the animals' urine and feces builds up inside the sheds. Studies of workers in swine confinement buildings have found sixty percent to have breathing problems, despite their spending only a few hours a day inside confinement buildings. For pigs, who spend their entire lives in factory farm confinement, respiratory disease is rampant.

Modern hog factories are fertile breeding grounds for a wide variety of diseases. A pork industry report explains: Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome, or PRRS, was first reported in U.S. herds in 1987. It is now estimated to be in as many as 60 percent of U.S. herds... Swine arthritis has increased in economic importance with confinement rearing, partly because of damage related to flooring conditions and partly because of faster growth rates and lack of exercise...The incidence of salmonellosis has continued to increase. It is estimated that one-third to half of farms have some level of salmonellosis... Epidemic transmissible gastroenteritis, or TGE, is a dreaded disease because it's hard to keep out of herds, there's no effective treatment and it carries a devastating mortality rate in baby pigs. Nearly all pigs less than 10 days old die if infected...Forty to 70 percent of U.S. pigs show evidence of infection with bratislava (a type of Leptospirosis)...Tests indicate 80 percent to 85 percent of sows in major swine producing areas have been exposed to parvovirus. Modern breeding sows are treated like piglet-making machines. Living a continuous cycle of impregnation and birth, each sow has more than 20 piglets per year. After being impregnated, the sows are confined in gestation crates — small metal pens just two feet wide that prevent sows from turning around or even lying down comfortably. At the end of their four-month pregnancies, they are transferred to similarly cramped farrowing crates to give birth. With barely enough room to stand up and lie down and no straw or other type of bedding to speak of, many suffer from sores on their shoulders and knees. When asked about this, one pork industry representative wrote, "...straw is very expensive and there certainly would not be a supply of straw in the country to supply all the farrowing pens in the U.S." Numerous research studies conducted over the last 25 years have pointed to physical and psychological maladies experienced by sows in confinement. The unnatural flooring and lack of exercise causes obesity and crippling leg disorders, while the deprived environment produces neurotic coping behaviors such as repetitive bar biting and sham chewing (chewing nothing). After the sows give birth and nurse their young for two to three weeks, the piglets are taken away to be fattened, and the sows are reimpregnated. An article in Successful Farming explains, "Any sow that is not gestating, lactating or within seven days post weaning is nonactive," and hog factories strive to keep their sows '100 % active' in order to maximize profits. When the sow is no longer deemed a productive breeder, she is sent to slaughter.

In addition to overcrowded housing, sows and pigs are also endure extreme crowding in transportation, resulting in rampant suffering and deaths. As one hog industry expert writes: Death losses during transport are too high — amounting to more than $8 million per year. But it doesn't take a lot of imagination to figure out why we load as many hogs on a truck as we do. It's cheaper. So it becomes a moral issue. Is it right to overload a truck and save $.25 per head in the process, while the overcrowding contributes to the deaths of 80,000 hogs each year? Prior to being hung upside down by their back legs and bled to death at the slaughterhouse, pigs are supposed to be 'stunned' and rendered unconscious, in accordance with the federal Humane Slaughter Act. However, stunning at slaughterhouses is terribly imprecise, and often conscious animals are hung upside down, kicking and struggling, while a slaughterhouse worker tries to 'stick' them in the neck with a knife. If the worker is unsuccessful, the pig will be carried to the next station on the slaughterhouse assembly line — the scalding tank — where he/she will be boiled, alive and fully conscious.
The Causation of Eating Pork, Ham and Bacon

The Cruelty of KFC
"The Worst Scenes of Animal Cruelty Ever Witnessed"

An animal rights group involved in a long legal dispute with Kentucky Fried Chicken about the treatment of the 750 million chickens it slaughters each year, released a videotape showing slaughterhouse workers jumping up and down on live chickens, dropkicking them like footballs and slamming them into walls, apparently for fun.

Animal rights groups have long complained that the sheer malicious behavior - on top of the typical confinement and bloodletting - goes on in slaughter plants all the time, but this is the first time such graphic proof has been produced. The tape was taken surreptitiously by an investigator for the People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) who worked at the plant from October 2003 to May 2004. Prominent veterinarians, including those on the company's animal welfare advisory

board, called for shutting down the plant and dismissing or prosecuting its managers. Dr. Ian J. H. Duncan, an animal and poultry science professor at the University of Guelph in Ontario, who is a KFC adviser, said the tape contains some of the worst scenes of animal cruelty that I have ever witnessed." The undercover investigator, who spoke on condition of anonymity because he still does undercover work for the group, said in a telephone interview that he saw "hundreds" of acts of cruelty, including workers tearing beaks off, ripping a bird's head off to write graffiti in blood, spitting tobacco juice into birds' mouths, plucking feathers to "make it snow," suffocating a chicken by tying a latex glove over its head, and squeezing birds like water balloons to spray feces over other birds. He said the behavior was "to alleviate boredom or vent frustrations," especially when so many birds were coming in that they would have to work late. On April 6, during just one day of filming, workers can be seen making a game of throwing chickens against a wall; 114 chickens were thrown in seven minutes. A supervisor walking past the pile of birds on the floor said, "Hold your fire," and, once out of the way, told the crew to "carry on." On another day, he said, the supervisor told the crew to "kill correctly because inspectors were visiting." The tape includes the screeching of the birds and the sound of each hitting the wall. The video can be seen on PETA's web site at: To document cruelty and position his tiny camera, the investigator spent eight months working in the "hang pen," where workers attach newly arrived chickens by their feet to a conveyor that carries them upside-down through an electrified "stun bath" and then into the whirling blades of the throat-cutting machine. KFC says all its suppliers train their workers in animal welfare, but the investigator said Pilgrim's Pride had nothing on the topic in its orientation manual and the only instruction he received was after five months, and then only in how to wring a chicken's neck by hand. The Web site of Pilgrim's Pride does not note any animal welfare policy. Dr. Temple Grandin, a well-known veterinary scientist who designs plants for humane slaughter, called the behavior shown on the videotape "absolutely atrocious." Dr. Grandin is also on KFC's animal welfare advisory board and said "They need to fire the plant manager." Several American and British veterinary experts to whom PETA sent the videotape expressed disgust. "I have visited many poultry slaughterhouses but I have never seen cruelty to chickens to

the extent shown in this video," said Dr. Donald M. Broom, professor of animal welfare at Cambridge University and chairman of the European Union's animal welfare scientific committee. "It would be grounds for a successful prosecution for cruelty to animals in most countries." PETA said it planned to ask a West Virginia prosecutor to prosecute plant employees and managers under state laws that make torture or malicious killing of animals a felony. The investigator said he would testify. PETA also said the best thing each of us can do to help spare animals from such torture is to simply stop eating them and, thus, stop creating the industry that allows such cruelty to occur. Pilgrim's Pride, the second-largest poultry producer behind Tyson Foods, won KFC's "Supplier of the Year" award in 1997.

Meat and the Environment
Whether it’s overuse of resources, water or air pollution, or soil erosion, raising animals for food is wreaking havoc on the Earth. In fact, raising animals for food requires more water than all other uses of water combined, causes more water pollution than any other activity, and is responsible for 85 percent of U.S. soil erosion. America’s meat addiction is steadily poisoning and depleting our land, water, and air.

Many environmental groups, including the National Audubon Society and the Union of Concerned Scientists, have recognized that raising animals for food has a worse effect on the planet than just about anything else we can do. How Does Eating Meat Affect the Earth? Today's factory farms leave behind an environmental toll that generations to come will be forced to pay. Whether it's excessive water use or contamination, excessive soil use or erosion, excessive resource use or air pollution, America's meat addiction is steadily poisoning and depleting our water, land, and air. Consider this: In an effort to conserve water, you might install a water-saver on your kitchen faucet, saving up to 6,000 gallons of water per year. Most of those savings would be lost if you consumed just one pound of beef (which requires 5,200 gallons of water per pound to produce—compared to only 25 gallons for a pound of wheat). Raising animals for food consumes more than half of all water used in the U.S. A totally vegetarian diet requires 300 gallons of water per day, while a meat-eating diet requires more than 4,200 gallons of water per day.

Producing just one hamburger uses enough fossil fuel to drive a small car 20 miles. Of all raw materials and fossil fuels used in the U.S., more than one-third is used to raise animals for food. A typical pig factory farm generates raw waste equal to that of a city of 12,000 people. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, factory farms pollute our waterways more than all other industrial sources combined. In December 1997, the Senate Agricultural Committee released a report that stated that animals raised for food produce 130 times as much excrement as the entire human population, roughly 68,000 pounds per second, all without the benefit of waste treatment systems. A Scripps Howard synopsis of the report (April 24, 1998) stated: "It’s untreated and unsanitary, bubbling with chemicals and disease-bearing organisms. ... It goes onto the soil and into the water that many people will, ultimately, bathe in, wash their clothes with, and drink. It is poisoning rivers and killing fish and sickening people. Catastrophic cases of pollution, sickness, and death are occurring in areas where livestock operations are concentrated. Every place where the animal factories have located, neighbors have complained of falling sick." This excrement is also generally believed to be responsible for the "cell from hell," Pfiesteria, a deadly microbe, the discovery of which is detailed in Rodney Barker's "And the Waters Turned to Blood" Of all agricultural land in the U.S., 87 percent is used to raise animals for food. That’s 45 percent of the total land mass in the U.S. More than 260 million acres of U.S. forest have been cleared to create cropland in order to produce our meat-centered diet. The meat industry is directly responsible for 85 percent of all soil erosion in the U.S., because so much grain is needed to feed animals being raised for food. In the U.S., animals are fed more than 80 percent of the corn we grow and more than 95 percent of the oats. Raising animals for food is grossly inefficient, because you have to put 20 calories of food into an animal to get just one measly calorie back in the form of flesh. The world's cattle alone consume a quantity of food equal to the caloric needs of 8.7 billion people—more than the entire human population on Earth. According to environmental think-tank Worldwatch Institute, "[T]he easiest way to reduce grain consumption is to lower the intake of meat and milk, grain-intensive foods. Roughly 2 of every 5 tons of grain produced in the world are fed to livestock, poultry, or fish; decreasing consumption of these products, especially of beef, could free up massive quantities of grain and reduce pressure on land." Each vegetarian saves one acre of trees every year! More than 260 million acres of U.S. forest have been cleared to grow crops to feed animals raised for meat, and another acre of trees disappears every eight seconds. The tropical rain forests are also being destroyed to create grazing land for cattle. Fifty-five square feet of rain forest may be razed to produce just one quarter-pound burger.

Caring for the environment means protecting all of our planet’s inhabitants, not just the human ones. Animals suffer extreme pain and deprivation on today’s factory farms. Chickens have their beaks sliced off with a hot blade, pigs have their tails chopped off and their teeth removed with pliers, and male cows and pigs are castrated all without anesthesia. The animals are crowded together and dosed with hormones and antibiotics to make them grow so quickly that their hearts and limbs often cannot keep up, causing crippling and heart attacks. Finally, at the slaughterhouse, they are hung upside down and bled to death, often while fully conscious. There are a variety of books that address the environmental consequences of America's meat-based diet, including: Vegan: The New Ethics of Eating by Erik Marcus Diet for a New America by John Robbins Beyond Beef by Jeremy Rifkin

Inside the Fur Industry
The Grievous Tortures Inflicted by the Promptings of Vanity Eighty-five percent of the fur industry’s skins come from animals living captive on fur factory farms.(1) These farms can hold thousands of animals, and the practices used to farm them is remarkably uniform around the globe. As with other intensive-confinement animal farms, the methods used on fur factory farms are designed to maximize profits, always at the expense of the animals.

Painful and Short Lives
The most farmed fur-bearing animal is the mink, followed by the fox. (above photo) Chinchillas, lynxes, and even hamsters are also farmed for their fur.(2) Sixty-four percent of fur farms are in Northern Europe, 11 percent are in North America, and the rest are dispersed throughout the world, in countries such as Argentina and Russia.(3) Mink farmers usually breed female minks once a year. There are about three or four surviving kits for each litter, and they are killed when they are about half a year old, depending on what country they are in, after the first hard freeze. Minks used for breeding are kept for four to five years.(4) The animals—housed in unbearably small cages—live with fear, stress, disease, parasites, and other physical and psychological hardships, all for the sake of a global industry that makes billions of dollars annually. Rabbits are slaughtered by the millions for meat, particularly in China, Italy, and Spain. Once considered a mere byproduct of this consumption, the rabbit fur industry demands the thicker pelt of an older animal (meat rabbits are killed at the age of 10 to 12 weeks).

The United Nations reports that “few skins are now retrieved from slaughterhouses,” and countries such as France are killing as many as 70 million rabbits a year for fur, used in clothing, as lures in flyfishing, and for trim on craft items.(5) Life on the “Ranch” To cut costs, fur farmers pack animals into small cages, preventing them from taking more than a few steps back and forth. This crowding and confinement is especially distressing to minks—solitary animals who may occupy as much as 2,500 acres of wetland habitat in the wild.(6) The anguish of life in a cage leads minks to self-mutilate —biting at their skin, tails, and feet—and frantically pace and circle endlessly. Zoologists at Oxford University who studied captive minks found that despite generations of being bred for fur, minks have not been domesticated and suffer greatly in captivity, especially if they are not given the opportunity to swim.(7) Foxes, raccoons, and other animals suffer equally and have been found to cannibalize each other as a reaction to their crowded confinement. Animals on fur factory farms are fed meat byproducts considered unfit for human consumption. Water is provided by a nipple system which often freezes in the winter or may fail because of human error. Pests and Parasites Animals on fur factory farms are more susceptible to diseases than their free-roaming counterparts. Contagious diseases such as pneumonia are passed from cage to cage rapidly, as are fleas, ticks, lice, and mites. And diseasecarrying flies thrive in the piles of rotting wastes that collect under the cages for months. Video footage and photos taken by undercover investigators show animals suffering from severe infections and injuries, untreated and left to die slowly. Unnatural Habitats Fur factory farm cages are often kept in open sheds that provide little to no protection from wind or harsh weather. Their fur alone is not enough to keep them warm in the winter, and in the summer, minks swelter because they have no water in which to cool themselves. When minks learn to shower themselves by pressing on their drinking water supply nipples, farmers will modify the nipples to cut off even this meager relief. Poison and Pain No federal humane slaughter law protects animals on fur factory farms, and killing methods are gruesome. Because fur farmers care only about preserving the quality of the fur, they use slaughter methods that keep the pelts intact but which can result in extreme suffering for the animals. Small animals may be crammed into boxes and poisoned with hot, unfiltered engine exhaust from a truck. Engine exhaust is not always lethal, and some animals wake up while being skinned. Larger animals have clamps or a rod applied to their mouths while rods are inserted into their anuses, and they are painfully electrocuted.

Other animals are poisoned with strychnine, which suffocates them by paralyzing their muscles in painful rigid cramps. Gassing, decompression chambers, and neck-snapping are other common fur-farm slaughter methods. The fur industry refuses to condemn even blatantly cruel killing methods. Genital electrocution, deemed “unacceptable” by the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) 1993 Panel on Euthanasia, is a fur factory farm killing method that causes animals the pain of cardiac arrest while they are fully conscious. In 1994, Indiana became the first state to file criminal charges against a fur factory farm after investigators documented genital electrocution at V-R Chinchillas. The chinchilla fur industry considers electrocution and neck-breaking “acceptable.”(8) In 1995, one district attorney filed charges against pelt supplier Frank Parsons of Salisbury, Md., for injecting a mixture of rubbing alcohol and weed-killer into the chests of minks. Undercover investigators videotaped Parsons using an illegal pesticide, Blackleaf 40, to painfully kill the minks. Would You Wear Your Dog? An undercover investigation by the Humane Society of the United States, reported in a 1998 Dateline NBC piece, revealed that dog and cat fur is a multimillion-dollar industry in Asia and found that coats and toys made with domestic dog fur are being sold in the U.S. “There are no federal laws preventing anyone from importing dog and cat fur into this country,” reported Dateline. “If the imported item costs less than $150, the importer doesn’t even have to reveal what it’s made of.” Dateline footage shows a German shepherd, tail wagging and head stuck in a restraint, moments before he is skinned alive. A cat, crowded in a cage, watches and waits his turn, as one by one, his cagemates are choked, slung up, and hanged just inches away.(9) New legislation outlawed the import or sale of clothing containing dog or cat fur, but the fur still enters the country illegally since it is intentionally mislabeled and can only be detected by expensive DNA testing. Environmental Destruction Contrary to fur-industry propaganda, fur production destroys the environment. The energy needed to produce a real fur coat from ranch-raised animal skins is approximately 20 times that needed for a fake fur.(10) Nor does fur biodegrade, thanks to the chemical treatment applied to stop the fur from rotting. The process of using these chemicals is also dangerous as it can cause water contamination. About 44 pounds of feces are excreted per mink skinned by fur farmers. Based on the total number of minks skinned in the U.S. in 1999, which was 2.81 million, mink factory farms generate approximately 62,000 tons of manure per year. One result is nearly 1,000 tons of phosphorus, which wreaks havoc in water ecosystems.(11) Fur in Sheep’s Clothing As fur sales decline, sales of shearling—the skin of lambs with the wool attached—have risen. Some fur manufacturers have actually taken to disguising mink as shearling.(12) Many people are unaware of shearling’s origins or that shearling sales are an incentive for

sheep ranchers to increase their stock, thereby adding to the plight of sheep. In Afghanistan, karakul sheep are now raised to produce lambs for the high-end market in “Persian lamb” coats and hats. For “top-quality” lamb skin, the mother is killed just before giving birth and her fetus is cut out. The pelts of the unborn lambs are prized in the fashion world for their silk-like sheen. It takes the skin from an entire lamb to make one karakul hat.(13) Industry in Decline Austria and the U.K. have banned fur factory farms, and the Netherlands began phasing out fox and chinchilla farming in April 1998.(14) In the U.S., there are approximately 324 mink farms left, down from 1,027 in 1988.(15) In a sign of the times, supermodel Naomi Campbell was denied entry to a trendy New York club because she was wearing fur. Said the club’s owner, “I really love animals, and I wanted us to be the good guys.”(16) Humane Choices Consumers need to know that every fur coat, lining, or item of trim represents the intense suffering of several dozen animals, whether they were trapped, ranched, or even unborn. These cruelties will end only when the public refuses to buy or wear fur. Those who learn the facts about fur must help educate others, for the animals’ sake. For more information, visit

Leather: The Wearing of Animal Skin
Every year, the global leather industry slaughters more than a billion animals and tans their skins and hides.1 Many animals from whom these skins are taken suffer all the horrors of factory farming, including extreme crowding and confinement, deprivation, unanesthetized castration, branding, tail-docking, dehorning, and cruel treatment during transport and finally, slaughter. The multibillion-dollar meat industry profits from more than just the animals’ flesh. The byproducts of meat consumption include fats and blood that are used in livestock feed, tires, explosives, paints, and cosmetics; organs that are used in pet food; and heart valves that are used in the pharmaceutical industry.2,3 The skin of the animal, however, represents “the most economically important byproduct of the meat packing industry.”4 When dairy cows’ production declines, their skin is also made into leather; the hides of their offspring, “veal” calves, are made into high-priced calfskin. Thus, the economic success of the slaughterhouse and the dairy farm is directly linked to the sale of leather goods.

