You are on page 1of 74

Certificate

This is certify that the project report as entitled Principle of Yoga


Therapy & Gatrointestinal Disorder ,Asthama,Nasal Allergy is
sumitted y !ashmi !ameshrao Durag"ar for the partial fulfillment
of the re#uirement of $%A&Yogshstra' Part (( e)amination of *A+(
*,-G,!, *A-(DA. .AN.*!(T ,N(+/!.(TY%
(t is 0riginal Yoga therapy project carried under super1ision &
Guidance of Dr% Dinesh -anje2ar .ir 2ith Dr% +idya -anje2ar
3adam,3rs%.2ar"ar 3adam & *alidas .ans"rit ,ni1ersity for
project 2or"%
Guide Co Guide
Dr.Dinesh Lanjewar Dr.Vidhya
Lanjewar

Under Guidance of
Mrs.Swarkar
Internal Exainer External Exainer
Place 4Nagpur
Date4
.r%No .uject Page No%
!rinci"le of #o$a %hera"y
5 Yama, Niyama, 3itaahara 6 Codes of Conduct & Diet regulations
7% *riya 6 Cleansing practices
8% Asana 6 Physical Postures
9% Pranayama 6 $reathing techni#ues
:% 3udra; andha 6 Neuro<muscular loc"s
=% !ela)ation
>% Dhyana 6 3editation
Gastro Intestinal Disorder
5% Aout Disease
7 0ral disease
8% esophageal disease
9% Gastric disease
:% (ntestinal disease
:%5 .mall intestine
:%7 -arge intestine
:%8 !ectum and anus
=% Accessory digesti1e gland disease
=%5 ?epatic
=%7 Pancreatic
=%8 Gallladder and iliary tree
>% Yoga<!emedy to Gastro intestinal diseases
&sthaa ' (asal &ller$y
5% The respiratory .ystem
7% Allergy
8 Asthama
9% Yoga<!emedy to respiratory illness
The Human Nervous System
The Conscious & Unconscious Nervous System
The Central Nervous System
Types and Causes of Brain Damage
IQ Creativity and !earning
Sleep and Dreams " Neurology
Sigmund #reud and Carl $ustav %ung
&sychiatry & 'ental Disorders
Human &erception " Neurology
Neurology of Illusions
The Human Nervous System
The nervous system is essentially a (iologicalinformation high)ay and is responsi(le for controlling all the
(iological processes and movement in the (ody and can also receive information and interpret it via electrical
signals )hich are used in this nervous system
It consists of the Central Nervous System *CNS+ essentially the processing area and the &eripheral Nervous
System )hich detects and sends electrical impulses that are used in the nervous system
The Central Nervous System (CNS)
The Central Nervous System is effectively the centre of the nervous system the part of it that processes the
information received from the peripheral nervous system, The CNS consists of the (rain and spinal cord, It is
responsi(le for receiving and interpreting signals from the peripheral nervous system and also sends out
signals to it either consciously or unconsciously, This information high)ay called the nervous system consists
of many nerve cells also -no)n as neurones as seen (elo),
The Nerve Cell
.ach neurone consists of a nucleus situated in the cell (ody )here outgro)ths called processes originate
from, The main one of these processes is the a/on )hich is responsi(le for carrying outgoing messages from
the cell, This a/on can originate from the CNS and e/tend all the )ay to the (ody0s e/tremities effectively
providing a high)ay for messages to go to and from the CNS to these (ody e/tremities,
Dendrites are smaller secondary processes that gro) from the cell (ody and a/on, 1n the end of these
dendrites lie the a/on terminals )hich 0plug0 into a cell )here the electrical signal from a nerve cell to the target
cell can (e made, This 0plug0 *the a/on terminal+ connects into a receptor on the target cell and can transmit
information (et)een cells
The Way Nerve Cells Communicate
The 23ll"1r"None"!a)2 applies to nerve cell communication as they use an on 4 off signal *li-e an digital signal+
so that the message can remain clear and effective from its travel from the CNS to the target cell or vice versa,
This is a factor (ecause 5ust li-e electricity signals the signal fades out and must (e (oosted along its 5ourney,
But if the message is either 6 or 7 *i,e,+ on or off the messages are a(solute,
Classification of Neurones
Interneurones " Neurones lying entirely )ithin the CNS
Afferent Neurones " 3lso -no)n as sensory neurones these are specialised to send impulses to)ards the
CNS a)ay from the peripheral system
Efferent Neurones " These nerve cells carry signals from the CNS to the cells in the peripheral system
The ne/t page ela(orates on ho) the nervous system )or-s,,,
The Conscious & Unconscious Nervous System
The Central Nervous System is argua(ly the most important part of the (ody (ecause of the )ay it controls the
(iological processes of our (ody and all conscious thought, Due to their importance they are safely encased
)ithin (ones namely the cranium protecting the (rain and the spine protecting thespinal cord
Brain Divisions
There are three main components of the (rain namely the (rainstem cere(ellum and the fore(rain, These are
ela(orated upon (elo)
The Brainstem " The (rainstem is the connection (et)een the rest of the (rain and the rest of the
central nervous system, This part of the (rain )as the first to (e found in the evolutionary chain though has
developed over time and via evolution to develop into the t)o other components, It is primarily concerned
)ith life support and (asic functions such as movement thus meaning that more advanced processes are left
to the more evolved areas of the (rain as e/plained (elo),
The Cere(ellum " Consisting of t)o hemispheres the cere(ellum is primarily concerned )ith
movement and )or-s in partnership )ith the (rainstem area of the (rain and focuses on the )ell (eing and
functionality of muscles, The structure can (e found (elo) the occipital lo(e and ad5acent to the (rainstem
The #ore(rain " The fore(rain lies a(ove the (rainstem and cere(ellum and is the most advanced in
evolutionary terms, Due to its comple/ity more info is divulged a(out this part of the (rain (elo)
The Forebrain
The fore(rain has many activities that it is responsi(le for and is divided into many component parts, The (elo)
list ela(orates on the localised areas of the fore(rain and their functions,
The Hypothalamus " 3 section of the (rain found ne/t to the thalamus that is involved in
many regulatoryfunctions such as osmoregulation and thermoregulation, The hypothalamus has a degree of
control over thepituitary gland another part of the (rain situated ne/t to it and also
controls sleeping patterns eating and drin-ing and speech, The hypothalamus is also responsi(le for the
secretion of 3DH *3nti"Diuretic Hormone+ via its neurosecretory cells
The Cere(rum " The cere(rum is the largest part of the human (rain and the part responsi(le for
intelligence and creativity and also involved in memory, The 0grey matter0 of the cere(rum is the cere(ral
corte/ the centre that receives information from the thalamus and all the other lo)er centres in the (rain,
The Cere(ral Corte/ " &art of the cere(rum this part of the (rain deals )ith almost all of the higher
functions of an intelligent (eing, It is this part of (rain that deals )ith the masses of information incoming from
the periphery nervous system furiously instructing the (rain of )hat is going on inside its (ody and the e/ternal
environment, It is this part that translates our nervous impulses into understanda(le 8uantifia(le feelings and
thoughts, So important is the cere(ral corte/ that it is su("divided into 9 parts e/plained (elo)
1. #rontal !o(e " #ound at the front of the head near the temples and forehead the frontal lo(e is
essential to many of the advanced functions of an evolved (rain, It deals )ith voluntary muscle movements and
deals )ith more intricate matters such as thought and speech
:, &arietal !o(e " Situated (ehind the frontal lo(e this section deals )ith spatial a)areness in the
e/ternalenvironment and acts as a receptor area to deal )ith signals associated )ith tough,
3. Temporal !o(e " The temporal lo(es are situated in parallel )ith the ears they serve the ears (y
interpreting audio signals received from the auditory canal
9, 1ccipital !o(e " This is the smallest of the four lo(e components of the cere(rum and is responsi(le
in interpreting nerve signals from the eye at the (ac- of the (rain
The a(ove components of the (rain )or- in tandem in a healthy (rain, Ho)ever in some cases the (rain can
(e in5ured in some )ay causing (rain damage, The ne/t page loo-s at ho) (rain damage can affect the )ay
)e operate,
The Central Nervous System
yelin Sheath
'yelin is a su(stance that forms the myelin sheath associated )ith nerve cells, This sheath is a layer
of phospholipids that increases the conductivity of theelectrical messages that are sent through the cell,
Diseases such as multiple sclerosis are a result in a lac- of this myelin sheath )ith the resultant effect (eing
that the conductivity of signals is much slo)er severely decreasing the effectiveness of the nervous system in
sufferers,
In total there are 9; main nerves that (ranch of the CNS to the peripheral nervous system *the peripheral
system is the nervous system outside the CNS, These are the efferent neurones that carry signals a)ay from
the CNS to the peripheral system,
Somatic Nervous System
These efferent fi(res are divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system, The
somatic fi(res are responsi(le for the voluntary movement of our (ody i,e, movement that you consciously
thought a(out doing,
The Autonomic Nervous System
The autonomic nervous system incorporates all the impulses that are done involuntarily and are usually
associated )ith essential functions such as (reathing heart(eat etc, Ho)ever this type of system can further
(e (ro-en do)n into the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems )hich -eep one another in chec- in a form
of negative feed(ac- such as the release of insulin and glucagon in sugar control of the (lood,
3ll of the actions e/ecuted (y the autonomic nervous system are unconsciously done,
These informational pulses e/ecuted in our nervous system allo) us to do our daily functions, The processing
of this information is done in the CNS the (rain a highly developed mass of nerve cells, The inner )or-ings of
the (rain are investigated on the ne/t page,
ypes and Causes of Brain Damage
Causes of Brain Dama!e
The (rain is a highly specialised tissue far more comple/ than today0s :6st century supercomputers, Due to
this magnificent comple/ity even the slightestdamage can have e/treme conse8uences
The (rain can (e damaged in a variety of )ays and depending on the areas damaged and the severity of the
damage it can prove relatively harmless to fatal, Some causes of (rain damage are (elo)
$enetics " 3 dysfunctional hereditary gene could have (een passed on to the offspring )hich
prevented the full development of a healthy (rain
Blo) " 3 sufficient (lo) to the head can supercede the s-ulls defences *particularly at the temple+ and
can therefore allo) structural damage to occur,
!ac- of Blood " !ac- of (lood to the (rain can cause severe pro(lems for the cells associated )ith the
(rain, 3 human can survive for four minutes )ithout o/ygen (efore the (rain damage (ecomes so severe there
is no realistic chance of survival, 3 stro-e is an event )here there is a (lood shortage to the (rain )hich is
caused (ya (lood clot
Tumours " Cancer has (een a ma5or non"infectious disease more recognised over the last decade
and more cases of (rain tumours are detected no)adays due to more sophisticated techni8ues,
The continued gro)th of these cancerous cells puts pressure on the (rain )hich can cause a (lood clot or
directly cause (rain damagedue to the pressure of the tumour pressing against it,
Ty"es of Brain Dama!e
3phasia " 3 type of (rain damage affecting communication capa(ilities in the organism, This can
range from the ina(ility to construct a sentence either in voice or on paper to the ina(ility to recognise speech
itself, This sort of damage focuses on the frontal lo(e area of the (rain
<isual Neglect " This is )here the information collated on one half of the (rain is re5ected and
therefore the sufferer can only operate )ith one eye (ecause the part of the (rain receiving visual
information from the other eye is not functioning properly, In some cases sufferers may only (e a(le
to paint half a painting or eat one half of a plate of food as they are una)are of the information a(out the other
half of the environment,
3mnesia " 1r retrograde amnesia this sort of damage affects the memory caused (y degeneration 4
damage in the frontal lo(e, Sufferers have memory (lan-s )hen relating to past e/periences in their life
3gnosia " This unusual sort of (rain damage is )here sufferers still have the complete a(ility
to see around them *unli-e visual neglect+ though cannot relate their surroundings in a 8uantifia(le )ay i,e,
they fail to recognise a familiar surrounding person or o(5ect due to a malfunction in recalling past
events involving the surrounding person or o(5ect
The ne/t page of this neurology tutorial ta-es a further loo- at the (rain and the capa(ilities of it to (e used to
our advantage in daily life,
Creativity and !earning
Evolution of #uman Intelli!ence
Human0s as evolved as )e are are the species most capa(le of e/hi(iting intelligence and creativity due to
our capacity to learn, It is nothing short of remar-a(le ho) )e intelligent (eings came to e/ist,
Humans evolved from similar primates millions of years ago )ho )ere (etter e8uipped to survive in
their environment *more info in the .volution of Species tutorial+
This -no)ledge gained has (een passed on *greatly accelerated (y advances in the )ay )e
communicate+
3s a conse8uence offspring of our species have harnessed previously accumulated *and )ritten+
-no)ledge to our advantage,
1ur technological and intellectual po)ers has allo)ed us to e/ist in huge num(ers and ta-e
advantage of our environment in remar-a(le )ays " continuing to attempt to make best use of what we know or
could possibly know,
In light of this sno)(all effect and as a continuation of the last (ulleted point= )e have (een a(le to sustain a
risinghuman population over time, In turn in accordance )ith natural selection more intelligent people may (e
favoured (y our gene pool over the long term thus ma-ing the species as a )hole more intelligent as a
collective,
Ability to $earn
Humans continually learn from one another and share their information over generations, This is )hat ma-es
our species a cut a(ove the rest, 1ur a(ility to understand the value of learning and to do so gives us
the tool to understand more and more a(out ourselves and our environment,
Intelli!ence
Intelligence offers us the means to utilise a(stract ideas and implement reasoning in our arguments to 5ustify
the things )e do, The degree of intelligence in people is varia(le to a num(er of factors li-e genetics the local
environment and even diet,
It is important to note the follo)ing
>no)ledge is the accumulation and retention of information
Intelligence is the a(ility to analyse this information to the persons advantages
i,e, ans)ering correctly in the e/am (y ma-ing (est use of the information you -no),
Creativity
It does not ta-e an intelligent person to (e creative, It is a popular (elief that technically minded people tend to
(e less creative as others )ho in turn are not very technically minded,
It is (elieved that creativity is made possi(le in the right (rain hemisphere )hile the technical information is
processed in the left hemisphere, It is )orth noting that many of the famous creative individuals all the famous
)riters artists etc )ere generally intelligent,
Creativity can rely on a num(er of factors some of )hich are named (elo)
'otivation " If the person has no desire to utilise their creativeness they )ill not (e creative,
%ersonality " &eoples0 uni8ue inclinations and differences in decision ma-ing ma-es our choice of
creativity uni8ue and thus the decisions made in creating something )ill (e different )ith each person,
