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Summer Reading Assignment

AP Comparative Government & Politics

Olivia Hu
Due September

*Completion of this assignment does not guarantee placement in this course for the school year.
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1. Define:
a. political systems
Political systems are where political decisions have power.
Political decisions always take place within some community that we may call a political system. (1)
b. governments
Governments are organizations of individuals who are legally empowered to make binding decisions on
behalf of a particular community. (2)
c. night watchman state
The night watchman state model of government is characteristic of nineteenth century western governments.
Such governments provided for basic law and order, defense, and protection of property rights (and
gradually, education). (2)
d. welfare state
The welfare state has various welfare programs (e.g. unemployment benefits, accident and sickness
insurance, old age pensions, public education (2)). This type of state started with Otto von Bismarcks
govt in the 1880s. Their policies vary from country to country.
e. regulatory state
The regulatory state regulates sectors of society, including economic factors savings, investment, inflation,
and employment. They developed alongside welfare states, and have come to be criticized. (3)
f. State of Nature
Ideal state of society, ideal social contract; philosophically, the state that would exist without any
government or the state of society that existed before the first governments had formed (3)
2. How do the private and public spheres influence politics?
Private spheres oughtnt to influence politics much at all, though there is some crossover. Politics has directly to do
only with those decisions that are public. (2)
3. How can politics be authoritative?
Politics has to do with political decisions that those of the political system are bound to comply with. These public
decisions may be backed by force/coercion, but preferably by legitimacy (which may be established through [rigged]
elections (85))
4. How may welfare state politics vary within industrial countries?
Welfare state politics may vary in scope and in priorities the United States stresses equality of opportunity through
education, while many western European countries stress social security and health programs.
5. How do Hobbes and Rousseau differ in their explanations of the Social Contract?
Hobbes: The state of nature is eternal conflict; therefore, there must be a strong government for industry, culture,
trade, etc. Without government, there would be fear, violent death
Rousseau: The state of nature is the best state. Governments are the source of power and inequality corruption
and alienation, excesses.
6. Describe the benefits of nation-building.
Nation-building activities help instill common world views, values, and expectations.(4) =More homogeneity
easier to live peacefully together +more mutual goals + more mutual gain
7. What are the two defining factors of Public Goods? Explain.
a. if they are provided to one consumer, they cannot be withheld from anyone else. (5) You cant sell
clean air to one person and no others.
b. one persons enjoyment or consumption of the good does not detract from anyone elses. (5) One
persons enjoyment of a public good will not cause someone else to have less.
8. How can externalities be related to market failure?
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A type of market failure is externalities, which occur when some economic activity produces costs that are not
borne or taken into account by any of the parties. (5)
The burdens of the negative externalities can be shared or protected against through government intervention.
9. Define: NIMBY
Not-in-my-backyard groups organize protest against obnoxious externalities (e.g. Polluting factories, waste
dumps, prisons, pornographic shops, or major highways). (5)
1. When Does Government Become the Problem?
10. Who are the libertarians and what are their ideals?
Libertarians are individualists who see society as composed of individual human beings with fundamental rights that
must be protected. The main problem with government, libertarians argue, is that the more tasks it takes on, the
more prone it is to violate such basic rights. [They] promote a society of unfettered individuals, free to make their
own choices and to seek out the groups to which they want to belong. (7)
11. Who are the anarchists and what are their ideals?
Anarchists are communitarians. They see societies as naturally close knit and egalitarian communities that are
corrupted by government and power; they believe in voluntary cooperation and natural communities (7) Optimists,
the lot of them. Theyre kind of Native American-ish regarding property Radical anarchists reject all forms of
private property as well as formal authority. (10)
12. How does Rent Seeking impact policymaking?
Rent seeking impacts policymaking by making the primary purpose of policymakers who seek rent [controlling] the
spoils of government. (9)
13. Why may vested interests remain in government?
Those with vested interests resist change (more and more the larger the government and the more attractive the
benefits it provides) unless the change is in their favor. Those with vested interests may make up a large group that
may become a powerful force against change (9).
14. How would libertarians solve market failures?
They are market-oriented, so they would strengthen ownership and minimize government intervention they want
to rely on free markets and individual property rights. (10)
15. Define:
a. political systems
{**^ main organizing concept of this book (11)}
Any system must necessarily have two properties: (1) a set of interdependent parts, and (2)
boundaries towards the outside environment. There are many kinds of systems: mechanical systems
such as automobiles, ecological systems (ecosystems) such as the plants and animals coexisting in a
single habitat, and social systems such as a family. All have interdependent parts and boundaries.
