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1.1. IntroductionIntroduction toto CombinedCombined CycleCycle PowerPower PlantsPlants
1.1. IntroductionIntroduction toto CombinedCombined CycleCycle
PowerPower PlantsPlants

Combined Cycle Power Plants

1. Combined Cycle Power Plants

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1
1

Introduction to Combined Cycle Power Plants

2

2
2

Electricity Demand and Supply

22

3
3

Cost of Electricity

44

4
4

Characteristics of Combined C cle Power Plants

y

53

5
5

Wide Use of Gas Turbine

102

Plants y 53 5 Wide Use of Gas Turbine 102 Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined

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Gas Turbine

In a gas turbine, the working fluid for transforming thermal energy into rotating mechanical energy is the hot combustion gas, hence the term “gas turbine.”

The first power generation gas turbine was introduced by ABB in 1937. it was a standby unit with a thermal efficiency of 17%.

The gas turbine technology has many applications. The original jet engine technology was first made into a heavy duty application for mechanical drive purposes.

Pipeline pumping stations, gas compressor plants, and various modes of transportation have successfully used gas turbines.

While the mechanical drive applications continue to have widespread use, the technology has advanced into larger gas turbine designs that are coupled to electric generators for power generation applications.

Gas turbine generators are self-contained packaged power plants.

Air compression, fuel delivery, combustion, expansion of combustion gas through a turbine, and electricity generation are all accomplished in a compact combination of equipment usually provided by a single supplier under a single contract.

The advantages of the heavy-duty gas turbines are their long life, high availability, and slightly higher overall efficiencies. The noise level from the heavy-duty gas turbines is considerably less than gas turbines for aviation.

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Power Generation Requirement

Variety of Fuels

Coal  
Coal  

Coal

 

G

as

Oil

Water

Nuclear

Wi

n

d

Solar

Geothermal

Biomass

Emissio ns Costs Competitive Machine Effic iency Ava ilability Ope rating Flex ibility
Emissio ns
Costs
Competitive Machine
Effic iency
Ava ilability
Ope rating
Flex ibility
Effic iency Ava ilability Ope rating Flex ibility Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power
Effic iency Ava ilability Ope rating Flex ibility Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power
Effic iency Ava ilability Ope rating Flex ibility Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power

Combined Cycle Power Plants

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Type of Plant

 

Base Load

 

Intermediate Load

Peak Load

Operating

       

Hours [hr/a]

5000

 

2000 to 5000

2000

 

• Nuclear plant

 

• Gas turbine

• High-performance steam turbine plant

• Simple steam turbine plant

• Diesel engine

Generating

• Old base-load plant

 

Units

• High efficient combined cycle plant

 

• Pumping-up power plant

C

• bi

om

plant

ne

d

gas an

d

t

s eam

• Old simple steam turbine plant

• Hydropower plant

 
 

• Operated at full load as long as possible during the year

• Operated on weekdays and shutdown at night and on the weekend

• Low capital investment, but highest operating costs

Characteri-

stics

Hi h efficienc

g

y

and lowest cost

• The efficiency is higher than that of peak-load plants, but lower than that of base-load plants

• Ease in startup

• Poor load change capability (take more time to respond load demand)

• Used as standby or emergency also

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Combined Cycle Power Plants

In simple cycle mode, the gas turbine is operated alone, without the benefit of recovering any of energy in the hot exhaust gases. The exhaust gases are sent directly to the atmosphere.

Fuel

Combustor Turbine G Compressor Exhaust Inlet Steam Gas Ai r G HP LP Turbine Drum
Combustor
Turbine
G
Compressor
Exhaust
Inlet
Steam
Gas
Ai r
G
HP
LP
Turbine
Drum
Drum
HRSG
Condenser
HP Superheater
HP Evaporator
HP Economizer
LP Superheater
LP Evaporator
LP Economizer
Deaerator
LP Boiler
Feed Pump

In combined cycle mode, the gas turbine exhaust gases are sent into HRSG. The HRSG generates steam that is normally used to power a steam turbine.

Condensate

HP Boiler

Feed Pump

Pump

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Simple Cycle

Simple cycle gas turbines for electricity generation are typically used for standby or peaking capacity and are generally operated for a limited number of hours per year. Peaking operation is often defined as fewer than 2,000 hours of operation per year.

In mechanical drive applications, and for some industrial power generation, simple cycle gas turbines are base-load and operate more than 5,000 hours of operation per year.

Some plants are initially installed as simple cycle plants with provisions for future conversion to combined cycle.

Gas turbines typically have their own cooling, lubricating, and other service systems needed for simple cycle operation. This can eliminate the need to tie service systems into the combined cycle addition and will allow continued operation of the gas turbine during the conversion process and, with proper provisions, during periods when the combined cycle equipment is out of service.

If future simple cycle is desired, a bypass stack may be included with the connection of the HRSG. A typical method for providing this connection is to procure a divert damper box at the outlet of the gas turbine.