%arental &ui'ance " &arents provide the crucial lin- for learning (et)een (irth and maturity therefore
their learning and partly their creativity and intelligence )ill ru( off on those they learn as )ill the people that
you communicate )ith,
'oreover to the last factor it is )orth considering that any factor in the e/ternal environment )ill (e a factor in
your creativity, If someone offered you a million euros to )rite a good poem you may instantaneously feel
more creative?
'oving one step on from the conscious learning mind )e loo- at the unconscious mind on the ne/t page= via
sleep and dreams,
Sleep and Dreams " Neurology
The Fallin! Aslee" %rocess
During the day )hen )e are a a)a-e our (ody and (rain are )or-ing tirelessly to operate our (ody and as
they do so they slo)ly degrade at a cellular level, 3 person )ill get progressively tired from this (odily
(rea-do)n (ecause sleep gives us a chance to (uild and replace the cells and resolve our end of day
homeostatic im(alances,
If you have not slept for a )hile the decrease in theefficiency and effectiveness of the (ody (egins to tell and
you )ill (egin to feel sleepy as less energy is availa(le to you, The longer )e stay up the more li-ely )e )ill fall
asleep,
If certain conditions prevail li-e a state of inactivity or rela/ing in a )arm dry place there is a higher chance of
usfalling asleep due to the prefera(le conditions for us to do so,
Slee"in!
@hen )e fall asleep our meta(olic rate slo)s do)n as does almost every other function across the (oard )e
effectively go into hi(ernation mode, The amount of adrenaline in our (ody promoting a)areness decreases
and somatotrophin controlling the repair of tissue is more a(undant, This is effectively the healing process of
sleep that revitalises us,
The synaptic nerve connections containing recollections a(out the last day are also strengthened hence )hen
you )a-e up the more you realised you did yesterday, This localised area of memory is )hat many of
our dreamsconsist of our past recollections of the day, Aou may have dreamt something t)ice and on the
second time it )as only (ecause you thought of that first dream the day (efore you dreamt the second, @hen
loo-ing at it li-e this it confirms the reason )hy you have the same dream your conscious thought a(out it
accesses that part of the (rain thus 0remem(ers0 it at night,
Dreams Tellin! the Future(
Some people (elieve that dreams tell the future, But )hen B (illion people dream every night there is (ound to
(e a coincidence )hen there are trillions of dreams every year, Those people )ho have dreamed of )inning
the lotteryare one of many,
I personally don0t (elieve they tell the future though could (e a sign of intelligence the (rain interpreting
possi(ilities in the future from the -no)ledge of past events, This )ould (e perfectly via(le as it )ould (e a
case of the (rain 0adapting0 to its future environment and preparing you for the possi(le future,
)E
C.' stands for rapid eye movement and is the points in time during sleep )here dreams occur, They occur
after periods of deep sleep,
3s suggested rapid eye movement occurs in C.' )hile the (ody is under a state of paralysis,
In effect our (rain ta-es us on a virtual reality of our thoughts )hile it steadily repairs itself for the ne/t day, The
most vivid and deepest dreams )ill occur in the periods (et)een C.' )hile dro)sy almost conscious
dreamsoccur in the C.' stages,
*ur Environment *utsi'e Slee"
Have you ever had a dream )here someone ne/t door is playing music and the music is conveniently )oven
into your dreamD This is your (ody trying to lessen the chances of you a)a-ening )hile it is repairing itself,
Ho)ever sleep deprived people go into much deeper sleep and may not detect such noises, The overriding
point here is that sleep is essential to the (ody and that there are compensations made to our usual (ehaviour
*li-e paralysis+ that ena(les our (ody to do )hat is re8uired for itself,
Slee" Troubles
The older )e get the less sleep )e re8uire, Teenagers (uc- the trends in needing the most sleep of us all due
to the gro)th spurt occurring at pu(erty that involves a larger turnover of materials and energy,
Ne)(orn (a(ies can sleep up to B7E of the day
3dults re8uire around F hours minimum
@ith aging the amount re8uired is less due to the gradual degeneration of parts of the (ody that are
not getting repaired,
Certain drugs are availa(le to induce sleeping (ut most are addictive and re8uire controlled and responsi(le
use, The ne/t page loo-s at the )or-s of famous past neurologists li-e Carl $ustav %ung and Sigmund #reud
)ho (oth actively pursued the )ay in )hich )e dream as a career in neurology,
Sigmund #reud and Carl $ustav %ung
Si!mun' Freu'
Sigmund #reud )as a famous 3ustrian neurologist*6GHB " 6I;I+ )ho stated that dreams )ere the
manifestation of the unconscious, Himself and another neurologist Carl $ustav %ung *6GFH " 6IB6+ (elieved
that conscious (ehaviour derived from unconscious instinct )hich e/ists in all of us,
These unconscious thoughts )ere lin-ed to suppressed se/ual desires, #reud identified three -ey stages in
the life cycle )here the child0s tendency to focus on se/ual areas of the (ody changes over time,
The first year of a (a(ies life they focus on the mothers mammarian gland for feeding *the (reast+,
This state is succeeded from age 6 to ; )here the toddler is learning ho) to control their (o)el and
concentrates on their anal region,
This is in turn succeeded (y attention to)ards the reproductive organs at age ; to 9,
#reud argued that in these stages of unconscious repression male children are attracted to their mother and
(ecome instinctively aggressive to)ards the father, The father reciprocally in5ects fear into the child (y his male
superiority thus insinuating an essence of competition and games theory, .ither )ay the prime fact is that the
child must gro) to (ecome se/ually active and mature,
Differences Bet+een ,un! an' Freu'
%ung (elieved that a persons0 (rain consisted of the forgotten conscious and a cluster of memories of past
e/periences, He came to this hypothesis (y studying humans suffering a mental disorder )ho had
hallucinations that )ere not a past recollection thus %ung deduced there )as another component of the (rain
adding to this illusion i,e, the unconscious,
#reud on the other hand (elieved that the (rain )as divided into three parts
The ID " Inherited natural instincts
The .go " The sense of self and attitude to)ards the e/ternal environment
The Superego " Superimposed values deriving from society and parental guidance
.ssentially this method of thin-ing and approaching the (rain from a self"realiJing approach neurology has
(een a(le to develop since these initial theories (y %ung and #reud,
It also paved advance in psychiatry and methods of psycho therapy to com(at mental disorders )hich are
investigated upon in the ne/t page,
&sychiatry & 'ental Disorders
The Definition of a'
@hen someone says 0mental disorder0 many people associate it )ith madness, This is truly not the case, There
are many states of mental disorder )here the sufferer is not clinically insane,
'adness essentially means psychosis (eing out of touch of reality and not (eing capa(le of rational and
controlled thought, 3 person in psychosis may have irrational delusions and hallucinations that illustrate this
im(alance in conscious and unconscious mind,
Schi-o"hrenia
SchiJophrenia can effect mind and personality, In severe cases the sufferer (elieves that 0something0 is
in controlof them and that they have lost control of themselves,
Affective oo' Disor'er
'ania " The sufferer is overly cheerful and can possi(ly appear as if they are under the influence of
alcohol
Depression " @here (eliefs and perceptions are unclear & unproductive
*bsessive . Com"ulsive Disor'er
3 mental disorder )here the sufferer must undergo meticulous rituals to live their normal lives such as
e/cessive)ashing of their s-in and hair, If the sufferer cannot do this an/iety -ic-s in as a 2)ithdra)al
symptom2 until they allo) themselves to repeat the ritual once again,
%hobias
3 preconception a(out a given situation or o(5ect such as a fear of sna-es or (eing in high places, 3
huge diversityof pho(ias have (een discovered (y psychologists,
De"ressive Neurosis
The classic case of depression )here depression is the primary emotion in the sufferer resulting in a lac- of
motivation and self"esteem to (e functional in society and to themselves,
%hysical Disease
Not only can the )ay the (rain )or-s (e affected (y disorders the physical components of the (rain can also
(e infected (y pathogens, Dementia is such a physical disease )here the long term memory of the sufferer is
(ro-en do)n due to the physical components of the (rain and nervous synapses degrading over time,
Dru!s for ental Disor'ers
3 )ide range of drugs are no) availa(le for those suffering mental disorders though many people face a
psychological (arrier )hen it comes to ta-ing medication to cure their 0soul0, 'any of the drugs used prove
addictive )hich in turn can also lead to further psychiatric pro(lems,
Ho)ever psychotherapy is an alternative communicative treatment designed to get the patient to understand
themselves (etter, This can (e com(ined )ith drugtherapy and eventually develop the patients0 self realisation
into a moreproductive and positive state, 'edicinal neurology is a fairly ne) area of medicine,
The ne/t page investigates perception and t)o people can interpret the same thing differently,
Human &erception " Neurology
3 (etter understanding of human perception unloc-s the -ey to ho) the mind )or-s an advantage
)hen )or-ing )ith people )ith mental disorders,
/isual %erce"tion
The (elo) diagram is an illustration as to ho) )e all perceive things in our o)n )ay as suggested (y the
theories of %ung and #reud,
What 'o you see( Some of you may see : green faces other may see a )hite chalice, This all depends on
your initial perception of the diagram, Aou may find that )hen you loo- again you may see the
alternate picture )ithin the diagram,
The retina is responsi(le for interpreting visual stimuli such as this )here it pic-s up photons of light via the
6;7 777 777 rods and cones situated on it, In pre"modern times it )as considered that visual perception simply
encompassed )hat )as seen (y the eye on the outside, Thise/ternal stimuli )ould in turn produce a
perception in the (rain caused (y the stimulus,
Ho)ever this is not the case, 'odern medicine no) -no)s that information from the eye is simply a
physiological process that does not actually process the signals it receives, This 5o( is left to the (rain,
The senses simply act as a messenger to a particular stimulus that is seen the (rain is the place
)here e/ternal stimuli is actually perceived,
S"atial A+areness
The environment )e live in is ; dimensional thus needs a ; dimensional approach to understand it, Therefore
height )idth and depth must (e measured (y the eyes
This is possi(le (y the )ay the eyes are situated on the head, &ositioned either side of the nose the right eye
pic-s up vision on the left hemisphere and the left eye pic-s up vision in the right hemisphere,
The images pic-ed up (y the eyes are pro5ected upside do)n on each of the eyes retina, This in turn )ill (e
perceived the right )ay up (y the (rain )hich )ill interpret the three dimensional values of the e/ternal
environment at a very fast and effective rate
Illusions
It is possi(le for the physiological state of the (rain to deviate from the norm and trigger of a mental
disorder, Illusions are a symptom of suchmental disorders,
Ho)ever it is also possi(le to tric- the senses of a perfectly functional healthy (rain, Illusions such as the
mirages that appear in the desert are caused (y tric-ery of the sense leading us to (elieve there is something
out there )hen this is not the case,
'ore information on illusions and mind tric-ery are loo-ed upon in the ne/t page
Neurology of Illusions
3s mentioned in the previous page loo-ing at perception illusions can (e caused (y mental disorders or
misreading of the sensory data o(tained from the e/ternal environment, #or no) )e )ill loo- at the latter,
/isual Illusions
3m(iguities
These types of illusions are perceptual changes leaving the (rain to second guess the actual position of the
elusive o(5ect
Distortions
Caused (y sensory misreadings in regards to spatial a)areness )here the illusion can (e distorted from its
actual location and outline
&arado/es
Illusions that appear to (e logically impossi(le and therefore ma-es the (rain unsure if it is real or really an
illusion
#ictions
This is caused (y the (rain 0assuming0 the presence of hard surfaces )here there may (e not therefore
creating the potential of an illusion if the (rains assumption a(out the e/ternal o(5ect in incorrect
Au'itory Illusions
1ne of the most famous of these is the Doppler .ffect )here a noise situated close to you has a higher pitch of
sound to that of a sound further a)ay, This is the case if you should and get an echo your voice )ill al)ays
sound more deeper in the echo )hen it is not, This is effectively an illusion,
The Stu'y of Illusions
3s mentioned previously the study of illusions in sufferers of a mental disorder provide a -ey into a deeper
understand of )hat is going on in their mind, This is also the case of a healthy (rain )here the study of
illusions can )or- out the parameters at )hich it compensates for its o)n lac- of a(ility
It is )orth noting that the trial and error the sensory organs function have they are as 5ust as foolproof as any
other conscious human thought, The chances of your (rain not (eing a(le to guess the spatial distance of a
fuJJy moving o(5ect is the same lac- in a(ility that people have in typing an error free document
In this sense illusions is studying the perceptions and sensory data o(tained from situations )here human
error prevents us from seeing the real deal,
3nother interesting fact is that the retina is read (y the (rain every 7,6 seconds meaning that you are not
actually seeing anything in the present (ut something that 5ust happened a fraction of a second ago,
The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, sensory organs, and all of
the nerves that connect these organs with the rest of the body. Together, these
organs are responsible for the control of the body and communication among its
parts. The brain and spinal cord form the control center known as the central
nervous system (CNS), where information is evaluated and decisions made. The
sensory nerves and sense organs of the peripheral nervous system
(NS) monitor... conditions inside and outside of the body and send this
information to the CNS. !fferent nerves in the NS carry signals from the control
center to the muscles, glands, and organs to regulate their functions.
Nervous System Anatomy
Nervous Tissue
The ma"ority of the nervous system is tissue made up of two classes of cells#
neurons and neuroglia.
Neurons. Neurons, also known as nerve cells, communicate within the body
by transmitting electrochemical signals. Neurons look $uite different from other
cells in the body due to the many long cellular processes that e%tend from their
central cell body. The cell body is the roughly round part of a neuron that contains
the nucleus, mitochondria, and most of the cellular organelles. Small tree&like
structures called dendrites e%tend from the cell body to pick up stimuli from the
environment, other neurons, or sensory receptor cells. 'ong transmitting processes
called a%ons e%tend from the cell body to send signals onward to other neurons or
effector cells in the body.
There are ( basic classes of neurons# afferent neurons, efferent neurons, and
interneurons.
). Afferent neurons. *lso known as sensory neurons, afferent neurons transmit
sensory signals to the central nervous system from receptors in the body.

