WIRELESS POWER TRANSFER

By

Shu-Hui Cheng
David Chavez


ECE 445, SENIOR DESIGN PROJECT
FALL 2011


TA: Ryan May

7 December 2011

Project #16
i

ABSTRACT

This project describes an implementation of a wireless charger for USB consumer devices. The
smart charger is able to automatically sense the presence of a nearby electronic device and detect
its internal battery level. When the battery level of a USB device in proximity is dropped below a
certain preset threshold, the smart charger will be initiated through an ultrasound communication
system and start to charge the device. The charging process will be stopped automatically once
the battery is fully charged. The automated charging capability avoids excessive charging power
and makes the proposed charger eco-friendly. It is also a worry-free charge since users do not
have to plug in a charger.















ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

WIRELESS POWER TRANSFER .............................................................................................. i
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................ 1
1.1 Purpose......................................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Specifications ........................................................................................................................... 1
1.3 Subprojects .................................................................................................................................. 2
1.3.1 Battery Detection Unit ........................................................................................................ 2
1.3.2 Communication Unit........................................................................................................... 2
1.3.3 Antenna Coil Unit ............................................................................................................... 2
1.4 Background on Wireless Power Transfer Theory ................................................................... 3
1.5 Review on Previous Designs ....................................................................................................... 4
CHAPTER 2: DESIGN DESCRIPTIONS ................................................................................. 4
2.1 System Electrical Specifications ................................................................................................ 4
2.2 Initial Design Blocks ................................................................................................................... 5
2.3 Design Procedure ........................................................................................................................ 6
2.3.1 USB Battery Detection ........................................................................................................ 6
2.3.2 Communication ................................................................................................................... 8
2.4 Design Details .............................................................................................................................. 9
2.5 Design Calculations ................................................................................................................... 12
2.5.1 Antenna Coil Design ......................................................................................................... 12
2.5.2 Power Transmission Efficiency ........................................................................................ 14
2.5.3 System Efficiency .............................................................................................................. 14
CHAPTER 3: EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS .......................................................................... 15
3.1 Design Verification .................................................................................................................... 15
3.1.1 USB Battery Detection ...................................................................................................... 15
3.1.2 Communication Testing ................................................................................................... 16
3.1.3 Antenna Coil Testing Results ........................................................................................... 18
3.1.3.1 Waveform Measurements ............................................................................................. 20
3.1.3.2 Range Measurement ...................................................................................................... 22
3.1.3.3 Capacitance and Inductance ......................................................................................... 22
iii

CHAPTER 4: COST ANALYSIS ............................................................................................. 22
4.1 Cost Analysis ............................................................................................................................. 22
4.2 Part List ..................................................................................................................................... 23
CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS ................................................................................................ 23
5.1 Accomplishments ...................................................................................................................... 23
5.2 Ethical Considerations .............................................................................................................. 24
5.3 Conclusions ................................................................................................................................ 24
5.4 Future work / Alternatives ....................................................................................................... 25
REFERENCE………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………26
APPENDIX A Block Diagrams
APPENDIX B Schematics
APPENDIX C Hall Effect Sensor
APPENDIX D Picture







1

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

The idea of wireless power transfer originated from the inconvenience of having too many wires
sharing a limited amount of power sockets. We believe that many people have the same
experience of lacking enough sockets for their electronic devices. Thus by creating a wireless
power transfer system, it would help clean up the clutter of wires around power sockets making
the space more tidy and organized.

1.1 Purpose
The purpose of this project is to produce a platform which can detect the battery level of an
electronic device, such as a cell phone, then be able to automatically charge the device when the
battery level of the device drops below a certain threshold. Our project will use resonant
induction charging which can charge multiple devices at the same time as long as they have the
same resonant frequency.

Benefits include:
 Safe wireless power transfer
 Compatibility with USB devices
 Eliminates power outlet clutter
 Intuitively self-charging

Features include:
 Ability to charge multiple devices
 Automatic detection of battery life and the need for charging

1.2 Specifications
The project was split up into battery detection, communication, and wireless power transfer. For
each indivudal module specification, refer to section 1.3.