Political systems are a particular type of social system namely, one involved in the making of
authoritative public decisions. To put it slightly differently, the political system is a set of
institutions, such as parliaments, bureaucracies, and courts that formulate and implement to
collective goals of a society or of groups within it. (11)
A political system is a type of social system that is involved authoritative public decision making. As all
systems do, it has both interdependent parts and boundaries.
16. Define:
a. state
A state is a political system that has sovereignty (11)
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b. sovereignty
[Sovereignty is] independent legal authority over a population in a particular territory, based on the
recognized right to self-determination [and] rests with those who have the ultimate right to make
political decisions. (11-12)
Internal sovereignty deals with ones own citizens. External sovereignty deals with treaties, &c.
17. How does the EU impact each states sovereignty?
The EU takes some sovereignty away from each state.
18. Give the origins of Religious Fundamentalism and how has it become relevant?
19. Define:
a. nation
A nation refers to a group of people with a common identity [and] the self-identification of a people.
(16) Nationality is usually thought of as a form of primary identification. (17)
b. ethnicity
Ethnic background
c. political cleavage
divisions, when they systematically affect political allegiances and policies (21)
d. cumulative cleavage
Issue 1 causes Group A to go against Group B
Issue 2 also causes Group A to go against Group B
Problems compound (See Northern Ireland)
e. cross-cutting cleavage
Issue 1 causes Group A to go against Group B
Issue 2 causes Group A to join with Group B [maybe against Group C, or not]
Issues tend to cancel each other out, sort of. (See the Netherlands)
20. Describe the two conceptual challenges low-middle- High income economies face.
1- Industrialization and economic inequality
2- Environmental costs industrialization results in pollution (27)
21. Define:
a. GNP
The gross national product is the total economic output. Per capita GNP is GNP/person. (22)
b. PPP
Purchasing power parity takes into account price level differences. (22)
22. Define:
a. democracy
The citizens govern. (27)
b. oligarchy
The few govern. (27)
c. totalitarian systems
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The governing governs all. (27)
23. What is the Third Wave?
The Third Wave of worldwide democratization, as referred to by Samuel P. Huntington, was from 1974: S.
Europe, E. Asia, Latin America, E. Europe (USSR successor states), and parts of Africa (28). The first two waves
were after WWI and after WWII. (See 103 for some examples)
24. List the challenges of the Third Wave.
Military coups
tyranny of the majority
Cultural and religious disagreements regarding human rights and civil liberties
Gender equality policies (see Muslim countries) (28)
Development/not enough development
Income/wealth inequality increase (29)
25. Which factors led to political fragmentation and polarization of government?
Political effects of developments economic, technological; class antagonism; partisanship
1. How do people study politics?
They compare institutions past and present; nation 1 and nation 2 (and 3 and 4). (31)
- Description: form a conceptual framework(s)
- Explanation: identify relationships; theorizing statistical analysis hypothesis generation
- Prediction (32)
2. What are conceptual frameworks?
Conceptual frameworks provide outlines for thought patterns regarding ABC
In order to describe politics, we need a set of concepts that are clearly defined and well understood. (32)
3. According to Bennett and George, states in transition to democracy are more war prone than established
democracies. Why might this statement be significant? Do you agree?
Box 2.2 Statistical Methods (33) ^
This statement may be significant because it could lead to the study of specific cases in which states in transition to
democracy were or are in war, and then to the answer of why questions regarding democracy and war, or
transitioning states. I do agree with the statement, as based on the available data.
4. Define:
a. system
General concept (1) (34); object-environment interaction
System, as we defined it in Chapter 1, suggests an object having moving parts, interacting with a setting or
an environment. (34)
b. political system
The political system is a set of institutions and agencies concerned with formulating and implementing the
collective goals of a society or groups within it. (34)
c. government/states
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Governments or states are the policymaking parts of political systems. (34)
d. structures
General concept (2) (34): Structures are specialized agencies that perform functions (36)
In order to carry on [the many activities of governments], governments have specialized agencies, or
structures, such as parliaments, bureaucracies, administrative agencies, and courts, which perform
Most modern political systems have all of the structures listed in II.C.6, but they are rarely comparable
because of differences in function (36).
e. functions
General concept (3); actions, functions what structures do
Functions enable the government to formulate, implement, and enforce its policies. (36)
Process functions arenecessary for policy to be made and implemented in any kind of political
system; system functionsdetermine whether or not the system will be maintained or changed; (38)
policy functions[have] substantive impacts on the society, the economy, and the culture (39)
f. inputs
Information received; stuff that enters the political system to be reviewed and acted upon by structures
There is input from both the domestic environment and the international environment.
a political system exists in both a domestic and an international environment, molding these
environments and being molded by them. The system receives inputs from these environments and attempts
to shape them through its outputs. (34)
5. What factors mold the international environment of political systems?
Military, economic, and diplomatic factors mold the international environment of political systems.