+. Efferent neurons. *lso known as motor neurons, efferent neurons transmit
signals from the central nervous system to effectors in the body such as muscles
and glands.

(. Interneurons. ,nterneurons form comple% networks within the central
nervous system to integrate the information received from afferent neurons and to
direct the function of the body through efferent neurons.
Neuroglia. Neuroglia, also known as glial cells, act as the -helper. cells of
the nervous system. !ach neuron in the body is surrounded by anywhere from / to
/0 neuroglia that protect, feed, and insulate the neuron. 1ecause neurons are
e%tremely speciali2ed cells that are essential to body function and almost never
reproduce, neuroglia are vital to maintaining a functional nervous system.
Brain
The brain, a soft, wrinkled organ that weighs about ( pounds, is located inside the
cranial cavity, where the bones of the skull surround and protect it. The
appro%imately )00 billion neurons of the brain form the main control center of the
body. The brain and spinal cord together form the central nervous system (CNS),
where information is processed and responses originate. The brain, the seat of
higher mental functions such as consciousness, memory, planning, and voluntary
actions, also controls lower bodyfunctions such as the maintenance of respiration,
heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion.
Spinal Cord
The spinal cord is a long, thin mass of bundled neurons that carries information
through the vertebral cavity of the spine beginning at the medulla oblongata of
the brain on its superior end and continuing inferiorly to the lumbar region of the
spine. ,n the lumbar region, the spinal cord separates into a bundle of individual
nerves called thecauda equina (due to its resemblance to a horse3s tail) that
continues inferiorly to thesacrum and coccyx. The white matter of the spinal cord
functions as the main conduit of nerve signals to the body from the brain. The grey
matter of the spinal cord integrates refle%es to stimuli.
Nerves
Nerves are bundles of a%ons in the peripheral nervous system (NS) that act as
information highways to carry signals between the brain and spinal cord and
the rest of the body. !ach a%on is wrapped in a connective tissue sheath called the
endoneurium. ,ndividual a%ons of the nerve are bundled into groups of a%ons
called fascicles, wrapped in a sheath of connective tissue called the perineurium.
4inally, many fascicles are wrapped together in another layer of connective tissue
called the epineurium to form a whole nerve. The wrapping of nerves with
connective tissue helps to protect the a%ons and to increase the speed of their
communication within the body.
Afferent, Efferent, and Mixed Nerves. Some of the nerves in the body are
speciali2ed for carrying information in only one direction, similar to a one&way
street. Nerves that carry information from sensory receptors to the central nervous
system only are called afferent nerves. 5ther neurons, known as efferent nerves,
carry signals only from the central nervous system to effectors such as muscles
and glands. 4inally, some nerves are mi%ed nerves that contain both afferent and
efferent a%ons. 6i%ed nerves function like +&way streets where afferent a%ons act
as lanes heading toward the central nervous system and efferent a%ons act as
lanes heading away from the central nervous system.

Cranial Nerves. !%tending from the inferior side of the brain are )+ pairs of
cranial nerves. !ach cranial nerve pair is identified by a 7oman numeral ) to )+
based upon its location along the anterior&posterior a%is of the brain. !ach nerve
also has a descriptive name (e.g. olfactory, optic, etc.) that identifies its function
or location. The cranial nerves provide a direct connection to the brain for the
special sense organs, muscles of the head, neck, and shoulders, the heart, and
the 8, tract.

Spinal Nerves. !%tending from the left and right sides of the spinal cord are
() pairs of spinal nerves. The spinal nerves are mi%ed nerves that carry both
sensory and motor signals between the spinal cord and specific regions of the
body. The () spinal nerves are split into 9 groups named for the 9 regions of the
vertebral column. Thus, there are : pairs of cervical nerves, )+ pairs of thoracic
nerves, 9 pairs of lumbar nerves, 9 pairs of sacral nerves, and ) pair of
coccygeal nerves. !ach spinal nerve e%its from the spinal cord through the
intervertebral foramen between a pair of vertebrae or between the C1 vertebra
and the occipital bone of the skull.
eninges
The meninges are the protective coverings of the central nervous system (CNS).
They consist of three layers# the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater.
Dura mater. The dura mater, which means -tough mother,. is the thickest,
toughest, and most superficial layer of meninges. 6ade of dense irregular
connective tissue, it contains many tough collagen fibers and blood vessels. ;ura
mater protects the CNS from e%ternal damage, contains the cerebrospinal fluid
that surrounds the CNS, and provides blood to the nervous tissue of the CNS.

Arachnoid mater. The arachnoid mater, which means -spider&like mother,.
is much thinner and more delicate than the dura mater. ,t lines the inside of the
dura mater and contains many thin fibers that connect it to the underlying pia
mater. These fibers cross a fluid&filled space called the subarachnoid space
between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater.

Pia mater. The pia mater, which means -tender mother,. is a thin and
delicate layer of tissue that rests on the outside of the brain and spinal cord.
Containing many blood vessels that feed the nervous tissue of the CNS, the pia
mater penetrates into the valleys of the sulci and fissures of the brain as it covers
the entire surface of the CNS.
Cerebrospinal !luid
The space surrounding the organs of the CNS is filled with a clear fluid known as
cerebrospinal fluid (CS4). CS4 is formed from blood plasma by special structures
calledchoroid plexuses. The choroid ple%uses contain many capillaries lined with
epithelial tissue that filters blood plasma and allows the filtered fluid to enter the
space around the brain.
Newly created CS4 flows through the inside of the brain in hollow spaces called
ventricles and through a small cavity in the middle of the spinal cord called the
central canal. CS4 also flows through the subarachnoid space around the outside of
the brain and spinal cord. CS4 is constantly produced at the choroid ple%uses and
is reabsorbed into the bloodstream at structures called arachnoid villi.
Cerebrospinal fluid provides several vital functions to the central nervous system#
). CS4 absorbs shocks between the brain and skull and between the spinal
cord and vertebrae. This shock absorption protects the CNS from blows or sudden
changes in velocity, such as during a car accident.

+. The brain and spinal cord float within the CS4, reducing their apparent
weight through buoyancy. The brain is a very large but soft organ that re$uires a
high volume of blood to function effectively. The reduced weight in cerebrospinal
fluid allows the blood vessels of the brain to remain open and helps protect the
nervous tissue from becoming crushed under its own weight.

(. CS4 helps to maintain chemical homeostasis within the central nervous
system. ,t contains ions, nutrients, o%ygen, and albumins that support the
chemical and osmotic balance of nervous tissue. CS4 also removes waste products
that form as byproducts of cellular metabolism within nervous tissue.
Sense "rgans
*ll of the bodies3 many sense organs are components of the nervous system. <hat
are known as the special senses=vision, taste, smell, hearing, and balance=are all
detected by speciali2ed organs such as the eyes, taste buds, and olfactory
epithelium. Sensory receptors for the general senses like touch, temperature, and
pain are found throughout most of the body. *ll of the sensory receptors of the
body are connected to afferent neurons that carry their sensory information to the
CNS to be processed and integrated.
Nervous System #hysiology
!unctions of the Nervous System
The nervous system has ( main functions# sensory, integration, and motor.
Sensory. The sensory function of the nervous system involves collecting
information from sensory receptors that monitor the body3s internal and e%ternal
conditions. These signals are then passed on to the central nervous system (CNS)
for further processing by afferent neurons (and nerves).

Integration. The process of integration is the processing of the many
sensory signals that are passed into the CNS at any given time. These signals are
evaluated, compared, used for decision making, discarded or committed to
memory as deemed appropriate. ,ntegration takes place in the gray matter of the
brain and spinal cord and is performed by interneurons. 6any interneurons work
together to form comple% networks that provide this processing power.

Motor. 5nce the networks of interneurons in the CNS evaluate sensory
information and decide on an action, they stimulate efferent neurons. !fferent
neurons (also called motor neurons) carry signals from the gray matter of the CNS
through the nerves of the peripheral nervous system to effector cells. The effector
may be smooth, cardiac, or skeletal muscle tissue or glandular tissue. The effector
then releases a hormone or moves a part of the body to respond to the stimulus.
$ivisions of the Nervous System
Central Nervous System
The brain and spinal cord together form the central nervous system, or CNS. The
CNS acts as the control center of the body by providing its processing, memory,
and regulation systems. The CNS takes in all of the conscious and subconscious
sensory information from the body3s sensory receptors to stay aware of the body3s
internal and e%ternal conditions. >sing this sensory information, it makes decisions
about both conscious and subconscious actions to take to maintain the body3s
homeostasis and ensure its survival. The CNS is also responsible for the higher
functions of the nervous system such as language, creativity, e%pression,
emotions, and personality. The brain is the seat of consciousness and determines
who we are as individuals.
#eripheral Nervous System
The peripheral nervous system (NS) includes all of the parts of the nervous
system outside of the brain and spinal cord. These parts include all of the cranial
and spinal nerves, ganglia, and sensory receptors.
Somatic Nervous System
The somatic nervous system (SNS) is a division of the NS that includes all of
thevoluntary efferent neurons. The SNS is the only consciously controlled part of
the NS and is responsible for stimulating skeletal muscles in the body.
Autonomic Nervous System
The autonomic nervous system (*NS) is a division of the NS that includes all of
the involuntary efferent neurons. The *NS controls subconscious effectors such as
visceral muscle tissue, cardiac muscle tissue, and glandular tissue.
There are + divisions of the autonomic nervous system in the body# the
sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.
Sympathetic. The sympathetic division forms the body3s -fight or flight.
response to stress, danger, e%citement, e%ercise, emotions, and embarrassment.
The sympathetic division increases respiration and heart rate, releases adrenaline
and other stress hormones, and decreases digestion to cope with these situations.

Parasympathetic. The parasympathetic division forms the body3s -rest and
digest. response when the body is rela%ed, resting, or feeding. The
parasympathetic works to undo the work of the sympathetic division after a
stressful situation. *mong other functions, the parasympathetic division works to
decrease respiration and heart rate, increase digestion, and permit the elimination
of wastes.
%nteric Nervous System
The enteric nervous system (!NS) is the division of the *NS that is responsible for
regulating digestion and the function of the digestive organs. The !NS receives
signals from the central nervous system through both the sympathetic and
parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system to help regulate its
functions. ?owever, the !NS mostly works independently of the CNS and continues
to function without any outside input. 4or this reason, the !NS is often called the
-brain of the gut. or the body3s -second brain.. The !NS is an immense system=
almost as many neurons e%ist in the !NS as in the spinal cord.
Action #otentials
Neurons function through the generation and propagation of electrochemical
signals known as action potentials (*s). *n * is created by the movement of
sodium and potassium ions through the membrane of neurons.
esting Potential. *t rest, neurons maintain a concentration of sodium ions
outside of the cell and potassium ions inside of the cell. This concentration is
maintained by the sodium&potassium pump of the cell membrane which pumps (
sodium ions out of the cell for every + potassium ions that are pumped into the
cell. The ion concentration results in a resting electrical potential of &@0 millivolts
(mA), which means that the inside of the cell has a negative charge compared to
its surroundings.
!hreshold Potential. ,f a stimulus permits enough positive ions to enter a
region of the cell to cause it to reach &99 mA, that region of the cell will open its
voltage&gated sodium channels and allow sodium ions to diffuse into the cell. &99
mA is the threshold potential for neurons as this is the -trigger. voltage that they
must reach to cross the threshold into forming an action potential.
Depolari"ation. Sodium carries a positive charge that causes the cell to
become depolari2ed (positively charged) compared to its normal negative charge.
The voltage for depolari2ation of all neurons is B(0 mA. The depolari2ation of the
cell is the * that is transmitted by the neuron as a nerve signal. The positive ions
spread into neighboring regions of the cell, initiating a new * in those regions as
they reach &99 mA. The * continues to spread down the cell membrane of the
neuron until it reaches the end of an a%on.
epolari"ation. *fter the depolari2ation voltage of B(0 mA is reached,
voltage&gated potassium ion channels open, allowing positive potassium ions to
diffuse out of the cell. The loss of potassium along with the pumping of sodium ions
back out of the cell through the sodium&potassium pump restores the cell to the
&99 mA resting potential. *t this point the neuron is ready to start a new action
potential.
Synapses
* synapse is the "unction between a neuron and another cell. Synapses may form
between + neurons or between a neuron and an effector cell. There are two types
of synapses found in the body# chemical synapses and electrical synapses.
Chemical synapses. *t the end of a neuron3s a%on is an enlarged region of
the a%on known as the a%on terminal. The a%on terminal is separated from the
ne%t cell by a small gap known as the synaptic cleft. <hen an * reaches the a%on
terminal, it opens voltage&gated calcium ion channels. Calcium ions cause vesicles
containing chemicals known as neurotransmitters (NT) to release their contents by
e%ocytosis into the synaptic cleft. The NT molecules cross the synaptic cleft and
bind toreceptor molecules on the cell, forming a synapse with the neuron. These
receptor molecules open ion channels that may either stimulate the receptor cell to
form a new action potential or may inhibit the cell from forming an action potential
when stimulated by another neuron.
Electrical synapses. !lectrical synapses are formed when + neurons are
connected by small holes called gap "unctions. The gap "unctions allow electric
current to pass from one neuron to the other, so that an * in one cell is passed
directly on to the other cell through the synapse.
yelination
The a%ons of many neurons are covered by a coating of insulation known as myelin
to increase the speed of nerve conduction throughout the body. 6yelin is formed
by + types of glial cells# Schwann cells in the NS and oligodendrocytes in the CNS.
,n both cases, the glial cells wrap their plasma membrane around the a%on many
times to form a thick covering of lipids. The development of these myelin sheaths
is known as myelination.
6yelination speeds up the movement of *s in the a%on by reducing the number of
*s that must form for a signal to reach the end of an a%on. The myelination
process begins speeding up nerve conduction in fetal development and continues
into early adulthood. 6yelinated a%ons appear white due to the presence of lipids
and form the white matter of the inner brain and outer spinal cord. <hite matter is
speciali2ed for carrying information $uickly through the brain and spinal cord. The
gray matter of the brain and spinal cord are the unmyelinated integration centers
where information is processed.
&eflexes
7efle%es are fast, involuntary responses to stimuli. The most well known refle% is
the patellar refle%, which is checked when a physicians taps on a patient3s knee
during a physical e%amination. 7efle%es are integrated in the gray matter of the
spinal cord or in the brain stem. 7efle%es allow the body to respond to stimuli very
$uickly by sending responses to effectors before the nerve signals reach the
conscious parts of the brain. This e%plains why people will often pull their hands
away from a hot ob"ect before they reali2e they are in pain.
!unctions of the Cranial Nerves
!ach of the )+ cranial nerves has a specific function within the nervous system.
The olfactory nerve (,) carries scent information to the brain from the
olfactory epithelium in the roof of the nasal cavity.
The optic nerve (,,) carries visual information from the eyes to the brain.
5culomotor, trochlear, and abducens nerves (,,,, ,A, and A,) all work
together to allow the brain to control the movement and focus of the eyes.
The trigeminal nerve (A) carries sensations from the face and innervates the
muscles of mastication.
The facial nerve (A,,) innervates the muscles of the face to make facial
e%pressions and carries taste information from the anterior +C( of the tongue.
The vestibulocochlear nerve (A,,,) conducts auditory and balance
information from the ears to the brain.
The glossopharyngeal nerve (,D) carries taste information from the posterior
)C( of the tongue and assists in swallowing.
The vagus nerve (D), sometimes called the wandering nerve due to the fact
that it innervates many different areas, -wanders. through the head, neck, and
torso. ,t carries information about the condition of the vital organs to the brain,
delivers motor signals to control speech and delivers parasympathetic signals to
many organs.
The accessory nerve (D,) controls the movements of the shoulders and
neck.
The hypoglossal nerve (D,,) moves the tongue for speech and swallowing.
Sensory #hysiology
*ll sensory receptors can be classified by their structure and by the type of
stimulus that they detect. Structurally, there are ( classes of sensory receptors#
free nerve endings, encapsulated nerve endings, and speciali2ed cells. 4ree nerve
endings are simply free dendrites at the end of a neuron that e%tend into a tissue.
ain, heat, and cold are all sensed through free nerve endings. *n encapsulated
nerve ending is a free nerve ending wrapped in a round capsule of connective
tissue. <hen the capsule is deformed by touch or pressure, the neuron is
stimulated to send signals to the CNS. Speciali2ed cells detect stimuli from the 9
special senses# vision, hearing, balance, smell, and taste. !ach of the special
senses has its own uni$ue sensory cells=such as rods and cones in the retina to
detect light for the sense of vision.
4unctionally, there are / ma"or classes of receptors# mechanoreceptors,
nociceptors, photoreceptors, chemoreceptors, osmoreceptors, and
thermoreceptors.
Mechanoreceptors. 6echanoreceptors are sensitive to mechanical stimuli
like touch, pressure, vibration, and blood pressure.