Other Animals Slaughtered for Skins Most leather produced and sold in the United States is made from the skins of cattle and calves, but leather is also made from horses, sheep, lambs, goats, and pigs who are slaughtered for meat. Other species are hunted and killed specifically for their skins, including zebras, bison, water buffaloes, boars, kangaroos, elephants, eels, sharks, dolphins, seals, walruses, frogs, turtles, crocodiles, lizards, and snakes. Other “exotic” animals, such as alligators, are factory-farmed for their skins and meat. Young alligators may be kept in tanks above ground, while the bigger animals live in pools half-sunken into concrete slabs.5 According to Florida’s regulations, as many as 350 6-foot alligators may legally inhabit a space the size of a typical family home.6 One Georgia farmer had 10,000 alligators living in four buildings, where “hundreds and hundreds of alligators fill every inch of [each] room,” according to the Los Angeles Times.7 Although alligators may naturally live up to 60 years, on farms they are usually butchered before the age of 2, as soon as they reach 4 to 6 feet in length.8,9 Humane treatment is not a priority of those who poach and hunt animals to obtain their skin or those who transform skin into leather. Alligators on farms may be beaten to death with hammers and axes, sometimes remaining conscious and in agony for up to two hours after being skinned.10 Kangaroos are slaughtered by the millions every year, their skins considered to be prime material for soccer shoes.11,12 Although the Australian government requires hunters to shoot the animals, orphaned joeys and wounded adults are, according to government code, to be decapitated or hit sharply on the head “to destroy the brain.”13 Snakes and lizards may be skinned alive because of the belief that live flaying imparts suppleness to the finished leather. Kid goats may be boiled alive to make kid gloves, and the skins of unborn calves and lambs—some purposely aborted, others from slaughtered pregnant cows and ewes—are considered especially “luxurious.” Shearling, contrary to what many consumers think, is not sheared wool; the term refers to a yearling sheep who has been shorn once. A shearling garment is made from a sheep or lamb shorn shortly before slaughter; the skin is tanned with the wool still on it. Animals used to produce leather in other countries often suffer horribly as well. A investigation into cattle slaughter in India , where many mistakenly believe that cows are revered, revealed that old cows are sold at auction and then marched long distances to illegal transport trucks. Often sick and injured from the grueling march, as many as 50 cattle are crammed into trucks designed to hold no more than a dozen animals. They are then driven over rutted roads, all the while goring and trampling each other, to ancient slaughterhouses where all four feet are bound together and their throats are slit. Hundreds of thousands of dog and cat skins are traded in Europe each year (with an estimated 2 million killed in China to meet the demand), but many are bought unknowingly by consumers since the products made from dog and cat fur are often mislabeled and do not accurately indicate their origin.14 In France, more than 20,000 cats

are stolen for the skin trade annually; during a police raid on a tannery in Deux-Sèvres, 1,500 skins, used to make baby shoes, were seized.15 When you buy leather products, you may unknowingly be purchasing leather from dog and cat tanneries. Tannery Toxins Although leathermakers like to tout their products as “biodegradable” and “eco-friendly,” the process of tanning stabilizes the collagen or protein fibers so that they actually stop biodegrading. Until the late 1800s, animal skin was air- or salt-dried and tanned with vegetable tannins or oil, but today animal skin is turned into finished leather with a variety of much more dangerous substances, including mineral salts, formaldehyde, coal-tar derivatives, and various oils, dyes, and finishes, some of them cyanide-based. Most leather produced in the U.S. is chrome-tanned. All wastes containing chromium are considered hazardous by the Environmental Protection Agency. In addition to the toxic substances mentioned above, tannery effluent also contains large amounts of other pollutants, such as protein, hair, salt, lime sludge, sulfides, and acids. Among the disastrous consequences of this noxious waste is the threat to human health from the highly elevated levels of lead, cyanide, and formaldehyde in the groundwater near tanneries. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that the incidence of leukemia among residents in an area surrounding one tannery in Kentucky was five times the national average.16 Arsenic, a common tannery chemical, has long been associated with lung cancer in workers who are exposed to it on a regular basis. Several studies have established links between sinus and lung cancers and the chromium used in tanning.17 Studies of leather-tannery workers in Sweden and Italy found cancer risks “between 20% and 50% above [those] expected.”18 Raising animals whose skins eventually become leather creates waste and pollution. Huge amounts of fossil fuels are consumed in livestock production. (By contrast, plastic wearables account for only a fraction of the petroleum used in the U.S. ) Trees are cleared to create pastureland, vast quantities of water are used, and feedlot and dairy-farm runoff are a major source of water pollution. According to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, tanneries have largely shifted operations worldwide from developed to undeveloped nations, where labor is cheap and environmental regulations are lax.19 Alternatives There are many alternatives to leather, including cotton, linen, rubber, ramie, canvas, and synthetics. Chlorenol (called “Hydrolite” by Avia and “Durabuck” by Nike), used in athletic and hiking shoes, is an exciting new material that’s perforated for breatheability, stretches around the foot with the same “give” as leather, gives good support, and is machine-washable. Vegan shoes and accessories are inexpensive, and some are even made from recycled materials.

Down, Silk, and Honey
Each year, the down, silk, and honey industries kill thousands of geese, silkworms, and bees. Silk and honey producers excuse their actions with claims that worms and bees are just "simple" forms of life, but consumers are beginning to question the unnecessary killing of even tiny, sometimes complex, and certainly feeling, creatures like these.

Down on Down
"Down" is the soft underfeathering often plucked out of live geese who are raised for food. In many European countries, geese are allowed to mature during the first eight or nine weeks of life. Reaching adulthood, they are divided by color. Gray geese are caged and force-fed--a funnel is inserted into their throats and a salty, fatty corn mash is forced down it, up to six pounds a day--until they are overweight and their livers have ballooned to four or more times the normal size. Then they are killed for pâté de foie gras. White geese are plucked repeatedly to supply filling for products such as comforters, pillows, and ski parkas.(2) Plucking the geese causes them considerable pain and distress. Four or five times in their lives, they will squirm as a plucker tears out five ounces of their feathers. A skilled plucker can handle 100 birds a day. After the last plucking, the geese have five weeks to grow more feathers before they are sent through a machine that plucks their longest feathers. From there they go to the slaughterhouse.(3) Apart from the cruelty involved in its production, down has drawbacks as a cold-weather insulator that synthetic insulators do not have. Not only is down expensive, it also loses its insulating ability when wet, whereas the insulating capabilities of cruelty-free synthetic fillers are retained in all weather.(5)

Of all the animals man has "domesticated" there have only been two insects - bees and silkworms. Today silkworms have become extinct outside silk factories where they are harvested and then killed by the billions.

Sack the Silk

The Chinese first domesticated silkworms about 5000 years ago. According to Chinese legend, silk was discovered when Emperor Huangdi ordered his wife Xilingshi to find out what was damaging his mulberry tree. She found white worms eating the leaves and spinning shiny cocoons. When she dropped a cocoon into her hot tea a slender thread of silk unwound itself from the cocoon. The silkworm is so called because it spins its cocoon from raw silk. The cocoon is made of a single continuous thread of silk from about 300 to 900 meters (1000 to 3000 feet) long. If the caterpillar is left to eat its way out of the cocoon naturally, the threads will be cut short and the silk will be useless, so silkworm cocoons are thrown into boiling water, which kills the silkworms and also makes the cocoons easier to unravel. A worker finds the end of the thread and places it on a winding bobbin. Then a machine unrolls the cocoon, winding the silk from five cocoons together to make one silk thread. Then the thread is woven into cloth. It is interesting to note that one ounce of silkworm eggs contains 40,000 eggs (1,500 eggs per gram). These worms will eat 3,500 pounds (1500 kilograms) of mulberry leaves, and will spin cocoons which will produce 18 pounds (8 kilograms) of silk thread. It takes 1700 to 2000 cocoons to make one silk dress or about 1,000 cocoons for a silk shirt. Each year countless silkworms are boiled alive in order to make silk. Silkworms produce endorphins, a chemical response to pain, and worms are sensate. Humane alternatives to silk include nylon, milkweed seed pod fibers, silk-cotton tree and ceiba tree filaments, hemp and rayon.

How About Honey?
In the honey industry, the buzz word is profit. Like factory farmers, many beekeepers take inhumane steps to ensure personal safety and reach production quotas. It is not unusual for larger honey producers to cut off the wings of the queen bee so that she cannot leave the colony, or to have her artificially inseminated on a bee-sized version of the factory farm " rack."(6) When the keeper wants to move a queen to a new colony, she is carried with "bodyguard" bees, all of whom--if they survive transport-- will be killed by bees in the new colony. Large commercial operations also may take all the honey instead of leaving the 60 pounds or so that bees need to get through the winter. They replace the rich honey with a cheap sugar substitute that is not as fortifying or tasty. In colder areas, if the keepers consider it too costly to keep the bees alive through the winter, they will destroy the hives by pouring gasoline on them, killing most of the bees with the fumes, and setting them on fire. Other times, keepers, who feel that lost bees are easily replaced, allow them to die when trees are sprayed with insecticide. Bees are often killed, or their wings and legs torn off, by haphazard handling. To produce a pound of honey, bees must get pollen from 2 million flowers and must fly more than 55,000 miles.(7) Honeybees returning to the hive from a pollen-seeking expedition "dance" in figure eights to "map out" a route for other bees to follow. These dances "encode information about the distance and direction of a target that can be miles away from the nest," said Thomas D. Seeley of Cornell University.(8) According to the Cook-DuPage Beekeepers' Association, humans have been using honey since about 15,000 B.C., but it wasn't until the 20th century that people turned bees into factory-farmed animals. In 1987, the honey "crop" netted $115.4 million.(9) Luckily, many sweeteners are made without killing bees: Rice syrup, molasses, sorghum, barley malt, maple syrup, and dried fruit or fruit concentrates can replace honey in recipes.(10) Use these substitutes to keep your diet bee-free.

Inside the Wool Industry
It may come from a sheep, goat, or Tibetan antelope. It may be called wool, mohair, pashmina, shahtoosh, or cashmere. But no matter what it’s called, any kind of wool causes harm to the animals from whom it is taken.

Many people believe that shearing sheep helps animals who might otherwise be burdened with too much wool. But without human interference, sheep grow just enough wool to protect themselves from temperature extremes. The fleece provides effective insulation against both cold and heat. Wool was once obtained by plucking it from the sheep during

molting seasons. Breeding for continuous fleece growth began after the invention of shears.1 Wool-Producing Countries Abuse Sheep With more than 100 million sheep, Australia produces 30 percent of all wool used worldwide.2 Flocks usually consist of thousands of sheep, making individual attention to their needs impossible. Within weeks of birth, lambs’ ears are hole-punched, their tails are chopped off, and the males are castrated without anesthetics. Male lambs are castrated when between 2 and 8 weeks old, with a rubber ring used to cut off blood supply—one of the most painful methods of castration possible.4 Every year, hundreds of lambs die before the age of 8 weeks from exposure or starvation, and mature sheep die every year from disease, lack of shelter, and neglect.5 Faced with so much death and disease, the rational solution would be to reduce the number of sheep so as to maintain them decently. Instead, sheep are bred to bear more lambs to offset the deaths. Shearing Is Painful Sheep are sheared each spring, after lambing, just before they would naturally shed their winter coats. Timing is considered critical: Shearing too late means loss of wool. In the rush, many sheep die from exposure after premature shearing. Shearers are usually paid by volume, not by the hour, which encourages fast work without regard for the welfare of the sheep. Says one eyewitness: “[T]he shearing shed must be one of the worst places in the world for cruelty to animals … I have seen shearers punch sheep with their shears or their fists until the sheep’s nose bled. I have seen sheep with half their faces shorn off …”6 Live Exports When sheep age and their wool production declines, they are sold for slaughter. This results in the cruel live export of 6.5 million sheep every year from Australia to the Middle East and North Africa, and nearly 800,000 sheep are exported from the U.K. for slaughter abroad.7,8 In Europe, tightly packed animals are subjected to long-distance trips, sometimes 50 hours long, without food or water. Their final destination is frequently a country with minimal slaughter regulations, where the animals often regain consciousness while being dismembered.9 In 2001, activists persuaded the European Parliament to adopt a report calling for journeys of a maximum of eight hours in livestock export, the first step toward creating a law.10 In Australia, sheep travel vast distances over land until they reach the feedlots where they are held before being loaded onto ships. Many sheep, stressed, ill, or wounded from the journey and faced with intensive crowding, disease, and strange food, die in the holding pens.

The surviving sheep are packed tightly into ships. Younger animals or babies born en route are often trampled to death. Shipboard mortality ranges up to 10 percent, and for every sheep who dies, many others become ill or are injured. For example, 14,500 sheep reportedly died from heat stress while in transit to the Middle East in 2002. Their carcasses were thrown overboard.11 In the Muslim nations of North Africa and the Middle East, ritual slaughter is exempt from humane slaughter regulations. Some sheep are slaughtered en masse in lots, others are taken home, often in the trunks of cars, and slaughtered by the purchasers. Shahtoosh and Other Kinds of Wool Shahtoosh, used to make “fashionable” shawls, is made from the endangered Tibetan antelope, or chiru. Chiru cannot be domesticated and must be killed in order to obtain their wool. Illegal to sell or possess since 1975, shahtoosh shawls did a brisk business on the black market throughout the 1990s, selling for as much as $15,000 apiece as the Tibetan antelope’s population plummeted to less than 75,000.12,13 A raid of a 1994 charity event in New York by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service resulted in subpoenas issued to supermodels and socialites who purchased the shawls and the first criminal prosecutions for the sale of the “fabric.”14 In April 2000, British authorities prosecuted a London trading company for illegal possession of 138 shawls—representing 1,000 antelope pelts.15 Despite the ban on shahtoosh in India, a thriving black market still caters to customers in London, New York, and Los Angeles, who will pay as much as $17,000 for a shawl.16 As many as 20,000 chiru are killed every year for their wool, a rate that will wipe out the species by 2011 if left unchecked.17 Cashmere is made from cashmere goats. Those with “defects” in their coats are typically killed before 2 years of age.18 Industry experts advise farmers to expect to kill 50 to 80 percent of young goats whose coats do not meet standards.19 Contrary to what many consumers think, “shearling” is not sheared wool; the term refers to the sheep. A shearling is a yearling sheep who has been shorn once. A shearling garment is made from a sheep or lamb shorn shortly before slaughter; the skin is tanned with the wool still on it. Angora rabbits are strapped to a board for shearing, kicking powerfully in protest. The clippers inevitably bite into their flesh, with bloody results. Angoras have very delicate foot pads, making life on a wire cage floor excruciating and ulcerated feet a common condition. Because male angoras have only 75 to 80 percent of the wool yield of females, on many farms they are killed at birth.20 The market for alpaca exploded in the 1980s, when South American alpacas and llamas were marketed worldwide to entrepreneurs who bought into the vision of ground-floor investment in a luxury fiber market. The craze subsided but breeding continues, and unwanted animals are now routinely put up for auction. Llama sanctuaries and rescue operations have sprung up in the wake of the breeding craze to handle the growing

number of abused, neglected animals. Other Animals Are Affected The wool industry also inflicts “collateral damage” on wildlife. The Australian government permits the slaughter of more than 6 million kangaroos a year.21 While there are laws governing the killing of kangaroos, there are still serious problems with “weekend hunters,” unlicensed shooters who often view kangaroos as “pests” and have no regard for their suffering. On their own property, landowners can do whatever they want to kangaroos without fear of repercussions. The preferred method of killing joeys whose mothers have been slaughtered is, according to government code, decapitation or a “blow to destroy the brain.”22 In the U.S., coyotes are vilified for eating sheep and other livestock, and as a result, millions are slaughtered every year by ranchers and the federal government. There Are Alternatives Sheep’s wool has been in steady decline since 1990, both in price and demand, with Australia’s former near-total dominance of the world market falling by about 35 percent in a decade.23 The U.S. government continues to try to shore up the American wool industry with millions of dollars in federal subsidies and loans.24 Many people who are allergic to wool already use alternatives to wool clothes and blankets, including cotton, cotton flannel, polyester fleece, synthetic shearling, and other cruelty-free fibers. Tencel—breathable, durable, and biodegradable—is one of the newest cruelty-free wool substitutes. Polartec Wind Pro—made primarily from recycled plastic soda bottles—is a high-density fleece with four times the wind resistance of wool that also wicks away moisture.25

The Nazarene Way of Essenic Studies

Animal Testing: Toxic & Tragic
Every year, millions of animals suffer and die in painful tests to determine the "safety" of cosmetics and household products. Substances ranging from eye shadow and soap to furniture polish and oven cleaner are tested on rabbits, rats, guinea pigs, dogs, and other animals, despite the fact that test results do not help prevent or treat human illness or injury. Eye Irritancy Tests

In these tests, a liquid, flake, granule, or powdered substance is dropped into the eyes of a group of albino rabbits. The animals are often immobilized in stocks from which only their heads protrude. They usually receive no anesthesia during the tests. After placing the substance in the rabbits' eyes, laboratory technicians record the damage to the eye tissue at specific intervals over an average period of 72 hours, with tests sometimes lasting 7 to 18 days. Reactions to the substances include swollen eyelids, inflamed irises, ulceration, bleeding, massive deterioration, and blindness. During the tests, the rabbits' eyelids are held open with clips. Many animals break their necks as they struggle to escape. The results of eye irritancy tests are questionable, as they vary from laboratory to laboratory-and even from rabbit to rabbit. Acute Toxicity Tests Acute toxicity tests, commonly called lethal dose or poisoning tests, determine the amount of a substance that will kill a percentage, even up to 100 percent, of a group of test animals. In these tests, a substance is forced by tube into the animals' stomachs or through holes cut into their throats. It may also be injected under the skin, into a vein, or into the lining of the abdomen; mixed into lab chow; inhaled through a gas mask; or introduced into the eyes, rectum, or vagina. Experimenters observe the animals' reactions, which can include convulsions, labored breathing, diarrhea, constipation, emaciation, skin eruptions, abnormal posture, and bleeding from the eyes, nose, or mouth.(1) The widely used lethal dose 50 (LD50) test was developed in 1927. The LD50 testing period continues until at least 50 percent of the animals die, usually in two to four weeks. Like eye irritancy tests, lethal dose tests are unreliable at best. Says Microbiological Associates' Rodger D. Curren, researchers looking for non-animal alternatives must prove that these in vitro models perform "at least as well as animal tests. But as we conduct these validation exercises, it's become more apparent that the animal tests themselves are highly variable."(2) The European Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods' Dr. Michael Ball puts it more strongly: "The scientific basis" for animal safety tests is "weak."(3) Lethal But Legal

No law requires animal testing for cosmetics and household products. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires only that each ingredient in a cosmetics product be "adequately substantiated for safety" prior to marketing or that the product carry a warning label indicating that its safety has not been determined. The FDA does not have the authority to require any particular product test. Likewise, household products, which are regulated by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) the agency that administers the Federal Hazardous Substances Act (FHSA) do not have to be tested on animals. A summary of the CPSC's animal-testing policy, printed in the Federal Register, states, "[I]t is important to keep in mind that neither the FHSA nor the Commission's regulations require any firm to perform animal tests. The statute and its implementing regulations only require that a product be labeled to reflect the hazards associated with that product."(4) Testing methods, therefore, are determined by manufacturers. The very unreliability of animal tests may make them appealing to some companies, since these tests allow manufacturers to put virtually any product on the market. Companies can also use the fact that their products were tested to help defend themselves against consumer lawsuits. Others believe that testing on animals helps them compete in the marketplace: Consumers demand products with exciting new ingredients, such as alpha-hydroxy acids, and animal tests are often considered the easiest and cheapest way to "prove" that new ingredients are "safe." Alternatives to Animal Tests Such arguments carry little weight with the more than 500 manufacturers of cosmetics and household products that have shunned animal tests. These companies take advantage of the many alternatives available today, including cell cultures, tissue cultures, corneas from eye banks, and sophisticated computer and mathematical models. Companies can also formulate products using ingredients already determined to be safe by the FDA. Most cruelty-free companies use a combination of methods to ensure safety, such as maintaining extensive databases of ingredient and formula information and employing in vitro tests and human clinical studies. Tom's of Maine went one step further. For seven years, the cruelty-free company petitioned the American Dental Association (ADA) to grant its seal of approval to Tom's of Maine toothpastes. Other toothpaste companies unquestioningly conducted lethal tests on rats in order to be eligible for the ADA seal (researchers brush rats' teeth for more than a month, then kill the animals and examine their teeth under a microscope). But Tom's of Maine worked with researchers to develop fluoride tests that could safely be conducted on human volunteers. The ADA finally accepted the results of these tests and granted its seal to several of the company's toothpastes in 1995.(5) The groundbreaking effort by Tom's of Maine to find a humane alternative to accepted-but cruel-practices sets a precedent that other manufacturers can follow in the future. Compassion in Action

Caring consumers also play a vital role in eliminating cruel test methods. Spurred by public outrage, the European Union (EU) proposed banning cosmetics tests on animals by 1998; unfortunately, the EU has indefinitely delayed this ban because of complaints by animal-testing companies. But other organizations in Europe have stepped in. For example, after conducting surveys showing that four out of five of its customers are against testing cosmetics and household products on animals, the Co-op, Britain's largest retailer, launched its own campaign urging companies to end such tests. In the United States, a survey by the American Medical Association found that 75 percent of Americans are against using animals to test cosmetics.(6) Hundreds of companies have responded by switching to animal-friendly test methods. To help consumers identify products that are truly cruelty-free, a coalition of national animal protection groups has developed the Corporate Standard of Compassion for Animals, which clarifies the nonanimal- testing terminology and procedures used by manufacturers and makes available a cruelty-free logo for companies that are in compliance with the standard. Shoppers can support this initiative by purchasing products that comply with the corporate standard and boycotting those that don't and by asking local stores to carry cruelty-free items.

Think You're Meat Free?
Eye Opening List Of Products Made From Animals

By Jeff Rense
From anti-aging creams to surgical sutures to chocolate milkshakes and marshmallows...we have injected animal products from cattle, sheep, and hogs into nearly every corner of our lives

In light of the potentially catastrophic spread of Mad Cow/nvCJD prions worldwide (UN WHO statement) throughout the food chain and environment, and my continuing call for completely new, mandatory universal medical/dental sterilization protocols - including the absolute cessation of the reuse of all invasive instruments and equipment - this incredible list will come as quite a surprise to many. I've broken most of the items down into Medical, Food, and General/Industrial categories to facilitate a grasp of the enormity of the use of animal products in our lives and the potential vectors of Mad Cow/CJD prions. This categorization is not necessarily complete; there are some consumables which are not listed in FOOD, for example, but the general point of the list is simple: just because one doesn't eat meat or dairy, doesn't mean one is necessarily safe from potential exposure to Mad Cow prions and contaminated/infected products from cattle.

