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ATTACHMENT 1

SOLICITED PROPOSAL COVER WORKSHEET

RFP # __4265_______
Title: Experimental Investigation of the Impacts of Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration on
Quality and Treatability of Groundwater_______________________________________

Organization: (Legal name as it should appear in the contract)
Organization: __Texas Tech University____________________________________________
Complete Address (No P.O. Boxes Please): 203 Holden Hall, MS 4-1035, Lubbock, Texas 79409

Personnel: (Please attach CV or brief resume for PI, Co-PIs and other key research team
members)

Principal Investigator: Individual responsible for the technical completion of the proposed
work.
Name: Lianfa Song
Title: Associate Professor
Organization: Water Resources Center, Texas Tech University
Complete Address: 10th and Akron, Lubbock, TX 79409-1023

Phone: 806-742-3598 FAX: 806-742-3449 E-mail: lianfa.song@ttu.edu

Co-Principal Investigator: Individual responsible for the completion of major portions of the
proposed work.
Name: Ken Rainwater
Title: Professor
Organization: Water Resources Center, Texas Tech University
Complete Address: 10th and Akron, Lubbock, TX 79409-1023

Phone: 806-742-3490 FAX: 806-742-3449 E-mail: ken.rainwater@ttu.edu

Authorized Representative: Original awards and amendments will be sent to this individual for
review and acceptance, unless otherwise indicated.
Name: Kathleen Harris
Title: Senior Associate Vice President for Research
Organization: Texas Tech University
Address: 203 Holden Hall Box-41035, Lubbock, TX 79409-1035

Phone: 806-742-3884 FAX: 806-742-3892 E-mail: ors@ttu.edu

Accounting Contact: Individual authorized to accept payments.
Name: Rebecca Perez
Title: Director
Organization: Sponsored Programs Accounting and Reporting
Address: 306 Drane Hall, Lubbock, Texas 79409

Phone: 806-742-2985 FAX: 806-742-8076 E-mail: Rebecca.perez@ttu.edu

Administrative Contact: Individual from Sponsored Programs office to contact concerning
administrative matters (i.e., indirect cost rate computation, rebudgeting requests, etc.).
Name: Jay McMillen

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ATTACHMENT 1

Title: Assistant Managing Director
Organization: Office of Research Services
Address: 203 Holden Hall, MS 4-1035, Lubbock, Texas 79409-1035
Phone: 806-742-3884 FAX: 806-742-3892 E-mail: jay.mcmillen@ttu.edu

Contracting Contact: Individual responsible for contract administration including contract
negotiations.
Name: Jay McMillen
Title: Assistant Managing Director
Organization: Office of Research Services
Address: 203 Holden Hall, MS 4-1035, Lubbock, Texas 79409-1035

Other Personnel
Name:
Title:
Organization:
Complete Address:

Phone: FAX: E-mail:

All Other Participating Organizations (not listed above):
Organization City/State/Country