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Schematic of a CCPP

HIPT Schematic of a CCPP Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 8 /

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Cycle Diagram

3 Pressure Reheat Cycle (F-Class Gas Turbine)

Fuel G Heat Recovery Steam Generator Gas Turbine IP Steam Air LP Hot Reheat Main
Fuel
G
Heat Recovery
Steam Generator
Gas Turbine
IP Steam
Air
LP
Hot Reheat
Main
Cold Reheat
Steam
Steam
Steam
Steam
G
Steam
Water
Steam Turbine
Fuel
Air
Condenser
Condensate Pump

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T-s Diagram for a Typical CCPP

HIPT T-s Diagram for a Typical CCPP T To pp in g C y cle (Brayton

T

HIPT T-s Diagram for a Typical CCPP T To pp in g C y cle (Brayton
To pp in g C y cle (Brayton Cycle)
To pp in g C y cle
(Brayton Cycle)

Bottoming Cycle (Rankine Cycle)

g C y cle (Brayton Cycle) Bottoming Cycle (Rankine Cycle) s Combined Cycle Power Plants 1.

s

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CHP; Combined Heat and Power

In the simplest arrangements, the gas turbine waste heat is used directly in an industrial process, such as for drying in a paper mill, or cement works.

Adding an HRSG converting waste heat into steam, gives greater flexibilities in the process for chemical industries, or district heating

in the process for chemical industries, or district heating Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle

Combined Cycle Power Plants

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Thermodynamic Consideration

HIPT Thermodynamic Consideration T H Q H 에너지 변환 Q L T L [ Fossil /
T H Q H 에너지 변환 Q L T L
T H
Q H
에너지
변환
Q L
T L

[ Fossil / Nuclear ]

W

T H Q H Gas Turbine HRSG Steam Turbine Q L T L
T
H
Q
H
Gas
Turbine
HRSG
Steam
Turbine
Q
L
T
L

W

W

[ Combined Cycle]

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Gas Turbine Combined Cycle

구분

Topping Cycle

Bottoming Cycle

Main Components

GT

ST/HRSG

Working Fluid

Air

Water/Steam

Temperature

High

Medium/Low

Thermodynamic Cycle

Brayton

Rankine

Coupling Two Cycles

Heat Exchanger

Topping Cycle

Bottoming Cycle

 
   
 
 
 
 

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Combined Cycle Power Plants

Combined cycle means the combination of two thermal cycles in one plant.

When two cycles are combined, the efficiency increases higher than that of one cycle alone.

Thermal cycles with the same or with different working fluid can be combined.

In general, a combination of cycles with different working fluid has good characteristics because their advantages can complement one another.

Normally, when two cycles are combined, the cycle operating at the higher temperature level is called as topping cycle. The waste heat is used for second process that is operated at the lower temperature level, and is called as bottoming cycle.

The combination used today for commercial power generation is that of a gas topping cycle with a water/steam bottoming cycle. In this case heat can be introduced at higher temperature and exhausted at very low temperature.

Temperature of the air used as a working fluid of gas turbines can be increased very high under lower pressure. Water/steam used as a working fluid can contain very high level of energy at lower temperature because it has very high specific heat.

Normally the topping and bottoming cycles are coupled in a heat exchanger.

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Combined Cycle Power Plants

Air is used as a working fluid in gas turbines having high turbine inlet temperatures because it is easy to get and has good properties for topping cycle.

Steam/water is an ideal material for bottoming cycle because it is inexpensive, easy to get, non-hazardous, and suitable for medium and low temperature ranges.

The initial breakthrough of gas-steam cycle onto the commercial power plant market was possible due to the development of the gas turbine.

In the late 1970s, EGT reached sufficiently high level that can be used for high efficiency combined cycles.

The breakthrough was made easier because gas turbines have been used for power generation as a simple cycle and steam turbines have been used widely.

For this reason, the combined cycle, which has high efficiency, low installation cost, fast delivery time, had been developed easily.

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CCPP System Options

Items

Options

Remarks

 

• Single pressure / Two pressure /Three pressure *

 

Steam Cycle

• Reheat

Dependent on EGT

• Non-reheat

 

• Natural gas */ Distillate oil / Ash bearing oil

 

Fuel

• Low BTU coal and oil-derived gas

• Multiple fuel systems

 

• Water injection / Steam injection

 

NOx Control

• SCR (NOx and/or CO)

• Dry Low NOx combustion *

 

• Water cooled (once-through system) *

 

Condenser

• Water cooled (cooling tower) /Air-cooled condenser

 

• Deaerating condenser *

 

Deaeration

• Deaerator/evaporator integral with HRSG

 

• Natural circulation evaporators *

 

• Forced circulation evaporators

HRSG Design

• Unfired *

• Supplementary fired

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Base Configurations for CCPP

Unfired, 3-pressure steam cycle

Non-reheat for rated EGT less than 1000°F/538°C

Reheat for rated EGT higher than 1050°F/566°C and fuel heating

Heat recovery feedwater heating

Feedwater dearation on condenser

Natural circulation HRSG evaporators

GT with DLN combustors

Once-through condenser cooling water system

Multi-shaft systems

Single-shaft systems

Integrated equipment and control system

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GT vs. ST

HIPT

 

Gas Turbine

Steam Turbine

Combustion

Internal

External

Thermodynamic cycle

Brayton

Rankine

Cycle type

Open

Closed

Working fluid

Air

Water/Steam

Max. pressure, bar

23 (40 for Aviation)

350 (5050 psig)

Max. temperature C(F)

,

1350 (2462)

630 (1166)

Blade cooling

Yes

No

Shaft cooling

No

Yes (USC only)

Max. cycle efficiency, %

40

49 (USC only)

Max. number of reheat

1

2

Power density

High

Low

Steam conditions of the steam turbines for combined cycle applications are lower than those for USC steam turbines.

