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You are on page 1of 49

Carlos Areces

1,2

, Raul Fervari

1

& Guillaume Homann

1

1

FaMAF, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Argentina,

2

CONICET, Argentina

WoLLIC 2012, Buenos Aires, Argentina

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 1/19

Modal logics: we like to talk about models

. . .

evaluating a formula.

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 2/19

Logics that change the model 1/2

What about a swapping modal operator?

w

sw

v w v

What happens when you add that to the basic modal logic?

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 3/19

Logics that change the model 2/2

What about:

an edge-deleting modality?

an edge-adding modality?

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 4/19

Logics that change the model 2/2

What about:

an edge-deleting modality?

an edge-adding modality?

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 4/19

Sabotage Modal Logic [van Benthem 2002]

/, w [= gs i pair (u, v) of / such that /

{(u,v)}

, w [= ,

where /

{(u,v)}

is / without the edge (u, v).

Note: (u, v) can be anywhere in the model.

What we know [Loding & Rohde 03]:

Satisability is undecidable.

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 5/19

Sabotage Modal Logic [van Benthem 2002]

/, w [= gs i pair (u, v) of / such that /

{(u,v)}

, w [= ,

where /

{(u,v)}

is / without the edge (u, v).

Note: (u, v) can be anywhere in the model.

What we know [Loding & Rohde 03]:

Satisability is undecidable.

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 5/19

Epistemic Operators

holds (Public Announcement Logic) [Plaza 89].

(Arbitrary Public Announcement Logic) [Balbiani et al. 07].

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 6/19

Epistemic Operators

holds (Public Announcement Logic) [Plaza 89].

(Arbitrary Public Announcement Logic) [Balbiani et al. 07].

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 6/19

Epistemic Operators

holds (Public Announcement Logic) [Plaza 89].

(Arbitrary Public Announcement Logic) [Balbiani et al. 07].

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 6/19

Epistemic Operators

holds (Public Announcement Logic) [Plaza 89].

(Arbitrary Public Announcement Logic) [Balbiani et al. 07].

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 6/19

Epistemic Operators

holds (Public Announcement Logic) [Plaza 89].

(Arbitrary Public Announcement Logic) [Balbiani et al. 07].

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 6/19

Meet the new operators

Remember the Basic Modal Logic (B/L).

Now add new dynamic operators:

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 7/19

Meet the new operators

Remember the Basic Modal Logic (B/L).

Now add new dynamic operators:

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 7/19

Meet the new operators

Remember the Basic Modal Logic (B/L).

Now add new dynamic operators:

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 7/19

Meet the new operators

Remember the Basic Modal Logic (B/L).

Now add new dynamic operators:

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 7/19

Meet the new operators

Remember the Basic Modal Logic (B/L).

Now add new dynamic operators:

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 7/19

Meet the new operators

Remember the Basic Modal Logic (B/L).

Now add new dynamic operators:

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 7/19

Meet the new operators

Remember the Basic Modal Logic (B/L).

Now add new dynamic operators:

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 7/19

Meet the new operators

Remember the Basic Modal Logic (B/L).

Now add new dynamic operators:

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 7/19

Examples: no tree model property

Theorem

/L() lacks the tree model property, for sw, gs, ls, br .

Proof.

1. br w and v ,= w are unconnected.

2. [gs] w is reexive.

3. [ls] w is reexive.

4. p (

1i 3

i

p) swp w has a reexive successor.

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 8/19

Examples: no tree model property

Theorem

/L() lacks the tree model property, for sw, gs, ls, br .

Proof.

1. br w and v ,= w are unconnected.

2. [gs] w is reexive.

3. [ls] w is reexive.

4. p (

1i 3

i

p) swp w has a reexive successor.

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 8/19

Bisimulations

We want to learn more about the models that these logics can describe.

So we need:

Denition of -bisimilarity.

undistinguishable by /L().

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 9/19

Conditions for -bisimulations 1/2

always (nontriv) Z is not empty

always (agree) If (w, S)Z(w

, S

), w and w

agree propositionally.

(zig) If wSv, there is v

s.t. w

, S

)

(zag) If w

, S

)

sw (sw-zig) If wSv, there is v

s.t. w

and (v, S

vw

)Z(v

, S

w

)

(sw-zag) If w

vw

)Z(v

, S

w

)

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 10/19

Conditions for -bisimulations 2/2

gs (gs-zig) If vSu, there is v

, u

s.t. v

and (w, S

vu

)Z(w

, S

)

(gs-zag) If v

vu

)Z(w

, S

)

ls (ls-zig) If wSv, there is v

s.t. w

and (v, S

wv

)Z(v

, S

)

(ls-zag) If w

wv

)Z(v

, S

)

br (br-zig) If wSv, there is v

s.t. w

and (v, S

+

wv

)Z(v

, S

+

w

)

(br-zag) If w

+

wv

)Z(v

, S

+

w

)

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 11/19

Invariance for Dynamic Logics

Theorem

For /L(), sw, gs, ls, br , /, w

ML()

/

, w

implies

/, w

ML()

/

, w

.