2

The Hall Effect sensor detects the battery level through current in the USB and when the current
is above a certain point, meaing low battery level, the sensor sends a signal to trigger the
microcontroller.The microcontroller then sends a signal to the transmitting ultrasound to start the
communication process. This is the battery detection part. The receiving ultrasound is fed with
40 KHz sine wave and the wave is rectified through a bridge rectifier and stablized through a
capacitor. This is the communication part. The stablized DC signal turns on the switch to start
the charging process. After the switch is on, a DC signal is fed into a voltage divider from an AC
to DC power supply to power the osicllator. The oscialltor outputs a 13.56MHz sinusodial wave
to the amplifier for greater power. When the ampfilied power is fed to the transmitting antenna
coil, the transmitting antenna coil induces magnetic field to the the receving antenna coil and the
power is received by the receiving antenna coil. This AC power is then rectified into DC voltage
and stablized through a voltage regulator and then charge the device through USB.


1.3 Subprojects

1.3.1 Battery Detection Unit
The Hall Effect sensor and the PIC microcontroller are charged through four 3V button cell
batteries and lowered through a 5V Voltage regulator. The clock oscillator is connected to the
PIC for sufficient clock pulse and is also powered by button battery.

1.3.2 Communication Unit
The transmitter is an ultrasonic piezoelectric transducer with a signal amplifier. When the battery
level is low, the microcontroller turns on the piezoelectric transducer to transmit an ultrasound
signal to turn on the charging dock. The ultrasound receiver is a piezoelectric microphone with a
signal amplifier which can convert an ultrasound signal into electrical signal and then amplifies
the signal.

1.3.3 Antenna Coil Unit
The loop antenna converts an electrical current into an electromagnetic field. In the near field
region, the magnetic field dominates and therefore electrical energy is transmitted wirelessly
through magnetic field coupling. The loop antenna is built with copper wire gauge 12 at
3

resonance frequency 13.56MHz. An electrical small loop is desired for our project so that it can
be fit into a cellphone form factor. A balun is connected to the loop antenna because the output
of the power amplifier is an unbalanced signal.

The coil/loop antenna is made of an inductor and a capacitor, therefore using the equation below
to calculate its resonance.




1.4 Background on Wireless Power Transfer Theory
The concept of wireless power transfer can be traced back to 1820 when Andre-Marie Ampere
developed his law which states that an electric current produces a magnetic field. Following the
work by Michael Faraday (1830), James C. Maxwell (1864) and Heinrich R. Hertz (1888),
Nikola Tesla experimentally demonstrated wireless power transfer in 1891 [1]. In Tesla’s
experiment, he designed a resonant circuit that is able to couple a high frequency current into
another resonant circuit of a similar structure. With his circuit, he was able to power wirelessly
(without any physical interconnecting conductor) a light bulb.

The theory behind wireless power transfer is already detailed in the Maxwell’s equations,


The last two curl equations state that a time-varying magnetic flux generates an electric field, and
a time-varying electric flux generates a magnetic field. Therefore, if a time-varying electric
current can be generates, the time-varying current will induces a time-varying magnetic field.
4

This time-changing magnetic field can “somehow” be picked up and induce a time-varying
electric field, or an AC voltage across a receiving load. Tesla’s contribution lies on the design of
a circuit than can generate/receive a time-varying magnetic field in free-space. It shall be
emphasized that Tesla’s method is not based on the direct transfer of energy through the use of
propagating electromagnetic wave. Tesla’s method is actually a near-field method, whereas the
use of propagating electromagnetic wave (like transmission of microwave power through an
antenna) is a far-field method. The two methods differ by the transmission range as well as the
angular coverage of the system. Near-field method, though has a shorter range, the energy is
more confined than far-field method.
1.5 Review on Previous Designs
Although Tesla demonstrated wireless power transfer over a century ago, the subject was not
well investigated until researchers at Los-Alamos National Laboratory developed the first
passive radio-identification (RFID) tag [2]. The RFID tag is passive because the chip inside it is
powered by the signal that incidents on it. Later in 2007, as the research group at MIT
demonstrated the wireless powering of a light bulb, the research effort into wireless power
transfer got further boosted [3].
Indeed, in 2006, a senior design project group at Illinois has completed a project entitled
“Wireless Power Adapter for Rechargeable Devices” [4], which was almost a year ahead of the
MIT group. In the project, the group successfully demonstrated that a cell phone can be
wirelessly charged.
CHAPTER 2: DESIGN DESCRIPTIONS

2.1 System Electrical Specifications
Input voltage AC 120 V @ 60 Hz
Output voltage DC 4.2 V
Output current 25 mA
Wireless transfer frequency 13.56 MHz