With the recent discovery in the UK that tonsils of BSE/TSE infected individuals contain the Mad Cow/CJD killer prions, one wonders if other body tissues might be similar repositories. One also ponders the ongoing and bizarre issue of mass cattle and other animal mutilations and wonders whether this is some kind of monitoring process to track the spread of environmental decay and toxicity...and prion diseases. From anti-aging creams to surgical sutures to chocolate milkshakes and marshmallows...we have injected animal products from cattle, sheep, and hogs into nearly every corner of our lives. Behold...

antibodies (immunoglobins) / beef insulin / bovine collagen - used as injections to fill in scars / bovine fibrinolysin (brand name- Elase) ointment for necrotic tissue / bovine super oxide - dismutase cream (Orgotein) - cosmetic skin cream to prevent tissue aging / bovine thrombin (brand name- Thrombinar) clotting agent for blood culture medium - diagnosis / fetal bovine serum - tissue cultures / Hyaluronidase - efficient drug use / PTH - control tetany / pegademase - bovine derivative (brand name- Adagen) - for patients who are immuno-compromised...helps prevent white blood cells from breaking down / pill capsules - GELATIN / whole serum - vaccine manufacturing PRODUCTS FROM OVARIES estrogen / progesterone - a reproductive hormone PRODUCT FROM STOMACHS pepsin - aid in protein digestion / rennet - aid in milk digestion PRODUCTS FROM THYROIDS bovine thyroid (Thyrar) a thyroid replacement / TSH - thyroid diagnosis / thyroid extract - hypothyroidism / thyroid hormones / myxedema / cretinism PRODUCTS FROM ADRENALS cortisone - for arthritis, skin allergies, anti-inflammatory medicine epinephrine - aid in raising blood pressure, heart disorders, and allergies PRODUCTS FROM LIVERS heparin - anti-coagulant, prevents gangrene / liver extract - treatment of anemia / intrinsic factor - pernicious anemia / Vitamin B12 - prevention of B-complex deficiencies PRODUCTS FROM LUNGS

heparin - anti-coagulant, prevents gangrene PRODUCTS FROM BLOOD plasma protein / blood albumin - RH factor typing / Fraction I - hemophilia / Fraction V kills viruses / iron for anemia / thrombin - blood coagulant / protein extracts / diagnostic microbiology PRODUCTS FROM HOG HEARTS heart valves for human transplant PRODUCTS FROM INTESTINES medical sutures - surgery PRODUCTS FROM BONES bone marrow - blood disorders / bone meal - calcium and phosphorous source / mineral source in supplements / collagen and bone for plastic surgery / soft cartilage - plastic surgery / xiphisternal cartilage (breastbone) plastic surgery PRODUCTS FROM PANCREAS chymotrypsin - contact surgery / diastase - aid in starch digestion / glucagon - treat hypoglycemia / insulin - diabetes mellitus / pancreatin - aid digestion / trypsin - for burns, wounds, and infection - promotes healing - aid in protein digestion and in cleaning wounds PRODUCTS FROM PITUITARY GLANDS ACTH - arthritis, allergies, rheumatic fever, skin and eye inflammations / pressor hormone - regulates blood pressure / prolactin - promotes lactation / vasopressin controls intestinal and renal functions PRODUCTS FROM SPINAL CORDS cholesterol - hormone products OTHER MEDICAL AND HEALTH CARE PRODUCTS nitroglycerine / antibodies (immunoglobins) / beef insulin / bovine collagen - used as injections to fill in scars / bovine fibrinolysin (Elase - brand name) ointment for use on necrotic tissue / bovine super oxide - dismutase cream (Orgotein) - cosmetic skin cream to prevent tissue aging / bovine thrombin (Thrombinar - brand name) clotting agent for blood culture medium - diagnosis / fetal bovine serum - tissue cultures / Hyaluronidase -

efficient drug use / PTH - control tetany / pegademase - bovine derivative (Adagen brand name) - - for patients who are immuno-compromised - helps prevent white blood cells from breaking down / pill capsules - GELATIN / whole serum - vaccine manufacturing

PRODUCTS FROM CATTLE, SHEEP, HOG FLESH a huge variety of fresh, frozen, and pre-cooked meats and prepared and processed meat products PRODUCTS FROM MILK / DAIRY butter / casein (proteins) / cheese and cheese products / cream / food ethanol / ice cream and ice cream mixes / lactose (carbohydrates) / milk powder / sherbet / whey (proteins) / fats (lipids) / yogurt PRODUCTS FROM FATS AND FATTY ACIDS (edible) chewing gum / lard / oleo margarine / oleo shortening / oleostearin / pharmaceuticals / rennet for cheese (sheep) / shortening PRODUCTS FROM BLOOD blood sausage / bone meal / cake mixes / deep-fry batters / egg substitute / gravy mixes / imitation seafood / pasta / whipped toppings and coffee whiteners PRODUCTS FROM BONES whitener in refined sugar / charcoal for water filters PRODUCTS FROM BONE, HORNS, AND HOOVES gelatin capsules / gelatin deserts / ice cream, malts and shakes / marshmallow / potted meats PRODUCTS FROM INTESTINES sausage casings PRODUCTS FROM HIDES and SKINS sausage casings / gelatin / candies and confectionery flavorings / foods / gelatin desserts / ice cream / marshmallows / mayonnaise / yogurt

PRODUCTS FROM MILK adhesives / animal feed / buttons / carriers for human medicine / cosmetics / glue / pharmaceuticals / sizing / specialty plastics / veterinary medicines PRODUCTS FROM BLOOD adhesives / bone marrow / bone meal / fabric printing and dyeing / leather-treating agents / livestock feed / minerals / plaster retardant / plywood adhesive / diagnostic microbiology / from colloidal proteins - glue for automobile bodies / protein source in feeds / sticking agent / textile sizing PRODUCTS FROM BONES bone charcoal / pencils / high grade steel / bone handles / bone jewelry / mineral source in feed / fertilizer / dried bones / buttons / bone china / glass / porcelain enamel / water filters / whitener in refined sugar PRODUCTS FROM BONE, HORNS, AND HOOVES adhesives / bandage strips / collagen / cold cream / cellophane wrap and tape / crochet needles / dice / dog biscuits / emery boards and cloth / fertilizer / glycerine / laminated wood products / neatsfoot oil / photographic film / plywood and paneling / shampoo and conditioner / wallpaper and wallpaper paste / syringes PRODUCTS FROM BRAINS anti-aging cream / cholesterol PRODUCTS FROM FATS AND FATTY ACIDS (edible and inedible) animal foods / biodegradable detergents / biodiesel / cellophane / cement / ceramics / chalk / chemicals / cosmetics / crayons / creams and lotions (sheep) / deodorants / detergents / explosives / fertilizer / fiber / softeners / floor wax / glycerin / glycerol / antifreeze / herbicides / horse and livestock feeds / industrial oils and lubricants / insecticides / insulation / linoleum / lubricants / makeup / matches / medicines / mink oil / nitroglycerine / oil polishes / ointment bases / oleostearin / paints / paraffin / perfumes / pet foods / pharmaceuticals / plasticizers / plastics / printing rollers / protein hair conditioner / protein hair shampoo / putty / rubber products / shaving cream / shoe cream / soaps / solvents / stearic acid (sheep) / tallow for tanning / textiles / tires / water proofing agents / weed killers PRODUCTS FROM GALLSTONES

ornaments PRODUCTS FROM HAIR air filters / artist's paint brush / felt and rug padding / insulation material / non-wovens / plastering material / textiles / upholstering material PRODUCTS FROM HIDES and SKINS belts / collagen-based adhesives (from trimmings) / bandages / emery boards / glues - for papermaking. bookbinding, cabinetmaking / sheetrock / wallpaper / drum head (sheep) / pharmaceuticals / photographic materials / leather sporting goods / leather wearing apparel / luggage / pigskin garments, gloves, and shoes / porcine burn dressings for burn victims / shoes and boots / upholstery / wallets PRODUCTS FROM HOOVES AND HORNS chessmen / combs / buttons / fertilizer / horn handles / imitation ivory / inedible bone meal / livestock feeds / ornaments / piano keys / plant food PRODUCTS FROM INTESTINES instrument strings / sausage casings / tennis racquet strings PRODUCTS FROM MANURE fertilizer - used in gardens, lawns and farm cropland / nitrogen / potash / phosphorus / minor minerals OTHER PRODUCTS FROM CATTLE SOURCES airplane lubricants and runway foam / car polishes and waxes / hydraulic brake fluid / Stearic acid - helps rubber in tires hold shape under steady surface friction / steel ball bearings containing bone charcoal / textiles for car upholstery / various machine oils and viscous fluids PRODUCTS FROM WOOL asphalt binder / carpet / clothing / cosmetics / fabrics / felt insulation / lanolin / medical ointments / paint and plaster binder / pelt products / rouge base / rug pads / upholstery / woolen goods / worsted fabric / yarns

Animal Ingredients and Their Alternatives

A list of animal ingredients and their alternatives helps consumers avoid animal ingredients in food, cosmetics, and other products. There are thousands of technical and patented names for ingredient variations. Furthermore, many ingredients known by one name can be of animal, vegetable, or synthetic origin. If you have a question regarding an ingredient in a product, call the manufacturer. Good sources of additional information are the Consumer's Dictionary of Cosmetic Ingredients, the Consumer's Dictionary of Food Additives, or an unabridged dictionary. All of these are available at most libraries. Adding to the confusion over whether or not an ingredient is of animal origin is the fact that many companies have removed the word "animal" from their ingredient labels to avoid putting off consumers. For example, rather than use the term "hydrolyzed animal protein," companies may use another term such as "hydrolyzed collagen." Simple for them, but frustrating for the caring consumer. Animal ingredients are used not because they are better than vegetable-derived or synthetic ingredients but rather because they are generally cheaper. Today's slaughterhouses must dispose of the byproducts of the slaughter of billions of animals every year and have found an easy and profitable solution in selling them to food and cosmetics manufacturers. Animal ingredients come from every industry that uses animals: meat, fur, wool, dairy, egg, and fishing, as well as industries such as horse racing and rodeo, which send unwanted animals to slaughter. Rendering plants process the bodies of millions of tons of dead animals every year, transforming decaying flesh and bones into profitable animal ingredients. The primary source of rendered animals is slaughterhouses, which provide the "inedible" parts of all animals killed for food. The bodies of companion animals who are euthanized in animal shelters wind up at rendering plants, too. One small plant in Quebec renders 10 tons of dogs and cats a week, a sobering reminder of the horrible dog and cat overpopulation problem with which shelters must cope. Some animal ingredients do not wind up in the final product but are used in the manufacturing process. For example, in the production of some refined sugars, bone char is used to whiten the sugar; in some wines and beers, isinglass (from the swim bladders of fish) is used as a "clearing" agent. Kosher symbols and markings also add to the confusion and are not reliable indicators on which vegans or vegetarians should base their purchasing decisions. This issue is complex, but the "K" or "Kosher" symbols basically mean that the food manufacturing process was overseen by a rabbi, who theoretically ensures that it meets Hebrew dietary laws. The food also may not contain both dairy products and meat, but it may contain one or the other. "P" or "Parve" means the product contains no meat or dairy products but

may contain fish or eggs. "D," as in "Kosher D," means that the product either contains dairy or was made with dairy machinery. For example, a chocolate and peanut candy may be marked "Kosher D" even if it doesn't contain dairy because the non-dairy chocolate was manufactured on machinery that also made milk chocolate. For questions regarding other symbols, please contact the Orthodox Union (212-563-4000) or other Jewish organizations or publications. Thousands of products on store shelves have labels that are hard to decipher. It's nearly impossible to be perfectly vegan, but it's getting easier to avoid products with animal ingredients. Our list will give you a good working knowledge of the most common animal-derived ingredients and their alternatives, allowing you to make deci-sions that will save animals' lives.

Adrenaline. Hormone from adrenal glands of hogs, cattle, and sheep. In medicine. Alternatives: synthetics. Alanine. (See Amino Acids.) Albumen. In eggs, milk, muscles, blood, and many vegetable tissues and fluids. In cosmetics, albumen is usually derived from egg whites and used as a coagulating agent. May cause allergic reaction. In cakes, cookies, candies, etc. Egg whites sometimes used in "clearing" wines. Derivative: Albumin. Albumin. (See Albumen.) Alcloxa. (See Allantoin.) Aldioxa. (See Allantoin.) Aliphatic Alcohol. (See Lanolin and Vitamin A.) Allantoin. Uric acid from cows, most mammals. Also in many plants (especially comfrey). In cosmetics (especially creams and lotions) and used in treatment of wounds and ulcers. Derivatives: Alcloxa, Aldioxa. Alternatives: extract of comfrey root, synthetics. Alligator Skin. (See Leather.)

Alpha-Hydroxy Acids. Any one of several acids used as an exfoliant and in anti-wrinkle products. Lactic acid may be animal-derived (see Lactic Acid). Alternatives: glycolic acid, citric acid, and salicylic acid are plant- or fruit-derived. Ambergris. From whale intestines. Used as a fixative in making perfumes and as a flavoring in foods and beverages. Alternatives: synthetic or vegetable fixatives. Amino Acids. The building blocks of protein in all animals and plants. In cosmetics, vitamins, supplements, shampoos, etc. Alternatives: synthetics, plant sources. Aminosuccinate Acid. (See Aspartic Acid.) Angora. Hair from the Angora rabbit or goat. Used in clothing. Alternatives: synthetic fibers. Animal Fats and Oils. In foods, cosmetics, etc. Highly allergenic. Alternatives: olive oil, wheat germ oil, coconut oil, flaxseed oil, almond oil, safflower oil, etc. Animal Hair. In some blankets, mattresses, brushes, furniture, etc. Alternatives: vegetable and synthetic fibers. Arachidonic Acid. A liquid unsaturated fatty acid that is found in liver, brain, glands, and fat of animals and humans. Generally isolated from animal liver. Used in companion animal food for nutrition and in skin creams and lotions to soothe eczema and rashes. Alternatives: synthetics, aloe vera, tea tree oil, calendula ointment. Arachidyl Proprionate. A wax that can be from animal fat. Alternatives: peanut or vegetable oil. Aspartic Acid. Aminosuccinate Acid. Can be animal or plant source (e.g., molasses). Sometimes synthesized for commercial purposes. Bee Pollen. Microsporic grains in seed plants gathered by bees then collected from the legs of bees. Causes allergic reactions in some people. In nutritional supplements, shampoos, toothpastes, deodorants. Alternatives: synthetics, plant amino acids, pollen collected from plants.

Bee Products. Produced by bees for their own use. Bees are selectively bred. Culled bees are killed. A cheap sugar is substituted for their stolen honey. Millions die as a result. Their legs are often torn off by pollen-collection trapdoors. Beeswax. Honeycomb. Wax obtained from melting honeycomb with boiling water, straining it, and cooling it. From virgin bees. Very cheap and widely used but harmful to the skin. In lipsticks and many other cosmetics (especially face creams, lotions, mascara, eye creams and shadows, face makeups, nail whiteners, lip balms, etc.). Derivatives: Cera Flava. Alternatives: paraffin, vegetable oils and fats. Ceresin, aka ceresine, aka earth wax. (Made from the mineral ozokerite. Replaces beeswax in cosmetics. Also used to wax paper, to make polishing cloths, in dentistry for taking wax impressions, and in candle-making.) Also, carnauba wax (from the Brazilian palm tree; used in many cosmetics, including lipstick; rarely causes allergic reactions). Candelilla wax (from candelilla plants; used in many cosmetics, including lipstick; also in the manufacture of rubber and phonograph records, in waterproofing and writing inks; no known toxicity). Japan wax (Vegetable wax. Japan tallow. Fat from the fruit of a tree grown in Japan and China.). Benzoic Acid. In almost all vertebrates and in berries. Used as a preservative in mouthwashes, deodorants, creams, aftershave lotions, etc. Alternatives: cranberries, gum benzoin (tincture) from the aromatic balsamic resin from trees grown in China, Sumatra, Thailand, and Cambodia. Beta Carotene. (See Carotene.) Biotin. Vitamin H. Vitamin B Factor. In every living cell and in larger amounts in milk and yeast. Used as a texturizer in cosmetics, shampoos, and creams. Alternatives: plant sources. Blood. From any slaughtered animal. Used as adhesive in plywood, also found in cheesemaking, foam rubber, intravenous feedings, and medicines. Possibly in foods such as lecithin. Alternatives: synthetics, plant sources. Boar Bristles. Hair from wild or captive hogs. In "natural" toothbrushes and bath and shaving brushes. Alternatives: vegetable fibers, nylon, the peelu branch or peelu gum (Asian, available in the U.S.; its juice replaces toothpaste). Bone Char. Animal bone ash. Used in bone china and often to make sugar white. Serves as the charcoal used in aquarium filters. Alternatives: synthetic tribasic calcium phosphate.

Bone Meal. Crushed or ground animal bones. In some fertilizers. In some vitamins and supplements as a source of calcium. In toothpastes. Alternatives: plant mulch, vegetable compost, dolomite, clay, vegetarian vitamins. Calciferol. (See Vitamin D.) Calfskin. (See Leather.) Caprylamine Oxide. (See Caprylic Acid.) Capryl Betaine. (See Caprylic Acid.) Caprylic Acid. A liquid fatty acid from cow's or goat's milk. Also from palm and coconut oil, other plant oils. In perfumes, soaps. Derivatives: Caprylic Triglyceride, Caprylamine Oxide, Capryl Betaine. Alternatives: plant sources. Caprylic Triglyceride. (See Caprylic Acid.) Carbamide. (See Urea.) Carmine. Cochineal. Carminic Acid. Red pigment from the crushed female cochineal insect. Reportedly, 70,000 beetles must be killed to produce one pound of this red dye. Used in cosmetics, shampoos, red apple sauce, and other foods (including red lollipops and food coloring). May cause allergic reaction. Alternatives: beet juice (used in powders, rouges, shampoos; no known toxicity); alkanet root (from the root of this herb-like tree; used as a red dye for inks, wines, lip balms, etc.; no known toxicity. Can also be combined to make a copper or blue coloring). (See Colors.) Carminic Acid. (See Carmine.) Carotene. Provitamin A. Beta Carotene. A pigment found in many animal tissues and in all plants. Used as a coloring in cosmetics and in the manufacture of vitamin A.

Casein. Caseinate. Sodium Caseinate. Milk protein. In "non-dairy" creamers, soy cheese, many cosmetics, hair preparations, beauty masks. Alternatives: soy protein, soy milk, and other vegetable milks. Caseinate. (See Casein.) Cashmere. Wool from the Kashmir goat. Used in clothing. Alternatives: synthetic fibers. Castor. Castoreum. Creamy substance with strong odor from muskrat and beaver genitals. Used as a fixative in perfume and incense. Alternatives: synthetics, plant castor oil. Castoreum. (See Castor.) Catgut. Tough string from the intestines of sheep, horses, etc. Used for surgical sutures. Also for stringing tennis rackets and musical instruments, etc. Alternatives: nylon and other synthetic fibers. Cera Flava. (See Beeswax.) Cerebrosides. Fatty acids and sugars found in the covering of nerves. May include tissue from brain. Cetyl Alcohol. Wax found in spermaceti from sperm whales or dolphins. Alternatives: Vegetable cetyl alcohol (e.g., coconut), synthetic spermaceti. Cetyl Palmitate. (See Spermaceti.) Chitosan. A fiber derived from crustacean shells. Used as a lipid binder in diet products, in hair, oral and skin care products, antiperspirants, and deodorants. Alternatives: raspberries, yams, legumes, dried apricots, and many other fruits and vegetables. Cholesterin. (See Lanolin.) Cholesterol. A steroid alcohol in all animal fats and oils, nervous tissue, egg yolk, and blood. Can be

derived from lanolin. In cosmetics, eye creams, shampoos, etc. Alternatives: solid complex alcohols (sterols) from plant sources. Choline Bitartrate. (See Lecithin.) Civet. Unctuous secretion painfully scraped from a gland very near the genital organs of civet cats. Used as a fixative in perfumes. Alternatives: (See alternatives to Musk.). Cochineal. (See Carmine.) Cod Liver Oil. (See Marine Oil.) Collagen. Fibrous protein in vertebrates. Usually derived from animal tissue. Can't affect the skin's own collagen. An allergen. Alternatives: soy protein, almond oil, amla oil (see alternative to Keratin), etc. Colors. Dyes. Pigments from animal, plant, and synthetic sources used to color foods, cosmetics, and other products. Cochineal is from insects. Widely used FD&C and D&C colors are coaltar (bituminous coal) derivatives that are continously tested on animals due to their carcinogenic properties. Alternatives: grapes, beets, turmeric, saffron, carrots, chlorophyll, annatto, alkanet. Corticosteroid. (See Cortisone.) Cortisone. Corticosteroid. Hormone from adrenal glands. Widely used in medicine. Alternatives: synthetics. Cysteine, L-Form. An amino acid from hair which can come from animals. Used in hair-care products and creams, in some bakery products, and in wound-healing formulations. Alternatives: plant sources. Cystine. An amino acid found in urine and horsehair. Used as a nutritional supplement and in emollients. Alternatives: plant sources. Dexpanthenol. (See Panthenol.)