6. What are the six types of political structures?
1- Political parties
2- Interest groups
3- Legislatures
4- Executives
5- Bureaucracies
6- Courts (36)
7. How might comparisons of these political structures be challenging?
Most of these structures do not share functions across borders. E.g. Britain and China (36-37)
8. Define:
a. political socialization
Political socialization involves families, schools, communications media, churches, and all the various
political structures that develop, reinforce, and transform attitudes of political significance in the society.
(39) (System function)
b. political recruitment
Political recruitment refers to the selection of people for political activity and government offices. (39)
(System function)
c. political communication
Political communication refers to the flow of information through the society and through the various
structures that make up the political system. (39) (System function)
d. outputs
Outputs are the implementations of the political process and policy functions. (39)
e. political policy functions
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Policy functions are functions that create substantive impacts on the society, the economy, and the culture.
(39) (II.C.8.f-h)
f. regulation
the various forms of regulation of behavior (39) (Policy function)
g. extraction
extractions of resources in the form of taxes and the like (39) (Policy function)
h. distribution
distribution of benefits and services to various groups in the population (39) (Policy function)
i. outcomes
Outcomes are whatever happens after political activities; they result in new inputs (39-40)
a) RUSSIA 1985-2002
9. Explain how the structural-functional approach applies to Russia.
Social institutions were engaged in socialization and recruitment, interest groups were engaged in policy
implementation, independent parties couldnt do anything, the Communist Party and the bureaucracy did everything,
the parliament did little of anything, and other structures had specific roles. (40-43)
1. How do cultural norms shape politics?
Attitudes and values (cultural norms) affect how we act and how we go about politics. (See III.A.2.a) (46)
2. Define:
a. political culture
public attitudes toward politics and their role within the political system (46)
b. political socialization
how individuals form their political attitudes and thus, collectively, how citizens form their political
culture (46)
c. legitimacy ****
The legitimacy of a political system is measured by how much the citizens believe that the government
should be in power. A government may have a legitimacy based on tradition, ideology, voting, &c. Without
legitimacy, or with violation of legitimacy, resistance, violence, and rebellion may be expected. (47-48)
3. Explain the aspects of political culture.
Its the set of attitudes, beliefs and sentiments that give order and meaning to a political process and which provide
the underlying assumptions and rules that govern behavior in the political system.
4. Give an example of a leader/ruler whose special grace, wisdom, or ideology claimed to transform citizens lives for
the better. To what extent was this leader/ruler successful?
Mao Zedong not very successful
J. Stalin not very successful
5. Define:
a. Participants
Participants are involved as actual or potential participants in the political process. They are informed
about politics and make demands on the polity, granting their support to political leaders based on
performance. (48)
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There are more participants in modern industrial democracies than authoritarian or preindustrial societies.
b. Subjects
Subjects passively obey government officials and the law, but they do not vote or actively involve
themselves in politics. (48)
Commonly found in modern authoritarian societies, subjects have little to do with public affairs, but they
are aware.
c. Parochial
Parochials are hardly aware of government and politics. They may be illiterates, rural people living in
remote areas, or simply people who ignore politics and its impact on their lives. (48)
There are the most parochials in preindustrial (not counting prehistoric, which is not covered) societies.
Which role do you play as a citizen, RIGHT NOW? Why?
Currently, I play the role of a subject; I do not vote, nor do I pursue changes in policy.
6. Define:
a. consensual political culture
In a consensual political culture, citizens tend to agree on the appropriate means of making political
decisions and to agree on the major problems facing the society and how to solve them. (52)
b. conflicting political culture
In a conflictual [conflicting] political culture, the citizens are sharply divided, often on both the legitimacy
of the regime and solutions to major problems. (48)
c. political subcultures
These may develop in long-term conflictual political cultures. Those in different political subcultures may
be sharply divided in at least some critical issues.
d. socialization
socializationrefer[s] to the way in which political values are formed and the political culture is
transmitted from one generation to the next. (52)
1- Direct/indirect socialization: explicitly indoctrinated (like in classes or indoctrination
programs)/experience-molded (especially in early interpersonal relationships, environment, etc.)
2- Continues throughout ones life with experiences
3- Unifying/divisive: ~consensual/conflictual
7. What is the political self?
At any specific time, an individuals political self will be a combination of several feelings and attitudes such as
self-images (identities) and beliefs. (52)
8. Describe the dualities of Political Socialization.
Political socialization can be either direct or indirect and unifying or divisive.