Project Period: March 1, 2010-Febraey 28, 2012

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PROJECT ABSTRACT
The overall objective of this study is to generate the first-hand knowledge and
information on the impacts of potential CO2 intrusion to the drinking water aquifers on water
quality and treatability by reverse osmosis (RO). To achieve this objective, four tasks are
proposed in this study:
i. Mineral dissolution tests will evaluate the impact of the elevated CO2 concentration
on the amount of total dissolved substances (TDS) and the change of chemical composition of
the groundwater from Ogallala and Santa Rosa aquifers. The groundwater will be kept in high
pressure containers to reach dissolution/precipitation equilibrium with sediments from the
aquifers and confining layers at different CO2 concentrations in water. The pH and major will be
measured to assess the extent that chemical composition of groundwater can be altered by the
elevated CO2 concentration. The change of quality water will be assessed according to the EPA
standards of drinking water.
ii. CO2 release tests for the affected groundwater will be conducted after the dissolution
tests to determine the change of chemical composition of groundwater after it is pumped to the
ground surface open to the atmosphere. The CO2 in the water will equilibrate with the
atmosphere and as a result the water pH will decrease. The minerals dissolved at high CO2 levels
would precipitate out of the water. The precipitates may deposit on the surfaces of tanks and
pipes or form small particles in the water. The water quality, including pH, TDS, and turbidity,
will be assessed with respect to the EPA drinking water standards. The water quality is not
expected to return to the original state because some replacement of ions may occur after
intrusion of CO2 or CO2-containing water.
iii. Equilibrium calculations of ion concentrations in the groundwater with intimate
contact with its native aquifer materials will be carried out for different CO2 concentrations.
MINTEQ will be used in this study, which is free software for geochemistry calculations. One
principal question to be answered in this task is if the changes in the chemical composition of
groundwater under the influence of the elevated CO2 concentration can be predicted with the
fundamental principles of dissolution/precipitation equilibriums and the known solubility
products of the minerals. The experimental data from the previous two tests will be used to
verify the equilibrium calculations and to determine the values of the solubility products.
iv. RO filtration tests with the affected groundwater will be conducted to assess the
impacts of the altered water quality on membrane treatment processes. The low salinity
groundwater usually does not require much treatment and therefore the focus will be on the
precipitates on the storage tank and pipes. Mineral precipitation on the surface of pipes can
cause serious blockage of the pipes in water distribution system. The groundwater containing
high level TDS (>1,000 mg/L) is commonly treated with RO processes to reduce the salinity
before distribution. The dissolution of minerals by CO2 intrusion may add new foulants to the
membranes. The elevated salinity will also increase the cost of the treatment because higher
pressure is required to overcome the increased osmotic pressure.
Dr. Lianfa Song is the Principal Investigator (PI) and Dr. Ken Rainwater is the Co-PI of
the project. Mr. Aubrey Spear from the Water Department of the City of Lubbock, Texas, is
expressed interest in the proposed study and agreed to share data of the groundwater quality in
Lubbock and provide experimental water. The total project budget is $187,079, with $127,904
requested from Water Research Foundation and $59,175 provided by the PI and Co-PI from
Texas Tech University as in-kind contribution. The proposed investigation is anticipated to
complete in 24 months (2 years).

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

SOLICITED PROPOSAL COVER WORKSHEET.......................................................................................................i
PROJECT ABSTRACT.................................................................................................................................................iii
PROJECT DESCRIPTION.............................................................................................................................................1
Research objectives.................................................................................................................................................3
Task 1. Mineral dissolution test..............................................................................................................................3
Task 2. CO2 release test..........................................................................................................................................5
Task 3. Equilibrium simulation...............................................................................................................................6
Task 4. RO filtration test.........................................................................................................................................7
Expected results......................................................................................................................................................8
Deliverables............................................................................................................................................................8
Evaluation plan.......................................................................................................................................................9
POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS ....................................................................................................................................9
Management Plan..........................................................................................................................................................11
REFERENCES:............................................................................................................................................................13
SCHEDULE..................................................................................................................................................................17
CURRENT AND PENDING FORM...........................................................................................................................18
BUDGET......................................................................................................................................................................20
RESUMES....................................................................................................................................................................21
PROJECT DESCRIPTION

1. Background
Groundwater is one of the nation's most valuable natural resources. It is the source of
about 40 percent of the water used for all purposes exclusive of hydropower generation and
electric power plant cooling (Heath, 1983). Fresh groundwater is usually of much better quality
than the typical surface waters and can be used as drinking water with minimal treatment. With
the progress and maturation of reverse osmosis (RO) desalination technology, brackish
groundwater has been increasingly utilized as an additional resource of drinking water. In many
places in the United States, especially in the Southwest areas, the resources of surface waters are
very limited in quantity and have already been fully exploited. Fortunately, abundant brackish
groundwater resources exist in these areas that can be used to meet the anticipated increase in
water supply in the future (TWDB, 2008). The carbonate system formed by the equilibrium
between the dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) in water and related dissolved carbonate and
bicarbonate species in the presence or absence of carbonate minerals in the aquifer matrix, is of
fundamental importance to the groundwater quality (Appelo and Postma, 2004). Many common
water quality parameters, such as pH, buffering capacity, alkalinity, and hardness, etc., are
largely determined by or tightly related to the carbonate system. The concentration change of
any carbonic species will shift the equilibriums that would cause drastic changes in chemical
composition of the groundwater. The changes may have potentially adverse impacts on the
quality and treatability of groundwater.
Carbon dioxide sequestration is now considered necessary to mitigate global warming
and to stabilize atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases and global temperatures at acceptable
values that would not severely impact global economic growth (Benson and Cook, 2005; IPCC,
2007). Geological carbon sequestration (GCS), which consists of capturing and injecting CO2
into a target geological formation, is being investigated as possible means to sequester large
amounts of CO2 and thus stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentrations (Bachu, 2003; Emberley et
al., 2005; White et al., 2005; Holloway, 1997; Bachu, 2000; Oelkers and Schott, 2005) while still
allowing for the use of fossil fuels (e.g., Pacala and Socolow, 2004). Several geological
formations are proposed as possible options to store CO2, including deep sedimentary formations
and saline aquifers (e.g. Bachu and Adams, 2003; Kaszuba et al., 2003). Studies suggest that the
geologic formations in the United States have a storage capacity of about 4,000 gigatons that can
be used to sequester all fossil CO2 emissions in the United States for several hundred years. This
approach is the only practical feasible method on land for carbon sequestration at the scale that is
required to stop the increase atmospheric CO2 concentration. Although geologic carbon
sequestration is inevitably associated with high costs, it is considered a better option than CO2
emission to the atmosphere that might cause the potential adverse environmental consequences.
Complex geochemical reactions will occur between the injected CO2, brine, and
formation materials that can bring about significant changes in the aquifer properties and water