Diglycerides. (See Monoglycerides and Glycerin.) Dimethyl Stearamine. (See Stearic Acid.) Down. Goose or duck insulating feathers. From slaughtered or cruelly exploited geese. Used as an insulator in quilts, parkas, sleeping bags, pillows, etc. Alternatives: polyester and synthetic substitutes, kapok (silky fibers from the seeds of some tropical trees) and milkweed seed pod fibers. Duodenum Substances. From the digestive tracts of cows and pigs. Added to some vitamin tablets. In some medicines. Alternatives: vegetarian vitamins, synthetics. Dyes. (See Colors.) Egg Protein. In shampoos, skin preparations, etc. Alternatives: plant proteins. Elastin. Protein found in the neck ligaments and aortas of cows. Similar to collagen. Can't affect the skin's own elasticity. Alternatives: synthetics, protein from plant tissues. Emu Oil. From flightless ratite birds native to Australia and now factory farmed. Used in cosmetics and creams. Alternatives: vegetable and plant oils. Ergocalciferol. (See Vitamin D.) Ergosterol. (See Vitamin D.) Estradiol. (See Estrogen.) Estrogen. Estradiol. Female hormones from pregnant mares? urine. Considered a drug. Can have harmful systemic effects if used by children. Used for reproductive problems and in birth control pills and Premarin, a menopausal drug. In creams, perfumes, and lotions. Has a negligible effect in the creams as a skin restorative; simple vegetable-source emollients are considered better. Alternatives: oral contraceptives and menopausal drugs based on

synthetic steroids or phytoestrogens (from plants, especially palm-kernel oil). Menopausal symptoms can also be treated with diet and herbs. Fats. (See Animal Fats.) Fatty Acids. Can be one or any mixture of liquid and solid acids such as caprylic, lauric, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Used in bubble baths, lipsticks, soap, detergents, cosmetics, food. Alternatives: vegetable-derived acids, soy lecithin, safflower oil, bitter almond oil, sunflower oil, etc. FD&C Colors. (See Colors.) Feathers. From exploited and slaughtered birds. Used whole as ornaments or ground up in shampoos. (See Down and Keratin.) Fish Liver Oil. Used in vitamins and supplements. In milk fortified with vitamin D. Alternatives: yeast extract ergosterol and exposure of skin to sunshine. Fish Oil. (See Marine Oil.) Fish oil can also be from marine mammals. Used in soap-making. Fish Scales. Used in shimmery makeups. Alternatives: mica, rayon, synthetic pearl. Fur. Obtained from animals (usually mink, foxes, or rabbits) cruelly trapped in steel-jaw leghold traps or raised in intensive confinement on fur "farms." Alternatives: synthetics. (See Sable Brushes.) Gel. (See Gelatin.) Gelatin. Gel. Protein obtained by boiling skin, tendons, ligaments, and/or bones with water. From cows and pigs. Used in shampoos, face masks, and other cosmetics. Used as a thickener for fruit gelatins and puddings (e.g., "Jello"). In candies, marshmallows, cakes, ice cream, yogurts. On photographic film and in vitamins as a coating and as capsules. Sometimes used to assist in "clearing" wines. Alternatives: carrageen (carrageenan, Irish moss), seaweeds (algin, agar-agar, kelp—used in jellies, plastics, medicine), pectin from fruits, dextrins, locust bean gum, cotton gum, silica gel. Marshmallows were originally made

from the root of the marsh mallow plant. Vegetarian capsules are now available from several companies. Digital cameras don't use film. Glucose Tyrosinase. (See Tyrosine.) Glycerides. (See Glycerin.) Glycerin. Glycerol. A byproduct of soap manufacture (normally uses animal fat). In cosmetics, foods, mouthwashes, chewing gum, toothpastes, soaps, ointments, medicines, lubricants, transmission and brake fluid, and plastics. Derivatives: Glycerides, Glyceryls, Glycreth26, Polyglycerol. Alternatives: vegetable glycerin—a byproduct of vegetable oil soap. Derivatives of seaweed, petroleum. Glycerol. (See Glycerin.) Glyceryls. (See Glycerin.) Glycreth-26. (See Glycerin.) Guanine. Pearl Essence. Obtained from scales of fish. Constituent of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid and found in all animal and plant tissues. In shampoo, nail polish, other cosmetics. Alternatives: leguminous plants, synthetic pearl, or aluminum and bronze particles. Hide Glue. Same as gelatin but of a cruder impure form. Alternatives: dextrins and synthetic petrochemical-based adhesives. (See Gelatin.) Honey. Food for bees, made by bees. Can cause allergic reactions. Used as a coloring and an emollient in cosmetics and as a flavoring in foods. Should never be fed to infants. Alternatives: in foods—maple syrup, date sugar, syrups made from grains such as barley malt, turbinado sugar, molasses; in cosmetics—vegetable colors and oils. Honeycomb. (See Beeswax.) Horsehair. (See Animal Hair.)

Hyaluronic Acid. A protein found in umbilical cords and the fluids around the joints. Used in cosmetics. Alternatives: plant oils. Hydrocortisone. (See Cortisone.) Hydrolyzed Animal Protein. In cosmetics, especially shampoo and hair treatments. Alternatives: soy protein, other vegetable proteins, amla oil (see alternatives to Keratin). Imidazolidinyl Urea. (See Urea.) Insulin. From hog pancreas. Used by millions of diabetics daily. Alternatives: synthetics, vegetarian diet and nutritional supplements, human insulin grown in a lab. Isinglass. A form of gelatin prepared from the internal membranes of fish bladders. Sometimes used in "clearing" wines and in foods. Alternatives: bentonite clay, "Japanese isinglass," agaragar (see alternatives to Gelatin), mica, a mineral used in cosmetics. Isopropyl Lanolate. (See Lanolin.) Isopropyl Myristate. (See Myristic Acid.) Isopropyl Palmitate. Complex mixtures of isomers of stearic acid and palmitic acid. (See Stearic Acid.) Keratin. Protein from the ground-up horns, hooves, feathers, quills, and hair of various animals. In hair rinses, shampoos, permanent wave solutions. Alternatives: almond oil, soy protein, amla oil (from the fruit of an Indian tree), human hair from salons. Rosemary and nettle give body and strand strength to hair. Lactic Acid. Found in blood and muscle tissue. Also in sour milk, beer, sauerkraut, pickles, and other food products made by bacterial fermentation. Used in skin fresheners, as a preservative, in the formation of plasticizers, etc. Alternative: plant milk sugars, synthetics. Lactose. Milk sugar from milk of mammals. In eye lotions, foods, tablets, cosmetics, baked goods, medicines. Alternatives: plant milk sugars.

Laneth. (See Lanolin.) Lanogene. (See Lanolin.) Lanolin. Lanolin Acids. Wool Fat. Wool Wax. A product of the oil glands of sheep, extracted from their wool. Used as an emollient in many skin care products and cosmetics and in medicines. An allergen with no proven effectiveness. (See Wool for cruelty to sheep.) Derivatives: Aliphatic Alcohols, Cholesterin, Isopropyl Lanolate, Laneth, Lanogene, Lanolin Alcohols, Lanosterols, Sterols, Triterpene Alcohols. Alternatives: plant and vegetable oils. Lanolin Alcohol. (See Lanolin.) Lanosterols. (See Lanolin.) Lard. Fat from hog abdomens. In shaving creams, soaps, cosmetics. In baked goods, French fries, refried beans, and many other foods. Alternatives: pure vegetable fats or oils. Leather. Suede. Calfskin. Sheepskin. Alligator Skin. Other Types of Skin. Subsidizes the meat industry. Used to make wallets, handbags, furniture and car upholstery, shoes, etc. Alternatives: cotton, canvas, nylon, vinyl, ultrasuede, pleather, other synthetics. Lecithin. Choline Bitartrate. Waxy substance in nervous tissue of all living organisms. But frequently obtained for commercial purposes from eggs and soybeans. Also from nerve tissue, blood, milk, corn. Choline bitartrate, the basic constituent of lecithin, is in many animal and plant tissues and prepared synthetically. Lecithin can be in eye creams, lipsticks, liquid powders, hand creams, lotions, soaps, shampoos, other cosmetics, and some medicines. Alternatives: soybean lecithin, synthetics. Linoleic Acid. An essential fatty acid. Used in cosmetics, vitamins. Alternatives: (See alternatives to Fatty Acids.) Lipase. Enzyme from the stomachs and tongue glands of calves, kids, and lambs. Used in cheesemaking and in digestive aids. Alternatives: vegetable enzymes, castor beans. Lipids. (See Lipoids.)

Lipoids. Lipids. Fat and fat-like substances that are found in animals and plants. Alternatives: vegetable oils. Marine Oil. From fish or marine mammals (including porpoises). Used in soap-making. Used as a shortening (especially in some margarines), as a lubricant, and in paint. Alternatives: vegetable oils. Methionine. Essential amino acid found in various proteins (usually from egg albumen and casein). Used as a texturizer and for freshness in potato chips. Alternatives: synthetics. Milk Protein. Hydrolyzed milk protein. From the milk of cows. In cosmetics, shampoos, moisturizers, conditioners, etc. Alternatives: soy protein, other plant proteins. Mink Oil. From minks. In cosmetics, creams, etc. Alternatives: vegetable oils and emollients such as avocado oil, almond oil, and jojoba oil. Monoglycerides. Glycerides. (See Glycerin.) From animal fat. In margarines, cake mixes, candies, foods, etc. In cosmetics. Alternative: vegetable glycerides. Musk (Oil). Dried secretion painfully obtained from musk deer, beaver, muskrat, civet cat, and otter genitals. Wild cats are kept captive in cages in horrible conditions and are whipped around the genitals to produce the scent; beavers are trapped; deer are shot. In perfumes and in food flavorings. Alternatives: labdanum oil (which comes from various rockrose shrubs) and other plants with a musky scent. Labdanum oil has no known Myristal Ether Sulfate. (See Myristic Acid.) Myristic Acid. Organic acid in most animal and vegetable fats. In butter acids. Used in shampoos, creams, cosmetics. In food flavorings. Derivatives: Isopropyl Myristate, Myristal Ether Sulfate, Myristyls, Oleyl Myristate. Alternatives: nut butters, oil of lovage, coconut oil, extract from seed kernels of nutmeg, etc. Myristyls. (See Myristic Acid.) "Natural Sources." Can mean animal or vegetable sources. Most often in the health food industry, especially

in the cosmetics area, it means animal sources, such as animal elastin, glands, fat, protein, and oil. Alternatives: plant sources. Nucleic Acids. In the nucleus of all living cells. Used in cosmetics, shampoos, conditioners, etc. Also in vitamins, supplements. Alternatives: plant sources. Ocenol. (See Oleyl Alcohol.) Octyl Dodecanol. Mixture of solid waxy alcohols. Primarily from stearyl alcohol. (See Stearyl Alcohol.) Oleic Acid. Obtained from various animal and vegetable fats and oils. Usually obtained commercially from inedible tallow. (See Tallow.) In foods, soft soap, bar soap, permanent wave solutions, creams, nail polish, lipsticks, many other skin preparations. Derivatives: Oleyl Oleate, Oleyl Stearate. Alternatives: coconut oil. (See alternatives to Animal Fats and Oils.) Oils. (See alternatives to Animal Fats and Oils.) Oleths. (See Oleyl Alcohol.) Oleyl Alcohol. Ocenol. Found in fish oils. Used in the manufacture of detergents, as a plasticizer for softening fabrics, and as a carrier for medications. Derivatives: Oleths, Oleyl Arachidate, Oleyl Imidazoline. Oleyl Arachidate. (See Oleyl Alcohol.) Oleyl Imidazoline. (See Oleyl Alcohol.) Oleyl Myristate. (See Myristic Acid.) Oleyl Oleate. (See Oleic Acid.) Oleyl Stearate. (See Oleic Acid.)

Palmitamide. (See Palmitic Acid.) Palmitamine. (See Palmitic Acid.) Palmitate. (See Palmitic Acid.) Palmitic Acid. From fats, oils (see Fatty Acids). Mixed with stearic acid. Found in many animal fats and plant oils. In shampoos, shaving soaps, creams. Derivatives: Palmitate, Palmitamine, Palmitamide. Alternatives: palm oil, vegetable sources. Panthenol. Dexpanthenol. Vitamin B-Complex Factor. Provitamin B-5. Can come from animal or plant sources or synthetics. In shampoos, supplements, emollients, etc. In foods. Derivative: Panthenyl. Alternatives: synthetics, plants. Panthenyl. (See Panthenol.) Pepsin. In hogs' stomachs. A clotting agent. In some cheeses and vitamins. Same uses and alternatives as Rennet. Placenta. Placenta Polypeptides Protein. Afterbirth. Contains waste matter eliminated by the fetus. Derived from the uterus of slaughtered animals. Animal placenta is widely used in skin creams, shampoos, masks, etc.Alternatives: kelp. (See alternatives to Animal Fats and Oils.) Polyglycerol. (See Glycerin.) Polypeptides. From animal protein. Used in cosmetics. Alternatives: plant proteins and enzymes. Polysorbates. Derivatives of fatty acids. In cosmetics, foods. Pristane. Obtained from the liver oil of sharks and from whale ambergris. (See Squalene, Ambergris.) Used as a lubricant and anti-corrosive agent. In cosmetics. Alternatives: plant oils, synthetics.

Progesterone. A steroid hormone used in anti-wrinkle face creams. Can have adverse systemic effects. Alternatives: synthetics. Propolis. Tree sap gathered by bees and used as a sealant in beehives. In toothpaste, shampoo, deodorant, supplements, etc. Alternatives: tree sap, synthetics. Provitamin A. (See Carotene.) Provitamin B-5. (See Panthenol.) Provitamin D-2. (See Vitamin D.) Rennet. Rennin. Enzyme from calves' stomachs. Used in cheese-making, rennet custard (junket), and in many coagulated dairy products. Alternatives: microbial coagulating agents, bacteria culture, lemon juice, or vegetable rennet. Rennin. (See Rennet.) Resinous Glaze. (See Shellac.) Ribonucleic Acid. (See RNA.) RNA. Ribonucleic Acid. RNA is in all living cells. Used in many protein shampoos and cosmetics. Alternatives: plant cells. Royal Jelly. Secretion from the throat glands of the honeybee workers that is fed to the larvae in a colony and to all queen larvae. No proven value in cosmetics preparations. Alternatives: aloe vera, comfrey, other plant derivatives. Sable Brushes. From the fur of sables (weasel-like mammals). Used to make eye makeup, lipstick, and artists' brushes. Alternatives: synthetic fibers. Sea Turtle Oil. (See Turtle Oil.)

Shark Liver Oil. Used in lubricating creams and lotions. Derivatives: Squalane, Squalene. Alternatives: vegetable oils. Sheepskin. (See Leather.) Shellac. Resinous Glaze. Resinous excretion of certain insects. Used as a candy glaze, in hair lacquer, and on jewelry. Alternatives: plant waxes. Silk. Silk Powder. Silk is the shiny fiber made by silkworms to form their cocoons. Worms are boiled in their cocoons to get the silk. Used in cloth. In silk-screening (other fine cloth can be and is used instead). Taffeta can be made from silk or nylon. Silk powder is obtained from the secretion of the silkworm. It is used as a coloring agent in face powders, soaps, etc. Can cause severe allergic skin reactions and systemic reactions (if inhaled or ingested). Alternatives: milkweed seed-pod fibers, nylon, silk-cotton tree and ceiba tree filaments (kapok), rayon, and synthetic silks. Snails. In some cosmetics (crushed). Sodium Caseinate. (See Casein.) Sodium Steroyl Lactylate. (See Lactic Acid.) Sodium Tallowate. (See Tallow.) Spermaceti. Cetyl Palmitate. Sperm Oil. Waxy oil derived from the sperm whale's head or from dolphins. In many margarines. In skin creams, ointments, shampoos, candles, etc. Used in the leather industry. May become rancid and cause irritations. Alternatives: synthetic spermaceti, jojoba oil, and other vegetable emollients. Sponge (Luna and Sea). A plant-like animal. Lives in the sea. Becoming scarce. Alternatives: synthetic sponges, loofahs (plants used as sponges). Squalane. (See Shark Liver Oil.)

Squalene. Oil from shark livers, etc. In cosmetics, moisturizers, hair dyes, surface-active agents. Alternatives: vegetable emollients such as olive oil, wheat germ oil, rice bran oil, etc. Stearamide. (See Stearic Acid.) Stearamine. (See Stearic Acid.) Stearamine Oxide. (See Stearyl Alcohol.) Stearates. (See Stearic Acid.) Stearic Acid. Fat from cows and sheep and from dogs and cats euthanized in animal shelters, etc. Most often refers to a fatty substance taken from the stomachs of pigs. Can be harsh, irritating. Used in cosmetics, soaps, lubricants, candles, hairspray, conditioners, deodorants, creams, chewing gum, food flavoring. Derivatives: Stearamide, Stearamine, Stearates, Stearic Hydrazide, Stearone, Stearoxytrimethylsilane, Stearoyl Lactylic Acid, Stearyl Betaine, Stearyl Imidazoline. Alternatives: Stearic acid can be found in many vegetable fats, coconut. Stearic Hydrazide. (See Stearic Acid.) Stearone. (See Stearic Acid.) Stearoxytrimethylsilane. (See Stearic Acid.) Stearoyl Lactylic Acid. (See Stearic Acid.) Stearyl Acetate. (See Stearyl Alcohol.) Stearyl Alcohol. Sterols. A mixture of solid alcohols. Can be prepared from sperm whale oil. In medicines, creams, rinses, shampoos, etc. Derivatives: Stearamine Oxide, Stearyl Acetate, Stearyl Caprylate, Stearyl Citrate, Stearyldimethyl Amine, Stearyl Glycyrrhetinate, Stearyl Heptanoate, Stearyl Octanoate, Stearyl Stearate. Alternatives: plant sources, vegetable stearic acid.

Stearyl Betaine. (See Stearic Acid.) Stearyl Caprylate. (See Stearyl Alcohol.) Stearyl Citrate. (See Stearyl Alcohol.) Stearyldimethyl Amine. (See Stearyl Alcohol.) Stearyl Glycyrrhetinate. (See Stearyl Alcohol.) Stearyl Heptanoate. (See Stearyl Alcohol.) Stearyl Imidazoline. (See Stearic Acid.) Stearyl Octanoate. (See Stearyl Alcohol.) Stearyl Stearate. (See Stearyl Alcohol.) Steroids. Sterols. From various animal glands or from plant tissues. Steroids include sterols. Sterols are alcohol from animals or plants (e.g., cholesterol). Used in hormone preparation. In creams, lotions, hair conditioners, fragrances, etc. Alternatives: plant tissues, synthetics. Sterols. (See Stearyl Alcohol and Steroids.) Suede. (See Leather.) Tallow. Tallow Fatty Alcohol. Stearic Acid. Rendered beef fat. May cause eczema and blackheads. In wax paper, crayons, margarines, paints, rubber, lubricants, etc. In candles, soaps, lipsticks, shaving creams, other cosmetics. Chemicals (e.g., PCB) can be in animal tallow. Derivatives: Sodium Tallowate, Tallow Acid, Tallow Amide, Tallow Amine, Talloweth-6, Tallow Glycerides, Tallow Imidazoline. Alternatives: vegetable tallow, Japan tallow, paraffin and/or ceresin (see alternatives to Beeswax for all three). Paraffin is usually from petroleum, wood, coal, or shale oil.

Tallow Acid. (See Tallow.) Tallow Amide. (See Tallow.) Tallow Amine. (See Tallow.) Talloweth-6. (See Tallow.) Tallow Glycerides. (See Tallow.) Tallow Imidazoline. (See Tallow.) Triterpene Alcohols. (See Lanolin.) Turtle Oil. Sea Turtle Oil. From the muscles and genitals of giant sea turtles. In soap, skin creams, nail creams, other cosmetics. Alternatives: vegetable emollients (see alternatives to Animal Fats and Oils). Tyrosine. Amino acid hydrolyzed from casein. Used in cosmetics and creams. Derivative: Glucose Tyrosinase. Urea. Carbamide. Excreted from urine and other bodily fluids. In deodorants, ammoniated dentifrices, mouthwashes, hair colorings, hand creams, lotions, shampoos, etc. Used to "brown" baked goods, such as pretzels. Derivatives: Imidazolidinyl Urea, Uric Acid. Alternatives: synthetics. Uric Acid. (See Urea.) Vitamin A. Can come from fish liver oil (e.g., shark liver oil), egg yolk, butter, lemongrass, wheat germ oil, carotene in carrots, and synthetics. It is an aliphatic alcohol. In cosmetics, creams, perfumes, hair dyes, etc. In vitamins, supplements. Alternatives: carrots, other vegetables, synthetics.

Vitamin B-Complex Factor. (See Panthenol.) Vitamin B Factor. (See Biotin.) Vitamin B-12. Usually animal source. Some vegetarian B-12 vitamins are in a stomach base. Alternatives: some vegetarian B-12-fortified yeasts and analogs available. Plant algae discovered containing B-12, now in supplement form (spirulina).Some nutritionist caution that fortified foods or supplements are essential. Vitamin D. Ergocalciferol. Vitamin D-2. Ergosterol. Provitamin D-2. Calciferol. Vitamin D-3. Vitamin D can come from fish liver oil, milk, egg yolk, etc. Vitamin D-2 can come from animal fats or plant sterols. Vitamin D-3 is always from an animal source. All the D vitamins can be in creams, lotions, other cosmetics, vitamin tablets, etc. Alternatives: plant and mineral sources, synthetics, completely vegetarian vitamins, exposure of skin to sunshine. Many other vitamins can come from animal sources. Examples: choline, biotin, inositol, riboflavin, etc. Vitamin H. (See Biotin.) Wax. Glossy, hard substance that is soft when hot. From animals and plants. In lipsticks, depilatories, hair straighteners. Alternatives: vegetable waxes. Whey. A serum from milk. Usually in cakes, cookies, candies, and breads. In cheese-making. Alternatives: soybean whey. Wool. From sheep. Used in clothing. Ram lambs and old "wool" sheep are slaughtered for their meat. Sheep are transported without food or water, in extreme heat and cold. Legs are broken, eyes injured, etc. Sheep are bred to be unnaturally woolly, also unnaturally wrinkly, which causes them to get insect infestations around the tail areas. The farmer's solution to this is the painful cutting away of the flesh around the tail (called "mulesing"). "Inferior" sheep are killed. When shearing the sheep, they are pinned down violently and sheared roughly. Their skin is cut up. Every year, hundreds of thousands of shorn sheep die from exposure to cold. Natural predators of sheep (wolves, coyotes, eagles, etc.) are poisoned, trapped, and shot. In the U.S., overgrazing of cattle and sheep is turning more than 150 million acres of land to desert. "Natural" wool production uses enormous amounts of resources and energy (to breed, raise, feed, shear, transport, slaughter, etc., the sheep). Derivatives: Lanolin, Wool Wax, Wool Fat. Alternatives: cotton, cotton flannel, synthetic fibers, ramie, etc.