Nociceptors. Nociceptors respond to stimuli such as e%treme heat, cold, or
tissue damage by sending pain signals to the CNS.

Photoreceptors. hotoreceptors in the retina detect light to provide the
sense of vision.

Chemoreceptors. Chemoreceptors detect chemicals in the bloodstream and
provide the senses of taste and smell.
#smoreceptors. 5smoreceptors monitor the osmolarity of the blood to
determine the bodyEs hydration levels.

!hermoreceptors. Thermoreceptors detect temperatures inside the body and
in its surroundings.
Central nervous system
#rom @i-ipedia the free encyclopedia
"CNS" redirects here. For other uses, see CNS (disambiguation).
Central nervous system
Schematic diagram showing the central nervous system in pink,
peripheral in yellow.
Latin Systema nervosum centrale
pars centralis systematis nervosi
[1]
The central nervous system *CNS+ is the part of the nervous systemconsisting of the (rain and spinal
cord, It is opposed to the peripheral nervous system *or &NS+ )hich is composed of nerves leading to
and from the CNS often through 5unctions -no)n as ganglia,
Kcitation neededL
The central nervous system is so named (ecause it integrates information it receives from and
coordinates and influences the activity of all parts of the (odies of (ilaterally symmetric animalsMthat is
all multicellular animals e/ceptsponges and radially symmetric animals such as 5ellyfish and it contains
the ma5ority of the nervous system,
Kcitation neededL
3rgua(ly many consider theretina
K:L
and the optic
nerve *:nd cranial nerve+
K;LK9L
as )ell as the olfactory nerves *6st+ and olfactory epithelium
KHL
as parts of
the CNS synapsing directly on (rain tissue )ithout intermediate ganglia, #ollo)ing this classification
theolfactory epithelium is the only central nervous tissue in direct contact )ith the environment )hich
opens up for therapeutic treatments,
KHL
The CNS is contained )ithin the dorsal cavity )ith the (rain in
the cranial cavity and the spinal cord in the spinal cavity, In verte(rates the (rain is protected (y the
s-ull )hile the spinal cord is protected (y the verte(rae (oth enclosed in themeninges,
KBL
Contents
KhideL
6 Structure
o 6,6 @hite and gray matter
o 6,: Spinal cord
6,:,6 Cranial nerves
o 6,; Brain
6,;,6 Brain stem
6,;,: Cere(ellum
6,;,; Diencephalon
6,;,9 Cere(rum
o 6,9 Difference from the peripheral nervous system
: Development
o :,6 .volution
; Diseases
9 See also
H Ceferences
B ./ternal lin-s
Structure0e'it1
ain article! Neuroanatomy
The central nervous system consists of the t)o ma5or structures the (rain and spinal cord, The (rain is
encased in the s-ull and protected (y the cranium,
KFL
The spinal cord is continuous )ith the (rain and
lies caudaly to the (rain
KGL
and is protected (y theverte(ra,
KFL
The spinal cord reaches from the (ase of the
s-ull continues through
KFL
or starting (elo)
KIL
the foramen magnum
KFL
and terminates roughly level )ith the
first or second lum(ar verte(ra
KGLKIL
occupying the upper sections of the verte(ral canal,
K9L
White an' !ray matter0e'it1
ain articles! "ray matter and #hite matter
Dissection of a (rain )ith la(els sho)ing the clear division (et)een )hite and gray matter,
'icroscopically there are differences (et)een the neurons and tissue of the central nervous system and
the peripheral nervous system,
Kcitation neededL
The central nervous system is divided in )hite and gray matter,
KGL
This can also (e seen macroscopically on (rain tissue, The )hite matter constitutes
of a/ons and oligodendrocytes )hile the gray matter chiefly constitutes of neurons, Both tissues include
a num(er of glial cells *although the )hite matter contains more+ )hich are often referred to as
supporting cells of the central nervous system, Different forms of glial cells have different functions some
acting almost as scaffolding for neuro(lasts to clim( during neurogenesis such as (ergmann glia )hile
others such as microglia are a specialiJed form of macrophage involved in the immune system of the
(rain as )ell as the clearance of various meta(olites from the (rain tissue,
K9L
3strocytesmay (e involved
)ith (oth clearance of meta(olites as )ell as transport of fuel and various (eneficial su(stances to
neurons from the capillaries of the (rain, Upon CNS in5ury astrocytes )ill proliferate causing gliosis a
form of neuronal scar tissue lac-ing in functional neurons,
K9L
The (rain *cere(rum as )ell as mid(rain & hind(rain+ consists of a corte/ composed of neuron"(odies
constituting gray matter )hile internally there is more )hite matter )hich form tracts and commissures,
3part from cortical gray matter there is also su(cortical grayma-ing up a large num(er of different nuclei,
KGL
S"inal cor'0e'it1
ain article! Spinal cord
#rom and to the spinal cord are pro5ections of the peripheral nervous system in the form
of spinal nerves *sometimes segmental nerves
KFL
+, The nerves connect the spinal cord )ith s-in 5oints
muscles etc, and allo) for the transmission of efferent motor as )ell asafferent sensory signals and
stimuli,
KGL
This allo)s for voluntary and involuntary motions of muscles as )ell as the perception of
senses, 3ll in all ;6 spinal nerves pro5ect from the (rain stem
KGL
some forming ple/a as they (ranch out
such as the= (rachial ple/a sacral ple/a etc,
KFL
.ach spinal nerve )ill carry (oth sensory and motor
signals (ut the nerves synapse at different regions of the spinal cord either from the periphery to
sensory relay neurons )hich relay the information to the CNS or from the CNS to motor neurons )hich
relay the information out,
KGL
Diagram of the columns and of the course of the fi(ers in the spinal cord, Sensory synapses occur in the dorsal spinal
cord *a(ove in this image+ and motor nerves leave through the ventral *as )ell as lateral+ horns of the spinal cord as
seen (elo) in the image,
Different )ays in )hich the central nervous system can (e activated )ithout engaging the corte/ and ma-ing us
a)are of the actions, The a(ove e/ample sho)s the process in )hich the pupil dilates during dim light activating
neurons in the spinal cord, The second e/ample sho)s the constriction of the pupil as a result of the activation of the
.ddinger"@estphal nucleus *a cere(ral ganglion+,
The spinal cord relays information up to the (rain through spinal tracts through the 2final common
path)ay2
KGL
to the thalamus and ultimately to the corte/, Not all information is relayed to the corte/ and
does not reach our immediate consciousness (ut is instead transmitted only to the thalamus )hich sorts
and adapts accordingly, This in turn may e/plain )hy )e are not constantly a)are of all aspects of our
surroundings,
Kcitation neededL

Schematic image sho)ing the locations of a fe) tracts of the spinal cord,

Cefle/es may also occur )ithout engaging more than on neuron of the central nervous system as in the (elo)
e/ample of a short refle/,
Cranial nerves0e'it1
3part from the spinal cord there are also peripheral nerves of the &NS that synapse through
intermediaries or ganglia directly on the CNS, These 6: nerves e/ist in the head and nec- region and are
called cranial nerves, Cranial nerves (ring information to the CNS to and from the face as )ell as to
certain muscles *such as the trapeJius muscle )hich is innervated (y accessory nerves
KFL
as )ell as
certain cervical spinal nerves+,
KFL
T)o pairs of cranial nerves= the olfactory nerves and the optic nerves
K:L
are often considered structures of
the central nervous system, This is (ecause they do not synapse first on peripheral ganglia (ut directly
on central nervous neurons, The olfactory epithelium is significant in that it consists of central nervous
tissue e/pressed in direct contact to the environment allo)ing for administration of certain
pharmaceuticals and drugs,
KHL
'yelinated peripheral nerve at top central nervous neuron at (ottom
Brain0e'it1
ain article! $rain
Costrally to the spinal cord lies the (rain,
KGL
The (rain ma-es up the largest portion of the central nervous
system and is often the main structure referred to )hen spea-ing of the nervous system, The (rain is the
ma5or functional unit of the central nervous system, @hile the spinal cord has certain processing a(ility
such as that of spinal locomotion and can process refle/es the (rain is the ma5or processing unit of the
nervous system,
Kcitation neededL
Brain stem0e'it1
ain article! $rain stem
The (rain stem consists of the medulla the pons and the mid(rain, The medulla can (e referred to as an
e/tension of the spinal cord and its organiJation and functional properties are similar to those of the
spinal cord,
KGL
The tracts passing from the spinal cord to the (rain pass through here,
KGL
Cegulatory functions of the medulla nuclei include control of the (lood pressure and (reathing, 1ther
nuclei are involved in (alance taste hearing and control of muscles of the face andnec-,
KGL
The ne/t structure rostral to the medulla is the pons )hich lies on the ventral anterior side of the (rain
stem, Nuclei in the pons includepontine nuclei )hich )or- )ith the cere(ellum and transmit information
(et)een the cere(ellum and the cere(ral corte/,
KGL
In the dorsal posterior pons lie nuclei that have to do
)ith (reathing sleep and taste,
KGL
The mid(rain *or mesencephalon+ is situated a(ove and rostral to the pons and includes nuclei lin-ing
distinct parts of the motor system among others the cere(ellum the (asal ganglia and (oth cere(ral
hemispheres, 3dditionally parts of the visual and auditory systems are located in the mid (rain including
control of automatic eye movements,
KGL
The (rain stem at large provides entry and e/it to the (rain for a num(er of path)ays for motor and
autonomic control of the face and nec- through cranial nerves
KGL
and autonomic control of the organs is
mediated (y the tenth cranial *vagus+ nerve,
K9L
3 large portion of the (rain stem is involved in such
autonomic control of the (ody, Such functions may engage the heart (lood vessels pupillae among
others,
KGL
The (rain stem also hold the reticular formation a group of nuclei involved in (oth arousal and alertness,
KGL
Cerebellum0e'it1
ain article! Cerebellum
The cere(ellum lies posteriorly or dorsally and rostrally to the pons, The cere(ellum is composed of
several dividing fissures and lo(es, Its function includes posture and coordination of movements of eyes
lim(s as )ell as that of the head, #urther it is involved in motion that has (een learned and perfected
though practice and )ill adapt to ne) learned movements,
KGL
Despite its previous classification as a motor
structure the cere(ellum also displays connections to areas of the cere(ral corte/ involved in language
as )ell as cognitive functions, These connections have (een recently sho)n through anatomical studies
such as f'CI and &.T,
KGL
The (ody of the cere(ellum holds more neurons than any other structure of the (rain including that of the
larger cere(rum *or cere(ral hemispheres+ (ut is also more e/tensively understood than other structures
of the (rain and includes fe)er types of different neurons,
KGL
It handles and processes sensory stimuli
motor information as )ell as (alance information from the vesti(ular organ,
KGL
Dience"halon0e'it1
ain articles! %iencephalon, &halamus, and 'ypothalamus
The t)o structures of the diecephalon )orth noting are the thalamus and the hypothalamus, The
thalamus acts as a lin-age (et)een incoming path)ays from the peripheral nervous system as )ell as
the optical nerve *though it does not receive input from the olfactory nerve+ to the cere(ral hemispheres,
&reviously it )as considered only a 2relay station2 (ut it is engaged in the sorting of information that )ill
reach cere(ral hemispheres *neocorte/+,
KGL
3part from its function of sorting information from the periphery the thalamus also connects the
cere(ellum and (asal ganglia )ith the cere(rum, In common )ith the aforementioned reticular system the
thalamus is involved in )a-efullness and consciousness such as though the SCN,
KGL
The hypothalamus engages in functions of a num(er of primitive emotions or feelings such
as hunger thirst and maternal (onding, This is regulated partly through control of secretion
of hormones from the pituitary gland, 3dditionally the hypothalamus plays a role inmotivation and many
other (ehaviors of the individual,
KGL
Cerebrum0e'it1
ain articles! Cerebrum, Cerebral corte(, $asal ganglia, )mygdala, and 'ippocampus
The cere(rum of cere(ral hemispheres ma-e up the largest portion of the human (rain, <arious
structures com(ine forming the cere(ral hemispheres among others the corte/ (asal ganglia amygdala
and hippocampus, The hemispheres together control a large portion of the functions of the human (rain
such as emotion memory perception and motor functions, 3part from this the cere(ral hemispheres
stand for the cognitive capa(ilities of the (rain,
KGL
Connecting each of the hemispheres is the corpus callosum as )ell as several additional commissures,
KGL
1ne of the most important parts of the cere(ral hemispheres is the corte/ )hich is made up of gray
matter covering the surface of the (rain, #unctionally the cere(ral corte/ is involved in planning and
carrying out of everyday tas-s,
KGL
The hippocampus is involved in storage of memories the amygdala plays a role in perception and
communication of emotion )hile the (asal ganglia play a ma5or role in the coordination of voluntary
movement,
KGL
Difference from the "eri"heral nervous system0e'it1
3 map over the different structures of the nervous systems in the (ody sho)ing the CNS &NS and .NS,
This differentiates the central nervous system from the peripheral nervous system )hich consists of
neurons a/ons and Sch)ann cells, Sch)ann cells and oligodendrocytes have similar functions in the
central respectively peripheral nervous system (oth acting tomyelinate a/ons )hich acts as a form of
insulation allo)ing for (etter and faster proliferation of electrical signals along the nerves, 3/ons in the
central nervous system are of varying length sometimes very short *(arely a fe) millimeters+ and do not
need the same degree of isolation as peripheral nerves do, Some peripheral nerves can (e over 6m in
length such as the nerves to the (ig toe, To save energy and to ma-e signals move at sufficient speed
myelination is needed,
The )ay in )hich the Sch)ann cells and oligodendrocytes myelinate nerves differ, @hile a Sch)ann cell
only myelinates a single a/on and completely surrounds the cell it may also myelinate many a/ons
especially )hen concerning small nerves,
KFL
The oligodendrocytes )ill instead most commonly myelinate
several a/ons and )ill do this (y sending out thin pro5ections of their cell mem(rane )hich envelope and
enclose the a/on,
Develo"ment0e'it1
Top= CNS as seen in a median section of a H )ee- old em(ryo,
Bottom= CNS seen in a median section of a ; month old em(ryo,
ain article! Neural de*elopment
During early development of the verte(rate em(ryo a longitudinal groove on theneural plate gradually
deepens and the ridges on either side of the groove *theneural folds+ (ecome elevated and ultimately
meet transforming the groove into a closed tu(e the ectodermal )all of )hich forms the rudiment of the
nervous system, This tu(e initially differentiates into three vesicles *poc-ets+N the prosencephalon at the
front the mesencephalon and (et)een the mesencephalon and the spinal cord the rhom(encephalon,
*By si/ )ee-s in the human em(ryo+ the prosencephalon then divides further into
thetelencephalon and diencephalon= and the rhom(encephalon divides into
themetencephalon and myelencephalon,
3s a verte(rate gro)s these vesicles differentiate further still, The telencephalon differentiates into
among other things the striatum thehippocampus and the neocorte/ and its cavity (ecomes the first
and second ventricles, Diencephalon ela(orations include
the su(thalamus hypothalamusthalamus and epithalamus and its cavity forms the third ventricle,
The tectumpretectum cere(ral peduncle and other structures develop out of the mesencephalon and its
cavity gro)s into the mesencephalic duct *cere(ral a8ueduct+, The metencephalon (ecomes among
other things the pons and the cere(ellum the myelencephalon forms the medulla o(longata and their
cavities develop into the fourth ventricle,