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CCPP

HIPT

Major equipment of combined cycle power plant

Gas turbine, steam turbine, generator, HRSG

Main advantages of the combined cycle power plant

Higher thermal efficiency than the others (up to 60%) - SC steam plants: 35~40%, USC steam plants: 49%

Shorter construction period

Lower initial construction cost

- Capital costs of gas fired combined cycle are about 40% of coal fired steam plants

Lower emission (low NOx burners, SCR, CO catalysts are available)

Current situation

Construction of CCPP has increased dramatically since 1970s

Market is governed by GE and SIEMENS

It is hard to develop a new competitive model because it requires both advanced technologies and high cost

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CCPP Concept

Customer Requirements
Customer Requirements
Process-energy Electricity Demand Operating Philosophy Financing (steam/ w ater) demand
Process-energy
Electricity Demand
Operating Philosophy
Financing
(steam/
w
ater) demand
Site Related Factors
Site Related Factors
50 or 60H z Sit e co nditi n o s / Ambi nt e
50
or
60H
z
Sit
e co
nditi n
o
s
/ Ambi nt
e
co
nditi n
o
s
Legislation / Emission requirements
Resources
Fuel
Water
Space
Plant Concept Solution
Plant Concept Solution
Capital cost Type / Number of GTs US$/kW Single shaft Multiple shaft Cycle selection with
Capital cost
Type / Number of GTs
US$/kW
Single shaft
Multiple shaft
Cycle selection with parameter optimization
Final optimization
Plant /C cle
y

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A Typical HRSG

HIPT A Typical HRSG Stack HP IP LP Section Section Section Transition Duct Addtional Air Inlet
Stack HP IP LP Section Section Section Transition Duct Addtional Air Inlet Air supply Duct
Stack
HP
IP
LP
Section
Section
Section
Transition
Duct
Addtional
Air Inlet
Air supply
Duct
Duct
Burner
starting
Gas
Moter
Flow
Inlet duct
Turbine
Generator
Correction
Device
Gas

Turbine

A-A section

HRSG

Exhaust duct

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1
1

Introduction to Combined Cycle Power Plants

2
2

Electricity Demand and Supply

3
3

Cost of Electricity

4
4

Characteristics of Combined C cle Power Plants

y

5
5

Wide Use of Gas Turbine

C cle Power Plants y 5 Wide Use of Gas Turbine Combined Cycle Power Plants 1.

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Demand and Supply

Electricity must be produced when the consumers need it because it cannot be stored in a practical manner on a large scale.

Electricity can be stored indirectly through water, but it is not economical.

Actually only storage of water pumped into lakes during off-peak time to be used during peak hours has been used practically.

Large fluctuation in demand during the day requires quick response from power plants to meet the balance between demand and supply.

Gas turbine combined cycle power plants have good characteristics in terms of fast start-up and shut-down.

In addition, they have low investment costs, short construction times compared to large coal-fired power stations and nuclear plants.

The other advantages of combined cycles are high efficiency and low emission.

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Power Demand during a Day

HIPT Power Demand during a Day Excellent start-up and shut down capabilities are essential for this

Excellent start-up and shut down capabilities are essential for this

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발전전력량 분석

HIPT 발전전력량 분석 출처: 전력시장분석보고서, 전력거래소 (2012) Combined Cycle Power Plants

출처: 전력시장분석보고서, 전력거래소 (2012)

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연도별 전력수급 실적 및 전망

HIPT 연도별 전력수급 실적 및 전망 출처: 전력시장분석보고서, 전력거래소 (2012) Combined Cycle

출처: 전력시장분석보고서, 전력거래소 (2012)

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발전연료별 설비용량 추이

HIPT 발전연료별 설비용량 추이 출처: 전력시장분석보고서, 전력거래소 (2012) Combined Cycle

출처: 전력시장분석보고서, 전력거래소 (2012)

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발전원별 연평균 가동시간 비율

HIPT 발전원별 연평균 가동시간 비율 출처: 전력시장분석보고서, 전력거래소 (2012) Combined

출처: 전력시장분석보고서, 전력거래소 (2012)

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발전원별 발전기 이용률

HIPT 발전원별 발전기 이용률 출처: 전력시장분석보고서, 전력거래소 (2012) Combined Cycle Power

출처: 전력시장분석보고서, 전력거래소 (2012)

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발전연료별 열량 단가

HIPT 발전연료별 열량 단가 출처: 전력시장분석보고서, 전력거래소 (2012) Combined Cycle Power

출처: 전력시장분석보고서, 전력거래소 (2012)

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향후 발전연료별 구성 전망

HIPT 향후 발전연료별 구성 전망 출처: 전력시장분석보고서, 전력거래소 (2012) Combined Cycle

출처: 전력시장분석보고서, 전력거래소 (2012)

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주요 발전회사별 전력거래량 점유율

HIPT 주요 발전회사별 전력거래량 점유율 출처: 전력시장분석보고서, 전력거래소 (2012)

출처: 전력시장분석보고서, 전력거래소 (2012)

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국내 복합발전 설치 현황 - 민자

회사

위치

제작사

GT

대수

GT용량

ST용량

총용량

비고

     

V84.3

4

710.0

378.0

   

GS EPS

당진

Siemens

SGT6-8000H

1

274 0

136 0

2013/8 완공

.

.

GS 파워

부천

WH

501D5

3

315.6

100.0

 

CHP

안양

ABB

GT11N

4

317.6

100.0

 

CHP

 

광양

GE

7FA+e

4

686.8

340.0

 

K-Power

SK E&S

평택

   

3

515.1

285.0

833

3-on-1 Conf.