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 12/19

Comparing expressiveness

What if we want to show that all of these logics are uncomparable?

Find two

1

-bisimilar models distinguishable by /L(

2

).

Find two

2

-bisimilar models distinguishable by /L(

1

).

Then /L(

1

) and /L(

2

) are uncomparable.

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 13/19

Now lets have fun!

/ /

w

w

br br

gs

/L(ls)

/L(sw)

w

w

ls

gs

/L(sw)

/L(br )

w

w

swsw

[br ][br ]

/L(gs)

/L(ls)

w

. . . . . .

w

. . .

sw /L(br )

w

. . .

. . .

w

. . .

. . .

ls /L(gs)

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 14/19

It all boils down to that. . .

Theorem

For all

1

,

2

sw, gs, ls, br with

1

,=

2

, /L(

1

) and

/L(

2

) are uncomparable.

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 15/19

Other results: Model checking modal logics

swap logic.

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 16/19

Other results: Model checking modal logics

swap logic.

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 16/19

Other results: Model checking modal logics

swap logic.

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 16/19

Other results: Model checking modal logics

swap logic.

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 16/19

Other results: Model checking modal logics

swap logic.

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 16/19

Model checking /L(sw) is PSPACE-hard

For a Quantied Boolean Formula with k variables:

1. Build /

k

as:

p

1

p

p

1

. . .

p

k

p

p

k

2. Build a /L(sw) formula from a QBF as follows:

(x

i

.)

= sw(p

i

()

)

(x

i

)

= (p

i

p

)

()

= ()

( ) = ()

()

3. is true i /

k

, w [= ()

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 17/19

Model checking /L(sw) is PSPACE-hard

For a Quantied Boolean Formula with k variables:

1. Build /

k

as:

p

1

p

p

1

. . .

p

k

p

p

k

2. Build a /L(sw) formula from a QBF as follows:

(x

i

.)

= sw(p

i

()

)

(x

i

)

= (p

i

p

)

()

= ()

( ) = ()

()

3. is true i /

k

, w [= ()

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 17/19

Model checking /L(sw) is PSPACE-hard

For a Quantied Boolean Formula with k variables:

1. Build /

k

as:

p

1

p

p

1

. . .

p

k

p

p

k

2. Build a /L(sw) formula from a QBF as follows:

(x

i

.)

= sw(p

i

()

)

(x

i

)

= (p

i

p

)

()

= ()

( ) = ()

()

3. is true i /

k

, w [= ()

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 17/19

Model checking /L(sw) is PSPACE-hard

For a Quantied Boolean Formula with k variables:

1. Build /

k

as:

p

1

p

p

1

. . .

p

k

p

p

k

2. Build a /L(sw) formula from a QBF as follows:

(x

i

.)

= sw(p

i

()

)

(x

i

)

= (p

i

p

)

()

= ()

( ) = ()

()

3. is true i /

k

, w [= ()

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 17/19

Model checking is PSPACE-complete

We have similar translations for /L(gs), /L(ls) and /L(br ).

Being in PSPACE is shown with a depth-rst algorithm that follows the

denition of [=.

Theorem

For sw, gs, ls, br , model checking for any of the logics

/L() is PSPACE-complete.

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 18/19

Model checking is PSPACE-complete

We have similar translations for /L(gs), /L(ls) and /L(br ).

Being in PSPACE is shown with a depth-rst algorithm that follows the

denition of [=.

Theorem

For sw, gs, ls, br , model checking for any of the logics

/L() is PSPACE-complete.

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 18/19

Model checking is PSPACE-complete

We have similar translations for /L(gs), /L(ls) and /L(br ).

Being in PSPACE is shown with a depth-rst algorithm that follows the

denition of [=.

Theorem

For sw, gs, ls, br , model checking for any of the logics

/L() is PSPACE-complete.

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 18/19

Conclusions

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 19/19

Conclusions

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 19/19

Conclusions

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 19/19

Conclusions

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 19/19

Conclusions

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 19/19

Conclusions

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 19/19

Conclusions

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 19/19

Conclusions

C. Areces, R. Fervari & G. Homann: Moving Arrows and Four Model Checking Results WoLLIC 2012 19/19

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