The Asian Bird Flu
Also known as avian influenza A Asian bird flu, also known as avian influenza could pose a bigger problem than SARS, the World Health Organization has warned.

If the avian flu virus develops the ability to spread through human contact, the outbreak could become a health crisis, said WHO regional co-ordinator Peter Cordingley. The virus poses "a bigger potential problem than SARS because we don't have any defences against the disease," he said in Manila. "If it latches on to a human influenza virus, then it could cause serious international damage." Last year, severe acute respiratory syndrome killed 800 people around the world, including 44 in Toronto and 350 in China. It became an international crisis that resulted in travel advisories and economic chaos. WHO officials say there has been no evidence the avian flu disease has spread from person to person. Human infections are blamed on contact with the feces of sick birds. Symptoms in humans include fever and coughing, eventually leading to pneumonia. The avian flu has also infected millions of chickens in South Korea, Vietnam and Japan. Officials have ordered massive culls on poultry farms to try to stem the outbreak. Hong Kong and Cambodia have closed their borders to chickens from affected countries. Avian Bird Flu: What you need to know • Avian influenza is an infectious disease of birds caused by type A strains of the influenza virus. The disease, first identified in Italy more than 100 years ago, occurs worldwide. • All birds are thought to be susceptible to the avian influenza, though some species, such as wild ducks, are more resistant than others. Domestic poultry, such as chickens or turkeys, are particularly susceptible. • Infection triggers a wide spectrum of symptoms in birds, ranging from mild illness to a highly contagious and rapidly fatal disease resulting in severe epidemics. • In severe cases, the flu is characterized by a sudden onset of severe illness, and rapid death, with a mortality that can approach 100 percent. Have humans come down with bird flu?

• Avian influenza does not normally infect species other than birds and pigs. But humans came down with the bird flu in Hong Kong in 1997, when the H5N1 strain infecting 18 humans, 6 of whom died. • Then, people became infected after coming into close contact with live infected poultry. • Genetic studies showed the virus jumped directly from birds to humans, and caused severe illness with high mortality. • Hong Kong's entire poultry population, estimated at around 1.5 million birds, was destroyed within three days. • The World Health Organization has said the H5N1 bird flu virus is responsible for a number of deaths in Vietnam. They suspect people became ill after coming into contact with chicken feces. Why is H5N1 of particular concern? Of the 15 avian influenza virus subtypes, H5N1 is of particular concern because: • It mutates rapidly and seems to acquire genes from viruses infecting other animal species. • It can cause severe disease in humans. • Birds that survive infection excrete virus for at least 10 days, orally and in feces, helping spread the virus at live poultry markets and by migratory birds. • The more birds that come down with bird flu, the greater the opportunity for direct infection of humans. • The more humans get infected, the greater the likelihood people can become infected with both human and bird flu strains. • Humans could then serve as a "mixing vessel" for a new type of virus that could easily be transmitted from person to person. Such an event would mark the start of an influenza pandemic. What are the symptoms, can it be tested and how do you treat it? • When humans came down with H5N1 bird flu in Hong Kong in 1997, patients developed symptoms of fever, sore throat, cough and, in several of the fatal cases, severe respiratory distress secondary to viral pneumonia. • Previously healthy adults and children, and some with chronic medical conditions, were affected.

• Tests for diagnosing all influenza strains of animals and humans are rapid and reliable. • Antiviral drugs, some of which can be used for both treatment and prevention, are clinically effective against influenza A virus strains in otherwise healthy adults and children, but have some limitations. • At least four months would be needed to produce a new vaccine, in significant quantities, capable of conferring protection against a new virus subtype. -- Compiled from a World Health Organization fact sheet.

What Happened Last Time Here's why the experts worry. The part of the flu bug that determines immunity is the H (for hemagglutinin) molecule on the outside of the virus. There are 15 different H molecules in birds. But people get only three kinds: H1, H2, and H3. Type A flu is a wily bug. It likes to shift its genes around. That happened this year, when the H3 Panama flu morphed into the H3 Fujian flu. But that difference -- called a drift -isn't as bad as when the flu bug "shifts." That happens when it picks up a new H gene from an animal flu virus. Once upon a time, people didn't get much influenza type A. Then the bug learned to pick up genes that let it spread from human to human. It's happened three times:
• • •

"Spanish flu" -- H1 -- broke out in 1918-1919. It killed 500,000 people in the U.S. and as many as 50 million people worldwide. "Asian flu" -- H2 -- broke out in 1957-1958. It killed 70,000 Americans. "Hong Kong flu" -- H3 -- broke out in 1968-1969. It caused 34,000 U.S. deaths. This strain is still around. This year's "Fujian flu" is an H3 variant.

The bird flu sweeping Asia is an H5 flu bug. It's tried to break out before. In 1997 it broke out in Hong Kong. Eighteen people got infected; six died. Authorities ordered the extermination of all the chickens in Hong Kong. Last year, an H7 bird flu infected chicken handlers in the Netherlands. One veterinarian died. Authorities called for the slaughter of infected birds. And health authorities gave human flu vaccines to all poultry handlers in an effort to prevent dual infection that might lead to a new human flu. What's Happened This Year -- so Far Likely carried by wild ducks and/or geese, an H5 bird flu swept through South Korea and turned up in Vietnam and Japan. Other nations deny a problem, although last December both Japan and Taiwan reported finding H5 flu in ducks illegally smuggled out of China.

Since last October, hospitals in the Hanoi region admitted 14 people with severe respiratory illness -- 13 children and one adult. Eleven have died, including the mother of one of the deceased children. She -- and two of the children -- died of an H5 bird flu. There have been unconfirmed reports that the H5 virus has been detected in pigs. That would be a concern, because pigs -- unlike birds -- can also carry human flu viruses. The Nazarene Way of Essenic Studies

Bird Flu Pandemic Is Imminent
Global Pandemic Could Kill Millions; The Causation of Eating Poultry World Health Organization officials have urged governments to act swiftly to control the spread of the bird flu, warning that "the world is in grave danger of a deadly pandemic that could kill millions." The bird flu has killed 45 people in Asia over the past year, in cases largely traced to contact with sick birds, and experts have warned the H5N1 virus could become far deadlier if it mutates into a form that can be easily transmitted among humans. A global pandemic could kill millions, they say. "We at WHO believe that the world is now in the gravest possible danger of a pandemic," said Dr. Shigeru Omi, the WHO's Western Pacific regional director. He said the world is "now overdue" for an influenza pandemic, since mass epidemics have occurred every 20-30 years. It has been nearly 40 years since the last one. Speaking at the opening of a three-day bird flu conference in Ho Chi Minh City, Omi said it is critical that the international community better coordinate its fight against the virus. In recent outbreaks, bird flu has become more deadly than the strain found in 1997 in Hong Kong, making the situation more urgent, he said.

The mortality rate among identified patients who contract the disease from chickens and ducks raised for food is about 72 percent, Dr. Julie L. Gerberding, head of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, said on Monday. She added that her agency was preparing for a possible pandemic in the comming year. "If the virus becomes highly contagious among humans, the health impact in terms of deaths and sickness will be enormous, and certainly much greater than SARS," Omi said, referring to severe acute respiratory syndrome, which killed nearly 800 people in 2003. "This is why we are urging all governments to work now on a pandemic preparedness plan - so that even in an emergency such as this they will be able to provide basic public services such as transport, sanitation and power," he said.
Ducks being buried alive in Korea

The disease, which devastated the region's poultry industry, swept through nearly a dozen countries, has killed 32 Vietnamese, 12 Thais and one Cambodian. Officials acknowledge that one of the biggest challenges in controlling avian flu is in altering traditional farming practices in Asia where animals live in close, often unsanitary quarters with people. "There is an increasing risk of avian influenza spread that no poultry-keeping country can afford to ignore," said Dr. Samuel Jutzi, of the United Nation's Food and Agriculture Organization in the conference's opening address. Jutzi, director of the FAO's animal health and production division, said the avian flu virus will persist in Asia for years and coordinated efforts need to focus on controlling it at its source - in animals. "This means addressing the transmission of the virus where the disease occurs, in poultry, specifically chickens and ducks, and thus curbing the disease occurrence in the region before it spreads to other parts of the world," he said.

The challenge for many countries affected by the virus is the lack of effective diagnostic tools and surveillance systems needed for early warning and timely response, he said. The regional conference held in southern Ho Chi Minh City near the Mekong Delta where the latest outbreaks emerged this year has brought together scientists and representatives from more than two dozen countries. Bird flu's reemergence in Vietnam, where 12 people have died this year alone, has shown the virus is now endemic in parts of the region. Thousands of birds are being destroyed in an effort to control the disease. "The longer the virus is circulating in animals, including chickens and ducks, the greater the risk of human cases - and consequently, the higher the risk of a pandemic virus emerging through genetic changes in the virus," Omi said. The virus has proven to be "very versatile and very resilient," and has even been found in animals such as tigers and cats that weren't believed to be susceptible to influenza, he added. The Nazarene Way of Essenic Studies

Bird Flu Being Sparked by Factory Farms
There is strong evidence that it is the movements of poultry and poultry products that are responsible for the worlds bird flu outbreaks and not by migratory birds as generally thought. Bird flu could spell the end for small poultry farmers and open the door to more diseases at intensive farms, researchers have said.

Conservation, farming and agriculture campaigners said governments were responding poorly to the outbreak of the deadly H5N1 virus that has killed over 100 people so far because they had yet to accept that the outbreaks started at intensive farms. It was then spread by the trade of poultry, poultry products and poultry manure more so than by wild birds and chickens in backyard farms, which have become the focus for many governments' campaigns to fight the virus' advance. "I don't think you would have seen this spread if it wasn't for the industrial type of farming that has been developed over decades and exported itself and its products," said Devlin Kuyek, a researcher at GRAIN, an international group campaigning for sustainable management and agricultural biodiversity. "To make matters worse, governments are pursuing measures to force poultry indoors and further industrialize the poultry sector." Campaigners said the current outbreak of bird flu was sparked at factory farms in China and Southeast Asia and then sent round the world mostly in products and waste. Bird flu has now been detected in the Middle East, Africa and Europe, prompting the killing of millions of birds. "Globally, the most important route of spread remains unrestricted poultry movements. Recent outbreaks in India, Nigeria and Egypt originated within the poultry industry," Birdlife International, a global partnership of conservation organizations, said the report. "Here, as in most other H5N1 outbreaks, there is strong circumstantial evidence that movements of poultry and poultry products are responsible." Not by migratory birds as generally thought. TRADE FUELS SPREAD Some countries have banned imports of poultry and products, but campaigners say trade in hatching eggs and manure among other potentially contaminated goods is continuing. "Some producers are dumping chicken in China for 30 cents/lb," Kuyek said. The Commercial Farmers Group said that long supply chains left countries vulnerable to all animal diseases. "We must reinforce the national protection against the import of potentially dangerous products," it said in a report. And rather than bigger farms suffering, the smaller farms are feeling the brunt of the fight against the virus.

In Egypt, the government has initiated mass culls to end its outbreak and says it hopes to end small-scale chicken breeding on the roofs of homes in the cities and rural areas. Campaigners said such a response could open the doors to further disease outbreaks, arguing that poultry on smaller farms are more resistant to disease than their factory friends. "The strategy to contain H5N1 by destroying the genetically diverse backyard flocks and developing even more intensive poultry operations will, perversely, increase the possibility of a human-transmissible version of lethal bird flu," Kuyek said. There have been two bird flu outbreaks in the US in 1983 and 1984 which forced 17 million birds to be destroyed. Both outbreaks were on factory farms. A flock of 12,000 chickens in the US state of Delaware has been destroyed in an attempt to prevent the spread of avian flu.

Japan, Singapore and South Korea suspended all imports of US poultry after birds at a farm in southern Kent County, Delaware, tested positive for the virulent H7 virus. But the virus is different from the H5N1 virus that has spread through several Asian countries, Delaware's Agriculture Secretary, Michael Scuse, said. That strain has forced the slaughter of millions of birds and killed 18 people in Thailand and Vietnam. Three new outbreaks of the flu in Asia were confirmed in separate parts of China on Saturday, state media reported. But in Vietnam, where 13 people have died, officials denied reports from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation that pigs had been infected. Mr Scuse said he was "fairly confident" the virus had not spread from the infected farm, which has been quarantined. The flu strain could cause severe economic damage if it spreads to the US commercial broiler industry, a linchpin of the region's agricultural economy. In the year to March 2003, the US exported about 500,000 tones of chicken to Japan. Singapore last year imported about 17,500 tones of chicken meat from the US, worth S$32.8 million ($25 million). An outbreak of a related strain of bird flu in the north-eastern US in 1983 and 1984 forced 17 million birds to be destroyed

Mad Cow Disease
"Diseases Don't Just Happen"

The Disease Created by Eating Flesh
The very animals whose flesh you eat, are frequently so diseased that, if left alone, they would die of themselves; but while the breath of life is in them, they are killed and brought to market. As we lust for flesh, we take directly into our bodies poisons of the worst kind.

What is Mad Cow Disease? Mad Cow Disease is the common term for Bovine Spongiform Encepholopathy (BSE), a progressive neurological disorder of cattle which can be transmitted to other species, including humans. In humans, it is called Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, after the two doctors who first described the symptoms of the disease. The disease in cattle is called Bovine Spongiform Encepholopathy because this form of the disease occurs in cows (therefore, the term bovine), it causes a sponge-like destruction of the brain (therefore, the term spongiform encepholopathy - enceph means brain and pathy means pathology - meaning an abnormality). How Did This Whole Mess Get Started? Over 30 years ago, cattle and sheep ranchers and other producers of animals to be slaughtered and used for food, started "factory-farming" - raising the animals in penned areas, in very close quarters, and feeding them hormones and other chemical to fatten them up faster for market . They had to give them huge amounts of antibiotics because the animals became so sick so easily because of their terrible living conditions.. (Their Immune Systems were NOT working right.) The ranchers also cut costs by feeding their animals ground-up dead animals, animals that have died of disease - as well as humane society animals, cats and dogs that have been euthanized. ALSO being used as feed were road-kill and offal, parts of the animals not fit for human consumption. This process of grinding up diseased, dead animals for feed for other animals is called "rendering." But sheep and cows are herbivores - vegetarians. They are supposed to graze - to eat grass. They are NOT meat eaters. Their intestines and body systems cannot stay healthy when they are fed the wrong diet, especially when the ground up dead animals used for food, died from disease! The equivalent disease in sheep is called "scrapie" because the diseased sheep scrape themselves against fences and other objects until they injure themselves. They develop other neurologic disorders and eventually die - - - and THEN, the ranchers grind them up and feed them to cows, chickens, pigs (and other animals to be used for human consumption) and call the "feed" High Protein Pellets! Then when the cows get sick and

die from this horrible practice, they grind them up and feed THEM to OTHER cows and other types of animals being raised for human consumption. What are the Symptoms of Mad Cow Disease? Symptoms include an excitable or nervous temperament to external stimuli such as touch to the skin, a progressive unsteadiness of gait resulting eventually in the inability to stand up. The disease is virtually 100% fatal. The human equivalent of Mad Cow Disease, Cruetzfeldt-Jakob Disease, causes memory loss, emotional instability including inappropriate outbursts, an unsteady gait, progressing to marked weakness, severe rapidly progressive dementia and death, often within a year of the onset of symptoms. What is the Cause of Mad Cow Disease? Currently the most accepted theory is that the causative agent is a modified form of a normal cell surface protein called a prion (pronounced PREE-ON) protein. Where Did Prions Come From? Are they a type of virus or bacteria? What are they? A prion is neither a virus nor a bacteria. Prions are proteins that contain no DNA or RNA, two substances previously felt to be essential for reproduction of a living tissue. Prions are normal constituents of the body when in their normal form or conformation, but they can become twisted in a conformational change ( a change in shape - in the way the molecule is folded), and then they are thought to cause disease. How Long Ago Were Prions Discovered? In 1997, Stanley Prusiner, M.D., a professor of neurology at the University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, won the Nobel Prize for his discovery of prions, "tiny protein molecules that seem to cause a variety of slow acting - and inevitably fatal diseases in animals and humans; the name is an acronym for "proteinaceous infectious particles." But the diseases found in association with these tiny protein molecules have been known for over 50 years. In fact, the prion, as it has been named by Dr. Prusiner, may well have been discovered over 150 years ago, and re-discovered, every 25-50 years since then, by different scientists who gave the molecule different names. Prions exist, but it is extremely doubtful that the Prion is the "CAUSE" of ANY disease. Prions are much more likely to be the "RESULT" of a sick and dying body. Prions are most probably a RESPONSE to the illness that was actually CAUSED by a grossly improper diet and other unhealthy lifestyle factors. "Factory farming" of animals, with the massive use of hormones, pesticides and other harmful substances destroy the animal's immune system. When these diseased animals are eaten by people, then the people get sick and die. When the animal's immune system is suppressed because of a violation of the immutable natural health laws that govern the health of both animals and

man, then the body produces the agent necessary to clean out the mess of dead and dying tissue resulting from the violation of these health laws. You see, these supposed "infective agents" such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and now Prions, are NOT the CAUSE of the diseases, they are the RESULT of a diseased body caused by the wrong diet and lifestyle. These bacteria, viruses, fungi and prions are actually the "clean-up crew", formed by the body, to get rid of the mess and clean out the body. We have been taught that germs CAUSE disease. But germs DON'T cause disease anymore than flies cause garbage! This is explained in detail on my video "Drugs NEVER Cure Disease." Flies DON'T cause garbage - Garbage attracts flies! A dead animal in the road attracts vultures!! Vultures don't attract dead animals. It's the same situation in the body. When there is dead and dying tissue in the body, caused by an improper diet and lifestyle, the "clean-up crew is called in to get rid of the problem. The body can produce its own "cleansing" agents (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and prions) when the need arises. Or these agents can be transmitted from others, or, as in the case of Mad Cow Disease, by humans ingesting prions by eating the flesh of the cow or other infected animal. When these agents start cleaning out the toxins in the body, the toxins are dumped into the blood stream to be filtered and eliminated from the body. These toxins then cause symptoms which the doctor diagnoses as "disease" and the doctor then NAMES the disease according to the symptoms it produces. The medical and pharmaceutical establishment then tries to produce a DRUG to STOP the cleansing process, in order to STOP the patient's uncomfortable symptoms. But the drug NEVER cures the "disease" - it just stops the cleansing process so the patient's body remains sick and filled the toxins, even though the patient may feel somewhat better - at least for a time. If a person's immune system is healthy because he has been eating and living properly, he has no need to produce these cleansing agents and will not be susceptible to them. But if his body contains dead and dying cells and tissue from an improper diet and lifestyle, then these agents have a field day. As they "clean out" the "garbage" in the body, the effect can be so severe, that the patient actually dies. So these tiny infective agents can either be produced by the body itself, or transmitted or ingested into the body from the outside. In the 1800's, Antoine Bechamp, a French physician and professor of biochemistry at a prestigious University medical school in France discovered a tiny particle that he named microzymas. He found that these tiny bodies could change from one shape or form into another shape or form, depending on the condition of the person's immune system. About 70 years ago, an extraordinary scientist-inventor, Royal Rife, built possibly the world's greatest microscope and observed what Bechamp had discovered, that these tiny bodies could change shape and form. A bacteria could actually become a virus or a fungus, due to a conformational change. In the last 40 years, Dr. Virgina Livingston, a physician, a professor at Rutgers University and an outstanding cancer researcher, discovered these same tiny bodies.