5

2.2 Initial Design Blocks
The system consists of three major components: battery indicator, transducer/receiver unit,
wireless power transfer unit. The battery indicator outputs a signal when the battery level of the
portable device to be charged reaches a certain threshold value. When the battery of the portable
device is below a certain threshold, the first LED of battery indicator will turn off and then the
edge detector will detect a falling edge. The SR latch holds the signal from the edge detector and
then turns on the switch. The signal from the switch is fed to a transducer that links to a receiver
in the charging dock. The transducer is an ultrasound transducer that emits an ultrasound signal.
After the receiver in the charging dock detects a signal, the signal is fed into a rectifier to convert
it from sine wave to a unipolar signal. The unipolar signal will feed into low pass filter to convert
it into DC voltage. To reduce ripples of the DC voltage, voltage regular is applied, results a flat
DC voltage which can turn on the switch. The switch turns on the power supply unit in the dock
and power is drawn from the AC wall outlet. The 60 Hz AC current is then converted to a higher
frequency that is suitable for wireless power transfer (for example, 13.56 MHz in the ISM band).
The up-converted AC current is then fed to the wireless power transfer unit. The wireless power
transfer unit is implemented by a pair of resonant loop antenna/coil, voltage divider, oscillator
and power amplifier. After the AC-to-DC converter transfers the AC power supply to DC
voltage, the 5 volts will then feed into voltage divider so that its output can reach to the operating
frequency of the oscillator. The following power amplifier will amplifies the output of the
oscillator. The signal is fed to the coil antenna through the balun. The loop antenna/coil is
brought to resonance by capacitive loading and using multiple windings. The received antenna
will pick up the magnetic field and transfer it to electrical signal and then the signal is rectified
into unipolar signal by bridge rectifier. The unipolar signal then is fed into voltage regular to
convert to DC voltage. The output of the voltage regulator is connected to the USB charging port
of the portable device to be charged. When the battery is fully charged, it will light up the last
LED in the battery indicator. This causes a rising edge and is then detected by edge detector.
This will release the latch to turn off the switch and then turn off the Ultrasonic transmitter
which will stop charging the platform. The initial and final block diagrams are displayed in
Appendix A.


6

2.3 Design Procedure

2.3.1 USB Battery Detection
At the beginning, we designed a battery indicator for battery detection. However the
disadvantage part of this is that a wire needs to connect to the battery to detect the voltage drops.
Since the detection on USB port is always 5V, the only choice we have is to connect a wire to
the battery in the cell phone. After testing the current changse in different battery level, we
decided to use PIC micorcontroller with Hall Effect sensor to detect the current since the current
change is inversly proportional to the battery level.
Using a multimeter from the lab we calculated the current as the phone charged. The results are
shown below.
Table 1. Current, voltage, and power at different battery levels while charging
Battery Life (%) Current (A) Voltage (V) Power (W)
> 95 ≈0.05 5.1 ≈0.255
95 ≈0.3 5.1 ≈1.53
90 ≈0.35 5.1 ≈1.785
75 ≈0.65 5.05 ≈3.2825
70 ≈0.7 5.05 ≈3.535
0 ≈0.85 4.7 ≈3.995

The above values for current in Table 2.2.1 varied as it charged, thus only approximations. Also,
the battery life was determined through a phone application. Something that was noted during
these tests was that this battery was charging at about 5V, while our voltage regulator was set at
4.2V. This does not appear to be a problem. In this case the phone would charge at a slightly
lower rate or the current would increase through the USB cord.
Using a Hall Effect sensor to detect the magnetic field created by the current, we would be able
to detect the current of the USB line. The Hall Effect Sensor we chose was the ACS712 [5]
which operates between -5A and +5A outputting a voltage value between 1.5V to 3.5V. The
current and voltage was linearly related with 2.5V corresponding to 0A. However, sensing if the
battery needed charging through the current created another challenge. This challenge was that
the battery sensing would only be possible when the device is charging, thus when the device
7

finally stops charging, there would be no way of sensing the battery and sending out a signal that
it needs to be charged.
The solution to this was to implement a microcontroller that could pulse a 40kHz ultrasound
signal when the device needed to be charged and be able to stop pulsing when the device no
longer needed charging. When the microcontroller detected the device no longer needed
charging it would stop pulsing the 40kHz ultrasound for one minute, then begin pulsing the
signal again to continue charging. The microcontroller would then detect if the battery needed to
continue being charged or still fully charged and act accordingly as stated above. Due to time
constraints, we chose to implement the PIC16F887 [6] which are offered in the lab. Using the
flow chart from Figure 1, we programmed the microcontroller.

