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Astitva International Journal of Commerce Management and Social Sciences ISSN- 2320-0626 (Online)

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THE STUDY OF REASONS OF STRESS AMONG HUMAN CAPITAL IN DELHI
Vaibhav Misra
Management Consultant & Ex- Lecturer
Bora Institute of Management Sciences- Lucknow
vaibhav.misra@aol.in
E-mail: vaibhav.misra@aol.in

ABSTRACT
The author emphasized on Organizational Stress in this study. The author focused that what are
the reason that causes stress and also studied about the relationship of the reason between the
territories. The study is based on theoretical framework and data collection; therefore the author
studied the literatures related to the topic extensively.
After finding out the objectives or basis of study the author designed the methodology of
working. The author found that the study is based on both primary and secondary data, the
author collected the secondary data by means of internet, journals and books and primary data
was collected from the employees from the multinational companies from Delhi. The author
considered teachers lectures, authors views, employees and managers opinion as primary
data for the study.

Keywords- Organizational Stress, Reasons of Stress, Employee Stress, Causes of Stress,
Stressed Human Capital

INTRODUCTION
The human life today had become complex and knotty; living in this world today is full of
pressures, strains and stress. As asked from the respondents about the stress, the answer that was
given is tension, nervousness, headaches, workloads, deadlines to meet, family problems, and so
on. The list could be endless that could eventually form the pressure jigsaw but these are actually
a list of effects of stress or causes of stress, or stressors (Wan Hussin et. al, 2003). Stress is the
result of our expectations, greed, desires and ambitions. Stress an adoptive response, mediated
by individual characteristic and psychological processes that is consequence of any external
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action, situation or event that places special physical, psychological demands upon a person
(Ivancevich and Matteson, 1980). Operationally defined, stress is the dysfunctional, psycho-
physiological response to excessive emotional challenges or inordinate instinctual demands
(Juniper, 2003).

LITERATURE REVIEW
Numerous studies found that fob stress influences the employees job satisfaction and their
overall performance in their work. Because most of the organizations now are more demanding
for the better job outcomes. In fact, modern times have been called as the age of anxiety and
stress (Coleman, 1976).The stress itself will be affected by number of stressors. Nevertheless,
Beehr and Newman (1978) had defined stress as a situation which will force a person to deviate
from normal functioning due to the change (i.e. disrupt or enhance) in his/her psychological
and/or physiological condition, such that the person is forced to deviate from normal functioning.
From the definition that has been identified by researchers, we can conclude that it is truly
important for an individual to recognize the stresses that are facing by them in their career.
Management role of an organization is one of the aspects that affect work-related stress among
workers (Alexandros-Stamatios et. al., 2003).Workers in an organization can face occupational
stress through the role stress that the management gave. Role stress means anything about an
organizational role that produces adverse consequences for the individual (Kahn and Quinn,
1970). Management will have their own role that stands as their related. Role related are
concerned with how individuals perceive the expectations other have of them and includes role
ambiguity and role conflict (Alexandros-Stamatios et. al., 2003). Several studies have
highlighted the deleterious consequences of high workloads or work overload. According to
Wilkes et al. (1998) work overloads and time constraints were significant contributors to work
stress among community nurses. Workload stress can be defined as reluctance to come to work
and a feeling of constant pressure (i.e. no effort is enough) accompanied by the general
physiological, psychological, and behavioral stress symptoms. Al-Aameri AS. (2003) has
mentioned in his studies that one of the six factors of occupational stress is pressure originating
from workload. Alexandros-Stamatios G.A. et al. (2003) also argued that factors intrinsic to
the job means explore workload, variety of tasks and rates of pay. Rapidly changing global
scene is increasing the pressure of workforce to perform maximum output and enhance
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competitiveness. Indeed, to perform better to their job, there is a requirement for workers to
perform multiple tasks in the workplace to keep abreast of changing technologies (Cascio, 1995;
Quick, 1999). A study in UK indicated that the majority of the workers were unhappy with the
current culture where they were required to work extended hours and cope with large workloads
while simultaneously meeting production targets and deadlines (Townley, 2000). Role ambiguity
is another aspect that affects job stress in the workplace. According to Beehr et. al. (1976),
Cordes & Dougherty (1993), Cooper (1991), Dyer & Quine (1998) and Ursprung (1986) role
ambiguity exists when an individual lacks information about the requirements of his or her role,
how those role requirements are to be met, and the evaluative procedures available to ensure that
the role is being performed successfully. Jackson & Schuler (1985) and Muchinsky (1997)
studies found role ambiguity to lead to such negative outcomes as reduces confidence, a sense of
hopelessness, anxiety, and depression.

OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY
The Study is based on the following objectives
To identify the reasons of stress among the human capital in Multinational organizations
in Delhi.
To identify the impact of stress variables on different age groups.

HYPOTHESES
H
0
There are no feasible reasons of stress among the human capital in multinational
organizations in Delhi.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Study Area
The territories selected to conduct this study is Delhi. The employees of different multinational
companies are the target respondents.
Sampling Method and Sample Size
The random sampling technique is used to identify the organizations for the study. Whereas;
convenience sampling is used to collect the data from the respondents. The sample determined
for the study is 150 respondents from different selected multinational organizations.
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Data Collection
As the research is based on primary data, therefore, the primary data was collected from the
multinational companies from Delhi by interviewing the respondents personally. The structured
questionnaire is used for interviewing the respondents and the questionnaire was distributed with
proper instructions.
Analytical Techniques
Analytical Techniques are the statistical tools that were used to find the results from the collected
data. The statistical tool that is used to test the hypothesis is one- sample t-test. Further,
ANNOVA is used to identify the impact of stress variables on different age groups.