Diagram depicting the main su(divisions of the em(ryonic verte(rate (rain later
formingfore(rain mid(rain andhind(rain,

Development of the neural tu(e


Central
nervou
s
system
Brai
n
Prosencephalo
n
elencephalon
!hinencephalon, Amygdala, ?ippocampus,Neocorte), $asal
ganglia, -ateral 1entricles
!iencephalon
/pithalamus, Thalamus, ?ypothalamus,.uthalamus, Pituitary
gland, Pineal gland, Third 1entricle
Brain stem "esencephalon
Tectum, Cereral peduncle, Pretectum,3esencephalic duct
#hom$encephal
on
"etencephalon
Pons, Cereellum
"yelencephalon "edulla o$longata
Spinal cord
Evolution0e'it1
3t top the lancelet regarded a archetypal verte(rate lac-ing a true (rain, 'od an early verte(rate (ottom spindle
diagram of the evolution of verte(rates,
See also! +ncephali,ation and )rchicorte(
&lanarians mem(ers of the phylum &latyhelminthes *flat)orms+ have the simplest clearly defined
delineation of a nervous system into a central nervous system *CNS+ and a peripheral nervous
system *&NS+,
K67LK66L
Their primitive (rains consisting of t)o fused anterior ganglia and longitudinal nerve
cords form the CNS= the laterally pro5ecting nerves form the &NS, 3 molecular study found that more than
IHE of the 66B genes involved in the nervous system of planarians )hich includes genes related to the
CNS also e/ist in humans,
K6:L
!i-e planarians verte(rates have a distinct CNS and &NS though more
comple/ than those of planarians,
The CNS of chordates differs from that of other animals in (eing placed dorsally in the (ody a(ove the
gut and notochord4spine,
K6;L
The (asic pattern of the CNS is highly conserved throughout the different
species of verte(rates and during evolution, The ma5or trend that can (e o(served is to)ards a
progressive telencephalisationN the telencephalon of reptiles is only an appendi/ to the large olfactory
(ul( )hile in mammals it ma-es up most of the volume of the CNS, In the human (rain the
telencephalon covers most of the diencephalon and themesencephalon, Indeed the allometric study of
(rain siJe among different species sho)s a stri-ing continuity from rats to )hales and allo)s us to
complete the -no)ledge a(out the evolution of the CNS o(tained through cranial endocasts,
'ammals O )hich appear in the fossil record after the first fishes amphi(ians and reptiles O are the only
verte(rates to possess the evolutionarily recent outermost part of the cere(ral corte/-no)n as
the neocorte/,
K69L
The neocorte/ of monotremes *the duc-"(illed platypus and several species of spiny
anteaters+ and of marsupials *such as -angaroos -oalas opossums)om(ats and Tasmanian devils+
lac- the convolutions O gyri and sulci O found in the neocorte/ of most placental mammals *eutherians+,
K6HL
@ithin placental mammals the siJe and comple/ity of the neocorte/ increased over time, The area of
the neocorte/ of mice is only a(out 64677 that of mon-eys and that of mon-eys is only a(out 6467 that of
humans,
K69L
In addition rats lac- convolutions in their neocorte/ *possi(ly also (ecause rats are small
mammals+ )hereas cats have a moderate degree of convolutions and humans have 8uite e/tensive
convolutions,
K69L
./treme convolution of the neocorte/ is found in dolphins possi(ly related to their
comple/ echolocation,
Diseases0e'it1
ain article! Central ner*ous system disease
There are many central nervous system diseases and conditions including infections of the central
nervous system such asencephalitis and poliomyelitis early"onset neurological
disorders including 3DHD and autism late"onset neurodegenerative diseasessuch as 3lJheimer0s
disease &ar-inson0s disease and essential tremor autoimmune and inflammatory diseases such
as multiple sclerosis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis genetic disorders such as >ra((e0s
disease and Huntington0s disease as )ell asamyotrophic lateral sclerosis and adrenoleu-odystrophy,
!astly cancers of the central nervous system can cause severe illness and )hen malignant can have
very high mortality rates,
Specialty professional organiJations recommend that neurological imaging of the (rain (e done only to
ans)er a specific clinical 8uestion and not as routine screening,
K6BL
&eripheral nervous system
#rom @i-ipedia the free encyclopedia
Brain: Peripheral nervous system
he %uman &ervous System. Blue is P&S while red is C&S.
The "eri"heral nervous system *%NS or occasionally %eNS+ is the part of thenervous
system consisting of the nerves and ganglia outside of the (rain andspinal cord,
K6L
The main function of
the &NS is to connect the central nervous system *CNS+ to the lim(s and organs essentially serving as a
communication relay going (ac- and forth (et)een the (rain and the e/tremities,
K:L
Unli-e the CNS the
&NS is not protected (y the (one of spine and s-ull or (y the (loodO(rain (arrier leaving it e/posed
to to/ins and mechanical in5uries, The peripheral nervous system is divided into the somatic nervous
system and the autonomic nervous system= some te/t(oo-s also include sensory systems,
The cranial nerves are part of the &NS )ith the e/ception of cranial nerve II the optic nerve along )ith
the retina, The second cranial nerve is not a true peripheral nerve (ut a tract of the diencephalon,
K;L
Cranial nerve ganglia originate in the CNS, Ho)ever the remaining eleven cranial nerve a/ons e/tend
(eyond the (rain and are therefore considered part of the &NS,
K9L
Contents
KhideL
6 Specific nerves and ple/uses
o 6,6 Cervical spinal nerves *C6OC9+
o 6,: Brachial ple/us *CHOT6+
o 6,; !um(osacral ple/us *!6OS9+
: Neurotransmitters
; See also
9 Ceferences
S"ecific nerves an' "le2uses0e'it1
Ten out of the t)elve cranial nerves originate from the (rainstem and mainly control the functions of the
anatomic structures of the head )ith some e/ceptions, The nuclei of cranial nerves I and II lie in the
fore(rain and thalamus respectively and are thus not considered to (e true cranial nerves, CN P *67+
receives visceral sensory information from the thora/ and a(domen and CN PI *66+ is responsi(le for
innervating the sternocleidomastoid and trapeJius muscles neither of )hich (eing e/clusively in the
head,
Spinal nerves ta-e their origins from the spinal cord, They control the functions of the rest of the (ody, In
humans there are ;6 pairs of spinal nervesN G cervical 6: thoracic H lum(ar H sacral and 6 coccygeal,
In the cervical region the spinal nerve roots come out abo*ethe corresponding verte(rae *i,e, nerve root
(et)een the s-ull and 6st cervical verte(rae is called spinal nerve C6+, #rom the thoracic region to the
coccygeal region the spinal nerve roots come out below the corresponding verte(rae, It is important to
note that this method creates a pro(lem )hen naming the spinal nerve root (et)een CF and T6 *so it is
called spinal nerve root CG+, In the lum(ar and sacral region the spinal nerve roots travel )ithin the dural
sac and they travel (elo) the level of !: as the cauda e8uina,
Cervical s"inal nerves (C34C5)0e'it1
Further information! Cer*ical ple(us
The first 9 cervical spinal nerves C6 through C9 split and recom(ine to produce a variety of nerves that
su(serve the nec- and (ac- of head,
Spinal nerve C6 is called the su(occipital nerve )hich provides motor innervation to muscles at the (ase
of the s-ull, C: and C; form many of the nerves of the nec- providing (oth sensory and motor control,
These include the greater occipital nerve )hich provides sensation to the (ac- of the head the lesser
occipital nerve )hich provides sensation to the area (ehind the ears the greater auricular nerve and
the lesser auricular nerve, See occipital neuralgia, The phrenic nerve arises from nerve roots C; C9 and
CH, It innervates thediaphragm ena(ling (reathing, If the spinal cord is transected a(ove C; then
spontaneous (reathing is not possi(le, See myelopathy
Brachial "le2us (C64T3)0e'it1
Further information! $rachial ple(us
The last four cervical spinal nerves CH through CG and the first thoracic spinal nerve T6 com(ine to
form the (rachial ple/us or ple/us (rachialis a tangled array of nerves splitting com(ining and
recom(ining to form the nerves that su(serve the upper"lim( and upper (ac-, 3lthough the (rachial
ple/us may appear tangled it is highly organiJed and predicta(le )ith little variation (et)een people,
See(rachial ple/us in5uries,
$umbosacral "le2us ($34S5)0e'it1
The anterior divisions of the lum(ar nerves sacral nerves and coccygeal nerve form the lum(osacral
ple/us the first lum(ar nerve (eing fre8uently 5oined (y a (ranch from the t)elfth thoracic, #or
descriptive purposes this ple/us is usually divided into three partsN
lum(ar ple/us sacral ple/us and pudendal ple/us,
Neurotransmitters0e'it1
The main neurotransmitters of the peripheral nervous system are acetylcholine and noradrenaline,
Ho)ever there are several other neurotransmitters as )ell 5ointly la(eled Non"noradrenergic non"
cholinergic *N3NC+ transmitters, ./amples of such transmitters include non"
peptidesN 3T& $3B3 dopamine N1 and peptidesN neuropeptide A <I& $nCH Su(stance
& and C$C&,
KHL
Autonomic ner1ous system
'rom (ikipedia, the )ree encyclopedia
This article nee's a''itional citations for verification, &lease help improve this
article (yadding citations to relia(le sources, Unsourced material may (e
challenged and removed,(-ctober ./0/)
Autonomic nervous system
$atin di*isio autonomica systematis ner*osi peripherici
The autonomic nervous system *ANS or visceral nervous system or involuntary nervous
system+ is the part of the peripheral nervous system that acts as a control system functioning
largely (elo) the level of consciousness and controls visceralfunctions,
K6L
The 3NS affects heart
rate digestion respiratory rate salivation perspirationpupillary dilation micturition *urination+
and se/ual arousal, 'ost autonomous functions are involuntary (ut they can often )or- in
con5unction )ith the somatic nervous system )hich gives voluntary control, .veryday e/amples
include (reathing s)allo)ing and se/ual arousal and in some cases functions such as heart rate,
@ithin the (rain the 3NS is located in the medulla o(longata in the lo)er (rainstem, The medulla0s
ma5or 3NS functions includerespiration *the respiratory control center or 2rcc2+ cardiac
regulation *the cardiac control center or 2ccc2+ vasomotor activity *thevasomotor center or 2vmc2+
and certain refle/ actions *such as coughing sneeJing vomiting and s)allo)ing+, These then
su(divide into other areas and are also lin-ed to 3NS su(systems and nervous systems e/ternal to
the (rain, The hypothalamus 5ust a(ove the (rain stem acts as an integrator for autonomic
functions receiving 3NS regulatory input from the lim(ic system to do so,
K:L
The 3NS is classically divided into t)o su(systemsN the parasympathetic nervous system *&SNS+
and sympathetic nervous system*SNS+
K6LK;L
)hich operate independently in some functions and
interact co"operatively in others, In many cases the t)o have 2opposite2 actions )here one
activates a physiological response and the other inhi(its it, 3n older simplification of the sympathetic
and parasympathetic nervous systems as 2e/citory2 and 2inhi(itory2 )as overturned due to the many
e/ceptions found, 3 more modern characteriJation is that the sympathetic nervous system is a
28uic- response mo(iliJing system2 and the parasympathetic is a 2more slo)ly
activated dampening system2 (ut even this has e/ceptions such as in se/ual arousal and orgasm
)herein (oth play a role,
K:L
The enteric nervous system is also sometimes considered part of the
autonomic nervous system
K:L
and sometimes considered an independent system
Kby whom1L
,
In general 3NS functions can (e divided into sensory *afferent+ and motor *efferent+ su(systems,
@ithin (oth there are inhi(itory ande/citatory synapses (et)een neurons, Celatively recently a
third su(system of neurons that have (een named 0non"adrenergic and non"cholinergic0 neurons
*(ecause they use nitric o/ide as a neurotransmitter+ have (een descri(ed and found to (e integral
in autonomic function in particular in the gut and the lungs,
K9L
Contents
KhideL
6 3natomy
o 6,6 Sympathetic division
o 6,: &arasympathetic division
o 6,; Sensory neurons
o 6,9 'otor neurons
: #unction
o :,6 Sympathetic nervous system
o :,: &arasympathetic nervous system
; Neurotransmitters and pharmacology
o ;,6 Circulatory system
;,6,6 Heart
;,6,: Blood vessels
;,6,; 1ther
o ;,: Cespiratory system
o ;,; <isual System
o ;,9 Digestive system
o ;,H .ndocrine system
o ;,B Urinary system
o ;,F Ceproductive system
o ;,G Integumentary system
9 See also
o 9,6 Innervation
H Ceferences
B ./ternal lin-s
Anatomy0e'it1
3NS innervation is divided into sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous
system divisions, The sympathetic division has thoracolum(ar Qoutflo)R meaning that the neurons
(egin at the thoracic and lum(ar *T6"!:4;+ portions of the spinal cord, The parasympathetic division
has craniosacral Qoutflo)R meaning that the neurons (egin at the cranial nerves *Cranial
nerves III <II IP andP+ and sacral *S:"S9+ spinal cord,
The 3NS is uni8ue in that it re8uires a se8uential t)o"neuron efferent path)ay= the preganglionic
neuron must first synapse onto a postganglionic neuron (efore innervating the target organ, The
preganglionic or first neuron )ill (egin at the Qoutflo)R and )ill synapse at the postganglionic or
second neuronSs cell (ody, The postganglionic neuron )ill then synapse at the target organ,
Sym"athetic 'ivision0e'it1
ain article! Sympathetic ner*ous system
The sympathetic division *thoracolum(ar outflo)+ consists of cell (odies in the lateral horn of the
spinal cord *intermediolateral cell columns+ from T6 to !:4;, These cell (odies are $<. *general
visceral efferent+ neurons and are the preganglionic neurons, There are several locations upon
)hich preganglionic neurons can synapse for their postganglionic neuronsN
&araverte(ral ganglia *;+ of the sympathetic chain *these run on either side of the verte(ral
(odies+
6, cervical ganglia *;+
*. thoracic ganglia *6:+ and rostral lum(ar ganglia *: or ;+
;, caudal lum(ar ganglia and pelvic ganglia
&reverte(ral ganglia *celiac ganglion aorticorenal ganglion superior mesenteric ganglion
inferior mesenteric ganglion+
Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla *this is the one e/ception to the t)o"neuron path)ay
ruleN the synapse is directly efferent onto the target cell (odies+
These ganglia provide the postganglionic neurons from )hich innervation of target organs follo)s,
./amples of splanchnic *visceral+ nerves areN
Cervical cardiac nerves & thoracic visceral nerves )hich synapse in the sympathetic chain
Thoracic splanchnic nerves *greater lesser least+ )hich synapse in the preverte(ral
ganglion
!um(ar splanchnic nerves )hich synapse in the preverte(ral ganglion
Sacral splanchnic nerves )hich synapse in the inferior hypogastric ple/us
These all contain afferent *sensory+ nerves as )ell -no)n as $<3 *general visceral afferent+
neurons,
%arasym"athetic 'ivision0e'it1
ain article! 2arasympathetic ner*ous system
The parasympathetic division *craniosacral outflo)+ consists of cell (odies from one of t)o
locationsN the (rainstem *Cranial Nerves III <II IP P+ or the sacral spinal cord *S: S; S9+, These
are the preganglionic neurons )hich synapse )ith postganglionic neurons in these locationsN
&arasympathetic ganglia of the headN Ciliary *Cranial nerve III+ Su(mandi(ular *Cranial
nerve <II+ &terygopalatine *Cranial nerve <II+ and 1tic *Cranial nerve IP+
In or near the )all of an organ innervated (y the <agus *Cranial nerve P+ or Sacral
nerves *S: S; S9+
These ganglia provide the postganglionic neurons from )hich innervations of target organs follo)s,
./amples areN
The postganglionic parasympathetic splanchnic *visceral+ nerves
The <agus Nerve )hich )anders through the thora/ and a(dominal regions innervating
among other organs the heart lungs liver and stomach
Sensory neurons0e'it1
ain article! Sensory neuron
The sensory arm is composed of primary visceral sensory neurons found in the peripheral nervous
system *&NS+ in cranial sensory gangliaN the geniculate petrosal and nodose ganglia appended
respectively to cranial nerves <II IP and P, These sensory neurons monitor the levels of car(on
dio/ide o/ygen and sugar in the (lood arterial pressure and the chemical composition of the
stomach and gut content, They also convey the sense of taste and smell )hich unli-e most
functions of the 3NS is a conscious perception, Blood o/ygen and car(on dio/ide are in fact directly
sensed (y the carotid (ody a small collection of chemosensors at the (ifurcation of the carotid
artery innervated (y the petrosal *IPth+ ganglion, &rimary sensory neurons pro5ect *synapse+ onto
Qsecond orderR or relay visceral sensory neurons located in the medulla o(longata forming the
nucleus of the solitary tract *nTS+ that integrates all visceral information, The nTS also receives
input from a near(y chemosensory center the area postrema that detects to/ins in the (lood and
the cere(rospinal fluid and is essential for chemically induced vomiting or conditional taste aversion
*the memory that ensures that an animal that has (een poisoned (y a food never touches it again+,
3ll this visceral sensory information constantly and unconsciously modulates the activity of the
motor neurons of the 3NS,
otor neurons0e'it1
ain article! otor neuron
'otor neurons of the 3NS are also located in ganglia of the &NS called Qautonomic ganglia,R They
(elong to three categories )ith different effects on their target organs *see (elo) Q#unctionR+N
sympathetic parasympathetic and enteric,
Sympathetic ganglia are located in t)o sympathetic chains close to the spinal cordN the preverte(ral
and pre"aortic chains, &arasympathetic ganglia in contrast are located in close pro/imity to the
target organN the su(mandi(ular ganglion close to salivary glands paracardiac ganglia close to the
heart etc, .nteric ganglia )hich as their name implies innervate the digestive tu(e are located
inside its )alls and collectively contain as many neurons as the entire spinal cord including local
sensory neurons motor neurons and interneurons, It is the only truly autonomous part of the 3NS
and the digestive tu(e can function surprisingly )ell even in isolation, #or that reason the enteric
nervous system has (een called Qthe second (rain,R
The activity of autonomic ganglionic neurons is modulated (y Qpreganglionic neuronsR *also called
improperly (ut classically 2visceral motoneurons2+ located in the central nervous system,
&reganglionic sympathetic neurons are in the spinal cord at thoraco"lum(ar levels, &reganglionic
parasympathetic neurons are in the medulla o(longata *forming visceral motor nucleiN the dorsal
motor nucleus of the vagus nerve *dmnP+ the nucleus am(iguus and the salivatory nuclei+ and in
the sacral spinal cord, .nteric neurons are also modulated (y input from the CNS and from
preganglionic neurons located li-e parasympathetic ones in the medulla o(longata *in the dmnP+,
Function0e'it1
Sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions typically function in opposition to each other, But this
opposition is (etter termed complementary in nature rather than antagonistic, #or an analogy one
may thin- of the sympathetic division as the accelerator and the parasympathetic division as the
(ra-e, The sympathetic division typically functions in actions re8uiring 8uic- responses, The
parasympathetic division functions )ith actions that do not re8uire immediate reaction, The
sympathetic system is often considered the 2fight or flight2 system )hile the parasympathetic
system is often considered the 2rest and digest2 or 2feed and (reed2 system,
Ho)ever many instances of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity cannot (e ascri(ed to 2fight2
or 2rest2 situations, #or e/ample standing up from a reclining or sitting position )ould entail an
unsustaina(le drop in (lood pressure if not for a compensatory increase in the arterial sympathetic
tonus, 3nother e/ample is the constant second"to"second modulation of heart rate (y sympathetic
and parasympathetic influences as a function of the respiratory cycles, In general these t)o
systems should (e seen as permanently modulating vital functions in usually antagonistic fashion
to achieve homeostasis, Some typical actions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems are
listed (elo),
Sym"athetic nervous system0e'it1
ain article! Sympathetic ner*ous system
&romotes a 2fight or flight2 response corresponds )ith arousal and energy generation and inhi(its
digestion
Diverts (lood flo) a)ay from the gastro"intestinal *$I+ tract and s-in via vasoconstriction
Blood flo) to s-eletal muscles and the lungs is enhanced *(y as much as 6:77E in the
case of s-eletal muscles+
Dilates (ronchioles of the lung )hich allo)s for greater alveolar o/ygen e/change
Increases heart rate and the contractility of cardiac cells *myocytes+ there(y providing a
mechanism for enhanced (lood flo) to s-eletal muscles
Dilates pupils and rela/es the ciliary muscle to the lens allo)ing more light to enter the eye
and far vision
&rovides vasodilation for the coronary vessels of the heart
Constricts all the intestinal sphincters and the urinary sphincter
Inhi(its peristalsis
Stimulates orgasm
%arasym"athetic nervous system0e'it1
ain article! 2arasympathetic ner*ous system
&romotes a 2rest and digest2 response promotes calming of the nerves return to regular function
and enhances digestion
The parasympathetic nerves dilate (lood vessels leading to the $I tract increasing (lood
flo) *this is important follo)ing the consumption of food due to the greater meta(olic demands
placed on the (ody (y the gut+
The parasympathetic nervous system can also constrict the (ronchiolar diameter )hen the
need for o/ygen has diminished
Dedicated cardiac (ranches of the vagus and thoracic spinal accessory nerves
impart parasympathetic control of the heart*myocardium+
During accommodation the parasympathetic nervous system causes constriction of the
pupil and contraction of the ciliary muscle to the lens allo)ing for closer vision
The parasympathetic nervous system stimulates salivary gland secretion and
accelerates peristalsis mediating digestion of food and indirectly the a(sorption of nutrients
The &NS is also involved in the erection of genital tissues via the pelvic splanchnic
nerves :O9,
The &NS is responsi(le for stimulating se/ual arousal
Neurotransmitters an' "harmacolo!y0e'it1
3t the effector organs sympathetic ganglionic neurons release noradrenaline *norepinephrine+
along )ith other cotransmitters such as3T& to act on adrenergic receptors )ith the e/ception of
the s)eat glands and the adrenal medullaN
3cetylcholine is the preganglionic neurotransmitter for (oth divisions of the 3NS as )ell as
the postganglionic neurotransmitter of parasympathetic neurons, Nerves that release
acetylcholine are said to (e cholinergic, In the parasympathetic system ganglionic neurons use
acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter to stimulate muscarinic receptors,
3t the adrenal medulla there is no postsynaptic neuron, Instead the presynaptic neuron
releases acetylcholine to act on nicotinic receptors, Stimulation of the adrenal medulla
releases adrenaline *epinephrine+ into the (loodstream )hich acts on adrenoceptors
producing a )idespread increase in sympathetic activity,
The follo)ing ta(le revie)s the actions of these neurotransmitters as a function of their receptors,
Circulatory system0e'it1
#eart0e'it1
Tar!et Sym"athetic *adrenergic+ %arasym"athetic *muscarinic+
cardiac output T6 *T:+N increases ':N decreases
S3 nodeN heart rate *chronotropic+ T6 *T:+N
KHL
increases ':N decreases
3trial cardiac muscleN contractility
*inotropic+
T6 *T:+N
KHL
increases ':N decreases
at 3< node
T6N
increases conduction
':N
decreases conduction
increases cardiac muscle
automaticity
KHL