 

광양

GE

7FA+

2

337.6

165.0

   

POSCO

포항

GE

7FA+

2

337.6

165.0

   

POSCO에너지

인천

WH

W501D5

12

1,200.0

600.0

   

V84.3A

4

812.0

440.0

 

순천

Siemens

W501F

2

340.0

160.0

   

MPC

MHI

M501J

2

640.0

280.0

920

2-on-1 Conf.

대산

WH

W501D5

4

408.0

100.0

 

현대중공업 인수

한국지역난방기술

화성

   

2

340.0

     

한국지역난방공사

   

7EA

         

인천종합에너지

인천

GE

6F

2

154.0

     

여천NCC

여수

GE

6B

5

190.0

     

포천파워

포천

   

2

   

1560

 

S-Power

안산

Siemens

SGT6-8000H

2

548.0

272.0

 

2014/10 완공예정

대륜발전(한진중)

양주

         

556

2013/12 열병합

 

         

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국내 복합발전 설치 현황 - 한전

발전소

Site

제작사

GT (용량)

GT 대수

GT용량

ST용량

총용량

비고

 

신인천

GE

7FA+e (171.7)

8

1373.6

680.0

   

부산

GE

7FA (170)

8

1360.0

680.0

   

남부발전

한림

GE

6B (38)

2

76.0

38.0

   

영월

MHI

M501F

3

550.0

310.5

   

안동

Siemens

SGT6-8000H

1

274.0

136.0

 

2014년 완공

 

보령

ABB

GT24 150

6

900 0

450 0

   

(

)

.

.

 

Siemens

V84.3A

2

320.0

160

   

중부발전

인천

?

2

360.0

180.0

세종

         

515.0

2013/11월 열병합

 

서인천

GE

7FA+e (171.7)

8

1373.6

680.0

   
 

GE

7EA (87.9)

4

351.6

160.0

   

서부발전

평택

MHI

M501J

2

640.0

280.0

   

군산

MHI

M501G

2

508.0

210.0

   

동두천

MHI

M501J

4

1280.0

560.0

   

남동발전

분당

ABB

GT11N (79.4)

8

635.2

300.0

   
 

일산

WH

501D5 (105.2)

6

631.2

300.0

   
 

WH

501D5 (105.2)

2

210.4

100.0

   

동서발전

울산

WH

501F (150)

4

600.0

300.0

   

MHI

M501J

2

640.0

280.0

   

춘천

 

500MW 열병합

 

340 0

160 0

 

2014 완공(열병합)

.

.

 

         

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신인천/서인천복합발전단지

복합화력 4,300 MW (7FA +e x 16 Units)
복합화력 4,300 MW (7FA +e x 16 Units)

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국내 복합화력발전소

HIPT 국내 복합화력발전소 부산복합 (2,000 MW) 분당복합 (960 MW) 일 산 복 합 ( 9 0

부산복합 (2,000 MW)

HIPT 국내 복합화력발전소 부산복합 (2,000 MW) 분당복합 (960 MW) 일 산 복 합 ( 9 0

분당복합 (960 MW)

부산복합 (2,000 MW) 분당복합 (960 MW) 일 산 복 합 ( 9 0 0 M W

(900 MW)

(960 MW) 일 산 복 합 ( 9 0 0 M W ) 보령복합 (1,800 MW)

보령복합 (1,800 MW)

복 합 ( 9 0 0 M W ) 보령복합 (1,800 MW) POSCO 광양복합 (500 MW)
복 합 ( 9 0 0 M W ) 보령복합 (1,800 MW) POSCO 광양복합 (500 MW)

POSCO 광양복합 (500 MW)

M W ) 보령복합 (1,800 MW) POSCO 광양복합 (500 MW) POSCO 포항복합 (500 MW) POSCO파워 (3,000
M W ) 보령복합 (1,800 MW) POSCO 광양복합 (500 MW) POSCO 포항복합 (500 MW) POSCO파워 (3,000
M W ) 보령복합 (1,800 MW) POSCO 광양복합 (500 MW) POSCO 포항복합 (500 MW) POSCO파워 (3,000

POSCO 포항복합 (500 MW)

MW) POSCO 광양복합 (500 MW) POSCO 포항복합 (500 MW) POSCO파워 (3,000 MW) 울산 (1,200 MW) GS
MW) POSCO 광양복합 (500 MW) POSCO 포항복합 (500 MW) POSCO파워 (3,000 MW) 울산 (1,200 MW) GS

POSCO파워 (3,000 MW) 울산 (1,200 MW)

GS EPS (1,000 MW)

현대중 대산 (500 MW)

메이야율촌 (500 MW)

K-Power(1,074 MW)

대산 (500 MW) 메이야율촌 (500 MW) K-Power(1,074 MW) GS 파워 (1,000 MW) 담수설비 Combined Cycle Power
대산 (500 MW) 메이야율촌 (500 MW) K-Power(1,074 MW) GS 파워 (1,000 MW) 담수설비 Combined Cycle Power
대산 (500 MW) 메이야율촌 (500 MW) K-Power(1,074 MW) GS 파워 (1,000 MW) 담수설비 Combined Cycle Power

GS 파워 (1,000 MW)