9. List the agents of Political Socialization.
- The Family (53)
- Schools (53-54)
- Religious Institutions (54-55)
- Peer Groups (55)
- Social Class and Gender (55)
- Mass Media (55-56)
- Interest Groups (56-57)
- Political Parties (57)
- Direct Contact with Governmental Structures (57-58)
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10. Define:
a. modernization
Secularization, globalization; expectations from govt homogenize (58)
b. postmaterial values
social equality, environmental protection, cultural pluralism, and self-expression (58)
c. ethnicity
Ethnic identities (58)
d. democratization
Especially in e. Europe, e. Asia, etc. developing (59)
e. marketization
Growth of market economies (59)
1. Define:
a. interest articulation
Interest articulation is the process by which citizens and social groups express their needs and demands to
the government. (62)
b. personal interest contacts
Personal interest contacts are the interest articulations of small groups or individuals.
2. How is grassroots politics effective?
Grassroots politics involve a large portion of the citizenry and often the media, and thus exert a great deal of pressure
on a political system/govt.
3. Define:
a. anomic groups
Anomic groups are generally spontaneous groups that form suddenly when many individuals respond
similarly to frustration, disappointment, or other strong emotions. Brief in nature, they form when
organized groups either do not work or are nonexistent. They are public outbursts. (65)
b. non associational groups
Nonassociational groups are based on common ground whether that is ethnicity, religion, &c. and are
thus more continuous than IV.B.3.a. Yet, they are also rarely well organized. Two interesting kinds of
this group are 1) the large, not-yet formally organized group and 2) the highly personal small group a
small village or subgroup. (65-66)
c. collective action problems
There is a common problem, but those involved dont find it worth it to get organized, for there could also
be large collective benefits from the work of the few. These problems result in the first type of
nonassociational group (IV.A.3.b.). (67)
d. institutional groups
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Institutional groups are formal and have other political or social functions in addition to interest
articulation. Either as corporate bodies or as smaller groups within these bodies (legislative blocs, officer
cliques, groups within the clergy, or ideological cliques in bureaucracies), such groups express their own
interests or represent the interest of other groups in the society. Their influence strength is usually
member number or income.
E.g. military-industrial complex (Defense Dept. and defense industries), farm lobby + Dept. of Agriculture,
Roman Catholic Church (67)
e. associational groups
Particular interest groups; orderly
E.g. unions, chambers of commerce, manufacturers associations,
f. civil society
Sociopolitical interactions free of state control civil society
4. Explain some of the differences between Interest Group Systems.
Pluralist v. democratic corporatist v. controlled
- Pluralist: multiple groups for one interest; voluntary and limited membership; decentralized or loose structure;
clearly separated from the government (69-70)
- Democratic corporatist: more organized than pluralist; one association for one interest; compulsory and nearly
universal membership; centrally organized; involved in policymaking and implementation
- Controlled: GOVERNMENT-CONTROLLED. One group per social sector, compulsory membership,
hierarchal organization
5. Define:
a. mass media
TV, radio, newspapers, magazines
6. On page 76 Table 4.3, list three summative conclusions from this chart.
1- All the groups besides the anomic groups have used clearly legitimate channels
2- Institutional groups are rather more concerned about economic problems
3- Anomic and associational groups are more often coercive (76)
1. Define:
a. interest aggregation
Interest aggregation [henceforth to be IA] is the activity in which the political demands of individuals and
groups are combined into policy programs. [It] helps create a balanced government program through
compromise of competing goals. In larger nations, this is done mostly by specialized organizations, such as
political parties and V.0.c and V.0.d. See V.0.e and V.0.f for party workings. (81)
Structure political parties: functions IA; organization of political thought; political recruitment; interest
articulation; demand transmission; public policy making, implementation, and adjudication; &c. (81)
Function IA: structures political parties; associational groups; institutional groups; individuals with lots
of political clout; &c. (81-84, the whole chap.)
b. patron-client network
Nearly universal, the patron-client networks patron is the benefit provider and the client is the loyalty
provider. It is based on personal connections. This is indicative of a static political system if this is the
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predominant structure for IA (shifting factional agreements). E.g. feudalism, political machines, the
president and advisors (81-82)
c. associational groups
Organizations with powerful resources can easily cross the line between IAr and IAg. This possible power
depends on the associational groups ability to develop coherent policy positions and mobilize the votes of
their members to support these positions. (83)
d. institutional groups
Usually the bureaucracy, which can negotiate with groups E.g. bureaucratic and military factions (see
military coups (94-96)) (83-84)
e. competitive party systems
[They] primarily try to build electoral support (84) (84-92)
f. authoritarian party systems
[They] seek to direct society (84) (92-94)
g. Duvergers Law, page 85 Box 5.1
See C.P.G. Grey -
V.0.h two-party systems, V.0.i multiple party systems via underrepresentation of small,
noncompeting parties in V.0.h (85) also see V.2.
h. single-member district plurality election rule
First past the post election rule: the country [is divided] into many election districts. In each district, the
candidate who has more votes than any other a plurality wins the election in the district.