3trioventricular (loc-
KHL

<entricular cardiac muscle
T6 *T:+N
increases contractility *inotropic+
increases cardiac muscle
automaticity
KHL

"""
Bloo' vessels0e'it1
Tar!et Sym"athetic *adrenergic+ %arasym"athetic *muscarinic+
vasc ular smooth muscle in general U6N
KBL
contracts= T:N
KBL
rela/es ';N rela/es
KHL
renal artery U6N
KFL
constricts """
larger coronary arteries U6 and U:N
KGL
constricts
KHL
"""
smaller coronary arteries T:Ndilates
KIL
"""
arteries to viscera UN constricts """
arteries to s-in UN constricts """
arteries to (rain U6N
K67L
constricts
KHL
"""
arteries to erectile tissue U6N
K66L
constricts ';N dilates
arteries to salivary glands UN constricts ';N dilates
hepatic artery T:N dilates """
arteries to s-eletal muscle T:N dilates """
<eins
U6 and U:N
K6:L
constricts
T:N dilates
"""
*ther0e'it1
Tar!et Sym"athetic *adrenergic+ %arasym"athetic *muscarinic+
platelets U:N aggregates """
mast cells " hista mine T:N inhi(its """
)es"iratory system0e'it1
Tar!et Sym"athetic *adrenergic+ %arasym"athetic *muscarinic+
smooth muscles of (ronchioles
T:N
KBL
rela/es *ma5or contri(ution+
U6N contracts *minor contri(ution+
';N
KBL
contracts
The (ronchioles have no sympathetic innervation (ut are instead affected (y circulating
adrenaline
KHL
/isual System0e'it1
Tar!et Sym"athetic *adrenergic+ %arasym"athetic *muscarinic+
&upil dilator muscle
U6N Dilates
*causes mydriasis+
Iris sphincter musc le " ';N contracts
*causes miosis+
Ciliary muscle
T:N rela/es
*causes long"range focus+
';N contracts
*causes short"range focus+
Di!estive system0e'it1
Tar!et Sym"athetic *adrenergic+ %arasym"athetic *muscarinic+
salivary glandsN
secretions
TN stimulates
viscous amylasesecretions
U6N stimulates potassium secretions
';N stimulates )atery secretions
lacrimal glands *tears+ TN stimulates protein secretion
K6;L
secretion of tears (y stimulating
muscarinic receptors *';+
5u/taglomerular
apparatus of-idney
T6N
KBL
renin secretion """
parietal cells """ '6N $astric acid secretion
liver
U6
T:N glycogenolysis gluconeogenesis
"""
adipose cells T6
KBL
T;N stimulates lipolysis """
$I tract *smooth muscle+
motility
U6 U:
K69L
T:N decreases '; *'6+N
KHL
increases
sphincters of $I tract U6
KBL
U:
KHL
T:N contracts ';N
KBL
rela/es
glands of $I tract no effect
KHL
';N secretes
En'ocrine system0e'it1
Tar!et Sym"athetic *adrenergic+ %arasym"athetic *muscarini c +
pancreas*islets+
U:N decreases insulin secretion from (eta cells
increases glucagonsecretion from alpha cells
';N
K6HLK6BL
increases secretion of (oth
insulin and glucagon,
K6HLK6BL
adrenal
medulla
N *nicotinic 3Ch receptor+N
secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
"""
7rinary system0e'it1
Tar!et Sym"athetic *adrenergic+ %arasym"athetic *muscarinic+
Detrusor urinae muscle of (ladder )all T:
KBL
T;N
K6FL
rela/es ';N
KBL
contracts
internal urethral sphincter U6N
KBL
contracts ';N
KBL
rela/es
)e"ro'uctive system0e'it1
Tar!et Sym"athetic *adrenergic+ %arasym"athetic *muscarinic+
uterus
U6N contracts *pregnant
KHL
+
T:N rela/es *non"pregnant
KHL
+
"""
genitalia U6N contracts *e5aculation+ ';N erection
Inte!umentary system0e'it1
Tar!et Sym"athetic *muscarinic and adrenergic+ %arasym"athetic
s)eat
gland secretions
'N
KBL
stimulates *ma5or contri(ution+= U6N stimulates *minor
contri(ution+
"""
arrector pili U6N stimulates """
See also0e'it1
!Vvheim cu(e of emotion
&arasympathetic nervous system
Somatic nervous system
Sympathetic nervous system
Innervation0e'it1
3utonomic nervous system sho)ing splanchnic nervesin middle and the vagus nerve as 2P2 in (lue, The heart and
organs (elo) in list to right are regarded as viscera,
The viscera are mainly innervated parasympathetically (y the vagus nerve andsympathetically (y
the splanchnic nerves, The sensory part of the latter reaches the spinal column at certain spinal
segments, &ain in any viscera is perceived as referred pain more specifically pain from
the dermatomecorresponding to the spinal segment,
K6GL
/iscus Nerves
K6IL
*ri!in in s"inal column
K6IL

stomach
anterior and posterior vagal trun-s
greater splanchnic nerves
TB TF TG TI and sometimes T67
'uo'enum
vagus nerves
greater splanchnic nerves
TH TB TF TG TI and
sometimes T67
"ancreatic hea'
vagus nerves
thoracic splanchnic nerves
TG TI
8e8unuman' ileum
posterior vagal trun-s
greater splanchnic nerves
TH TB TF TG TI
colon
vagus nerves and pelvic splanchnic
nerves *parasympathetic+
greater splanchnic nerves *sympathetic+
T67 T66 T6:*pro/imal
colon+
!6 !: !; *distal colon+
s"leen greater splanchnic nerves *especially+ TB TF TG
vermiform
a""en'i2
nerves to superior mesenteric ple/us T67
!allbla''eran' liver
sympathetic nerves to celiac ple/us
vagus nerve
right phrenic nerve
TB TF TG TI
9i'neys an'ureters
vagus nerve
thoracic and lum(ar splanchnic nerves
T66 T6:
)eferences0e'it1
Ner1ous system disease
'rom (ikipedia, the )ree encyclopedia
Nervous system 'isease
Classification and e(ternal resources
ICD:3; $ 77 "$ II
ICD:< ;:7";HI
eS# D77I9::
Nervous system 'isease refers to a general class of medical conditions affecting thenervous
system,
They can (e divided intoN
Central nervous system disease in the CNS
&eripheral neuropathy in the &NS
The term neuropathy is sometimes defined to include any disorder of the nervous system,
K6L
@ith
this usage the terms 2nervous system disease2 and 2neuropathy2 )ould (e synonymous,
)eferences0e'it1
6, ,um" u" = 2e'edicine4Stedman 'edical Dictionary !oo-up?2, Cetrieved :77G"66";7,
Kdead linkL
[hide]
+