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compositions. Many experimental and modeling studies have been conducted to investigate the
kinetics of dissolution and precipitation of various minerals in the saline aquifers and caprocks
under sequestration conditions, which are characterized by high temperature and pressure.
Under these conditions, calculations indicate that the bulk of CO2 will be stored initially as
supercritical fluid (Lake, 1989), because the target reservoirs are likely to have temperature and
pressure values higher than 31°C and 74 bar, the critical values for CO2. Formation water
contacting the injected CO2 will rapidly dissolve it to saturation, which is 3–5% of brine weight,
depending on chemical composition and reservoir conditions (Spycher and Pruess, 2005). CO2 is
generally considered very active in many dissolution and precipitation reactions with brine
constituents and solid minerals. However, most of the studies focused on the impacts of the
interactions on the integrity and safety of geological structures for CO2 storage, the change of
aquifer permeability for CO2 injection, or mineral precipitation for permanent sequestration of
CO2. Therefore, the researchers mainly investigated the reactions in the high salinity waters of
the formation targeted for CO2 injection. Little attention has been given to the potential impact
of CO2 sequestration on quality of groundwaters of low salinities (TDS <10,000 mg/L) in the
shallow aquifers that are potential sources for water supplies.
An issue critical to geological CO2 sequestration is the potential migration of CO2
through sealing formations via pathways formed by reactions of supercritical CO2 with either the
caprock or the wellbore, specifically the wellbore cements in relevant space and time scales
(Wigand et al., 2009). A greater concern is the possibility that CO2 may exploit defects such as
fractures that may exist in the cement sheath. These fractures may develop because of changes of
pressure and temperature within the wellbore during field operations, e.g., overpressure during
the injection of CO2. Other processes that may lead to fractures and defects include cement
shrinkage during hydration, mechanical shock from pipe tripping, poor cement slurry placement,
and residues of drilling mud and drill cuttings. These defects may provide an initial higher
permeability pathway for CO2. Kharaka et al. (2009) reported that sequestered CO2 can
penetrate to another aquifer above it in 6 months through 15-m thick shale and siltstone beds.
When the sequestered CO2 makes its way to shallow aquifers of low to medium salinity
that are current or potential drinking resources, it is anticipated that significant changes may
occur to the water quality and treatability. The principles of water chemistry indicate that the
dissolution of CO2 in water forms carbonic acid that can significantly reduce water pH and
increase the solubility of most minerals in contact with it. However, the detailed reactions of
CO2-brine-rock and their impacts on water qualities in the low to medium saline aquifers are
totally unknown (Regnault et al., 2005; Ketzer et al., 2009). There is a great need to develop a
better understanding of the impacts on water quality and treatability of low and medium salinity
groundwaters by the intrusion of CO2 and CO2 affected water from sequestration operations. The
knowledge on this subject is not only helpful to develop more complete assessment of the carbon
geologic sequestration to reduce CO2 emission, but also of extreme importance to the protection
of the most valuable groundwater resource for sustainable development.

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2. Research Approach

Research objectives
The overall goal of this study is to generate useful first-hand knowledge on the impacts of
potential CO2 intrusion to water quality and treatability of drinking water aquifers under
controlled conditions. The objectives of the project are (1) to experimentally investigate the
particular responses of constituent chemical species in groundwater to the intrusion of CO2 and
CO2-containing water; (2) to compare the water quality changes to EPA drinking water
standards; (3) to study the impact of the affected groundwater on RO treatment processes; and
(4) to model and simulate changes of ion concentrations in groundwater under various levels of
CO2 concentrations. Four tasks are planned in of this study that will be elaborated in the
following section.