Rarely found in non-Britain-influenced countries.
i. proportional representation
Used by most democracies, the country is divided into a few, large districts ([or just one])
2. What is meant by first-past-the-post?
However many parties are competing, the one that gets more than all the others wins (see Horse Racing). This
results in Duvergers Law. In future elections, the lowest-scoring parties drop out, and their votes get transferred to
the highest-scoring parties because they think that those parties will have the greatest chance of getting their opinions
represented. This repeats until only two parties are left. (V.1.g)
3. Define:
a. majoritarian party system
Either a) like the US two-party domination or b) like in Britain two large parties and laws that give one
of them legislative majorities (90)
b. multiparty systems
[Combos] of parties, voter support, and election laws [make it so that] no single party wins a legislative
majority. Post-election, IA via interparty bargaining is critical for shaping policy directions
E.g. France, Germany (90)
c. consensual party systems
The majority of parties (going by # of seats) have similar policy ideas, and there is trust in the system and
in each other (90)
E.g. US, Britain, Austria 1966-1980; Germany; Norway, Sweden (top of figure 5.2 (88), figure 5.3 (90))
d. conflictual party systems
The majority are highly antagonistic and far apart on issues
E.g. Austria 1918-1934; French Fifth Republic; Russia, French Fourth Republic, Weimar Germany, Italy
(90, Figure 5.3; 91)
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e. consociational party system
Also accommodative, this system is a mix between V.3.c. and V.3.d.
E.g. Austria 1948-1966, Lebanon 1948-1975, South Africa when transitioning; Netherlands, Belgium (90-
V.A.3.c-V.A.3.e.: Although the number of parties affects the degree of political stability, the degree of antagonism among
parties is more important. (92)
f. authoritarian party system
Authoritarian party systems are specialized IA structures. [IA] takes place within the ranks of the party or
in interactions with business groups, landowners, and institutional groups in the bureaucracy or military.
The citizens have no real opportunity to shape aggregation by choosing through party alternatives, although
controlled elections are often organized. One may compare these systems based on how controlling they
are a) within the party and b) of other groups. (92)
g. exclusive governing party
Extreme 1:The exclusive governing party insists on control over political resources by the party
leadership. It recognizes no legitimate [IA] by groups within the party nor does it permit any free activity by
social groups, citizens, or other government agencies. In its most intensive form, sometimes called
totalitarianism, it penetrates the entire society and mobilizes support for policies developed at the top.
Legitimacy: its ideology is in the true interests of the citizens. An unchallenged ideological focus
provides legitimacy and coherence.
It can provide unified mobilization of political resources for policies, and can thus be a tool for massive
social change, but leads to succession problems.
h. inclusive governing party
Extreme 2: The inclusive governing party recognizes and attempts to coordinate various social groups
in the society. It picks and chooses interests to aggregate and forbids challenges. (92)
In these authoritarian corporatist systems, large associational/institutional groups are allowed to make
limited autonomous demands. (93) The govt tries to include more voices for greater overall control.
4. Give examples and specifics of the Exclusive and Inclusive Authoritarian Systems.
Exclusive: USSR pre-1985, E. Europe pre-1989, N. Korea, Vietnam, Cuba; sort-of China IA may be permitted
within bounds, but no one can try to mobilize support if the top elite has not decided on policy. (92-93)
Inclusive: Kenya and Tanzania IA from some groups was allowed within decentralized orgs; Mexicos PRI
Though it controlled ballot-counting, it also gathered many social groups into its web. They got most orgs at least
vaguely connected, and bargained every 6 yr. Now, however, discontent is rising; the impoverished want more
democracy, as they didnt share in growth. (94)
5. Define:
a. military government
Post-WWII, the newly installed parliamentary and democratic govts broke down and were replaced by
military govts, as the military controlled instruments of force/coercive resources and there were no
longstanding traditions in democracy. Where civilian authority was reest.d, the military still often holds
much power. (See Brazil, Syria, Pakistan, Guinea, Zaire, Paraguay, and Haiti) If either democratic or
authoritarian IA fails, the military may emerge by default as the only force able to maintain orderly
government. However, the military is limited in its internal structure, which is not made for IA, and in its
lack of legitimacy. (94-96)
1. Define:
a. policymaking
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Policymaking is the pivotal stage in the political process, the point at which billslaw, edicts are issued.