담수설비

Combined Cycle Power Plants

1. Combined Cycle Power Plants

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국내 복합화력발전소

HIPT 국내 복합화력발전소 메이야율촌복합 (550 MW) 분당복합 (960 MW) 군산복합 (700 MW) 현대

메이야율촌복합 (550 MW)

국내 복합화력발전소 메이야율촌복합 (550 MW) 분당복합 (960 MW) 군산복합 (700 MW) 현대

분당복합 (960 MW)

메이야율촌복합 (550 MW) 분당복합 (960 MW) 군산복합 (700 MW) 현대 대산복합 (507 MW)

군산복합 (700 MW)

(550 MW) 분당복합 (960 MW) 군산복합 (700 MW) 현대 대산복합 (507 MW) 영월복합 (900 MW) GS

현대 대산복합 (507 MW)

(960 MW) 군산복합 (700 MW) 현대 대산복합 (507 MW) 영월복합 (900 MW) GS EPS 부곡복합 (1020

영월복합 (900 MW)

(700 MW) 현대 대산복합 (507 MW) 영월복합 (900 MW) GS EPS 부곡복합 (1020 MW) Combined Cycle

GS EPS 부곡복합 (1020 MW)

Combined Cycle Power Plants

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Gas Turbine Production by Sector

Source: Davis Franus, Forecast International

18 Commercial Aviation 15 12 Electrical Generation 9 6 Military Aviation 3 Mechanical Drive Marine
18
Commercial Aviation
15
12
Electrical Generation
9
6
Military Aviation
3
Mechanical Drive
Marine Propulsion
2004
2006
2008
2010
Billi ons of Dol lars (200 7)

Combined Cycle Power Plants

1. Combined Cycle Power Plants

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세계 에너지원별 소비

(단위: QBtu, %)

구분

석유

천연가스

석탄

원자력

신재생

합계

소비량

162.1

99.1

100.4

26.5

32.7

420.8

소비비중

38.5

23.6

23.9

6.2

7.8

100

기준년도: 2003년

자료) 미국에너지정보국, International Energy Outlook, 2006

1 QBtu = 25.2Mtoe

1 QBtu = 1 Quadrillion Btu {Quadrillion = 10 15 (미국) or 10 24 (유럽)}

1

toe = Tonnage of Oil Equivalent (1석유환산톤 = 석 유 1톤을 연소시킬 때 발생되는 에너지)

신재생 (7.8%) 원자력 (6.2%)

발생되는 에너지) 신재생 (7.8%) 원자력 ( 6.2% ) 석유 (38.5%) 석탄 (23.9%) 천연가스 (23.6%) Combined

석유 (38.5%)

석탄

(23.9%)

(7.8%) 원자력 ( 6.2% ) 석유 (38.5%) 석탄 (23.9%) 천연가스 (23.6%) Combined Cycle Power Plants 1.

천연가스 (23.6%)

Combined Cycle Power Plants

1. Combined Cycle Power Plants

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World Primary Energy

HIPT World Primary Energy Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 40 / 109

Combined Cycle Power Plants

1. Combined Cycle Power Plants

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World Power Generation by Fuel Type

Billion MW-h

40

30

20

10

0

Power Generation by Fuel Type Billion MW-h 40 30 20 1 0 0 2005 2 0

2005

2010

2015

2020

2025

2030

Source: IEO (2008)

Nuclear0 2005 2 0 1 0 2015 2020 2025 2030 S ource: IEO (2008) Renewables Nat.

Renewables2 0 1 0 2015 2020 2025 2030 S ource: IEO (2008) Nuclear Nat. Gas Coal

Nat. Gas2015 2020 2025 2030 S ource: IEO (2008) Nuclear Renewables Coal Hydro Combined Cycle Power Plants

Coal2025 2030 S ource: IEO (2008) Nuclear Renewables Nat. Gas Hydro Combined Cycle Power Plants 1.

Hydro2030 S ource: IEO (2008) Nuclear Renewables Nat. Gas Coal Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined

Combined Cycle Power Plants

1. Combined Cycle Power Plants

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World Power Generation by Fuel Type

Based on Centralized Generation

Generation by Fuel Type Based on Centra li zed Generation Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined

Combined Cycle Power Plants

1. Combined Cycle Power Plants

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Market Share and Product

HIPT Market Share and Product Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 43 /

Combined Cycle Power Plants

1. Combined Cycle Power Plants

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1
1

Introduction to Combined Cycle Power Plants

2
2

Electricity Demand and Supply

3
3

Cost of Electricity

4
4

Characteristics of Combined C cle Power Plants

y

5
5

Wide Use of Gas Turbine

C cle Power Plants y 5 Wide Use of Gas Turbine Combined Cycle Power Plants 1.

Combined Cycle Power Plants

1. Combined Cycle Power Plants

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국내 발전원가 비교

2007년 기준

단위: 원/kWh 677.4 128.3 117.0 107.3 39.4 40.9
단위: 원/kWh
677.4
128.3
117.0
107.3
39.4
40.9

원자력

석탄

중유

LNG

풍력

태양광

39.4 40.9 원자력 석탄 중유 L N G 풍력 태양광 • 석탄의 경우 탄소배출권 비용을 감안하면

석탄의 경우 탄소배출권 비용을 감안하면 발전원가 27.2원 상승

원자력의 경우 핵폐기물 처리비용 미반영

Combined Cycle Power Plants

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발전원가 비교

Source: Power Plant Engineering (Black & Veatch)

비교 Source: Power Plant Engineering (Black & Veatch) Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power

Combined Cycle Power Plants

1. Combined Cycle Power Plants

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발전원가 비교

400 Gas Turbine 300 Coal-Steam 200 Combined Cycle 100 0 0 1,500 5,000 8,760 Annua
400
Gas Turbine
300
Coal-Steam
200
Combined Cycle
100
0
0
1,500
5,000
8,760
Annua l Cost, $/k W-year

Operation Hours/year

Comparisons will depend on fuel costs, capital costs, and maintenance costs.