Task 1. Mineral dissolution test
The main objective of this task is to investigate experimentally the impacts of elevated
CO2 concentration on the amounts of total dissolved solids (TDS) and the chemical composition
of the groundwater. CO2 will be injected at selected pressures into sealed tanks that allows
intimate contact of groundwater with sediment from the aquifer and/or confining layers of
interest. The pH and the concentrations of major ions in the water will be sampled and measured
at equilibrium.

Pressure
Gauge Pressure
regulator

Water-gas
Interface
Sediment

Sampling
port
CO2 Reactor
Cylinder

Figure 1. Schematic of the dissolution test device

The dissolution device is schematically presented in Figure 1, which consists of a CO2
cylinder and a pressure vessel with a pressure regulator. The pressure vessel is required to
sustain pressure up to 30 bars (~450 psi) and have a volume of ~30 liter (8 gallon). The large
volume of the pressure vessel is required to produce enough water for the subsequent bench-
scale membrane filtration test. Sediments from the aquifer and nearby confining layers will be

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combined with the aquifer’s water in the pressure vessel for dissolution reactions. The CO2
container will provide CO2 for the dissolution test and the CO2 partial pressure in the pressure
vessel can be adjusted and controlled with the pressure regulator. A sampling port is installed on
the bottom of the pressure vessel, through which the water can drain out by gravity for chemical
analyses and subsequent experiments.
Materials from the locally available Ogallala and Santa Rosa aquifers and their
confining structures will be used in this investigation. The Ogallala aquifer contains fresh
groundwater in most locations (the southernmost portions have TDS above 1000 mg/L) and is
currently an important source of water supply in West Texas. The Santa Rosa aquifer contains
brackish water (TDS above 2,500 mg/L) and is currently under exploration for supplementary
water supply in many places in West Texas with RO to remove the excessive amount of salts.
The aquifers and confining structure sediments will be analyzed for their mineral compositions.
We recently completed a research project on the wind-powered-RO-desalination of brackish
groundwater for Bureau of Reclamation (DWPR, 2009). In that project, the groundwater from
the Santa Rosa aquifer was analyzed for water quality and studied for the treatability by RO
processes. It would be a good start point for this proposed study.
Carbon dioxide used in the dissolution test is commercially available in the form of
refrigerated liquid, dry ice, in a high pressure cylinder (about 300 psi or 20 bar). Since
compressed CO2 exists mostly in liquid form, the gas pressure in the cylinder at room
temperature will increase to about 950 psi and remain constant until it is nearly empty and all the
liquid has evaporated. Fresh and saline groundwaters from the Ogallala and Santa Rosa aquifers,
respectively, will be used in the experiments. The dissolution experiments under two different
scenarios will provide useful information on the possible impacts of initial water quality and
geologic settings on the water quality change caused by CO2 intrusion.
The common aqueous anions, such as fluoride, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate, will be
measured by ion chromatography using conductivity detectors. The cations, such as dissolved
Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+, will be analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission
Spectrometry (ICP-OES). The alkalinity (OH-, CO32-, HCO3-) will be determined by titration
method using pH meters. TDS will be measured gravimetrically. All water samples will be
filtered with 0.45-µ m filters to remove suspended particulates and colloidal materials before
chemical analyses for the dissolved species.
Preliminary tests will be conducted first to determine the time for dissolution to reach
equilibrium. The water in the pressure vessel will be sampled daily and analyzed for pH, TDS
and major ions. The concentrations will be plotted versus time and the time to equilibrium is
operationally determined as the time that the concentrations are stabilized. Three levels of CO2
(tentatively, PCO2 = 1 bar, 5 bar, and 25 bar) dissolution experiments as well as a control
(dissolution without addition of CO2) will be conducted for the time to reach equilibrium. At the
end of dissolution, the water in the pressure vessels will be sampled to determine the
concentrations of various ions at equilibrium.