Implementation and enforcement comes later. (101)
b. constitution
A constitution is the basic rules concerning decision making, rights and the distribution of authority in a
political system. It reigns supreme in systems based on VI.1.c. (101)
c. rule of law
In political systems based on the rule of lawgovernment can take no action that has not been authorized
by law andcitizens can be punished only for actions that violate an existing law. (101)
d. decision rules
Contained in VI.1.b, decision rules govern how decisions are made and how one makes agencies and offices
that can make decisions. They also tell those who wish to influence policy who to pressure, ask, &c. to
obtain decisions in their favor.
Il faut que les rgles ne changent pas, et que les gens les sachent si ce nest pas, les gens ne feraient pas de
confiance au gouvernement. (101-102)
e. egalitarian
Under egalitarian voting rules, each member has the same voting power (officers may break ties). (102)
f. hierarchical
Everyone is supposed to defer to his or her superior. Chain of command? (102)
2. What prompts constitutional formation?
They are often prompted by [usually violent] breaks with the past war, revolution, rebellion Constitutions are
formed to put in place decision rules that acknowledge the change in balance. The EU is an exception (if one does
not count WWI and WWII). (103)
3. Which country upon our studies does not have a formal constitution?
Great Britain they have the common law, years and years of customs and conventions, buttressed by important
ordinary statutes. (103)
4. How are policymakers chosen in an authoritarian regime?
military councils, hereditary families, dominant political parties, &c. (103)
5. How do decision rules of political systems differ?
Citizens have more (democratic) or less (authoritarian) say in who the policymakers are. (103)
Democratic systems differ in a) how powers are separated, b) geographic dist. of authority (central govt and state,
province, &c. govts centralization), and c) govt authority limits. (104)
6. Define:
a. confederal
VI.5.b: decentralized, e.g. EU, US under Articles (106 Figure 6.1). Ultimate power resides with individual
states (at the local level). (107)
b. federal
VI.5.b: semi-centralized, e.g. Germany, Nigeria, USSR, Russia, US, Mexico, &c. (106 Figure 6.1). Central
and local levels of power have their spheres of authority and means to implement their power. (107) Large
and diverse states tend to be federal. (108)
c. unitary systems
VI.5.b: very centralized, e.g. China, Egypt, Japan, Britain, France (106 Figure 6.1). The ultimate power
resides with the central govt. It may delegate powers specifically to the local levels, but it may also change
or withdraw them at will. (107) However, in actuality, however, local levels have power that is rarely
challenged. (108)
d. democratic presidential regime
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VI.5.a: The democratic presidential regime provides two separate agencies of [govt] the executive and
the legislative separately elected an authorized by the people. Everyone has a fixed term, and each branch
cannot unseat the other. The functions of these two branches differ between systems. (104)
e. parliamentary regime
VI.5.a: The parliamentary regimesmake the executive and legislative branches interdependent. The
legislative branch is directly elected, whilst the PM & cabinet emerge from the legislature. There is no fixed
term of office, though they can be voted out of office at any time (usually). (104)
f. confidence relationship
The [confidence relationship between the prime minister and the parliamentary majority] makes [VI.6.e]
possible. (104) They are codependent through the parliamentary majoritys dismissal power [no-
confidence or confidence vote power] and the prime ministers dissolution power [calling of new elections
whenever power]. (105)
g. semi-presidential
VI.5.a: A mixed-type (VI.6.d and VI.6.e) democracy may be characterized as semi-presidential. There is
some sort of shared control.
E.g. France (105)
Presidential Parliamentary
Legislative Executive Legislative Executive
Voted Voted Voted Emerges from Legis.
Majority (?)
Legislation and budget
Varied; govt
appointments, veto, &c
Less influential Policymaker
Mostly separate from the
Executive, except for
Mostly separate from the
Legislative (except for
Confidence in the PM Agent of the parliamentary
Fixed term Fixed term Unfixed term (all-
dismissed), voted out
Unfixed term ([no-]
confidence votes), voted
out whenever

h. constitutional regimes
VI.5.c: Systems in which the powers of various government units are defined and limited by a written
constitution, statutes, and custom are called constitutional regimes. (108)
i. majoritarian democracy
Majoritarian democracy is democracy based on the rule of the majority. In this type of democracy, there is
the danger of tyranny of the majority. (Wiki) It is also sometimes referred to as Westminster democracy.
j. consensual democracies
An alternative to majoritarian democracy, their decision-making structure tries to take into account as many
different opinions as possible. (Wiki: Consensus Democracy) Thus, it is better for divided societies.