Combined Cycle Power Plants

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발전원가 비교

In contrast to steam turbine-generators, the manufacturers of gas turbines have a defined product line, allowing for substantial standardization and assembly line manufacturing.

The modular concept of the package power plants made gas turbines relatively quick and easy to install.

Standardization and modularization combine to provide the product benefits of relatively low capital cost and fast installation.

The benefits of low capital cost and fast installation were initially offset by higher operating costs when compared to other installed capacity. Therefore, early utility applications of gas turbine generator were strictly for peak load operation for a few hundred hours per year.

Improvements in efficiency and reliability and the application of combined cycles have added to the economic benefits of the technology and now give gas turbine based power plants a wider range of application on electric systems.

Combined Cycle Power Plants

1. Combined Cycle Power Plants

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Cost of Electricity

< Inputs for the evaluation of the cost of electricity >

Type of Plant

Output,

MW

Descripti

on

Investment cost, US$/kW

Average

efficiency

Fuel price,

US$/MBTu

감가상각

(LHV), %

(LHV)

Combined Cycle Power Plant

 

2 x GT

       

800

1 x ST

750

56.5

8.0

25

Gas Turbine

           

Plant (gas)

250

1 x GT

413

37.5

8.0

25

Steam Power

           

Plant (coal)

800

1 x ST

1716

44.0

3.5

25

Nuclear Power Plant

1250

1 x ST

3500

34.5

0.5

40

No cost for CO 2 emissions were included.

Combined Cycle Power Plants

1. Combined Cycle Power Plants

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HIPT

Cost of Electricity

100 Capital Base Load Intermediate Load O&M Fuel 80 60 40 20 C ost of
100
Capital
Base Load
Intermediate Load
O&M
Fuel
80
60
40
20
C ost of Elect ricity (US$/ MWh)

800 MW

800 MW

250 MW

1250 MW

800 MW

800 MW

250 MW

1250 MW

CCPP

Steam

GT PP

Nuclear PP

CCPP

Steam

GT PP

Nuclear PP

(gas)

(coal)

(gas)

(gas)

(coal)

(gas)

Combined Cycle Power Plants

1. Combined Cycle Power Plants

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복합화력발전 가격

HIPT 복합화력발전 가격 GE S109H : Dry Low NOxCombustors(H System™) : Combined cycle : 14 Can-annular

GE S109H

HIPT 복합화력발전 가격 GE S109H : Dry Low NOxCombustors(H System™) : Combined cycle : 14 Can-annular
HIPT 복합화력발전 가격 GE S109H : Dry Low NOxCombustors(H System™) : Combined cycle : 14 Can-annular
HIPT 복합화력발전 가격 GE S109H : Dry Low NOxCombustors(H System™) : Combined cycle : 14 Can-annular

: Dry Low NOxCombustors(H System™)

: Combined cycle

: 14 Can-annular lean pre-mix DLN-2.5combustors

: Output 480 MW (Gas turbine power 300 MW)

: Heat rate 6000 kJ/kWh

: $153,500,000 ($320/kW)

F15-K : $1

rate 6000 kJ/kWh : $153,500,000 ($320/kW) F15-K : $1 억 Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined
rate 6000 kJ/kWh : $153,500,000 ($320/kW) F15-K : $1 억 Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined

Combined Cycle Power Plants

1. Combined Cycle Power Plants

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HIPT

Turbine Blade Prices (1998년 기준)

   

출력

     

NOZZLE

 

BUCKET

제작사

MODEL

(MW)

TIT (C)

개수

가격($)/Set

MATERIAL

개수

가격($)/Set

MATERIAL

       

1

48

1,180,000

FSX410

92

2,200,000

GTD111

7FA

175

1,260

2

48

1,180,000

GTD222

92

1,500,000

GTD111

3

60

1,190,000

GTD222

92

1,450,000

GTD111

     

1

32

680,000

FSX414

92

670,000

GTD111

GE

7EA

88

1,104

2

48

690,000

FSX414

92

680,000

IN738

3

48

740,000

FSX414

92

600,000

U500

     

1

36

390,000

FSX414

92

430,000

GTD111

6B

39

1,104

2

48

450,000

GTD222

92

330,000

IN738

3

64

420,000

GTD222

92

310,000

U500

       

1

42

240,000

IN738

115

400,000

IN738LC

2

66

210,000

IN939

115

400,000

IN738LC

GT11N

80

1,027

3

84

280,000

IN730

97

210,000

IN738LC

4

90

210,000

X45

105

390,000

IN738LC

ABB

5

40

390,000

20/25/2

59

500,000

ST 16/25MD

     

1

100

1,170,000

MAR M247LC

197

800,000

DS CM247LC

 

2

44

656,000

MAR M247LC

88

950,000

DS CM247LC

GT24

150

1,255

3

80

948,000

MAR M247LC

86

1,170,000

DS CM247LC

4

78

1,170,000

IN738LC

84

950,000

MAR M247LC

5

76

800,000

IN738LC

82

1,240,000

MAR M247LC

       