Figure 1. MCU Flow Chart

8

2.3.2 Communication
Another modification with respect to the old design is that we eliminated low pass filter and
voltage regulator in the charging platform. After implementing the circuit, we noticed that the
signal after the amplifier is stable enough to turn on the switch by adding a capacitor to reduce
the ripples. The ultrasonic signal was AC coupled, amplified, fully rectified, put through a low
pass filter, and finally a voltage regulator.
Due to the microcontroller being only able to output a 5V peak to peak square wave through its
PWM function, an AC coupling capacitor of 100uF was added in series to eliminate the 2.5VDC
offset at the receiving ultrasonic sensor. The ultrasonic sensors were then tested and found to
have more than a 16 inch reach at 5V peak to peak. Also, as the transmitter frequency varied
away from 40kHz the receivers ability to pick up the signal decreased dramatically. Through
these observations, it can be said that the ultrasonic transmitter/receiver was acting as a bandpass
filter centered around 40kHz. At the same time, the BS270 MOSFET [7] that was going to be
implemented as the switch for the charging dock to transmit power or not was found to need a
gate voltage of 7V or more to fully allow the charging dock to transmit power. These findings
resulted in the elimination of the low pass filter and the voltage regulator, for they were no
longer needed in the design.
Knowing that some noise would still be flowing into the ultrasonic sensor we decided to filter
out the low voltage signals by using a diode bridge to rectify the 40kHz ultrasound signal from
the ultrasound receiver. In this case we decided to go with the 1N5817 Schottky diode because of
its low 0.45V forward voltage compared to the typical 0.7V. Although diodes do exist that have
a lower voltage drop, the 0.45V voltage drop was not high enough to affect the range of the
ultrasonic sensors.
Now that the 40kHz signal was able to be read and properly filter out the low voltage noise from
the ultrasound receiver, the signal had to be amplified above 7V to be able to turn on the
MOSFET. To do this we chose to use the LMC 6482 [8] operational amplifier to boost the
signal. By placing an amplifier, it would amplify not only the signal we needed, but random
noise from the rectifier. By taking this into account, we chose to adjust the resistor values to a
point where the gain would be enough to drive the on signal to rail voltage, but not high enough
9

to let random noise power on the MOSFET to a relevant value. By amplifying the on signal to
rail voltage, we were no longer able to use the 5VDC from the wall converter to power on the op
amp. This resulted in having to power the op amp with three CR1616 [9] in series, which are 3V
button cell batteries.
2.4 Design Details
2.6.1 Battery Detection
The Battery Detection Module was designed so that we could know whether the battery needed
to be charged or not. This module uses an ACS712 Hall Effect sensor and a PIC16F887 as its
primary components. The Hall Effect current sensor had a linear relationship with the voltage
and therefore only needed to be powered and connected to the USB through pin 1 [14]. As for
the PIC16F887, it needed to be programmed following the flow chart seen in Figure 1.
By using the Hall Effect current sensor, we associated each current with a certain voltage value
which then needed to be read by the PIC. From the datasheet and the Hall Effect voltage input to
the PIC, the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) needed to be set up. Since the Hall Effect sensor
was designed to operate between -5A to 5A the voltage output between the 0A to 1A range only
varied from 2.5V to about 2.7V. For this reason, the resolution of the ADC should not be large
and thus calculated with the following equation.

(2.6.1)

With the PIC needing 5V to power on, the reference voltage was set to that same value.
Although up to 16 bits of resolution can be used, we felt that the 10bits was sufficient for
operation at 4.8828mV/bit as calculated in equation (2.6.1). Using the resolution per bit, the
digital assigned value for each voltage could be determined with equation (2.6.2). Referring back
to Table 1 we approximated a turn on/off charging current to be around .5A which corresponded
to a voltage output of about 2.6V.

(2.6.2)

10

Reading the datasheet of the PIC16F887 closely, we decided to use a 20MHz clock oscillator
[15] to make the PIC more stable and accurate. This frequency was then set up to be divided by
32 so as to maintain the speed of the PIC within readable range.
Finally, the PWM signal needed to be set up to drive the 40kHz 5Vpk-pk ultrasound to the
ultrasonic transmitter. To do this it was necessary to set the Timer2 register value, which the
datasheet provided an equation. Plugging in the already known values in equation (2.6.3) the
equation was reduced to equation (2.6.4). Although using a prescalar of 4 or 16 would have also
given a relatively accurate 40kHz signal, prescalar 1 was more exact and therefore was used in
the PIC code. This resulted in a Timer2 value of 124 and a duty cycle of 124/2 = 62.
[ ]

(2.6.3)

[ ] (2.6.4)

The final step in operating the battery detection involved powering the PIC and Hall Effect
sensor. In this case, 4 3V coin cell batteries were connected in series and fed through a KA7805
linear voltage regulator with a 0.33µF capacitor to ground at the input and a 0.1 µF capacitor to
ground at the output. This output was a steady 5V which was necessary to power on the PIC and
Hall Effect sensor.