7. What three types of government institutions are involved in policymaking?
1- The legislative assembly
2- The chief executive
3- The higher levels of bureaucracy (111)
8. List several functions of assemblies:
- Deliberating, debating and voting on policies
- Public spending decision control (budgeting)
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- Varied:
o Court of appeals (British House of Lords)
o Varying degrees of policymaking
U.S. Congress very active in formulation and in enactment
British House of Commons proposals are sometimes initiated or modified by ordinary
members of Parliament, but public policy is usually initiated an proposed by members of the
Cabinet ([chosen from the Parliament])
PRCs National Peoples Congress rubberstamps decisions made elsewhere and listens to
party leaders
o Elite recruitment (major, esp. in parliamentary systems)
o IA1 and IA committee hearings and floor debates (esp. w/o cohesive majority)
o Public information, socialization of elites and the people debates (esp. Br. Commons) (very limited in
o Prepare politicians for executive office (House of Commons) (113)
9. Define:
a. Chief Executive
chief executives [are] officials who sit at the very top of the often-colossal executive branch [and]
have various names, titles, duties, and powers. E.g. presidents, PMs, chancellors, &c. they tend to be the
main formulators and executors of public policy. (115)
Functions: First/last word in policymaking (just 1
for parliamentary, they dont have veto), policy
implementation overseer, foreign policy crisis decision maker, starter of political initiatives, force for change,
influence in childrens perceptions of government, communicator, &c. (122)
b. Head of State
Head of State is ceremonial
c. Head of Government
Head of Government is effective
d. individual
The Head of State or of Government is typically an individual.
e. collective
Cabinets are typically collective.
f. effective
If an officer (political executive) is effective, he or she has genuine discretion in the enactment and
implementation of laws and regulations, in budgetary matters, or in important government appointments.
g. ceremonial
Those who are ceremonial have no real input in the policymaking/governing/&c. process. (116)
10. List several functions of bureaucracy.
- Implements and enforces laws and regulations
- Policy implementation and enforcement
- IA1 and IA2
- Adjudication
o E.g. Tax authorities determine if citizens have paid their taxes and assign penalties
- Communication
o To political elites
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o To interest groups, political parties, business elites, and the public
o Media influence (less and less; now more spin control than classification and executive
- (123-124)
11. How do the authors explain bureaucratic organization?
The bureaucracy is the executive branch below the president/monarch/PM/cabinet.
Britain: At the top, there is the ~100 members = government (Mycroft). They, a group of elite civil servants,
oversee the permanent higher civil service. Below these are the ordinary civil servants, those who are employed in
departments and agencies.
The permanent civil service exists in some capacity in most countries, though it is most fully institutionalized in
Britain. The French have a group with long tenure and experience, and the U.S. has below presidential appointees
permanent civil servants. They are generally specialists military officers, diplomats, doctors, scientists,
economists, and engineers, who exert great influence on policy formulation and execution in their specialties. (123)
12. Which out of the five explanations is the most important and why?
Max Weber:
1- Decision making is based on fixed and official jurisdictions, rules, and regulations;
2- There are formal and specialized educational or training requirements for each position;
3- There is a hierarchical command structure: a firmly ordered system of super- and subordination, in which
information flows upward and decisions downward;
4- Decisions are made on the basis of standard operating procedures, which include extensive written records; and
5- Officials hold career positions, are appointed and promoted on the basis of merit, and have protection against
political interference, notably in the form of permanent job tenure. (124)

13. What are challenges of bureaucratic systems?
Bureaucratic organizations have a tendency to become stodgy, rule-bound, inflexible, and insensitive to the needs of
their clients. In many cases, bureaucrats also have few incentives to be innovative and efficient, or even to work very
hard. They are also not usually as neutral as they should, and are conservative politically and conform
Inefficiency and inertia
14. Define:
a. ombudsman (page 125)
Sweden invented the institution of the ombudsman to prevent bureaucrats from doing injury or injustice
to individuals. [They] typically have no power of their own, but report to the legislature for remedial
action. Their cases rarely lead to criminal conviction, but often [govt] officials change their policies as a
result of embarrassing publicity. (125)
15. List four ways individuals are selected for government.
1- University recruitment
16. How are the removals of the chief executive positions different in Presidential and Parliamentary Systems?
In parliamentary systems, either the Parliament calls for a vote of no-confidence or the PM calls for a vote of
confidence. In presidential systems, there is a call for impeachment, and the case is looked into.
17. Define:
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a. constitutional regimes
Systems in which the powers of various government units are defined and limited by a written constitution,
statutes, and custom are called constitutional regimes. (108)
b. judicial review
Judicial review is the power of the courts to limit governmental power. This has a wide range across nations,
from, , and Nigerias non-independent courts to those of , , . .