More recently, Gaston Naessens, a brilliant chemist and physicist now living and working in Montreal, Quebec, Canada built a super specialized microscope for studying these tiny living organisms, which he named somatids. Over years of careful microscopic observation and laboratory experimentation, Naessens went on to discover that if and when the immune system of an animal or human being becomes weakened or destabilized (by violating the 10 natural laws of health), the normal three-stage cycle of the somatid goes through thirteen additional successive growth stages, each form evolving into the next by conformational changes. For more information on this subject, see my video "Sorting Through the Maze of Alternative Medicine: What Works, What Doesn't and Why" where I discuss this subject in more detail and show graphics of the life cycle of the somatid. I also reveal how you can eat and live so you will NOT be affected by these and other presumed infectious agents. How Do You Know That the Prion, Recently Discovered by Dr. Prusiner Is the Same Molecule As the Somatid or the Microzyma As Named by the Previous Discoverers? Answer: 1: It behaves in the same way. It produces symptoms - "disease" - in a person whose immune system has been suppressed by violation of the natural health laws (improper diet and lifestyle). 2: It is found in contact with diseased tissue. (Scientists think that because a prion is found in CONTACT with diseased tissue, that the Prion is the CAUSE of the disease. But, in fact, it is the RESULT of the diseased tissue and NOT the CAUSE!) 3: Prions, somatids and microzymas have virtually the same physical characteristics they CANNOT BE DESTROYED. There is NO WAY to kill them. Prions are NOT DESTROYED by fire, nor by freezing, nor by disinfectants, nor by operating room sterilization procedures, nor by incineration, nor by intense radiation. In fact, scientists and government agencies HAVE NOT FOUND ANY WAY TO DESTROY THEM!! Grinding up the dead cows and other animals who have died from Mad Cow disease, and then incinerating them WILL NOT KILL the Prion!! What Diseases in Humans are Associated with Prions? Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) has been diagnosed in many countries in the world, including the United States. Kuru, a neurologic disease, very much like CJD, has been present in New Guinea for many years. It appears to be associated with cannibalism. Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker (GSS) disease is manifested as a very unsteady gait plus other signs of damage to the cerebellum - a specific area of the brain. The symptoms are very much like CJD. GSS is also fatal. Fatal familial insomnia in which dementia follows difficulty sleeping.

Are Sheep and Cows the Only Animals Affected? No. This same "feed" made of ground-up dead, diseased animals has been fed, and is still being fed, to other animals being raised for human consumption, including chickens and pigs. Also deer, elk and mink have been found to have the disease. What countries have been affected by Mad Cow Disease? The UK has been severely affected. Germany, Italy and many other countries have also been affected. Is Mad Cow Disease in the U.S.? The Government says there is no problem with Mad Cow Disease in the U.S. However, they admit that cows in this country have already been diagnosed with Mad Cow Disease. And there are also THOUSANDS of "Downer Cows" in this country, cows that are well one day and dead the next. When these "Downer Cows" are ground up and fed to other animals, the other animals develop the equivalent of Mad Cow Disease. So the government, as always, is talking out of both sides of their mouth. They are protecting the gigantic billion dollar meat and poultry industry rather than the American people. What is the Government Doing to Stop This Dangerous Feeding Practice? They're approaching it the same way they have handled the AIDS epidemic: They LIE! 1. First, they deny that there is ANY problem. 2. When the evidence becomes overwhelming that there is a BIG problem, they admit that there "might" be a problem, but they say they're not sure, they are studying it and if there is a problem, it's not a serious problem and there is no reason for alarm. Keep eating what you're eating, they advise. 3. When people start catching on that there really is a problem, the government will admit that at first they weren't as vigilant as they should of been, but the people who were then responsible for investigating the problem are no longer with the government (blame those guys - they're gone) and now the problem is "under control." And there is no cause for alarm. Keep eating the stuff, they advise you. 4. A number of years later they say, "Oh, we've found out that there really has been a pretty big problem all along, but NOW we've got it under control. So there is NO cause for alarm." Keep eating the stuff, they advise you.

Cows in the UK being distroyed

5 Then a year or two later they admit that it's in ALL the different breeds of animals, but it's "low risk" and you probably won't get it so NO cause for alarm." Keep eating the stuff, they advise you. 6. When the problem continues to grow, they start dividing the Prion diseases into different categories so no one specific category has too many people in it. 7. When the problem becomes outrageous, they admit there's a small, but controllable problem, and then they start covering up the true statistics - the REAL number of people who have the disease or who have already died from the disease. Their plan ALWAYS is to keep the public calm as they die! Would the Government REALLY LIE to Us? What is the Evidence For a Cover-up in Mad Cow Disease? 1. As of Jan 6, 2001, the Centers for Disease Control, a government Public Health organization, published on their web site: "BSE has not been shown to exist in the United States." "According to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services of the United States Dapartment of Agriculture, BSE has NOT been detected in the United States, despite active surveillance efforts for several years." However, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) DOES NOT actively monitor the disease! The REAL truth is: "A year before BSE was even reported in Britain in 1985, Richard Marsh, Chairman of the Department of Veterinary Science at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, was alerting dairy practitioners of the possibility that a "previously unrecognized scrapie-like disease in cattle" existed in the United States. The clue came in 1981 when "Mad Mink Disease" wiped out a population of minks in Wisconsin who hadn't eaten any sheep at all. The meat portion of their diet consisted almost exclusively of dairy cattle called "Downers," an industry term describing cows which collapse for unknown reasons and are too sick to stand up. BUT - the beef industry claims that "Downer Cows" DO NOT have Mad Cow Disease! YET - when these Downer Cows were ground up and fed to mink - the mink DEVELOPED "Mad Mink Disease!" In June 1992, a USDA consultant group decided that changes in the research program to accommodate the possibity that BSE was already present in the U.S. were, "not appropriate at this time." The panel that made this decision included representatives of the National Milk Producers Federation, the National Renderers Association, the American Sheep Industry Association and the National Cattlemen's Association. (By the way, Beef is the largest revenue source for American agriculture nationwide. It is a $150 billion dollar industry. Since the FDA protects the pharmaceutical industry, the very industry that it's supposed to police, why wouldn't the USDA (U.S. Dept of Agriculture) protect the Beef and Sheep Industry, even though the USDA is supposed to CONTROL it?)

According to the USDA, "virtually all U.S. feed manufacturers use meat and bone meal in their feeds" and most U.S. cattle are fed such rendered animal tissues. In 1989 alone the U.S. rendered two million tons of cattle for use primarily in animal feed and pet food. There has been a substantial increase in the use of animal protein in commercial dairy feed since 1987. Dr. Gibbs, who recently chaired a World Health Organization investigation into the disease says "Do I believe BSE is here in the U.S., of course I do," Gibbs made this admission at a University of Wisconsin symposium. With more than two decades of prion research behind him, Dr. Stanely Prusiner, the scientist who coined the term "prion" and received the Nobel Prize for his work, agrees that Mad Cow Disease MUST be present in the U.S." In late 1978, Dr. Masuo Doi, a veterinarian with the Food Safety and Quality Service, studied a disorder in some young hogs that had arrived at a Packing Plant in Albany, N.Y. from several Midwestern states. The USDA's pathologist reported that the damage in the pig's brain was similar to the damage observed in the brains of sheep afflicted with scrapie, essentially the same disease as Mad Cow Disease (BSE) in cows. Finally, the FDA drafted a rule that would ban the fortifying of animal feeds with "any Mammalian tissue." However, the FDA has played a taxonomical shell game by ARBITRARILY REMOVING PIGS FROM THE CLASS OF "MAMMALIA." They declared that a pig is NOT a mammal! A single teaspoon of ingested high infectivity meat and bone meal is thought to be enough to cause BSE in a cow. "One hundred thousand cows per year in the United States are fine at night, but dead in the morning. The majority of those cows are rounded up, ground up, fed back to other cows. If only one of them has Mad Cow disease, it has the potential to infect thousands." says Howard Lyman, Cattle Rancher for 40 years. Mad Cow Risks Were First Reported in the United States in 1976 "Health experts...knew of the potential dangers of contaminated human growth hormone years before the first Creutzfeldt-Jakob death occurred and experimental programs halted, British court documents reveal. Correspondence dating from the mid- '70s presented to a British judicial inquiry reveal a paper trail betwen the United States National Institutes of Health and the British Government indicating the infectiousness was foreseen," the Los Angeles Times reports. "Moreover, a safer method for purifying human growth hormone drugs had long been available, but scientists involved in the experiments had ignored it in favor of a cheaper, less labor-intensive option." In 1989 alone almost 800 million pounds of processed animals were fed to beef and dairy cattle in the U.S.. The USDA has conceded that "the potential risk of amplification of the BSE agent is much greater in the United States" than in Britain. In 1995 five million tons of processed slaughterhouse leftovers were sold for animal feed in the United States. Rendering is a $2.4 billion-a-year industry. "There is simply no such thing in America as an animal too ravaged by disease, too cancerous, or too putrid to be welcomed by the embracing arms of the renderer.

In addition to diseased farm animals, the city of Los Angeles sends some two hundred tons of euthanized cats and dogs to a rendering plant every month. Added to the blend are the euthanized catch of animal control agencies and roadkill " according to Howard Lyman, a cattle rancher for 40 years. This is the food fed to the animals that YOU EAT! In the U.S. the rendering industry promised to stop feeding sheep brains to cows years ago; the FDA confirmed that this ban failed. Unfortunately just about everybody lies. "British government officials misled the public for years over the dangers of British beef and the risk of "mad cow" (BSE) disease spreading to humans," according to Reuters wire service. "UK Physicians Told Not to Tell Hemophilia Patients of Possible CJD Blood Concerns." "Mad Cow - BSE- CJD Now Likely to Be a Global Infection" according to New Scientist journal. BSE has infected a dozen species of animals which presumably ate infected tissue. Is Cow's Milk Safe? What About Cheese? Although there is a case description in the New England Journal of Medicine (1992) in which colostrum from a Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseased woman was found to be infectious to mice, cow's milk is considered "safe" by the World Health Organization. In the largest known U.S. outbreak of cases of CJD to date, in Pennsylvania's Lehigh Valley, the disease was linked to, among other things, cheese consumption. What About Other Animals? Are They Infected Too? Paul Brown, medical director for the U.S. Public Health Service, believes that pigs and poultry could be harboring BSE and passing it on to humans, adding that pigs are especially sensitive to the disease. Two epidemiological studies found pork to be a dietary risk factor in Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD). The most common misdiagnosis of CJD is Alzheimer's disease. How Can Prions Be Destroyed? They CAN'T! The English government destroyed over 4.5 million cattle and incinerated them at a temperature of 1100 degrees centigrade. The resulting ash is still considered infectious and is stored in WW II blimp hangers. Mad Cow disease can be passed from the mother to the fetus in the womb. It can be passed from a bull to the cow through sperm. It can be passed from one species to another quite freely by transfusion of contaminated blood or consumption of infected material. BSE is extremely resistant to high temperatures; it is unaffected by radiation, laboratory solvents and bleaches. In other words, it appears to be virtually indestructible. How Long Is the Incubation Period for "Mad Cow" Disease in Humans (also called CJD)?

It is estimated that it may be as long as 20-40 years. But teen-agers and young children have also died of it. So it can occur much more rapidly than previously thought. An infected cow shows the symptoms of BSE four to seven years after the time of infection. How Are the Government and the Cattle Industry Trying to "Muzzle" Truth-tellers About the Risks of Mad Cow Disease to the Population of America? Certain states, including Texas, have passed Food Disparagement Acts. Texas, Oklahoma, Colorado and North Dakota corporate growers of vegetables and fruits have won passage of laws making it a crime to falsely denigrate fruits and vegetables. Then the corporate farming industry in conjunction with the government, conspire to cover-up, distort and withhold the facts from the public. So a whistle-blower who is telling the truth, trying to warn the public, is a "sitting duck" for a law suit. The cattle industry sued Oprah Winfrey and her guest, Cattle Rancher Howard Lyman, because they told the truth about the cover-up of Mad Cow Disease. Even though Oprah Winfrey and Howard Lyman won the court action, the cattle industry wanted to send a strong message of intimidation to anyone else who might even think about speaking truth. Fortunately, in the U.S., Truth Telling is still a legitimate defense, at least for the time being. What other products or procedures are potentially dangerous? Vaccines, cosmetics, human growth hormone, thyroid hormone, albumin ( a blood product given in hospitals), blood transfusions, vitamin and mineral supplements, gelatin in thousands of processed foods, corneal transplants, surgical instruments, estrogen, progesterone, cortisone, heparin, Vitamin B12, insulin, gelatin in pill capsules, yogurt, ice cream, butter, chewing gum, lard, margarine, shortening, egg substitutes, gravy mixes, cake mixes, whitener in refined sugar (it's from bones), gelatin desserts, marshmallows, mayonnaise, sausages and sausage casings, medicines, pet foods, and many other products. What Can We Do? 1. DON'T believe the government. They have no interest in protecting you. They are protecting big business and their own jobs. 2. Stop eating ALL animal products. Stop eating meat, poultry, dairy products and eggs. 3. Stop eating processed food. Most of it contains animal products, even though you would never suspect it. 4. Do not assume animals in the wild are not infected. They are. 5. Stop eating sugar or sugar containing foods. Sugar is "whitened" with bone meal.

6. Start eating a diet of fruit, grains and vegetables in their most natural form. The plan is on my videos "You Can't Improve on God" and "Diseases Don't Just Happen." This plan will allow you to be FREE of ALL disease, not just "Mad Cow Disease." 7. Make a determination to eventually get off all medications. (Don't stop them abruptly. That can be dangerous) Many medications contain animal products. In addition, drugs NEVER cure disease, and they ALL have dangerous side-effects. When you start following the Ten Natural Laws of Health as detailed on my video, "You Can't Improve on God" you will eventually be able to slowly decrease your drug dosages and then stop them entirely. Mad Cow Disease will be a Global Epidemic that will make AIDS look like a "walk in the Park." But YOU can be safe from the danger. You don't have to be afraid. If your immune system is working properly because you are eating the right diet and living the right lifestyle, disease can't touch you. Learn how to rebuild your immune system and the immune system of those you care about.

Addendum: These problems were predicted OVER 100 years ago. Talk about a prophet! Read these quotations! The following quotations were written OVER 100 YEARS AGO by the most prolific woman author of non-fiction in the U.S., Ellen White! (Notice the year written at the end of each quotation): "Disease in cattle is making meat eating a dangerous matter...Disease is contracted by the use of meat. The diseased flesh of these dead carcasses is sold in the market places, and disease among men is the sure result. "There is no safety in the eating of the flesh of dead animals, and in a short time the milk of the cows will also be excluded from the diet... In a short time it will not be safe to use anything that comes from the animal creation." (Written in 1898) "Physicians who claim to understand the human organism ought not to encourage their patients to subsist on the flesh of dead animals. They should point out the increase of disease in the animal kingdom. The testimony of examiners is that very few animals are free from disease, and that the practice of eating largely of meat is contracting diseases of all kinds, -- cancers, tumors, tuberculosis and numbers of other like affections." (1897) "Swine's flesh above all other flesh meats, produces a bad state of the blood. Those who eat freely of pork can not help but be diseased...The eating of pork has produced scrofula, leprosy and cancerous tumors. Pork eating is still causing the most intense suffering to the human race. (1865) "The light given me is that it will not be very long before we shall have to give up using any animal food. Even milk will have to be discarded. Disease is accumulating has cursed the earth. The habits and practices of men have brought the earth into such a condition that some other food than animal food must be substituted for the human family. We do not need flesh food at all." (1899)

"Could you know just the nature of the meat you eat, could you see the animals when living from which the flesh is taken when dead, you would turn with loathing from your flesh meats. The very animals whose flesh you eat, are frequently so diseased that, if left alone, they would die of themselves; but while the breath of life is in them, they are killed and brought to market. You take directly into your system poison of the worst kind, and yet you don't realize it." (1870) "Many die of diseases wholly due to meat eating, when the real cause is scarcely suspected by themselves or others. Some do not immediately feel its effects, but this is no evidence that it does not hurt them. It may be doing its work surely upon the system, yet for the time being the victim may realize nothing of it." (1890) "In many places fish become so contaminated by the filth on which they feed as to be a cause of disease. This is especially the case where the fish come in contact with the sewage of large cities. The fish that are fed on the contents of the drains may pass into distant waters, and may be caught where the water is pure and fresh. Thus when used as food they bring disease and death on those who do not suspect the danger." (1905)

Mad Cow Disease in the United States
Late in the day on December 23, 2003 the U.S. government announced that a dairy cow in Washington state was infected with mad cow disease, also called bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Government officials announced that they have a plan, but it seems to be a public relations plan, not a plan to protect the public health. Newspapers report that meat from the cow, who was killed December 9, traveled through three processing plants before the problem was discovered 13 days later.

What Is Mad Cow Disease?
Spongy brains, whether in humans, cows, or other animals, are caused by malformed proteins called prions. Researchers have traced recent outbreaks of the bovine version of the disease to farmers’ cost-cutting practice of mixing bits of dead sheep’s neural tissue into the feed of cows, who are naturally herbivorous. If cows eat the brains of other cows who already have BSE or of sheep suffering from a sheep disease called scrapie, the animals can develop mad cow disease. When people eat infected animals, thus far presumed to be cows, they could develop the human version of the disease, new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (nvCJD). Millions of cattle suspected of being infected with BSE in England, Scotland, Ireland, France, Belgium, Italy, and other countries have been incinerated, and various safeguards (few of which have been adopted in the U.S.) have been instituted. No matter what species it strikes, spongiform encephalopathy is always fatal. There is no treatment. The disease eats holes in the brain. In humans, it initially causes memory loss

and erratic behavior, and over a period of months, its victims gradually lose all ability to care for themselves or communicate, and eventually, they die. So far, more than 120 people in Europe have died from nvCJD.

Doesn’t the government protect the meat supply?
Because the infected cow was raised for dairy production, she had lived long enough to show symptoms of the disease. Most cows are killed before they turn 2 years old, chickens at 6 to 7 weeks, and pigs and turkeys before they’re 6 months old, long before they could become symptomatic; no one would know whether they were infected with spongy brain disease, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is doing nothing at all to try to find out. In fact, the USDA admits that it only tested about 20,000 cows (and no other animals) for BSE last year—a statistically insignificant percentage of the approximately 40 million cows and 10 billion other animals slaughtered annually. The dangerous practice of feeding sheep and even cows to other cows was not banned in the U.S. and Canada until 1997, and the U.S. government said that as recently as 2001, there was widespread violation of the feeding regulation. It is still legal to feed cow’s blood to cows, to feed sheep and cows to pigs and chickens, and to feed pigs and chickens to one another and to cows, even though these practices have been banned in Europe. In fact, European countries have instituted an array of safety precautions, which have not yet been adopted in the U.S., to try to protect their populations from spongy brain diseases. Other forms of spongy brain diseases have been found in North America. In May, an 8year-old cow on a dairy farm in Alberta, Canada, was found to have BSE. Two years ago, 200 sheep raised for dairy on a Vermont farm were killed on suspicion that they were infected with their species’ equivalent of mad cow disease. Chronic wasting disease, a similar condition, is widespread in deer and elk in Western Canada and the U.S. and is suspected of infecting hunters who may have eaten meat from sick animals.

Can You Protect Yourself?
Yes! The best way to protect yourself and your family is to stop eating animal products and choose a companionate vegan diet. A vegan diet not only protects you from mad cow disease, but is the most effective way to prevent foodborne illness, heart disease, strokes, and many other ailments. If you eat meat, you already have to worry about salmonella, E. coli, campylobacter, heart disease, strokes, high blood pressure, and cancer, as well as your weight. Now, add mad cow, chicken, fish, pig, and turkey disease to the list— if there's a brain, it could have a spongy brain (spongiform encephalopathy); we've already identified mad cow disease variants in humans, sheep, mink, cows, elk, deer, and cats.

Mad Cow Disease: What the

Meat Industries Don't Want You to Know
Dr. Richard Lacey, the University of Leeds microbiologist who warned about bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) infecting humans in the U.K. said, "It is possible that there is no mad cow disease in the U.S.A., but I believe it's more likely there is, but not detected yet.” In 1993, Dr. C.J. Gibbs, former chair of the World Health Organization's BSE investigation and head of the NIH's brain studies laboratory, said, "Do I believe BSE is here [in the U.S.]? Of course I do.”