2.6.2 Communication
The Communication Module was designed to turn the MOSFET on when a 40kHz ultrasound is
detected and off when the 40kHz signal is not transmitting and noise is present. Seeing how the
microcontroller pulsed a 5Vpk-pk 40kHz wave, a 100µF AC coupling capacitor was connected
in series in order to eliminate the 2.5Vdc offset. Due to the .9V forward voltage drop of the diode
bridge rectifier, the receiving ultrasound signal needed to be greater than .9Vpk-pk in order for a
signal to be read on the output of the bridge rectifier.

If the ultrasonic receiver read a signal that was larger than .9V it would then be amplified using
the LMC 6482 as a non-inverting signal amplifier with the following equation.

(

)

(

)

(

)

(2.6.2.1)

11

By setting R
2
to 10kΩ and R
1
to 51.1Ω, we were able to obtain such a high gain. By using this
gain, we were able to increase the range of the ultrasonic sensor. This high gain is able to detect
and amplify the signal to the necessary rail voltage of about 8V from the coin cell batteries as
soon as the voltage surpasses .93559V. In the video posted on the web page the range can be
seen to extend about a foot and a half, which far exceeds the power transmission range. When
the ultrasound transmitter was off, the noise that was seen at the amplifier edge appeared to be
about .1V, which according to equation (2.6.2.1) resulted in about 0.5mV noise signal.

3.6.3 Wireless transmission
After the receiver in the charging dock detects a signal, the signal is fed into a rectifier to convert
it from sine wave to a unipolar signal. The unipolar signal is then fed into an amplifier and a
capacitor which reduces ripples of the DC voltage. The DC voltage turn on the switch and the
switch turns on the power supply unit in the dock and power is drawn from the AC wall outlet.
The 60 Hz AC current is then converted to a higher frequency that is suitable for wireless power
transfer (for example, 13.56 MHz in the ISM band). The up-converted AC current is then fed to
the wireless power transfer unit.










Figure 2. Overview of the wireless power transfer system

As shown in Figure 2, the wireless power transfer unit consists of a pair of resonant loop
antenna, voltage divider, oscillator and power amplifier. After the AC-to-DC converter transfers
the AC power supply to DC voltage, the 5 volts will then feed into voltage divider so that its
Parallel LC
resonant
12

output 2.5V for the operating frequency of the oscillator.This oscillator converts the input signal
into a sine wave with desired frequency at 13.56MHz. The following power amplifier amplifies
the output of the oscillator and then feed to the coil antenna through the balun to balance the
signal. So that the signal can be transferred into the loop antenna is brought to resonance by
capacitive loading and using multiple windings. The loop antenna can convert an electrical
current into an electromagnetic field. In the near field region, the magnetic field dominates and
therefore electrical energy is transmitted wirelessly through magnetic field coupling. The loop
antenna is built with copper wire gauge 12. The received antenna will then pick up the magnetic
field and transfer it to electrical signal and then rectify into unipolar signal by bridge rectifier.
The unipolar signal then is fed into voltage regular to convert it into DC voltage. The output of
the voltage regulator will be around 5V to charge the battery. The diode there is to avoid current
going from battery to the wireless power transfer unit.

When the battery is fully charged, the Hall Effect sensor detects a small current. This causes a
trigger from the sensor to the PIC microcontroller. The PIC microcontroller then turns off the
Ultrasonic transmitter which will stop charging the platform.

2.5 Design Calculations

2.5.1 Antenna Coil Design
()
()

L = inductance (µH)
r = mean radius of coil (cm)
N = number of turns
l = length in cm
N = 6 turns
r = 3.5cm
l = 4cm
 L 2.42μH

13



C = capacitance



 C 56.9pF


(a)

(b)
Figure 3. Fabricated antenna coil

Antenna coil
pair in the
system
14

The fabricated antenna coil is shown in Figure 3. Both the transmitting antenna and receiving
antenna are structured in the same way. Both antennas have the same number of turns.