,
Pathology: Medical conditions and ICD code
-!isease . !isorder . Syndrome . Se/uence, Symptom . Sign, 0n1ury, etc.2
(A/B, !"
!#$%
0n)ectious disease .0n)ection3 Bacterial disease
45
46
+iral disease
Parasitic disease
Proto7oan in)ection
%elminthiasis
,ctoparasitic in)estation
"ycosis
8oonosis
(C/D,
!&"'#$ (
')$"'*$%
Cancer (C"D&*, !&"'#$%
&eoplasm
Myeloid hematologic (D+"D)), '*"
'*$%
9nemia
Coagulopathy
Lymphoid immune (D*"D*$, ')$%
0mmunode)iciency
0mmunoproli)erative disorder
%ypersensitivity
(,, '&"')*%
,ndocrine disease
&utrition disorder
0n$orn error o) meta$olism
(-, '$"#!$%
"ental disorder
(., #'"#+$%
/ervous system disease
C&S
P&S
&euromuscular disease
(0, #1"#*$%
,ye disease
,ar disease
(I, #$"&+$%
Cardiovascular disease
%eart disease
+ascular disease
(2, &1"+!$%
#espiratory disease
:$structive lung disease
#estrictive lung disease
Pneumonia
(3, +'"+)$%
:ral and ma;illo)acial pathology
ooth disease
salivary gland disease
tongue disease
!igestive disease
,sophageal
Stomach
,nteropathy
<iver
Pancreatic
(L, 1*")$%
Skin disease
skin appendages
&ail disease
%air disease
Sweat gland disease
(M, )!")#$%
"usculoskeletal disorders 3 "yopathy
9rthropathy
:steochondropathy
:steopathy
Chondropathy
(/, +*"1'$%
=rologic disease
&ephropathy
=rinary $ladder disease
"ale genital disease
Breast disease
'emale genital disease
(4, 1#"1)$%
Complications o) pregnancy
:$stetric la$or complication
Puerperal disorder
(P, )1"))$%
'etal disease
(5, )&")+$%
Congenital disorder
Congenital a$normality
(6, )*")$$%
Syndromes
"edical signs
,ponymous
(7/8, *"
$$$%
Bone )racture
>oint dislocation
Sprain
Strain
Su$lu;ation
%ead in1ury
Chest trauma
Poisoning
@hideA
+
T
/
!atholo$y) Medical conditions and ICD code
&Disease ; Disorder ; .yndrome ; .e#uence, .ymptom ; .ign, (njury, etc%'
*&+,- ../0
/123
(nfectious disease ;(nfection4 $acterial disease
GB
G<
+iral disease
Parasitic disease
ProtoCoan infection
?elminthiasis
/ctoparasitic infestation
3ycosis
Doonosis
*C+D-
/4.0512 '
56205723
Cancer *C..0D47- /4.05123
Neoplasm
Myeloid heatolo$ic *D8.0D66- 57.05723
Anemia
Coagulopathy
Ly"hoid iune *D7.0D72- 5623
(mmunodeficiency
(mmunoproliferati1e disorder
?ypersensiti1ity
*E- 54.05673
/ndocrine disease
Nutrition disorder
(norn error of metaolism
*9- 52.01/23
3ental disorder
*G- 15.01823
(er:ous syste disease
CN.
PN.
Neuromuscular disease
*;- 1<.01723
/ye disease
/ar disease
*I- 12.04823
Cardio1ascular disease
?eart disease
+ascular disease
*=- 4<.08/23
!espiratory disease
0structi1e lung disease
!estricti1e lung disease
Pneumonia
*>- 85.08623
0ral and ma)illofacial pathology
Tooth disease
sali1ary gland disease
tongue disease
Digesti1e disease
/sophageal
.tomach
/nteropathy
-i1er
Pancreatic
*L- <7.06.23
."in disease
skin appendages
Nail disease
?air disease
.2eat gland disease
*M- 6/.06123
3usculos"eletal disorders 4 3yopathy
Arthropathy
0steochondropathy
0steopathy
Chondropathy
*(- 87.0<523
,rologic disease
Nephropathy
,rinary ladder disease
3ale genital disease
$reast disease
Eemale genital disease
*?- <1.0<623
Complications of pregnancy
0stetric laor complication
Puerperal disorder
*!- 6<.06623
Eetal disease
*@- 64.06823
Congenital disorder
Congenital anormality
*A- 67.06223
.yndromes
3edical signs
/ponymous
*S+%- 7..02223
$one fracture
Foint dislocation
.prain
.train
.ulu)ation
?ead injury
Chest trauma
Poisoning
Nervous SystemN #acts #unction
& Diseases
&eurons in the $rain communicate via electrical impulses
and neurotransmitters.
Credit3 i!esign, Shutterstock
+iew )ull si7e image
The nervous system is a comple/ collection of nerves and specialiJed cells -no)n
as neurons that transmit signals (et)een different parts of the (ody, <erte(rates M
animals )ith (ac-(ones and spinal columns M have central and peripheral
nervous systems,
The central nervous system is made up of the (rain spinal cord and retina, The
peripheral nervous system consists of sensory neurons ganglia *clusters of
neurons+ and nerves that connect to one another and to the central nervous
system,
Description of the nervous system
The nervous system is essentially the (odySs electrical )iring, It is composed of
nerves )hich are cylindrical (undles of fi(ers that start at the (rain and central
cord and (ranch out to every other part of the (ody,
Neurons send signals to other cells through thin fi(ers called a/ons )hich cause
chemicals -no)n as neurotransmitters to (e released at 5unctions called synapses,
3 synapse gives a command to the cell and the entire communication process
typically ta-es only a fraction of a millisecond,
Sensory neurons react to physical stimuli such as light sound and touch and send
feed(ac- to the central nervous system a(out the (odySs surrounding environment,
'otor neurons located in the central nervous system or in peripheral ganglia
transmit signals to activate the muscles or glands,
$lial cells derived from the $ree- )ord for 2glue2 support the neurons and hold
them in place, $lial cells also feed nutrients to neurons destroy pathogens remove
dead neurons and act as traffic cops (y directing the a/ons of neurons to their
targets, Specific types of glial cells *oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system
and Sch)ann cells in the peripheral nervous system+ generate layers of a fatty
su(stance called myelin that )raps around a/ons and provides electrical insulation
to ena(le them to rapidly and efficiently transmit signals,
0Count'o+n> 3; Thin!s ?ou Di'n@t Ano+ About the Brain1
Diseases of the nervous system
There are a num(er of tests and procedures to diagnose conditions involving the
nervous system, 3side from 'CIs and CT scans an electroencephalogram *..$+
is often used to record the (rain0s continuous electrical activity (y attaching
electrodes to the scalp, &ositron emission tomography *&.T+ is a procedure that
measures the meta(olic activity of cells,
3 spinal tap places a needle into the spinal canal to drain a small amount of
cere(ral spinal fluid that is tested for infection or other a(normalities,
3 num(er of nerve disorders can affect the nervous system including vascular
disorders such as stro-e transient ischemic attac- *TI3+ su(arachnoid
hemorrhage su(dural hemorrhage and hematoma and e/tradural hemorrhage,
The nervous system can also e/perience functional difficulties )hich result in
conditions such as epilepsy &ar-inson0s disease multiple sclerosis amyotrophic
lateral sclerosis *3!S+ Huntington0s chorea and3lJheimer0s disease,
Infections such as meningitis encephalitis polio and epidural a(scess can also
affect the nervous system,
Structural disorders such as (rain or spinal cord in5ury Bell0s palsy cervical
spondylosis carpal tunnel syndrome (rain or spinal cord tumors peripheral
neuropathy and $uillain"BarrW syndrome also stri-e the nervous system,
Study of the nervous system
The (ranch of medicine that studies and treats the nervous system is called
neurology and doctors )ho practice in this field of medicine are called neurologists,
1nce they have completed medical training neurologists complete additional
training for their specialty and are certified (y the 3merican Board of &sychiatry
and Neurology,
Neurosurgeons perform surgeries involving the nervous system and are certified (y
the 3merican 3ssociation of Neurological Surgeons,
There are also physiatrists )ho are physicians )ho )or- to reha(ilitate patients
)ho have e/perienced disease or in5ury to their nervous systems that impact their
a(ility to function,
N/!+0,. .Y.T/3
.cientific e1idence sho2s that practice of yoga and meditation has tremendous impact on
the
functioning of ner1ous system% Yoga promotes rela)ation in the practitioners ut at the
same time
helps them in increasing their attention and other cogniti1e ailities%
/lectroencephalographic &//G' studies4 //G studies sho2 that yoga and meditation
practice lead
to increase in alpha rhythm, inter<hemispheric coherence & homogeneity in the rain%
Alpha rhythm
is prominent in a2a"e adults in rela)ed state 2ith eyes closed% (ts fre#uency 1aries from G<
58 ?C and
amplitude 1aries from :H<5HH micro1olts% /ach region has characteristic alpha rhythm ut
alpha
2a1es of greatest amplitude are recorded from the occipital and parietal regions of cereral
corte)%
3editation entrains the focus of the practitioner on the inner or outer oject of focus, 2hich
rings
aout clarity of thought, reduces numer of mental distractions and increases rela)ed
a2areness%
This ultimately leads to increased concentration and impro1ement in other important
cogniti1e
domains% *hare and Nigam &7HHH' studied //G of 8H normal healthy indi1iduals practicing
meditation and found that the percentage of alpha 2a1es and coherence 2as higher in them%
This
suggested good homogeneity, uniformity and increased orderliness of rain% .harma et al
&7HH>' also
found an increase in alpha acti1ity in healthy sujects after 7 months practice of .ahaj yoga
meditation% .arang & Telles &7HH=' studied the impact of cyclic meditation consisting of
yoga
postures interspersed 2ith periods of supine rest on //G% They found significant reduction
of pea"
latencies of P8HH and increase in P8HH pea" amplitudes in the yoga practitioners% These
results
demonstrate that cyclic meditation enhances cogniti1e processing underlying generation of
the P8HH%
.tancI" Fr & *una &5JJ9' found after 5H min of forced alternate nostril reathing y trained
practitioners, there 2as increase in mean po2er of eta and and partially alpha and of
//G% Also,
there 2as decrease in hemisphere asymmetry in the eta 5 and% This sho2s that forced
alternate
nostril reathing has a alancing effect on the functional acti1ity of the left and right rain
hemispheres%
.leep4 Yoga has een reported to increase the #uality of sleep% Patra and Telles &7HHJ'
studied the
effect of cyclic meditation, a techni#ue that comines yoga postures interspersed 2ith
supine rest on
polysomnographic measures and self rating of sleep on the night follo2ing the day on
2hich 8H male
participants practiced cyclic meditation% This 2as compared 2ith another night 2hen they
had had
t2o sessions of supine rest of e#ual duration on the preceding day% 0n the night follo2ing
cyclic
meditation, the percentage of slo2 2a1e sleep 2as significantly higher than in the night
follo2ing
supine rest, 2hereas the percentage of rapid eye<mo1ement sleep and the numer of
a2a"enings per
hour 2ere less% Eollo2ing cyclic meditation, the self rating of sleep ased on 1isual analog
scales
sho2ed an increase in the feeling that the sleep 2as refreshing, an increase in feeling
KgoodK in the
morning, an o1erall increase in sleep duration, and decreases in the degree to 2hich sleep
2as
influenced y eing in a laoratory as 2ell as any associated discomfort% (t 2as concluded
that
practicing yoga postures in a particular se#uence can impro1e the ojecti1e and sujecti1e
#uality of
sleep of the participants%
Yoga practice decreases An)iety le1els4 A large numer of studies sho2 that the practice of
yoga
can produce significant decrease in the asal an)iety scores% *halsa et al &7HHJ' found that
t2o
months of yoga and meditation techni#ues can reduce performance an)iety and mood
disturance in
young professional musicians% Fa1na"ht et al &7HHJ' reported that participation in a t2o<
month yoga
program lead to a significant reduction in percei1ed le1els of an)iety in 2omen 2ho
suffered from
an)iety disorders% *oCasa et al &7HHG' reported significant reduction in scores on an)iety,
depression,
and tension after one month practice of yoga program% Loolery et al &7HH9' found that
sujects 2ho
participated in a : 2ee" yoga course demonstrated significant decreases in self<reported
symptoms
of depression and trait an)iety% .harma et al &7HH:' found that t2o months of sahaj yoga
meditation
y patients of major depression 2ho 2ere on anti<depressant medication led to higher rates
of
remission, statistically more reduction in ?amilton depression and an)iety scores as
compared to
those patients 2ho 2ere only on anti<depressant medication% .imilarly, 3ichalsen et al
&7HH:'
reported that 8 month (yengar yoga program for 2omen suffering from mental distress
resulted in
significant impro1ements in percei1ed stress, state and trait an)iety, sujecti1e 2ell<eing,
1igor and
decrease in sali1ary cortisol, fatigue and depression% Physical 2ell<eing also increased, and
those
sujects suffering from headache or ac" pain reported mar"ed pain relief% Erom this it is
clear, yoga
has got a potential role as a component in the management of depressi1e and an)iety
disorders%
3alathi and Damodaran &lJJJ' studied the effect of yogic practices on an)iety status during
routine
acti1ities and prior to e)amination in first year 3$$. students% They found a decrease in
their
an)iety status as assessed y .pillergerMs an)iety scale% (n addition, the an)iety scores
2hich rose
prior to e)ams sho2ed a statistically significant reduction on the day of e)am% The results
of the
e)am indicated a statistically significant reduction in numer of failures in yoga group as
compared
to the control group% The impro1ement in 1arious parameters such as sense of 2ell eing,
feeling of
rela)ation, impro1ed concentration, self confidence, impro1ed efficiency, good
interpersonal
relationship, increased attenti1eness, lo2ered irritaility le1els, and an optimistic outloo" in
life
2ere some of the eneficial effects enjoyed y the yoga group as indicated y feedac"
score% These
results point to the eneficial role of yoga in not only causing reduction in asal an)iety
le1el ut
also attenuating the increase in an)iety score in stressful states such as e)aminations%
Apparently, a
decrease in an)iety scores in yoga practitioners leads to their etter adjustment to the
en1ironmental
& internal stressors% Therefore, they are ale to perform their duties 2ith calm disposition
2hich
impro1es their performance% Gupta et al &7HH=' reported a decrease in state and trait an)iety
scores
in healthy sujects as 2ell as patients after 5H days of yoga ased lifestyle inter1ention
program%
These oser1ations suggest that e1en short term yoga program can lead to reduction in