The cow who was found to have BSE in Washington was more than 6 years old. If she— like 99.5 percent of chickens, pigs, turkeys, and cows in the U.S.—had been slaughtered before she was 5 years old, we would not have found the disease, although she would still have had it. Two studies on Alzheimer's victims showed that 5.5 percent and 13 percent, respectively, of patients who had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's had, in fact, been suffering from the human variant of mad cow disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD). The National Foundation for Infectious Diseases states that one out of every million people gets CJD, thereby giving the United States about 270 cases, but if even 1 percent of the 4 million Alzheimer's patients in the U.S. actually have CJD, we would have 40,000 cases, not 270. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is not protecting U.S. consumers. The genie has left the bottle. It is better to take steps now than not to take them, but they are about 10 years too late. The infected cow's brain was presumably ground up and fed to chickens and pigs who could then be fed to other cows—practices that are banned in Europe because they allow transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) to jump between species. European scientists recognize that TSEs can jump between species, and thus, their countries have banned the feeding of animals to animals, but in the U.S., it remains a legal and universal practice to feed pigs, chickens, turkey, and fish back to one another, turning natural herbivores into not just carnivores, but cannibals. Dr. Paul Brown, medical director for the U.S. Public Health Service, explicitly says that pigs and chickens could pass TSEs to humans. It is also legal in the U.S. to feed ruminants (i.e., elk, deer, cows, and sheep) to pigs, chickens, turkeys, and fish and then to feed those animals back to cows and sheep, who

are natural herbivores. Since we know that sheep, deer, and elk in the U.S. have TSEs, we know that we are continuing to do exactly what caused this disease in the first place. It is also legal and common for the blood of cows and sheep to be fed to other cows and sheep (as well as to all the other animals mentioned above). Humans in the U.S. cannot give blood if they’ve spent three months or more in the U.K. since 1980, but cows can still eat other cows' blood in this country. The one pitiful step taken by the USDA and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prevent mad cow disease in the U.S., the widely popularized 1997 ban on feeding ruminants to ruminants, has not been fully implemented. In fact, a 2001 FDA investigation found that literally hundreds of feed suppliers were in violation of the ban. To avoid transmitting mad cow disease to humans, it is illegal in the United Kingdom to feed any animal who is older than 30 months to humans. In the U.S., on the other hand, almost all dairy cows, who are the source of about 40 percent of U.S. hamburger meat, are older than 30 months of age when they are slaughtered. Grossly inadequate tests for TSEs in animals and humans virtually guarantee that we will not find many cases in the U.S. Pigs, chickens, turkeys, and fish are not tested at all, despite the fact that they are fed ground up deer, elk, cows, and sheep—as well as other pigs, chickens, and fish. These animals are then, in turn, ground up and fed to cows and sheep. Only 20,000 cows were tested last year—out of the 40 million slaughtered annually, including 130,000 or more downed cattle. (Europe and Japan test all downed cattle, as recommended by the World Health Organization). And the USDA cannot even produce the results of the few tests that were conducted. The infected cow was more than 6 years old. More than 99.5 percent of animals slaughtered last year were younger than 5 years of age. Considering the long incubation period, it's a fluke that BSE was found in this cow. No cows are tested on U.S. farms, where many sick animals die. The tests done in the U.S. involve examining the animals' brains with a microscope. Considering the long incubation period for the disease (10 to 16 years is the latest estimate for humans) and the fact that no test catches the disease until it is in its very late stages, it could be a widespread problem in the U.S., and we wouldn't even know it. The test used by the USDA is inadequate, which is why the sample from the infected Washington cow had to be sent to the U.K. to verify that it was BSE-positive. The CDC has not made CJD a notifiable disease, so the disease cannot be tracked. If a disproportionate number of people were dying of this disease, we would not even know it. There is some evidence that, in fact, we do have an epidemic of CJD here, yet the CDC refuses to track it. Specific lies of the USDA (with thanks to Dr. Michael Greger)

The USDA and the meat industry say that BSE cannot be transferred from mother to calf, but in fact, evidence indicates that it can be. The USDA's Web site lists the European Commission's official report on maternal transmission, which concludes, “'The results of all epidemiological studies undertaken to date have been consistent with a rate of maternal risk enhancement of approximately 10%.” The USDA has said that it tests all downed cattle. In fact, there are about 130,000 downed cattle in the U.S., and only a small fraction are tested. The USDA and the meat industry say that the U.S. has banned feeding ruminants to ruminants. In fact, in 2002, the U.S. General Accounting Office concluded, “'BSE may be silently incubating somewhere in the United States. If that is the case, then FDA's failure to enforce the feed ban may already have placed U.S. herds and, in turn, the human food supply at risk. FDA has no clear enforcement strategy for dealing with firms that do not obey the feed ban. ... Moreover, FDA has been using inaccurate, incomplete, and unreliable data to track and oversee feed ban compliance.” The report can be downloaded at The USDA and the meat industry say that science indicates that muscle can't harbor the infectious agent in TSEs. This is not true, according to the CDC and WHO, both of which suggest that all parts of any contaminated animal pose a risk. Even the USDA's Web site states, “'Epidemiological and case studies have not revealed a common risk factor among the cases of vCJD. According to the SEAC [the U.K.'s Spongiform Encephalopathy Advisory Committee], all victims were reported to have eaten beef or beef products in the last 10 years, but none had knowingly eaten brain material. Furthermore, Stanley Prusiner, the scientist who won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his discovery of prions, describes the levels of prions in muscle as “'quite high.” Follow-up studies in Germany, published May 2003, confirm Prusiner's findings, and in 2003, the New England Journal of Medicine published research indicating that deadly prions were found in eight of the 32 muscle samples of human CJD victims. The authors declare that the prions were “'prevalent in skeletal muscle tissue.” Final points: Watching abused farmed animals on TV and seeing pictures in the news turns people vegetarian (as much out of empathy for the animals as out of fear of getting the disease). Mad cow disease opens a window onto the complete and total disdain that factory farms have for the needs and natural lives of animals raised for food. Modern “'farmers” pump animals full of drugs to make them grow more quickly, feed natural herbivores the blood and dead bodies of their own species, and cram animals into unnatural living conditions where they are deprived of their every natural desire. Animals today are Frankenstein animals: Chickens are bred so that their upper bodies grow more than six times as quickly as they normally would, and some cows produce as much as 20 times as much milk as they would in a natural situation. On factory farms, animals' bodies are mutilated without painkillers. At a fraction of their natural life spans, they are shipped to slaughter. The journey often takes many hours, and on the way, animals endure weather extremes and

are denied food and water. Once they reach the slaughterhouse, many are fully conscious as their throats are slit, their limbs are hacked off, and their skin is ripped from their bodies. Before mad cow disease and foot-and-mouth disease, most people had not thought very much about how meat reached their tables, but these plagues forced people to think about these issues and made many consider vegetarianism.

The public needs to understand that if they are eating meat, they are supporting cruelty to animals—cruelty so severe that if it were done to cats or dogs, it would be illegal, and these “'farmers,” truck drivers, and slaughterhouse owners would be thrown in prison. Outbreaks of diseases such as mad cow, SARS and foot-and-mouth disease are the predictable results of cruelly treating animals, rather than seeing them for the sensitive beings that they are.

A new genetic sequencing of the SARS virus has proved conclusively that it came from animals, researchers in Hong Kong said today. The University of Hong Kong researchers also said they believe that the virus mutated into a more dangerous form that infected about 300 people in one hard-hit apartment block there. "This virus did not originally exist in humans, it definitely comes from animals," said microbiologist Yuen Kwok-yung. Sars has killed over 300 worldwide. More than 5,000 people have fallen ill. After cracking the genetic code, as researchers in Canada and the US did in recent days, the Hong Kong scientists agreed it was a new version of the coronavirus, which can cause common colds, but unlike any seen before. "If this virus had been very close to the rat virus, mouse virus or pig virus, one could clearly say this is the origin," said Malik Peiris, another microbiologist at the university. "But what this is telling us is that in fact, this virus is not close to any of the known human viruses," Peiris said. "It is something that is new to science." "That whole genome is essentially new," he said. "Nature has been the terrorist throwing up this new virus." The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) now spreading across the globe is just one more example of a situation in which a virus has leaped from animals to people. Many

viruses are harmless to animals but mutate and become deadly when they infect human beings.

SARS evolved in southern China, where 80 million people share living space with the ducks, chickens, pigs, shrimp, and carp they eat. Chicken waste is fed to pigs. Pig waste is dumped into ponds in which shrimp and fish are raised for food. All the animals are crowded into small spaces where viruses thrive. One scientist called this area "a complete soup of chemicals and viruses." Another explained, "A virus gets into a duck, it jumps to the pig. It mutates, the pig excretes it and humans can become infected." The World Health Organization reports that, like SARS, the annual influenzas that sicken and kill thousands every year almost always originate in animals in southern China and Hong Kong. All this disease comes from people's desire to consume meat and to farm animals in small spaces. The stress of intensive farming promotes illness, which is why massive doses of antibiotics are put into animal feed on Western factory farms-antibiotics which, in turn, lower human resistance to disease. SARS is thought to be a virulent form of coronavirus. A top Canadian researcher believes that "the coronavirus in animals may be associated with the 'shipping fever' pigs and cattle get when they are stressed by the crowded transport situations they are in when they are sent to feedlots before slaughter."

The influenza epidemic of 1918 originated in pigs. It swept the globe, killing 20 million people. By 1920, nearly every American family had lost one member to this flu. The Hong Kong avian flu of 1997 jumped from chickens to people, sickening hundreds and killing six. To stop the spread of the disease, 1.5 million chickens were slaughtered.

The consequences of unnatural farming practices and eating animal flesh have killed millions of people. In addition to SARS, animals killed for consumption are also likely to carry listeria, salmonella, leukosis (chicken cancer), campylobacter, and E. coli bacteria, which thrive on crowded, filthy factory farms. Our meat addiction has led to a huge increase in the numbers slaughtered and a faster slaughter process, causing an increase in contamination. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that approximately 8 million people are sickened by food-borne illnesses every year, and thousands die. This costs American patients, food producers, and the national economy more than $8 billion a year, according to the Journal of Food Protection. SARS does not come close to delivering the tally of death, sickness, and tragedy that meat-related heart disease, cancer, strokes, high blood pressure, and other ailments cause.

According to Dr. T. Colin Campbell, nutritional researcher at Cornell University and director of the largest epidemiological study in history, "The vast majority of all cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and other forms of degenerative illness can be prevented ... simply by adopting a plant-based diet." And the cost to animals is beyond measure. Crammed together in tiny spaces, living above their own waste, never breathing fresh air or feeling the sunshine on their backs, they never know a moment's joy or contentment. And when the sun rose over the earth's rim they saw Jesus coming towards them from the mountain, with the brightness of the rising sun about his head. "Peace be with you." And they said no word at all, but only cast themselves down before him, and touched the hem of his garment in token of their healing. "Give thanks not to me, but to your Earthly Mother, who sent you her healing angels. Go, and sin no more, that you may never again see disease. And let the healing angels become your guardians." But they answered him: "Whither should we go, Master, for with you are the words of eternal life? Tell us, what are the sins which we must shun, that we may nevermore see disease?" Jesus answered: "Be it so according to your faith," and he sat down among them, saying: "It was said to them of old time, 'Honor thy Heavenly Father and thy Earthly Mother, and do their commandments, that thy days may be long upon the earth.' And next afterward was given this commandment, 'Thou shalt not kill,' for life is given to all by God, and that which God has given, let not man take away. For I tell you truly, from one Mother proceeds all that lives upon the earth. Therefore, he who kills, kills his brother. And from him will the Earthly Mother turn away, and will pluck from him her quickening breasts. And he will be shunned by her angels, and Satan will have his dwelling in his body. And the flesh of slain beasts in his body will become his own tomb. For I tell you truly, he who kills, kills himself, and whoso eats the flesh of slain beasts, eats of the body of death. For in his blood every drop of their blood turns to poison; in his breath their breath to stink; in his flesh their flesh to boils; in his bones their bones to chalk; in his bowels their bowels to decay; in his eyes their eyes to scales; in his ears their ears to wax. And their death will become his death. For only in the service of your Heavenly Father are your debts of seven years forgiven in seven clays. But Satan forgives you nothing and you must pay him for all. 'Eye for eye,

tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot; burning for burning, wound for wound; life for life, death for death.' For the wages of sin is death. Kill not, neither eat the flesh of your innocent prey, lest you become the slaves of Satan. For that is the path of sufferings, and it leads unto death. But do the will of God, that his angels may serve you on the way of life. Obey, therefore, the words of God: 'Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat. And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to everything that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is breath of life, I give every green herb for meat. But flesh, and the blood which quickens it, shall ye not eat. And, surely, your spurting blood will I require, your blood wherein is your soul; I will require all slain beasts, and the souls of all slain men. For I the Lord thy God am a God strong and jealous, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; and showing mercy unto thousands -of them that love me, and keep my commandments. Love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength: this is the first and greatest commandment.' And the second is like unto it: 'Love thy neighbor as thyself' There is none other commandment greater than these."

Scientists from the University of Nottingham found that two strains of an HIV-like disease, SIV, has been discovered dormant in chimpanzees. Humans later caught the disease after hunting and eating the infected chimps. In humans, the disease morphed into HIV-AIDS, which reportedly has killed over 20 million people, mostly in Africa where eating monkey flesh often practiced.

Experts have wondered about the origin of HIV ever since the epidemic emerged almost two decades ago. The uncertainty launched a variety of conspiracy theories, some even suggesting that AIDS was a government plot. Now, new research has provided what scientists say is convincing proof that the virus got its start in the forests of Africa when humans caught the disease from chimpanzees. In fact, they say the virus has spread at least three different times from chimps to humans. Previous studies have established that SIV (Simian Immunodeficiency Virus) is found in African monkeys and apes. They have also placed the disease somewhere in or near the West African country of Guinea-Bissau. "This is absolutely evidence to put (conspiracy theories) to rest," Dr. Constance Benson of the University of Colorado said.

Even scientists who scorned those theories have been unsure where AIDS actually arose. Some suspected chimps, while others thought monkeys or other primates could have been the source. The latest discovery was made by Dr. Beatrice Hahn of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, who tracked HIV's ancestor to a virus that has long infected one of the four subspecies of chimp that live in Africa. She said, "We conclude that this subspecies is the source of the human AIDS virus," which now infects about 35 million people worldwide. Experts believe that HIV - the virus that causes AIDS - is a recent affliction of people. At a Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, Dr. David Ho and others from the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center at Rockefeller University presented evidence that the virus probably first infected humans in the 1940s or early '50s. At the opening of the meeting, Hahn made the case that this event almost certainly occurred in west equatorial Africa. It could have happened when someone ate infected chimp meat, or a hunter was exposed to contaminated blood while field dressing an animal. Hahn said her team nailed down the connection by analyzing frozen tissue saved from a chimp named Marilyn that died from complications of childbirth at a U.S. Air Force primate center in New Mexico 14 years ago. Hahn's discovery began when a colleague cleaning out a lab freezer ran across Marilyn's specimens and sent them to her. The researchers performed various kinds of genetic analyses that were unavailable at the time the chimp died. Marilyn's tissue was found to harbor SIVcpz. The Alabama team used molecular analysis techniques to study Marilyn's virus plus the other three examples discovered earlier. They found that three of the four are about as genetically similar to the human AIDS virus as they are to each other. They include one gene, called vpu, that is also part of HIV but not the other AIDS-like viruses that infect monkeys. All three samples were found to have come from Pan troglodytes troglodytes, which is one of the four subspecies of chimp in Africa. These animals lives in Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Congo and Central African Republic, the region where AIDS is thought to have started. The fourth sample was much less like HIV, and it came from another subspecies of chimp that is native to East Africa. There are three major groups of HIV in people, code-named M, N and O. M is the variety that has spread around the world, while N and O are seen only in west-central Africa.

The natural habitat of Pan troglodytes troglodytes perfectly overlaps the area where these three groups were first recognized. The researchers believe that each group arose from a separate chimp-to-human transmission of SIVcpz. Hahn said a French team, headed by Dr. Phillippe Mauclere of the Pasteur Institute, recently found three more chimps infected with SIVcpz at a game sanctuary in Cameroon. One sample has been genetically analyzed, and it too closely resembles HIV. Chimps, which have probably carried the virus for hundreds of thousands of years, apparently do not get sick from it. It takes a long time for a relationship between the virus and its new host to stabilize. But that's what the virus wants. It doesn't want to kill the host, because then it's finished, too. It can take a couple of hundred years for the virus and host to get into balance so that both survive. Researchers say that figuring out why could offer clues for helping people fight HIV.

Ronald McDonald Turns Vegetarian
Says "Meat is Murder" and has pledged to rescue animals from slaughterhouses

FORMER CLOWN BASHES BIG MACS Geoffrey Giuliano - a former Ronald McDonald - launched his own brand of Big Mac attack. And it was directed at his old employers, McDonald's Restaurants of Canada. "Meat is murder," the ex-hamburger clown told a crowd of about 150 animal-rights activists demonstrating in front of a McDonald's restaurant at 192A Bloor St. W. A vegetarian since the 1970s, Giuliano lashed out at the burger giant for "the senseless killing of animals for food." Sold out "tell the readers of the Sun Ronald McDonald says it's naughty to eat meat," he said. Giuliano, 36, played the popular clown in Toronto from 1980 to 1982. A graduate of "Ronald McDonald University" - the chain's training school - he was one of several Ronalds working throughout the world. "I sold out when I was Ronald and I'm deeply sorry for that," said Giulano, who is now a successful rock biographer living in Upstate New York Giuliano also played the Magical Mystical Burger King for Burger King restaurants in the Northeastern U.S. in 1978-79 and is currently working on a book titled Confessions of a Corporate Clown. He made $50,000 a year, had a private chef, limo service, and an office with a personal secretary during his tenure as Ronald McDonald. "McDonald's let me go because they said I wasn't "McDonaldized" enough," said Giuliano. "Which really means I didn't toe the corporate line." McDonald's spokesman Simon Halls told the Sun Giulano is entitled to his opinion. "We're proud of everything we're doing," said Halls. The Sunday Sun, Toronto Robert Benzie, July 1, 1990 SENDING OUT THE CLOWNS Geoffrey Giuliano has gone straight. The former Ronald McDonald clown says that, after years of "deceiving thousands of innocent, trusting children," he has thrown in his rubber nose and striped socks to promote the joys of vegetarianism. Not only did Giuliano spend time as a member of what he calls "the McDonalds' corporate juggernaut," but also says he is ashamed to admit to a stint posing as "the Marvelous Magical Burger King," which involved performing a children's magic show celebrating the glories of meat-eating for McDonalds'-rival Burger King Corp. Now, the former clown is telling all in his memoirs, Confessions of a Corporate Clown. And as part of what he describes as his effort to make amends for past sins, Giuliano is developing a magic show he plans to take to schools and vegetarian food fairs. He added, "This show is my way of saying sorry for selling out so blatantly to concerns who make their millions off the murder of countless animals and the exploitation of children for their own ends." A lot to beef about!

MaClean's Magazine, Canada September 10, 1990 EX-RONALD McDONALD TURNS IN HIS BURGERS An author and vegetarian activist welcomed a producer and two broadcasating technicians from the hit television show "A Current Affair" to Lockport this week. "Affair" producer Andrea Spiegel, cameraman Doug Meltzer and sound engineer Everette Wong went to Beatles biographer Geoffrey Giuliano's mansion to interview the author about his vegetarian philosophy and plans for a campaign he's involved with. Giuliano, a former Ronald McDonald clown for McDonalds of Canada, has taken off his big red shoes and commited himself to a life of speaking for his cause. In addition to his life as Ronald, Giuliano is well known for his popular biographies of the Beatles. As Meltzer had the film rolling in the backyard of the stately home, Giuliano and Spiegel discussed vegetarianism. "These days, people are becoming increasingly aware and conscious of what they put into their bodies," Giuliano said. "People need to be educated. That's my goal," Giuliano said. He said "non-violence" is an approach that can be successful in many cases. "As many people are Christians, I urge them to remember the Bible says 'Thou shall not kill.' There's no sub-clause that says it's okay to kill animals for food," Giuliano said. Spieget and her "Affair" crew drove out to the country with Giuliano to get film footage of cows grazing in a field. Vegetarians are encouraged to eat milk products that come from cows, he said. "Butter, milk, yogurt, cheeses and ice cream. These things come from the cow and are an important part of a vegetarian diet," Giuliano said. "Current Affair" first became interested in the Giuliano story when contacted by the author's agent. "If I was just a vegetarian, they wouldn't have wanted the story. But since I worked as Ronald, the show's producers wanted it," Giuliano. Spiegel said she and the other crew were happy to "get away" from New York City and New Jersey, where most of the show's officials are based. Union-Sun & Journal, Western New York Brandon Stickney June 8, 1991 RONALD McDONALD BECOMES A VEGGIE Meat's murder says Mac star BURGER clown Ronald McDonald has shocked his old bosses - by becoming a VEGETARIAN. Now US star Geoffrey Giuliano, who played Ronald on McDonalds TV ads, rescues cows from the slaughterhouse and has pledged to wage a one-man war against eating meat. The 36-year-old kids' favorite declared: "Meat is murder! Man can get along very happily on fruit, vegetables and whole grains. "I brainwashed youngsters into doing wrong - eating burgers. "I want to say sorry to children everywhere for selling out to concerns who make millions by murdering innocent animals." Geoffrey beat 600 other clowns to get the first Ronald job in Canada in the early 80s. He had his own TV show and earned about L40,000 a year. When he decided to quit, he claimed, McDonalds called a crisis board meeting. Now Geoffrey spends his time running a "cow protection community" on his estate in Western New York, where animals are allowed to grow old gracefully. McDonalds, the world's biggest fast-food chain refused comment.

Daily Mirror, London September 1991

A full page article which appeared in the supermarket tabloid, Globe, in July of 1991. MAC ATTACK! This has to be the strangest news of the year - Ronald McDonald has become a militant vegetarian. The sinister clown, the living symbol of the Chicken McNugget, is touring American chat shows, spreading the word that meat is murder. To be strictly accurate, the McGreen McTraitor is Geoffrey Giuliano, who claims to be the only actor to have played both Ronald and the Burger King. After a year promoting McDonalds on TV, Giuliano's conscience got the better of him, and he now runs a Cow Protection Community, home to ten calves he bought from a veal farm. He only took such meaty roles in the first place, he says, in order to feed his wife and children - though not, one presumes on Big Macs. Midweek, London September 5, 1991 NOW IT'S RONALD McVEGGIE The actor who played Ronald McDonald has become a crusading vegetarian. "Meat is murder," says Geoffrey Giuliano who held the L40,000-a-year McDonalds job for a decade. Now Giuliano, 38, has set up a "cow protection community" in New York State to try to make amends. Today, London September 18, 1991 BIG MAC CLOWN'S A VEGGIE The clown who starred as Ronald McDonald in McDonald's telly ads has quit to lead a crusade against burgers. Actor Geoffrey Giuliano - famous world-wide as the burgerloving clown - revealed he is a vegetarian! He has pledged to rescue animals from the slaughterhouse "as my way of saying sorry for selling out to concerns who make millions out of murdering them." Giuliano, 38, has bought ten calves who wander free on his "Cow Protection Estate" in New York State. He earned L40,000 a year from McDonald's and had his own staff, including a chef.