2.5.2 Power Transmission Efficiency
Efficiency =
Power at the receive loop antenna
Power at the transmit loop antenna

= 6.8 %
2.5.3 System Efficiency
ystem efficiency
Power delivered to battery
Power drawn from wall AC supply

= 6.6 %
2.6 Schematics
Wireless power transfer unit:


Wireless power receive unit:

15

CHAPTER 3: EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

3.1 Design Verification

3.1.1 USB Battery Detection
Since we were unable to draw enough current in the USB for the Hall Effect Sensor to be
tested, using dc power supply current was varied from 0A to 1A while testing the voltage.
This graph is shown in Appendix C.1 and is similar to what is seen in the datasheet [1].
Since the microcontroller could not be fed a voltage from the Hall Effect sensor, we
simulated a high current signal (ie., above 2.6V) and checked the output of pin 17 to verify
the 40kHz 5Vpk-pk signal as shown in Figure 3.1.1.1. The voltage was then decreased and
increased to simulate a low current, full battery, followed by a need for charge. The PIC then
took about one minute before pulsing the 40kHz signal again. This test along with a range
test for the ultrasound can be seen on the course website that simulates the current dropping
after being high for a while, then waiting one minute before checking if the signal needs
charging again.
When initially designed, four 3V coin cell batteries were used to power the PIC. Looking at
the datasheet of these CR1616 batteries, the capacity for these batteries is only 55mAh. By
leaving them plugged in and operating for too long they had accidentally run low and
deemed the communication part of the demo inoperable.

16


Figure 3.1.1.1 PWM signal from PIC16F887
3.1.2 Communication Testing
This part of the project was easy to test by breaking it up into a series of checkpoints and
verifying the correct signal. To start, we set up the ultrasonic sensors approximately 4 inches
apart and powered on the PIC to output the 40kHz wave. In Figure 3.1.2.1 the PWM signal
from the PIC is shown with the output of the ultrasonic receiver. While the 40kHz signal was
still on the output after the bridge rectifier showed that the frequency had doubled to about
79.7kHz and the voltage amplitude of the signal had dropped about .9V to about .547V as
shown in Figure 3.1.2.2. With this received signal from the bridge rectifier it was then
amplified to the positive rail voltage of the batteries powering the op amp which is around
7V and shown in A.5. When the signal was cut off and no signal was being read, then the
output voltage was insignificant as shown in Figure 3.1.2.3.
17


Figure 3.1.2.1 40kHz square wave from PWM with 40kHz output from the Ultrasonic Receiver

Figure 3.1.2.2 Bridge Rectifier Signal from Ultrasonic Receiver
The output of the rectifier after the signal fed from Ultrasound. The two ultrasound sends 40kHz
for communication and the maximum range for two ultrasound to communicate successfully is
about 30cm.
18


Figure 3.1.2.3 Amplified 40kHz signal when in range
The output of amplifier after the signal fed from the rectifier. From this graph , the ripples can be
reduced by adding a capacitor and then is able to turn on the switch.
3.1.3 Antenna Coil Testing Results
3.1.3.1 Testing for Two Coil Antenna

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
0 2 4 6 8
Distance(cm)
V
o
l
t
a
g
e
(
V
)

19



The graph on the left shows its correspondence to the theoretical graph since voltage has a linear
relationship with magnetic field.
3.1.3.2 Resonance Frequency Testing

This graph is a measurement of peak-to-peak voltage at receive coil as the frequency changes
and it confirms the coil resonating at 13.5 MHz.

0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
12.5 13 13.5 14 14.5 15 15.5
Frequency(MHz)
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
m
V
)

20

3.1.4 Waveform Measurements




Results and Graphs











Oscillator output:
1.77 Vpp @13.48 MHz
1
st
amplifier output:
4.44 Vpp
2
nd
amplifier output:
12.74 Vpp
The gain from the 1
st

amplifier output to the
2
nd
amplifier output is
9.2 dB which is slighltly
off form the typical gian
of this amplifier 13dB.
This is due to the
impedance mismatching.
This is measured by
using oscillascope
connecting to the output
o f the 2
nd
amplifier and
the ground of the circuit.
The output of the
Oscillator is not a
perfect sine wave since
we need to add a filter
to filter the noise out.
This is tested by using
oscillascope connecting
to the out put of the
oscillator and ground of
the circuit. The gain
from the oscillator to
the 1
st
amplifier is 8db
which is slightly off
from the typical gain
13dB of this amplifier
since the impedance
matching is saller than
the required impedance
50 ohm
21