1

48

810,000

ECY-768

81

340,000

U520

501D2

105

1,198

2

48

700,000

X45

73

300,000

U520

3

56

720,000

ECY-768

55

340,000

U520

WH

     

4

56

770,000

X45

51

340,000

IN GC-750

     

1

32

560,000

ECY-768

72

1,400,000

IN738

 

2

24

410,000

X45

66

1,000,000

IN738

501F

150

1,293

3

16

380,000

ECY-768

112

1,400,000

IN738

4 14 430,000 X45 100 1,100,000 U520
4 14
430,000
X45
100
1,100,000
U520

Combined Cycle Power Plants

1. Combined Cycle Power Plants

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1
1

Introduction to Combined Cycle Power Plants

2
2

Electricity Demand and Supply

3
3

Cost of Electricity

4
4

Characteristics of Combined C cle Power Plants

y

5
5

Wide Use of Gas Turbine

C cle Power Plants y 5 Wide Use of Gas Turbine Combined Cycle Power Plants 1.

Combined Cycle Power Plants

1. Combined Cycle Power Plants

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System Features of CCPP

 

Advantages

Disadvantages

1. High thermal efficiency

   

2. Low initial investment

3. Short construction time

4. Fuel flexibility

 

Wide range of gas and liquid fuels

5. High reliability and availability

 

1. Higher fuel costs

6. Low operation and maintenance cost

2. Uncertain long-term fuel supply

7. High efficiency in small capacity increments

3. Output more dependent on ambient temperatures

V

i

t

ar ous gas ur

bi

8. Operating flexibility

ne mo

d

l

e s

Base, intermediate, peak load

9. Environmental friendliness

 

10. Reduced plant space

 

Combined Cycle Power Plants

1. Combined Cycle Power Plants

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1. High Thermal Efficiency [1/6]

The value of efficiency is very high because fuel spend may be about 70 percent of the total cost.

All major OEMs have developed air-cooled gas turbines for combined cycles with efficiencies around 61 percent.

Siemens proved performance of 60.75% at the Irsching site outside Berlin.

The old paradigm that high performance meant advanced steam cooled gas turbines and slow started bottoming cycles has definitely proven false.

Both GE and Siemens are able to do a hot-start within 30 minutes to full load.

Steam cooling will most likely only be used for 1,600C firing level since there will be an air shortage for both dry low emission and turbine cooling.

The key for 61% efficiency is high performance gas turbines having higher pressure ratio and firing temperature.

In addition, the exhaust gas temperature has to be at a level for maximum bottoming cycle performance.

Currently, most OEMs have capability of steam turbine throttle temperature of 600C(1112F) and the optimum exhaust gas temperature should therefore be on the order of 25-30C higher.

Both GE and Siemens have presented advanced throttle conditions for their bottoming cycles, 165 bar/600C and 170 bar/600C, respectively.

Combined Cycle Power Plants

1. Combined Cycle Power Plants

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1. High Thermal Efficiency [2/6]

Conde nser

Combined cycle power plants have a higher thermal efficiency because of the application of two complementary thermodynamic cycles

F ue l E nergy 100% GT Loss 0 5% . ST
F ue
l E
nergy
100%
GT
Loss
0 5%
.
ST
cycles F ue l E nergy 100% GT Loss 0 5% . ST Loss 0 .

Loss

0.3%

Three Pressure Reheat Cycle

T

0 5% . ST Loss 0 . 3 % Three Pressure Reheat Cycle T Loss in

Loss in HRSG

0.3%

37.6%

21.7%

Stack
Stack

8.6%

Reheat Cycle T Loss in HRSG 0.3% 37.6% 21.7% Stack 8.6% 31.0% [ Heat balance in
31.0%
31.0%

[ Heat balance in a typical combined cycle plant ]

31.0% [ Heat balance in a typical combined cycle plant ] To pp in g C
To pp in g C y cle (Brayton Cycle)
To pp in g C y cle
(Brayton Cycle)

Bottoming Cycle (Rankine Cycle)

g C y cle (Brayton Cycle) Bottoming Cycle (Rankine Cycle) s Combined Cycle Power Plants 1.

s

Combined Cycle Power Plants

1. Combined Cycle Power Plants

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HIPT

1. High Thermal Efficiency [3/6]

Comparison of Thermal Efficiency

발전 유형별 성능 비교 60 60 49 48 50 40 38 40 35 30 20
발전 유형별 성능 비교
60
60
49
48
50
40
38
40
35
30
20
10
열효율 , %

원자력

화력

화력

가스터빈

IGCC

가스터빈

(SC)

(USC)

(SIMPLE)

()

Combined Cycle Power Plants

1. Combined Cycle Power Plants

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1. High Thermal Efficiency [4/6]

Evolution of Heavy Duty Gas Turbine Design Features

 

1967

1972

1979

1990

2000

2008

2012

         

1426

1426

 

TIT, C (F)

900 (1650)

1010 (1850)

1120 (2050)

1260 (2300)

(2600)

(2600)

1500

Press. Ratio

10.5

11

14

14.5

19-23

20-23

20-23

EGT, C (F)

427 (800)

482 (900)

530 (986)

582 (1080)

593 (1100)

 

623

Cooling

1 vane

1&2 vane

1&2 vane

1,2,3 vane

1,2,3 vane

1,2,3

   