stress and
an)iety in the indi1iduals%
Yoga impro1es cogniti1e functions4 Cogniti1e functions are intellectual processes y 2hich
one
ecomes a2are of, percei1es, or comprehends ideas% These functions help us to focus on the
prolem, process the re#uired information, arri1e at the logical conclusion, ma"e decision
and then
e)ecute the tas"% .tudies sho2 that practice of yogic techni#ues cause impro1ement in
aspects of
perception, thin"ing, reasoning, and rememering the tas"% Yogic techni#ues especially
dhyan and
sha1asan impro1e attenti1eness% (ncreased attenti1eness decreases response time or reaction
time%
!eaction time is an inde) of the processing aility of central ner1ous system and a simple
means of
determining sensory<motor performance% 3adanmohan et al &5JJ7' reported that yoga
practice for
57 2ee"s results in significant reduction in 1isual and auditory reaction times in the normal
adult
male 1olunteers% 3alathi and Parul"ar &5JGJ' also reported reduction in auditory and 1isual
reaction
time after yoga training% .imilar, findings 2ere also demonstrated y the practice of mu"h
hastri"a
pranayam &a yogic techni#ue in 2hich reath is acti1ely lasted out in M2hooshesM follo2ing
a deep
inspiration' on reaction time &$ha1anani et al, 7HH8'% A decrease in reaction time indicates
an
impro1ed sensory<motor performance and enhanced processing aility of central ner1ous
system%
This may e due to greater arousal, faster rate of information processing, impro1ed
concentration
and ; or an aility to ignore e)traneous stimuli% .arang and Telles &7HH>' reported that there
2ere
impro1ed scores and fe2er errors on -etter Cancellation tas"N a left<hemisphere dominant
tas", after
practice of yoga ased rela)ation techni#ue% These results suggest that yoga practice rings
aout a
greater impro1ement in this tas" 2hich re#uires selecti1e attention, concentration, 1isual
scanning
ailities, and a repetiti1e motor response% (n another study &7HH=', they reported a reduction
in the
pea" latencies of P8HH after yoga ased rela)ation techni#ue% Clearly, yogic meditation
enhances
cogniti1e processes underlying the generation of P8HH%
.cientific studies also sho2 that unilateral forced nostril reathing affects cereral
hemispheric
dominance% Telles et al &7HH>' e1aluated the effect of three yoga reathing practices &right,
left, and
alternate nostril reathing' on performance of letter<cancellation tas"% The letter<
cancellation tas"
scores 2ere significantly impro1ed, i%e%, there 2ere fe2er errors follo2ing right and
alternate nostril
yoga reathing% (n another study, Foshi and Telles &7HHG' found that left nostril reathing
increases
performance of participants in the spatial cogniti1e tas"% Therefore, left nostril reathing
increases
the spatial tas"s 2hereas, right nostril reathing increases 1eral tas"s% These results may e
related
to the enhancement of contralateral hemispheric function found 2ith selecti1e nostril
reathing%
Yoga has eneficial effects on other cogniti1e functions% Telles et al &7HH=' studied the
performance
of participants on mirror<tracing tas"% The star to e traced 2as si) pointed and the outline
2as made
of =H circles &9 mm in diameter'% They found impro1ed re1ersal aility, eye<hand co<
ordination,
speed and accuracy in the yoga group 2hich is necessary for mirror star tracing% Telles et al
&5JJ>'
found that one month practice of yoga led to significant decrease in the degree of optical
illusion
assessed y using standard 3uller<-yer lines% This can e attriuted to a comination of
focusing
and defocusing in1ol1ed in yoga practice, as these factors are "no2n to influence the degree
of
illusion% +ani et al &5JJ>' reported a progressi1e increase in critical flic"er fusion fre#uency
follo2ing 5H day yoga training programme% The critical flic"er fusion fre#uency is the
fre#uency at
2hich a flic"ering stimulus is percei1ed to e steady, 2ith higher 1alues suggesting greater
perceptual accuracy%
Yoga practices alter rain lood flo2 and rain metaolism4 ?erCog et al &5JJH' used
positron
emission tomography &P/T' for measuring regional cereral metaolic rate of glucose
&rC3!Glc' to
delineate cereral metaolic responses to e)ternal or mental stimulation% They found that
ratios of
frontal 1s% occipital rC3!Glc 2ere significantly ele1ated during meditation% These altered
ratios
2ere caused y a slight increase of frontal rC3!Glc and a pronounced reduction in primary
and
secondary 1isual centers% -ou et al &5JJJ' studied the impact of yog nidra on cereral lood
flo2 y
P/T scan techni#ue and found a regional alteration of flo2 2hile the mean lood flo2
remainsunaltered% There is increased lood flo2 to posterior sensory and associati1e
cortices "no2n to
participate in imagery tas"s during meditation 2hereas in the resting state of normal
consciousness,
differential acti1ity 2as found in dorso<lateral and orital frontal corte), anterior cingulate
gyri, left
temporal gyri, left inferior parietal loule, striatal and thalamic regions, pons and cereellar
1ermis
and hemispheres, structures thought to support an e)ecuti1e attentional net2or"% These
findings
enhance our understanding of the neural asis of different aspects of consciousness% !ecent
studies
ha1e sho2n that yoga and meditation practices ha1e enefit not only on higher<order
cogniti1e
functions ut they also alter rain structures and therefore, rain acti1ity% ?olCel et al &7HHG'
compared 3!( rain images of mindfulness &1ipassana' meditators &7 hr daily practice for
G%= years'
and compared the regional gray matter concentration to that of non<meditators matched for
se), age,
education and handedness% 3editators had greater gray matter concentration in the right
anterior
insula, 2hich is in1ol1ed in interocepti1e a2areness% This group difference presumaly
reflects the
training of odily a2areness during meditation% Eurthermore, meditators had greater gray
matter
concentration in the left inferior temporal gyrus and right hippocampus% These regions are
deeply
in1ol1ed in meditation% The mean 1alue of gray matter concentration in the left inferior
temporal
gyrus 2as predictale y the duration of meditation training, corroorating the assumption
of a
causal impact of meditation training on gray matter concentration% These results suggest that
meditation practice is associated 2ith structural differences in regions that are typically
acti1ated
during meditation and in regions that are rele1ant for the tas" of meditation% (n another
recent study,
-uders et al &7HHJ' studied anatomical correlates of long<term meditation and found
significantly
larger gray matter 1olumes in meditators in the right orito<frontal corte), right thalamus
and left
inferior temporal gyrus% (n addition, meditators sho2ed significantly larger 1olumes of the
right
hippocampus% $oth orito<frontal and hippocampal regions ha1e een implicated in
emotional
regulation and response control% Thus, larger 1olumes in these regions might account for
meditatorsM
singular ailities and haits to culti1ate positi1e emotions, retain emotional staility, and
engage in
mindful eha1ior% These changes seem to e independent of a specific style and practice of
meditation% Euture longitudinal analyses are necessary to estalish the presence and
direction of a
causal lin" et2een meditation practice and rain anatomy%
Neuro<transmitters4 !egular practice of yoga and meditation altendogenous dopamine
release in the 1entral striatum during yoga nidra meditation% Yoga nidra is
associated 2ith decreased lood flo2 in prefrontal, cereellar and sucortical regions,
structures
thought to e organiCed in open loops suser1ing e)ecuti1e control% (n the striatum,
dopamine
modulates e)citatory glutamatergic synapses of the projections from the frontal corte) to
striatal
neurons, 2hich in turn project ac" to the frontal corte) 1ia the pallidum and 1entral
thalamus% They
found that increased striatal dopamine release during meditation is associated 2ith the
e)perience of
reduced readiness for action% They suggested that eing in the conscious state of meditation
causes a
suppression of cortico<striatal glutamatergic transmission 2hich pro1ides in 1i1o regulation
of
conscious states at the synaptic le1el% .treeter et al &7HH>' demonstrated that in e)perienced
yoga
practitioners &nOG', rain GA$A le1els increase after a session of yoga% Yoga practitioners
completed a =H minute yoga session and comparison sujects completed a =H minute
reading
session% This suggests that the practice of yoga should e e)plored as a treatment for
disorders 2ith
lo2 GA$A le1els such as depression and an)iety disorders%
.T!/..4 .tress is "no2n to ad1ersely affect immune functions and neuroendocrine a)is of
the
ody 2hich leads to 1arious disease states% !eacti1e o)ygen species ha1e een implicated
in the
etiology of a host of degenerati1e diseases including
cardio1ascular disease, diaetes, cancer,
AlCheimerMs disease,
and other neurodegenerati1e disorders and in aging% (n addition,
they also play a
role not only in acute conditions such as
trauma, stro"e and infection, ut also in physical e)ercise
and stress% 3aini &7HHH' studied the effect of .ahaj yoga meditation on lipid pero)idation in
=H
young medical students in the age group of 5><7H years and found a statistically significant
decrease
in malonyl di aldehyde le1els and increase in !$C count, pac"ed cell 1olume, total
leucocyte count,
and mean corpuscular fragility% They concluded that sahaj yoga practice leads to a decrease
in stress
and decreases lipid pero)idation le1els in the lood% Yada1 et al &7HH:' measured the
concentration
of thioarituric acid reacti1e sustances in lood as an indicator of o)idati1e stress at the
eginning
and at the end of a comprehensi1e yoga<ased lifestyle modification program for nine days%
The
serum concentration of thioarituric acid decreased significantly from 5%>7 B;< H%>7
nmoles;ml on
day 5 to 5%:> B;< H%>7 nmoles;ml after inter1ention% This study indicates that e1en a rief
practice of
yogic lifestyle can significantly reduce o)idati1e stress and help in promoting healthy life%
Yoga also
increases immune resistance% *ochupillai et al &7HH:' reported increase in natural "iller
cells in
cancer patients 2ho had completed their standard therapy after practicing sudarshan "riya
yoga &
pranayam reathing techni#ues% .atyapriya et al &7HHJ' studied the effect of integrated yoga
practice
and guided yogic rela)ation on oth percei1ed stress and measured autonomic response in
healthy
pregnant 2omen% .ujects 2ere randomiCed for practicing yoga and deep rela)ation or
standard
prenatal e)ercises 5 hour daily% Percei1ed stress decreased y 85%:>P in the yoga group and
increased y =%=HP in the control group% They concluded that yoga practice reduces
percei1ed stress
and impro1es adapti1e autonomic response to stress in healthy pregnant 2omen
#o$a for ner:ous syste "roBles
What is the Function of the Nervous System(
The nervous system is the net)or- of nerves that control all the organs and illicit responses from the
(ody, It is the nerves that allo) the senses to )or- and the (rain to coordinate the mechanisms of
the entire (ody,
@ith so many functions it is easy for the nerves to get fatigued or diseased and if there is
anin5ury or trauma to the nerves it can really damage the functioning of the (ody in many )ays, The
slightest of nervous system pro(lems may cease the functioning of vital organs, #or e/ample
trauma to the spinal chord can cause a person to (e paralyJed or lose the a(ility to )al-,
Disor'ers of the Nervous System
Today o)ing to our lifestyle our nerves have to undergo a lot of pressures and stress 5ust to -eep
the (ody functional, There are times though= )hen the amount of stress (ecomes so much that the
nerves (egin to malfunction, It is therefore necessary to maintain the health of the nerves and to
ensure that )e distress regularly so that the (ody machinery -eeps functioning )ithout a glitch,
The severity of the disorders of the nervous system varies, Some of these disorders areN
3lJheimer0s disease
3myotrophic !ateral Sclerosis
Bell0s &alsy
Brain Cancers
Brain Tumors
.pilepsy
$uillain"Barre Syndrome
Headache
'eningitis
'ultiple Sclerosis
'uscular Dystrophy
&ar-inson 0s disease
Stro-e
Treatment for Nervous System
The nervous system is a delicate net)or- of neurons and therefore it is important to -eep it
protected from 5er-s or traumas, @hen )e )or- in the same pose for a long time the nervous
system can get stressed, The treatment of the nervous system (asically focuses on the slo)ing of
the degeneration of the nerves, The nerves if once damaged cannot (e regenerated, It is only )ith
great difficulty that dead nerves of a person can (e revitaliJed, The treatment re8uires ta-ing painful
in5ections or very strong steroid (ased medicines that have various side effects,
?o!a for the Nervous System
1)ing to these circumstances many have recommended yo!a "oses for nervous
systemtreatment, Aoga has proved to (e effective in mitigating the harmful effects of stress, Not
only does yoga help in relieving stress it also helps in -eeping the mind calm and sharp delaying
the onset of diseases li-e &ar-insonSs and 3lJheimer, In fact yoga is one of the fe) forms of
e/ercise that has a direct (eneficial effect on the autonomic nervous system,
Aoga incorporates many different (reathing e/ercises and mediation techni8ues, The deep
(reathing practiced during these e/ercises helps to calm the nerves, The process of meditation
helps to dro)n out all e/traneous )orries and allo)s a person to calm and center his *or her+
thoughts, This goes a long )ay in providing relief from nervous disorders, .ven the yogic postures
*3sanas+ incorporate steady and deep (reathing and help to reduce an/iety and calm the nerves,
Some of the popular yoga postures and techni8ues that can (e used to treat nervous disorders areN
Shava 3sana or the Corpse &ose
&adma 3sana or the !otus &ose
Su-ha 3sana or the .asy &ose
3nuloma <iloma or 3lternate Nostril Breathing
>apal(hati or S-ull Cooling Breath