Balun output (fed to transmit coil):
33.4 Vpp
Receive coil output:
7.94 Vpp @13.48 MHz
Bridge rectifier output:
The balun converts the
unbalance signal to a
balance and differential
signal. Therefore
theoutput of the balun
seems t ampliy the input
signal from the 2
nd

amplifier. Due to the
small resistance causing
the impedance
mismatching, the power
decreases significantly
as the distance increase
and the grea loss of
power makes the receive
coil receiving around
8Vpp.
The bridge rectifier
rectifies the AC
signal from the
antenna coil to a DC
signal and there is a
loss during this
rectifing process.
Aprroximately each
diode in recitfier
absorbs 1V from the
input signal.
22

3.1.5 Range Measurement
Distance between Two Coil (cm) DC Voltage to the USB (V)
Closest ~0.1 4.17
1 2.88
2 1.26


3.1.6 Capacitance and Inductance
The measurement of the inductance of the antenna coil is around 0.8uH.
The measurement of the capacitance of the antenna coil is

CHAPTER 4: COST ANALYSIS
4.1 Cost Analysis
Labor:
people

Working Hours

23

4.2 Part List
Description Part Price ($) Quantity Total ($)
Charging ANNEX
Battery Detection
Ultrasonic Transmitter 400ST160 7.4 1 7.4
PIC PIC16F887 2.8 1 2.8
5V regulator KA7805 0.65 1 0.65
20MHz oscillator FOX1100 1.1 1 1.1
Coin Cell Batteries FOX1100 0.78 4 3.12
USB Charger
Copper Wire 1ft. 4 1 4
Surface mount RF Schottky Diodes HSMS 2828 1.55 1 1.55
Voltage Regulator MIC5209-4.2YS 2.41 1 2.41
Charging DOCK

0
Communication System

0
Ultrasonic Receiver 400SR160 7.4 1 7.4
Low Pass Filter and Full wave Rectifier LMC6482 2.21 1 2.21
Schottky Diodes 1N5817 0.074 4 0.296
MOSFET BS270 0.0566 1 0.0566
Charging System 0
AC-to-DC Power Supply VOF-15-5 17.46 1 17.46
Voltage Divider LM2681 1.02 1 1.02
Oscillator ASE2-13.500HZ-ET 2.4 1 2.4
Power Amplifier BBA-322-A 17.09 1 17.09
Balun XFA-0201-1WH 2.2 1 2.2
Copper Wire 1ft. 4 1 4
Power Amplifier
568-6212-1-N
599-1026-1-N 24.81 1 24.81
Total

101.9726

Grand total: $25101.9726
CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS


5.1 Accomplishments
The communication unit with ultrasound works in 30cm apart and the battery detection through
current can be adjusted for needed current in the electronic devices. The Wireless transmission
unit can transfer power from annex to platform and light up an LED.
24


5.2 Ethical Considerations
• With this responsibility, not only will we reassure that the final product will meet its
expectations, we will assure it is safe for use and put warning labels on items deemed unsafe
if tampered with
• Through thorough testing of each component, we will guarantee that our performance claims
are accurate
• Ideally this project will further open the door to exploration in wireless power transfer.
5.3 Conclusions
Through the testing of the USB ports, we were able to fix the battery detection problem in the
beginning. We decided to implement the Hall Effect sensor and the PIC microcontroller for
detection so that the circuit is able to detect the battery level through USB port which is a more
convenient way to do it. The battery detection module and the communication unit are able to
work as we designed.
The wireless transmission unit is not able to function as our design that we expect to see the unit
can charge a battery. However, the tranmission does tranfer power the the charging annex that an
LED can be lighted up. The low power transfer efficiency is due to the low current ouput at the
voltage regulator. A good way to increase the current is to add a current amplifier after the
voltage regulator so that the power is sufficient to charge the deive since the output voltage is
great enough in this case (around 4.1V). In order to charge more different devices, a good
impedance matching is recommended. We can construct an impedance matching circuit by
inserting discrete L and C elements between the balun and the output of the final stage amplifier
to achieve 50 ohms impedance.
Overall, the circuit is able to light up an LED and automatical battery detection. We could have
completed the project as we expected if our shipping of the components did not take 3 weeks to
receive all of them.