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Task 2. CO2 release test
The objective of this task is to investigate the changes of chemical composition when the
affected groundwater is pumped up to the ground surface and exposed to the atmosphere. The
water in the pressure vessels after dissolution experiments will be drained into containers open to
the atmosphere and then the water will be circulated through the flow through cells to allow
sufficient time for CO2 release.
The CO2 release test will be conducted in a simple laboratory system as shown in Figure
2 (a). The groundwater after the dissolution test is stored in a container. A peristaltic pump will
feed the water into a flow-through cell after which the water will return to the beaker. A close-
up photo of the flow-through cell is provided in Figure 2 (b). The flow cells are chosen for this
CO2 release test because the water will be under flow conditions as it goes through treatment
processes and in the distribution system. It also allows visual observation of the precipitate to
build up on the transparent walls of the cell. The flow of water will accelerate CO2 release and
increase the chance of water contact with surfaces of the container, cell, and pipe.
(a) (b)

Flow
through
cell

Water

Container Feed Pump

Figure 2. (a) A diagram of CO2 release experimental system and (b) a photo of
flow through cell

The dissolved CO2 in the groundwater will equilibrate with the atmosphere and as a result
the water pH is expected to increase. The dissolved minerals at higher CO2 levels would become
oversaturated and precipitate out of the water. The precipitates may form small particles in the
water or deposit on the surfaces of the beaker, the flow-through cell, and pipes. The water
quality parameters, including pH, TDS, and turbidity, will be measured after CO2 release test.
The turbidities before and after CO2 release will be compared as an indicator of precipitation.
The turbidity will be measured in terms of absorbance by a Vis-UV Spectrometer.
Concentrations of major ions will be measured to quantify the change in water quality and
assessed with respect to the EPA drinking water standards. The water quality is not expected to
return to the original state because some replacement of ions may occur after intrusion of CO2 or
CO2-containing water. For example, some carbonates would precipitate and some weak acid
salts would dissolve during the dissolution test.

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Deposition of precipitates on the surface on the walls of flow through cells will be
observed visually or microscopically. The potential for encrustation and pipe blockage will be
assessed.

Task 3. Equilibrium simulation
The main objective of this task is to correlate the concentrations of various ions in the
groundwater to the CO2 concentration with water chemistry principles. A quantitative
relationship will be a very useful tool to assess the impacts of CO2 concentration on water quality
and treatability. The software MINTEQ will be used for the calculation of ion concentrations in
the water based on chemical equilibriums. The observed data of ion concentrations collected
from dissolution and release tests will be used to determine the solubility products of
dissolution/precipitation of various minerals.
Visual MINTEQ is a Windows version of MINTEQA2 version 4.0, which was released
by the USEPA in 1999. MINTEQA2 is a chemical equilibrium model for the calculation of
metal speciation and solubility equilibriums for natural waters. It is probably the most widely
used model for these purposes today, and it is renowned for its stability. As the development of a
Windows version of MINTEQA2 is being supported by the two Swedish research councils VR
and MISTRA, the program is distributed via internet free of charge.
Visual MINTEQ has been developed to make the powerful features of MINTEQA2 more
easily accessible for graduate and post-graduate students in soil and water chemistry. For
research purposes, the program has the potential of speeding up the management of input and
output data. Visual MINTEQ has also been modernized to include new options for adsorption
modeling. The features of MINTEQ include:
• The program contains equilibrium constants for more than 3,000 aqueous species
and 600 solids.
• Solubility calculations involve solid phases.
• Equilibrium calculations involve gases (e.g., CO2).
• Sweep runs in which one parameter is varied, e.g. pH or the total concentration of
carbonic species (CO2, HCO3-, and H2CO3).
• Management of Visual MINTEQ's thermodynamic databases from within the
program.
Visual MINTEQ has been previously used by Texas Tech researchers in the
determination of chemical composition in groundwater (Rainwater et al., 2006). It is believed
that the program would provide a useful tool in interpolating the dissolution and precipitation
data due to changes of CO2 concentration.

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Task 4. RO filtration test
The main objective of this task is to assess the impacts of CO2-affected brackish
groundwater on its treatability by RO process. RO is the predominant treatment process to
reduce the salinity of brackish groundwater to satisfy drinking water standards. The efficiency
and economy of RO processes are strongly affected by the water quality of the brackish water.
The energy consumption is tightly related to the salinity of the water because higher pressure is
needed to overcome the higher osmotic pressure caused by higher salinity. Another factor is the
fouling strength of the brackish groundwater. The precipitation or scaling of sparingly soluble
minerals on the membrane surface is the primary mechanism of membrane fouling in brackish
groundwater desalination by RO membranes.
Membrane filtration tests will be conducted on the SEPA II membrane cell (GE), which
is widely used in water desalination for treatability study and fouling evaluation (Zhou and Song,
2005). The brackish RO membranes that are pre-cut to suit for SEPA II cell will be purchased
from GE. The experimental system is schematically presented in Figure 3. The water to be
treated will be stored in the feed tank and pumped to the membrane cell. The concentrate and
permeate streams of the RO cell will then be returned to the feed tank.

