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# PERTEMUAN KE-2

PERPINDAHAN PANAS
Prinsip Dasar Perpindahan Panas
Heat conduction
7
|
.
|

\
|
=
dx
dT
kA Q
Rate of heat transfer:
where T = temperature at any point in the wall
x = thickness of the wall
A=area of the wall
k= thermal conductivity (Btu/hr.ft.F)
Thermal Conductivity
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Silver 410 W/m. C 237 Btu/h.ft.F
Copper 385 W/m. C 223 Btu/h.ft.F
Diamond 2300 W/m. C 1329 Btu/h.ft.F
Quartz 41.6 W/m. C 24 Btu/h.ft.F
Sandstone 0.78 W/m. C 0.45 Btu/h.ft.F
Ammonia 0.147 W/m. C 0.085 Btu/h.ft.F
Water 0.556 W/m. C 0.327 Btu/h.ft.F
Hydrogen 0.175 W/m. C 0.101 Btu/h.ft.F
Air 0.0206 W/m. C 0.0119 Btu/h.ft.F
Metals
Nonmetallic
solids
Liquids
Gases
9
Thermal conductivity is strongly
temperature-dependent.
Heat convection
12
Hot water rises,
cools, and falls
Heated air rises,
cools, then falls. Air
near heater is
replaced by cooler
air, and the cycle
repeats.
where
h = heat transfer coefficient
Rate of heat transfer:
Heat convection
13
Natural or Free Heat
Convection
Force Heat
Convection
Convection heat-transfer coefficients
14
Free Convection
Forced Convection
Boiling water
Condensation of water vapor
Vertical plate 0.3m high in air 4.5 W/m
2
. C 0.79 Btu/h.ft
2
.F
Horizontal cylinder, 2-cm diameter, in air 6.5 W/m. C 1.14Btu/h.ft.F
Airflow at 2m/s over 0.2-m square plate 12 W/m
2
. C 2.1 Btu/h.ft
2
.F
Airflow at 2m/s over 0.2-m square plate 75 W/m. C 13.2 Btu/h.ft.F
In a pool or container 2,500-35,000 W/m
2
. C 400-600 Btu/h.ft
2
.F
Vertical surfaces 4,000-11,300W/m
2
. C 700-2,000 Btu/h.ft
2
.F
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Convection heat transfer from a plate
Flow
q
T
w
T

wall
Since the velocity of the fluid layer at the wall will be zero, the
heat must be transferred only by conduction at that point.
) (

= T T hA Q
w
Newtons law of cooling:
17
) (
4
2
4
1
T T A Q e =o
= Stefan-Boltzmann constant
(5.669 x 10
-8
W/m
2
.K
4
)
= emissivity
T= absolute temperature
Rate of heat transfer:
where
Radiation is heat from the sun that
travels in the form of waves.
Quantity Text Notation SI Unit English Unit
heat Q Joule (J) Btu
(heat transfer)

heat rate q Watt (W) Btu/hr
(heat transfer rate)
(heat energy rate)
(rate of heat flow)

heat flux q W/m
2
Btu/hr-ft
2

(heat rate per unit area)

heat rate per unit length q W/m Btu/hr-ft

volumetric heat generation q W/m
3
Btu/hr-ft
3

(rate of heat production per
unit volume)

Conversions: 1 Btu = 1054 J
1 kcal = 4184 J
Practice in class
20
1) 1nm = ? mm
2) 1ft = ? mm (1ft = 0.3048m)
3) 900 R = ? K
F = 9/5C+32
R = F+459.69
K = C+273.16
R = 9/5K
4) 1 BTU/hr.ft
2
= ? W/m
2
(1BTU = 1.05504 kJ; W=J/s)