25

5.4 Future work / Alternatives
For the future work, there are many ways to improve the wireless power transmission. To reduce
the size of the coil, we can make a multilayer coil which can be made planar for easy integration
with device platform. We can also load the antenna coil with ferrite to concentrate the magnetic
field so that the transmission range can be increased. For maximum power tranfer, a 50 
impedance matching is needed. We can construct an impedance matching circuit by inserting
discrete L and C elements between the balun and the output of the final stage amplifier. To
improve the transmission range, we can insert more RF power amplifiers and current amplifier
after voltage regulator. For battery detection improvement, we can try to detect from the output
battery level of cell phone’s operating system.



26

References

[1]. Nikola Tesla, US patent No. 454,622, “System of Electric Lighting.”, 1891.
[2]. http://www.transcore.com/pdf/AIM%20shrouds_of_time.pdf
[3]. http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2007/techtalk51-30.pdf
[4]. J. ukkar and P. H. Hirschboeck, “Wireless Power Adapter for Rechargeable Devices”,
Senior Design Project Report, 2006.
[5]. Allegro Microystems, Inc., “Fully Integrated, Hall Effect-Based Linear Current Sensor IC
with 2.1 kVRMS Isolation and a Low-Resistance Current Conductor”, [Online Document],
October 2011 [cited 5 December 2011], Available HTTP:
http://www.allegromicro.com/Products/Current-Sensor-ICs/Zero-To-Fifty-Amp-Integrated-
Conductor-Sensor-ICs/~/media/Files/Datasheets/ACS712-Datasheet.ashx
[6]. Microchip, “PIC 16F887”, [Online Document], October 2011 [cited 5 December 2011],
Available HTTP:
[7]. Agilent Technologies, “HM-282x urface Mount RF chottky Barrier Diodes”, [Online
Document], May 2009 [cited 26 October 2011], Available HTTP:
http://www.avagotech.com/docs/AV02-1320EN
[8]. MICREL, “MIC5209 500mA Low-Noise LDO Regulator”, [Online Document], August
2000 [cited 26 October 2011], Available HTTP:
http://www.datasheetcatalog.org/datasheet/Micrel/mXsvxvq.pdf
[9]. CUI INC, “eries: VOF-15 Description: AC-DC Power upply”, [Online Document],
September 2011 [cited 26 October 2011], Available HTTP: http://products.cui.com/CUI_VOF-
15-5_Datasheet.pdf?fileID=5125
[10]. National emiconductor, “LM2681 witched Capacitor Voltage Converter”, [Online
Document], January 2003 [cited 26 October 2011], Available HTTP:
http://www.national.com/ds/LM/LM2681.pdf
[11]. ABRACON CORPORATION, “2.5Vdc CMOS Compatible SMD Crystal Clock
Oscillator”, [Online Document], June 2011 [cited 26 October 2011], Available HTTP:
http://www.abracon.com/Oscillators/ASE2series.pdf
[12]. LINX TECHNOLOGIE, “BBA eries RF Amplifier Data Guide”, [Online Document],
January 2003 [cited 26 October 2011], Available HTTP:
27

http://www.linxtechnologies.com/resources/data-guides/bba-xxx-a.pdf
[13]. RFMD, “XFA-0201-1WH 1:1 MT Transformer”, [Online Document], [cited 26 October
2011], Available HTTP: http://www.rfmd.com/CS/Documents/XFA-0201-1WHDS.pdf
[14]. Access Communications PTY LTD, “UB Reference”, [Online Document], July 2007
[cited 5 December 2011], Available HTTP: http://www.accesscomms.com.au/reference/usb.htm
[15]. FOX Electronics, “TTL Clock Oscillator F1100E”, [Online Document], 1998 [cited 5
December 2011], Available HTTP: http://www.brookdale.com/Fox/f1100e.pdf



1

APPENDIX A: BLOCK DIAGRAMS
Figures A.1 and A.2 show the transition between our initial design and our final design.

Figure A.1 Initial block diagram from Design Review

2


Figure A.2 Final block diagram

3

APPENDIX B: SCHEMATICS

B.1 Charging Platform Final Schematic
4


B.2 Charging Annex Final Schematic

5

APPENDIX C Battery Testing and Communication plots and pictures

Figure C.1 Hall Effect Sensor Output Voltage vs. Input Current

2.45
2.5
2.55
2.6
2.65
2.7
2.75
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
V
)

Current (A)
6

APPENDIX D Pictures

Picture D.1 The entire circuit with 3 major parts: battery detection unit, communication unit and
wireless transfer unit

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