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS
The total respondents targeted for the study were 150, but out of 150 respondents only 131
respondents showed interest towards replying the questionnaire. That is, 12.67% of the
respondents did not answer the questionnaire.

Table 1: Stress Analysis

Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Stressed 58 44.3 44.3 44.3
Not Stressed 73 55.7 55.7 100.0
Total 131 100.0 100.0

It was found that 58 (44.3%) respondents are stressed out of 131 respondents and rest 73 (55.7%)
the majority of employees were not stressed while performing their assigned tasks as represented
in Table 1. These 58 (44.3%) respondents were further asked the questions about their age and
their reasons that caused them stress.




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Table 2: Age Group

Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
18-28 16 12.2 27.6 27.6
28-38 20 15.3 34.5 62.1
38-48 16 12.2 27.6 89.7
48-58 6 4.6 10.3 100.0
Total 58 44.3 100.0



As per the analysis of Table 2, the minimum age of the respondent is considered 18 years.
Considering in mind the regulation passed by the government that the minimum age for working
should be 18 years. The maximum age of the respondents considered is 58 years, as the
employees in multinational organization retire at the age of 58 years. It is found that maximum
number of respondents comes under the class interval of 28-38 with the frequency of 20
followed by 16 each in the class interval of 18-28 and 38-48 respectively.

As per Table 3, 19 (14.5%) respondents consider target pressure as the major reason of stress
which is the major part of the study population. It is followed by job insecurity and work
overload with the frequency of 17 (13%) and 10 (7.6%) respectively.

It can be determined that the employees in the multinational organizations are having much
targets that they are not able to meet up, due to the failure of meeting the target they think about
the future consequences and are stressed.





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Table 3: Reasons of Stress

Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Interpersonal Conflicts 5 3.8 8.6 8.6
Work Overload 10 7.6 17.2 25.9
Lack of Recognition or
Reward
2 1.5 3.4 29.3
Job Insecurity 17 13.0 29.3 58.6
Lack of Support 3 2.3 5.2 63.8
Lack of Training 2 1.5 3.4 67.2
Target Pressure 19 14.5 32.8 100.0
Total 58 44.3 100.0


Table 4: One-Sample Test


Test Value = 4
T df
Sig. (2-
tailed)
Mean
Differenc
e
95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference
Lower Upper
Reasons of
Stress
1.671 57 .100 .47 -.09 1.02


H
0
There are no feasible reasons of stress among the human capital in multinational
organizations in Delhi.

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H
1
There are feasible reasons of stress among the human capital in multinational
organizations in Delhi.

After analyzing the results of one sample t-test it was found that H
0
is rejected. As per the Table
4, the calculated value of t is 1.671 with the test value of 4. The value of significance level is
.100 which is not significant at 5% level of significance. Therefore taking a look on Table 4 it
can be said that null hypothesis is rejected and alternate hypothesis H
1
can be accepted.

Table 5 shows the details about the reasons of stress and the age group of the human capital. The
table describes that at various age groups there are different employees who have different
reasons of stress. In the age group of 18-28 the maximum stress is due to target pressure with 7
respondents. Whereas, in the age group of 28-38 there are mainly three reasons that causes stress
among the employees. These reasons are work overload, job insecurity and target pressure with
the frequency of 6 each. Similarly, in the age group of 38-48 and 48-58 the employees are
stressed due to job insecurity with the frequency of 8 and 3 respectively.
Table 5 Cross tabulation- Reasons of Stress & Age Group



Age Group Total
18-28 28-38 38-48 48-58
Reasons of
Stress
Interpersonal Conflicts
4 1 0 0 5
Work Overload 2 6 2 0 10
Lack of Recognition or
Reward
2 0 0 0 2
Job Insecurity 0 6 8 3 17
Lack of Support 1 1 1 0 3
Lack of Training 0 0 1 1 2
Target Pressure 7 6 4 2 19
Total 16 20 16 6 58


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Table 6: ANOVA (Reasons of Stress)
Age

Sum of
Squares Df
Mean
Squar
e F Sig.
Between
Groups
18.799 6 3.133 4.603 .001
Within Groups 34.718 51 .681
Total 53.517 57


The Table 4 determines the impact of stress variables on different age groups. Here age group is
considered as dependent variable whereas reason of stress is considered as Construct that affects
the age group. There can be the impact of stress variables on different age groups. The value of
significance level is .001 which is significant at .1% level of significance.

CONCLUSION
After reviewing the literatures on the study it is concluded that stress is one of the most
important factors in increasing or decreasing human capacity of working. The reasons of stress
such as Interpersonal Conflicts, Work Overload, Lack of Recognition or Reward, Job Insecurity,
Lack of Support, Lack of Training and Targets were identified. It is also concluded that Targets
are the major reason that causes stress among the human capital. It is concluded that the reasons
of stress among the human capital are valid and they also have impact on different age groups.

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