London Sun September 18, 1991 20 TASTY NUGGETS ABOUT THE BIG MAC EMPIRE... The original Ronald McDonald has turned vegetarian and is urging children not to eat meat. Geoffrey Giuliano, who played the colorful clown on McDonalds's TV adverts, has quit his job and set up a Cow Protection Community to save cattle from the slaughterhouse. "Meat is murder," American Giuliano said yesterday. "I am only sorry I took on the role of Ronald McDonald before I came to my senses. "I know it sounds crazy, but I tell children now that it's naughty to eat meat." Giuliano, 38, earned over L40,000 a year playing the lovable clown which is still an attraction at McDonald's restaurants all over the world. But he added at his home in Western New York: "I want to apologize for helping to brainwash, young people into doing what I now know is wrong - eating burgers and other meat." The original Ronald McDonald clown, who helped make Big Macs famous, has turned vegetarian. Here are 20 things he knew that you didn't.
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

1.McDonalds sell 18 million Big Macs everyday. 2.The company has 11,300 restaurants and 22 million customers. 3.Ray Kroc, who founded the firm in 1954, died eight years ago. 4.Dale and Tracey Townson held their wedding reception in a Swindon McDonalds. 5.Mickey Mouse ditched McDonalds to promote Burger King. 6.McDonalds have 390 British restaruants. 7.US hostage Edward Tracy asked first for a Big Mac after his release in Lebanon. 8.Staff go on an 18-week course at the Hamburger University in East Finchley, London. 9.When Richard Branson ran out of food at his annual staff party he sent out for 1,700 McDonalds takeaways. 10.The food giants can't get a site in a jet-set shopping complex in Massachusetts, USA. 11.But they won a battle to open in Hampstead High Street, London. 12.Yet another controversial site is on the doorstep of the Tower of London. 13.Pranksters planted cannabis outside a restaurant in Stourbridge. 14.McDonalds are marketing their own ultra low-fat burger. 15.They have invested L50 million to re-cycle all their boxes. 16.They use vegetable oil after a L2 million campaign by heart attack victim Phil Sokolof. 17.Jayne Torvill met her future husband in a McDonalds. 18.Liz Taylor paid L80 for a taxi to fetch a Big Mac in Switzerland. 19.Thelma Bellows, of Michigan, won L5 million in a McDonalds competition, but was disqualified because her daughter worked there.

20.UK chippies have been urged to smarten up to stop the threat from McDonalds. Ian Trueman September 18, 1991

IS MEAT MURDER? Star's Verdict As Mac Clown Backs Veggies Burger clown Ronald McDonald stunned the world by revealing he is a vegetarian and declaring: "meat is murder." Geoffrey Giuliano, 38, made a fortune during his years promoting McDonalds' burgers. Now he says a diet of nuts, fruits, beans, beans and vegetables is better your health. The father-of-four runs a cow sanctuary in New York State said: "I want to educate kids about their relationship with the environment, animal food and the ecological order." The Sun, London September 19, 1991 POWERFUL MEAT SPEECH Although the picture of our anti-meat demo (NOW, July 5-11) was great, the caption beneath it was somewhat misleading. Geoffrey Giuliano's contribution to our protest took the form of a speech - a very powerful and dynamic speech. These days, the former Ronald McDonald and Marvelous Magical Burger King prefers to appear as himself - a successful rock biographer and a crusader for vegetarianism. Now Magazine, Toronto Tony Smith PERFORMING VEGETARIAN Ronald McDonald has turned his back on meat He holds a Master's degree in acting, is a member of Equity and has played many roles through the years - as a courier in the Elizabethan Court (at Studio Arena), Mr. Goldstone in "Gypsy" (at a dinner theater in St. Petersburg, Fla.), even Buddha (in London) where he appeared in "Siddharta" with Who guitarist Pete Townshend. But Lockport resident Geoffrey Giuliano's most successful parts have always been commercial. He has played both Ronald McDonald and the Marvelous Magical Burger King. Those last two roles took talent: Giuliano has been a vegetarian for almost 20 years. Now, completely divorced from the burger industry, Giuliano is giving a major address at the sixth annual Vegetarian Food Fair in Toronto next week sponsored by the Toronto Vegetarian Association. His speech will be called "Confessions of a Corporate Clown." It's quite a change of pace. While making appearances for Burger King, Giuliano donned a medieval costume complete with a red beard and scepter. He sang a bit and danced and did magic tricks throughout New England, even appearing at Rose Kennedy's 90th birthday party. "I blew them away," he recalls. "What you probably don't realize is that all Burger Kings sit around the campfire at night and dream of being Ronald McDonalds. "It's a great leap up the corporate ladder." Further fast-food adventures lay ahead. Giuliano became a Canadian Ronald McDonald in 1980, hired by Vickers and Benson Ltd., an advertising company in Toronto. He was thrilled. "They are very particular who they hire," he explains. "What if you were a child molester, a drug addict or even - God forbid - a vegetarian? I never told them my secret. "But I had eaten my last meat - a Big

Mac, in fact - in Tampa, Florida, in 1972." As Ronald, he says, life was good. Giuliano made personal appearances and opened new restaurants, presenting "The Ronald McDonald Safety Show." He also earned $50,000 a year, had a big office, a bigger expense account and the services of a corporate chef. "The people who run McDonalds don't actually eat the stuff," he explains. "They leave that to the kids. The chef used to bring out the biggest shrimp I ever saw. They looked like chicken legs, for heaven's sake." Vegetarian: Not into the role There were other perks. "Women would offer themselves to me," Giuliano says. "I actually had groupies who followed me from gig to gig." It only took a year and a half, though, for things to sour. Giuliano saw a memo on a manager's desk detailing the fact that the real purpose of Ronald McDonald was "to increase awareness of McDonalds' products, goods and services within the school system." He claims he was shocked. "I thought the purpose of the safety show was to help little children, to prevent them from being hurt," he says. Giuliano spoke up about his feelings. One thing led to another. And, "they gave me a Golden Handshake. They said I was just not 'Mc-Donaldized enough'." Inspired perhaps by the former Marlborough Man who now talks about the evils of smoking under the auspices of the American Cancer Society, Giuliano decided to go public. "I said to myself, 'If I die today, what kind of legacy have I left?' "It was time to clean up my karma if you want to talk in hippie terms. Or to make atonement if you are Catholic." So in his Toronto speech he will talk about "crumbs of compassion." He's also created a brand-new clown character - as yet unnamed - who will be "the antithesis of Ronald McDonald and educate kids about their true relationship to the environment, their animal friends and each other as neighbors in a dreadfully victimized overburdened planet." He wants to present this show in schools. Giuliano is enthusiastic about the new path his life is taking. "I've been an actor since I was 12 though my greatest success has been as a writer," he says. He is the author of several successful books, published in 14 countries, about contemporary music personalities. Born in Olcott Beach 37 years ago, he graduated from Brockport State College, is married and has four children. "My philosophy is simple," he says. "I am not a fanatic. It think I can convince anyone not to eat meat. After all, man is an omnivore; he can subsist as well on fruit, vegetables and whole grains as well as meat." He says every day more information comes out that proves vegetarianism is healthy. "It helps us to avoid cancer and heart disease. "It also helps eliminate environmental damage. Cows need room to graze. A meat-based diet contributes to the destruction of the rain forests, ozone layer depletion, global warming and water pollution." A spokesman for McDonalds of Canada was quick to explain Giuliano had never been an employee of that company. "He was hired by Vickers and Benson," said Simon Halls, communications supervisor. "But Mr. Giuliano has spoken in the past about other issues in Toronto and we believe everyone has a right to his own opinion and to make his own choices. We are happy he is addressing the vegetarian issue, in fact. "We welcome vegetarian customers and we can certainly help them. We are constantly broadening our menu to include salads, fish, chicken and vegetables," said Halls. Giuliano will speak at 2 p.m. Sept. 15 at York Quay Centre 235 Queen's Quay West,

Harbourfront, Toronto. The Food Fair will be held Sept. 15-16 from 11 a.m. to 6 p.m. The program also includes cooking demonstrations, a vegetarian barbecue, exhibits, films and live music. Admission is free. The Buffalo News Lifestyles Janice Okun

A Letter from Geoffrey GiulianoDear Concerned Citizen, For almost two years I went against everything I ever believed in by selling out to the McDonald's corporate juggernaut by playing RONALD McDONALD to thousands of innocent, trusting children. Prior to that, I am sorry to say, I also portrayed THE MARVELLOUS MAGICAL BURGER KING in the Northeastern United States doing a children's magic show promoting the glories of meat eating for the Burger King Corporation. Ten years later, I now realize I have a debt to parents and children everywhere to try and present the truth about the wonderful vegetarian lifestyle to which I owe so much. Toward that end I have developed a brand new show to gently educate kids about their true relationship to the environment, their animal friends, and each other, as neighbours on a dreadfully victimized over-burdened planet. This show (complete with music, magic and fun) is my way of saying sorry for selling out so blatantly to concerns who make their millions off the murder of countless animals and the exploitation of children for their own ends. Although moderate expenses are expected from sponsors, this is a not-for-profit scheme centered on showing young people the peaceful alternatives of the natural, healthful, vegetarian way of life. Peace & Love,

Hunting: The Sport of Killing
"Woe unto the hunters for they shall be hunted. Lo, every creature which God hath made hath its end and purpose." The hunting and killing of animals has become a form of recreation; it is rarely necessary for human survival. Less than seven percent of the U.S. population hunts. Hunting is permitted on 60 percent of U.S. wildlife refuges and in many national forests and state parks. Forty-five percent of hunters do their killing on public lands. On federal land alone (more than half a billion acres), more than 200 million animals are killed every year.

It is illogical that hunters are allowed to kill and maim animals who theoretically "belong" equally to the 93 percent of Americans who don't hunt. But because the state wildlife commissions and federal agencies that regulate hunting are now run by hunters, they perpetuate hunting year after year, regardless of the ecological damage it causes or the objections of nonhunters. Powerful hunting lobbies in 35 states have persuaded lawmakers to enact "hunter harassment" laws that make it illegal for nonhunters to interfere in behalf of animals targeted by hunters, but these laws are being challenged on constitutional grounds. Connecticut's law was found to impact on freedom of speech without a compelling state interest and was struck down by a U.S. appeals court.

"Conserving" What?
"Wildlife management" and "conservation" are euphemisms used to describe programs that ensure that there are always enough animals for hunters to hunt. Every year tax dollars are spent to burn, bulldoze, and otherwise manipulate the environment to support the feeding and breeding of "game" animals, at the expense of the variety of species who share that habitat.

Hunting programs also cause wildlife overpopulation by: • stimulating breeding by conducting "buck only" hunts, which can leave as many as six does per buck; • pen-raising quail, grouse, and pheasants for use as hunters' targets; • transporting raccoons, antelopes, martens, wild turkeys, and other animals from one state to another to bolster populations for hunters; and • exterminating predators like wolves and mountain lions in order to throw prey populations off balance, thereby "justifying" the killing of both "dangerous" and "surplus" animals.

Natural Balance
The ecosystem and food chain form a complex web of interdependencies that, if left alone, provide for the survival of most species. Natural predators help themselves and their prey species to survive by killing only the sickest and weakest animals. Hunters, however, kill any animal that they come across or any animal that would look best mounted above the fireplace--often the large, healthy animals needed to keep the population strong. In fact, hunting creates ideal conditions for accelerated reproduction. The abrupt drop in population leads to less competition among survivors, resulting in a higher birth rate. Even if an unusual disaster caused an animal population to temporarily overpopulate, the group would soon stabilize through natural processes. Starvation and disease are unfortunate, but they are nature's way of ensuring that the strong survive. Shooting an animal because he or she might starve or might get sick is arbitrary and destructive; the healthiest animals find a way to survive and maintain the strength of the entire herd or group. The stress that hunting inflicts on animals--the noise, the fear, and the constant chase-severely restricts their ability to eat adequately and store the fat and energy they need to survive the winter. Hunting also disrupts migration and hibernation, and the campfires, recreational vehicles, trash, and other hunting side effects endanger both wildlife and the environment. For animals like wolves who mate for life and have close-knit family units, hunting can severely harm entire communities. Rampant poaching for "trophy" animals and commercial gain is squeezing vulnerable populations.

The Real Cost
Hunters claim that they pay for "conservation" by buying hunting licenses, duck stamps, etc. But the relatively small amount each hunter pays does not cover the cost of hunting programs or game warden salaries. The public lands many hunters use are supported by taxpayers. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service programs, which benefit hunters, get most of

their funds from general tax revenues, not hunting fees. Funds benefitting "nongame" species are scarce. Hunters kill more animals than recorded tallies indicate. It is estimated that, for every animal a hunter kills and recovers, at least two wounded but unrecovered animals die slowly and painfully of blood loss, infection, or starvation. Those who don't die often suffer from disabling injuries. Because of carelessness, scores of horses, cows, dogs, cats, hikers, and others are wounded or killed each year by hunters. In 1988, 177 people were killed and 1,719 injured by hunters while walking through the woods or on their own property. Before you support a "wildlife" or "conservation" group, ask if it supports hunting. Such groups as the National Wildlife Federation, the National Audubon Society, the Sierra Club, the Izaak Walton League, the Wilderness Society, World Wildlife Fund, and many others are pro-hunting.

Fishing: Agony of the Sea
As Jesus was walking beside the Sea of Galilee, he saw two brothers, Simon called Peter and his brother Andrew. They were casting a net into the sea, for they were fishermen. "Lay down your nets and follow me," Jesus said, "and I will make you fishers of men." At once they left their nets and followed him. Matt 4: 18-20

For millennia, fish have been taken from the world's oceans, lakes, and rivers and killed by humans for food. In recent decades, consumer demand for seafood has increased in the U.S., while new technologies have improved our ability to find and catch fish. Over the latter half of the 20th century, wild catches have increased by approximately 500% to nearly 100 million tons per year. That human beings regard fish as objects of sport or consumption is one of society's many inconsistent attitudes toward animals. Millions of fish annually are subjected to severe suffering and agony by "sport" or "recreational" fishing and by the commercial fishing industry.

The Painful Reality
The poet Byron said it best: "[T]he art of angling [is] the cruelest and the coldest of pretended sports." "Sport" fishing generally refers to fishing with a rod and reel, but may include the use of bows and arrows, small nets, spears, or guns. It survives partly because of the misconception that fish don't feel pain. Fish express pain and

suffering in ways that humans can easily recognize as they gasp and struggle when caught. Scientific reports from around the world substantiate the fact that fish feel pain. For example, a U.K. inquiry into angling and shooting, known as The Medway Report, concluded: "[T]he evidence suggests that all vertebrates including fish... experience similar sensations to a greater or lesser degree in response to noxious stimuli." Fish feel pain out of biological necessity, just as mammals do. Without the ability to feel pain, they would not be able to survive. Hooked fish struggle out of fear and physical pain. Once fish are brought out of their environment and into ours, they begin to suffocate. Often their gills collapse and the swim bladder can rupture due to the sudden change in pressure on their bodies. Anglers also often impale their victims on a "stringer" and dangle them in water so that they won't die quickly and "spoil." Fish who are released can suffer such severe stress from being "played" that they may die even though they manage to swim away or may be so weakened that they are easy prey for predators. The "fight" to survive during catch and release can cause a buildup of lactic acid, making the fish stiff and sore, lessening their chances of survival. Many trout streams are so intensively fished that they are subject to "catch and release" regulations requiring that all fish caught must be let go; the aquatic animals in these streams are likely to spend their entire short lives being repeatedly traumatized and injured. Terry Hill, a former angler, recalls: "On several occasions, I caught fish who had hooks actually embedded in their lips. What had happened was, earlier in that fish's life, a hook had been lost by a fisherman and had embedded itself in the fish's lip. As the fish had grown, the lip had actually grown over the hook. [In some cases,] the hook had actually been swallowed by the fish and become embedded in the fish's stomach. The fish was actually pulled out by the gut. The fisherman would normally become frustrated and would pull the hook out, actually pulling the fish's guts out through the mouth."

Health Food?
Eating the flesh of fish causes health problems for many people. Like the flesh of other animals, it contains excessive amounts of protein, fat, and cholesterol, and can cause food allergies. Naturally occurring toxins (e.g., "red tides") can even be fatal to humans. Fish (including shellfish) can accumulate extremely high levels of chemical residues, as much as 9 million times that of the water in which they live. Fish flesh may store contaminants such as PCB's, strongly suspected of causing cancer, nervous system disorders, and fetal damage; dioxins, also linked to cancer; radioactive substances like

strontium 90; and toxic metals like cadmium, mercury, lead, chromium, and arsenic, which can cause health problems ranging from kidney damage and impaired mental development to cancer.

Commercial Carnage
Today's commercial fishers use vast "factory" trawlers the size of football fields and advanced electronic equipment and satellite communications to track fish. (Large operations also use airplanes or helicopters.) Huge nets, sometimes miles long, stretch across the ocean, swallowing up everything in their path. Factory trawlers are emptying the oceans of sea life at an alarming pace. Thirteen of the 17 major global fisheries are depleted or in serious decline. The other four are "overexploited" or "fully exploited." Nearly one-third of all species of fish have declined in population in the last 15 years and many species may be wiped out in the next decade. The decline in fish populations is leading to increasing conflicts between fishers and wildlife who eat fish. Some fishers intentionally kill or maim seals, birds, and marine mammals whom they perceive as a threat to their catch. Some species are in decline as a result of overfishing. The number of Steller's sea lions in the Bering Sea has declined by 80 percent since the 1950s. In areas of Scotland where sand eel fishing has now been banned due to overfishing, puffins and terns, whose diet is largely composed of sand eels, failed to produce any young between 1984 and 1987. Each day during fishing season, almost 1,700 ships worldwide set more than 20,000 miles of large-scale monofilament plastic gillnet, or driftnet, in the open ocean. Much of this net is abandoned in the sea and kills countless animals beyond those it is intended to catch. An estimated 100,000 seals, whales, and porpoises and a million birds every year become entangled in nets and drown. Because factory fishing nets are so vast, huge numbers of fish and other sea animals are caught "by mistake." Factory trawlers haul up tens of thousands of fish in one pull, keeping the most profitable and dumping the rest back. Each year, this adds up to half a billion pounds of dead and dying fish, a number equal to the combined fish catches of Japan and the U.S. in 1990. Because dolphins habitually swim with schools of yellowfin tuna, the tuna fishing industry "accidentally" drowns at least 20,000 of these sensitive, intelligent marine

mammals in its nets annually. Critically endangered sea turtles are killed incidentally by the thousands by shrimp trawlers. Aquaculture, or fish farming, is now big business. Factory-farmed fish are kept in shallow concrete troughs. The intensive crowding as many as five fish per square foot spreads infection and parasites, so, like their counterparts in the meat industry, factory fish farmers use antibiotics and growth hormones to get more fish fatter faster. Awareness of the sentience of fish is growing. In Germany, the district court in Hamm fined two organizers of an angling contest for cruelty to animals. The judge noted that it's a sad statement about society if "fish are only considered some sort of sports equipment like a football."

The Causation of Eating Fish. British scientists say fish do feel pain. Animal rights activists sound the alarm, but anglers dismiss study. If fish have feelings, what does that mean for anglers?

LONDON, April 30 — Anglers take note — British scientists say that after years of debate, they now have proof that fish feel pain. Animal activists are on the warpath after a study released on Wednesday showed how rainbow trout react to pain and discomfort. They condemned fishing as cruel and demanded an end to the sport — but anglers themselves dismissed the study. THE RESEARCH FOUND that fish have pain receptors in their heads and that subjecting them to noxious substances causes "adverse behavioral and physiological changes." "This fulfills the criteria for animal pain," said Dr. Lynne Sneddon, who headed the research, published Wednesday by the Royal Society, Britain's national academy of science. Bee venom or acetic acid was injected into the lips of trout, while control groups of fish were injected with saline solution or merely handled. The trout injected with venom or acid began to show diverse effects including a "rocking" motion — similar to that seen in stressed higher vertebrates — and those injected with acetic acid began rubbing their lips in the gravel of their tank. "These do not appear to be reflex responses," Sneddon said.

The affected fish also took three times longer to resume feeding activity, compared with those in the control groups. The team from the Roslin Institute and the University of Edinburgh found the fish had polymodal nociceptors — receptors that respond to tissuedamaging stimuli — on their heads. It is the first time these receptors have been found in fish. They have similar properties to those found in amphibians, birds and mammals including humans. Animal activists said the findings showed that fishing is cruel. "We would encourage anglers to lay down their rods. It's ridiculous that in 2003 we are still talking about whether fish feel pain — of course they do," Dawn Carr of the People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals told Sky News. But anglers vowed to keep on enjoying their sport. "It's supposition," said Charles Jardine, director of pro-angling group Gone Fishing. "I don't think the millions of anglers throughout the whole of the world see themselves as cruel individuals." And the flesh of slain beasts in his body will become his tomb. For I tell you truly, he who kills, kills himself, and whoso eats the flesh of slain beasts, eats the body of death." ~ Jesus, The Gospel of Peace "Better is a dinner of herbs where love is, than a stalled ox with hatred within." ~ Proverbs 15:17 "Do not destroy the work of God for the sake of something to eat." ~ Romans 14:20 "He who killeth an ox is as if he slew a man. And when ye spread forth your hands, I will hide mine eyes from you: yea, when ye make many prayers, I will not hear, for your hands are stained with blood, and your mouths are defiled with flesh." ~ God, Isaiah 1:15,66:3

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