1 blade

1&2 blade

1,2,3 blade

 

blade

           

400-480

 

SC

Power, MW

50-60

60-80

70-105

165-240

165-280

(CC)

SC

Heat Rate,

             

Btu/kWh

11,600

11,180

10,250

9,500

8,850

CC

Heat Rate,

             

Btu/kWh

8,000

7,350

7,000

6,400

5,880

5,690

SC

Effi., %

29.4

30.5

33.3

35.9

38.6

 

40

CC

Effi., %

42.7

46.4

48.7

53.3

58.0

60

61

Combined Cycle Power Plants

1. Combined Cycle Power Plants

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1. High Thermal Efficiency [5/6]

Part Load Efficiency

The gas turbine equipped with VIGV or several rows of variable stator vanes keeps the efficiency of the combined cycle plant almost constant down to approximately 80 to 85% load.

This is because a high exhaust gas temperature can be maintained as the air mass flow is reduced.

Below that level, the turbine inlet temperature must be reduced, leading to an increasingly fast reduction of efficiencies.

100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 30 40 50 60 70 80
100
95
90
85
80
75
70
65
60
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

Load, %

The steam turbine is operated with sliding pressure mode down to 50% load. Below that point, the live- steam pressure is held constant, resulting in throttling losses.

Combined Cycle Power Plants

1. Combined Cycle Power Plants

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1. High Thermal Efficiency [6/6]

Part Load Efficiency

HIPT 1. High Thermal Efficiency [6/6] Part Load Efficiency 110 1GT 2GTs 3GTs 4GTs 100 95
110 1GT 2GTs 3GTs 4GTs 100 95 90 85 80 75 , At 75%, one
110
1GT
2GTs
3GTs
4GTs
100
95
90
85
80
75
,
At 75%, one GT is shut down.
Down to 50%, parallel reduction in load on 3 remaining GTs.
At 50%, a second GT is shut down.
Down to 75% parallel reduction in load on all 4 GTs
.
70
65
60
20 30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

Combined Cycle Load, %

4 GTs + 1 ST Arrangement

Combined Cycle Power Plants

1. Combined Cycle Power Plants

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2. Low Initial Construction Cost [1/4]

Comparison of Initial Construction Cost

Capital costs of gas-fired combined cycle are about 45% of coal-fired steam plants

Type of Plant

Output (MW)

Specific Price (US$/kW)

Combined Cycle Power Plant

800

550

- 650

Combined Cycle Power Plant

60

700

- 800

Gas Turbine Plant

250

300

- 400

Gas Turbine Plant

60

500

- 600

Steam Power Plant (coal)

800

1,200 – 1,400

Steam Power Plant (coal)

60

1,000 – 1,200

Nuclear Power Plant

1,250

2,000 – 3,000

Biomass Power Plant

30

2,000 – 2,500

These prices are valid for 2007. Interest during construction is not included.

Combined Cycle Power Plants

1. Combined Cycle Power Plants

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2. Low Initial Construction Cost [2/4]

Comparison of Gas Turbine Price

Source: Gas Turbine World (1999 Jan/Feb)

550 1xGT13D G.E. 1x401 1xV84.2 SIEMENS 1x501D5A ABB 1x701D 500 W.H. 1xV94.2 1xV84.3A 1x7FA 450
550
1xGT13D
G.E.
1x401
1xV84.2
SIEMENS
1x501D5A
ABB
1x701D
500
W.H.
1xV94.2 1xV84.3A
1x7FA
450
1 GT11N2
x
1xGT24
1x7EA
400
1x9FA
1x501F
1xV94.2A
350
1x701F
1xV94.3A
1xGT26
300
100
200
300
400
Pric e Level for CCPP (T urnkey Ba se)
USD per kW

ISO Net Combined Cycle Plant Output (MW)

Combined Cycle Power Plants

1. Combined Cycle Power Plants

62 / 109

HIPT

2. Low Initial Construction Cost [3/4]

Cost Breakdown for CCPP

Items

Portion

%

CCPP

   

4

Project management / Subcontracting

Integrated

2

Plant and project engineering / Software

Services

15%

8

Plant erection / Commissions / Training

1

Transport / Insurance

   

15

Civil works

32

Gas turbine / Steam turbine / Generator set

16

Balance of plants

Lots

85%

7

Electrical systems

4

Instrumental and control

11

HRSG island

Basis: 350~700MW CC plant with a V94.3A Gas Turbine

As a rule of thumb, a 1% increase in the efficiency could mean that 3.3% more capital can be invested.

Combined Cycle Power Plants

1. Combined Cycle Power Plants

63 / 109

HIPT

2. Low Initial Construction Cost [4/4]

Cost Breakdown for a 400 MW CCPP

Civil, Arrangement, Building Facilities

Si te Infrastructure

3%

Power Island Mechanical System

9%

Steam Turbine Set

18%
18%

8%

Power Island Mechanical System 9% Steam Turbine Set 18% 8% Mechanical Systems Outside Power Island 8%
Power Island Mechanical System 9% Steam Turbine Set 18% 8% Mechanical Systems Outside Power Island 8%

Mechanical Systems Outside Power Island

8%

Control 3%

Electrical (without high voltage switchyard)

9%

Heat Recovery Steam Generator

10%

Gas Turbine Set

32%

Combined Cycle Power Plants

1. Combined Cycle Power Plants

64 / 109

HIPT

3. Short Construction Time [1/2]

Comparison of Construction Time