(108, 108 Table 6.1) Most democratic systems have weak judicial review. (109)
18. Define: impeachment and procedures
Impeachment is the procedure through which officers are removed from office before their terms are up, found in
most presidential systems. Impeachment typically involves three components: (1) impeachable offenses are usually
identified as presenting unusual danger to the public good or safety; (2) the penalty is removal from office
(sometimes with separate criminal penalties); (3) impeachment cases are decided by the legislature, but require more
than ordinary majorities and may also involve the judiciary in some way. (110)
19. What are the essential components of legislative assemblies?
- The legislative
20. Define: bicameralism
Bicameralism is an assembly structure in which there are two chambers. In most bicameral systems one chamber is
dominant, and the secondhas more limited powers that are often designed to protect regional interests. (112)
21. Define:
a. bureaucracies
systems of public administration (122)
b. Civil Service
Those in service to the government (123)
c. Higher Civil Service
Numbering ~3000 in Britain, these permanent civil servants are largely recruited directly from the
universities. They spend their lives as an elite corps, moving about from ministry to ministry, watching
governments come and go, and becoming increasingly important as policymakers as they rise in rank. (123)
VII. CHAPTER 7- PUBLIC POLICY: pages 129-155
1. Define:
a. public policies
public policies [are] all those authoritative public decisions that governments make (129)
b. outputs
Outputs of the political system are what VII.1.a are referred to as (129, 146-148)
c. outcomes
Political outcomes are what VII.1.b are supposed to promote/result in. (129, 140-148)
d. political goods & values
Whether a certain outcome is good or bad ultimately depends on normative criteria that we call political
goods and values. They are oft disagreed over by politicians and citizens. (129, 148-153)
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1. Public policies
2. Define:
a. extraction
Refers to the extraction of resources (130, 130-133)
b. distribution
Refers to the distribution of resources, goods (130, 133-137)
c. regulation
Refers to the regulation of human behavior (130, 137-140)
d. symbolic policies
Refers to political speeches, holidays, rites, public monuments and statutes, and the like used by
governments to exhort citizens to desired forms of behavior, often to build a sense of community or to
celebrate exemplary conduct (see Chapter 1) (130, 140)
e. taxation
Taxation is the extraction for governmental purposes of money or goods from members of a political
system, for which they receive no immediate or direct benefit. (131)
f. GDP
gross domestic product (GDP) [is] the total value of goods and services produced by a countrys
residents in a year. (132)
The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development has three categories of countries. (133)
3. What are the three categories of OECD?
1- Heavy social security tax systems which receive 1/3 to of their revenue from social security, e.g. Germany,
Austria, the Netherlands, France, and Italy
2- The U.S. and, which fall the farthest below average in total tax burden and rely heavily on direct taxes
rather than on sales and consumption taxes
3- Countries such as Sweden and Norway, which impose the highest tax burdens of all the OECD countries and
rely on all three types of taxation direct, indirect, and social security payments but impose particularly
burdensome social security payments on employers. (133)
4. What causes tax rates to come down?
Tax rates have come down because of the spread of economic views that stress the importance of entrepreneurial
incentives for productivity. (133)
5. What are several goals of symbolic policies? page 130, 140
to build a sense of community [by boosting peoples national identity, civic pride, or trust in government] or
to celebrate exemplary conduct, to win elections or get their own pet programs enacted, to make people [more
compliant, especially in times of crisis], [to] attempt to contribute to the populations sense of governmental
legitimacy and its willingness to comply with public policy. (130, 140)
6. Define:
a. system goods
Order, predictability, and stability; system goodsreflect the functioning and effectiveness of the whole
political system. (148)
b. process goods
Democratic procedures and various rights of due process; participation, compliance, and procedural justice
c. policy goods
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Economic welfare, quality of life, freedom, and personal security
1. Strategies for Producing Political Goods, p. 150-151
7. List three examples according to the text.
1- Separation of powers to protect liberty
2- Dictatorship of the proletariat for a just and harmonious society
3- A strong leader to increase national power and glory (150)
8. Give a brief description of each of the challenges of the preindustrial nations.
a. neotraditional political systems
Their success and subsequent political modernization contributes to their demise (152)
b. personal rule
Rent seeking, low to negative growth, low life expectancy, etc., lack of legitimacy, susceptibility to military
coups (152)
c. clerico-mobilizational regimes
Unclear, though international coalitions may be difficult to mount because of religious/national rifts (152)
d. technocratic- repressive
Growing economic inequality (152)
e. technocratic- distributive
Low participation (153)
9. Define:
a. trade-offs
Choosing one value over another
b. opportunity costs
Giving up the opportunity for something in lieu of something else