Pressure
Gauge
Feed Pump Feed e BPR

Membrane Cell
Bypass
Valve Flow
meter
Retentate Digital
Flow
meter
Permeate

Refrigerated
Chiller

Data
Acquisition
System
Feed Tank

Figure 3. Schematic of the membrane filtration system

Both waters from the dissolution tests and the CO2 release tests will be treated in the
RO filtration test. The waters will be stored in the feed tank of the RO filtration system, and then
pumped into the membrane cell for filtration tests. The flow rate and pressure will be adjusted to

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mimic conditions similar to the real RO brackish water desalination (i.e., cross flow velocity,
applied pressure, and permeate flux). The filtration test will be conducted in the constant
pressure mode, the variation of the permeate flow rate will be measured and recorded. The
initial value of the permeate flux will determine the impact of the elevated salinity on the energy
consumption of the membrane treatment of the CO2-affected groundwater. The rate of change in
the permeate flux will reflect fouling properties of the affected groundwater. The difference in
the fouling strengths of the CO2 affected water before and after CO2 release will be evaluated.

3. Evaluation Criteria

Expected results
The knowledge about the impacts of the elevated CO2 concentration on the chemical
composition of groundwaters from the Ogallala and Santa Rosa aquifers in contact with their
corresponding geologic formation materials will be obtained. The extent of the changes in the
main water quality parameters, such as pH, TDS, and the concentrations of the major ions in the
groundwaters, will be determined for the geologic settings under investigation. The water quality
parameters that are substantially affected by the elevated CO2 concentration will be identified,
which can serve as a reference for similar studies for other geologic formations.
The project will determine if the ion concentrations of the affected groundwaters
equilibrated with the elevated CO2 concentrations and subsequent atmosphere can be predicted
with the chemical speciation models (e.g., MINTEQ) based on thermodynamics of
dissolution/precipitation reactions. The fugacity of CO2 at different pressures will be obtained
by analyzing dissolution data.
The directly observed changes in membrane fouling strength of the groundwaters will be
correlated with the elevated CO2 concentrations. This result can be determined through the
examination of the fouled membranes that fouling mainly occurs as a dense scaling layer
deposited directly on the membrane surface or a porous layer of particulates (precipitates)
formed in the water. This piece of information is very useful in determining effective
pretreatment methods for the RO processes.

Deliverables
The proposed project will result in the completion of the following:
• A final report covering project design and execution, data collection and analysis,
main findings, and recommendations for further investigation,
• Periodic reports or technical summaries on the progress of the project,
• Preparation of two journal papers from the main findings of the project, and

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• Presentations of the results from the project in two national/international
conferences.
The deliverables will be further elaborated in the stand along item Draft Communication
Plan that is required by WRF to submit with this proposal. The timeframe scheduled for the
deliverables will be provided in the Draft Communication Plan. The PI and Co-PI will work
with the Foundation to refine and finalize the Draft Communication Plan prior to the start of the
project if the project is chosen to be funded.

Evaluation plan
The evaluation of the project will be based on the achievement of the objectives and the
progress according to the milestones as stated in the Schedule, which is given by the end of the
proposal. As shown in the Schedule, all tasks proposed in this project will be completed over a
period of 24 months with activities to be completed on a bimonthly basis. The final report will
be prepared, revised, and finalized in the timeframes according to the Foundation’s requirements.
The following evaluation criteria are suggested for the project:
• Achievement of the objectives of the project,
• Significance of the research findings to the Foundation and subscribers and other
end users on groundwater resource management,
• Implementation of the Communication Plan for dissemination of research results
from this project, and
• Execution of the project with the required QA/QC procedure and progress
according to the time scheduled.

POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS
Groundwater is an important water resource in the United States that normally provides
more than 40% of drinking water supply nationwide (Heath, 1983). As surface waters are being
fully exploited, groundwater will play an even more important role for water supply to satisfy
population growth and economic development. Apart from the fresh groundwater that can be
distributed to customers with minimal treatment, brackish groundwater is increasingly exploited
as a valuable resource for water supply with RO for excessive salinity removal. Understanding
of the potential adverse changes of water quality and treatability of groundwater caused by the
elevated CO2 concentration is an important component of the overall assessment of underground
carbon geologic sequestration. It will also help water utilities to be prepared to deal with the
problems when these adverse changes occur.
The proposed study will generate first-hand knowledge on the changes of water quality
and treatability caused by different levels of CO2 concentration on the groundwater in the real
aquifers. The knowledge will include the set of sensitive water quality parameters that would be

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affected significantly by the elevated CO2 concentration, the magnitudes of the changes in water
quality parameters and treatability under various CO2 levels, and quantitative relationships that
correlate these changes to the CO2 concentration and other parameters. The knowledge can be
used by decision makers to assess the potential risk of damage by geologic carbon sequestration
to the valuable groundwater resources. The procedures used in this project can be applied to
similar studies that target other aquifers. The project will also help to identify problems or topics
that further researches are needed for a better understanding of the consequences of underground
carbon geologic sequestration on groundwater resource.
The scenarios dealt with in this proposed study are the consequences after CO2 intrusion
into a nearby drinking water aquifer from the geologic structures where the CO2 is initially
sequestered. For the results of the project to be used to predict the change of water quality and
treatability, the risk or probability of CO2 leakage from the geologic sequestration structure and
the rate of CO2 transport to the drinking water aquifer are required. More efforts are needed to
develop methods to quantify leakage risk and transport rate for determining more reasonable CO2
concentrations in the drinking water aquifer. Further studies are needed to investigate the
potential impacts of elevated CO2 concentrations in groundwater on the speciation of some
minerals of particular environmental interests. For example, an important concern of drinking
water is the level of arsenic species, for which the primary standard was recently dropped from
50 ppb to 10 ppb. Silica concentration in groundwater is critical to RO membrane processes
because the silica fouling can seriously affect the performance of the membrane process and is
difficult to remove.

QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN
A rigorous QA/QC protocol will be enforced by including adequate sample duplication,
analytical repetition, and checks with known and blind samples in all applicable analyses to
maintain a high level of precision and accuracy.
All samples will be obtained and analyzed in triplicate to obtain a mean value, and all
data points will be tested against the mean to remove outlier data. Calibration standards will be
prepared (based on need and shelf life) according to standard methods (APHA, AWWA, and
WEF, 1998), or they will be ordered already prepared from an approved laboratory or supply
company. Laboratory equipment will be tested and inspected before performing sample analyses
to determine the need for maintenance. The water quality data will be archived in laboratory
notebooks and electronically.
Laboratory notebooks will be regularly reviewed by the PI and Co-PI. Periodic
supervision of sampling and analytic methods will be conducted by the PI and Co-PI. All data
will be reviewed and verified by the PI and Co-PI and transferred to computer spreadsheets for
analysis and presentation, which will also be validated by the PI and Co-PI. Data will be stored

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electronically and will be backed up daily, with the duplicate data being stored on a server
managed by the Water Resources Center’s Environmental Science Laboratory.

MANAGEMENT PLAN
The project research team consists of Dr. Lianfa Song, Dr. Ken Rainwater, and a graduate
student. Dr. Song will be the project manager, Principal Investigator (PI), and the contact person
with the Project Advisory Committee (PAC) of the Water Research Foundation and Mr. Aubrey
Spear from the City of Lubbock water utilities department. Dr. Rainwater will serve as the Co-
Principal Investigator (Co-PI) and the duties with Dr. Song on the execution of the project and
supervision of graduate student. A graduate research assistant will be assigned to the project
whose duties include experiment execution, data collection and analysis, and computer
simulations under the guidance of Drs. Song and Rainwater. The organization chart is presented
in Figure 4.

Aubrey Spear, P.E.
City of Lubbock

PAC Lianfa Song Graduate
Water Research Project Manager Student
Foundation

Ken Rainwater
Groundwater Specialist

Figure 4. Organizational Chart

Dr. Lianfa Song’s research and teaching interests include membrane filtration processes
for water reclamation and reuse, seawater and brackish water desalination, and water chemistry.
Dr. Song has concentrated his research in the last 15 years on RO, one of the most promising
technologies to increment water supply from unconventional water resources (e.g., treated
wastewater, brackish water, and seawater). His works on the membrane desalination and fouling
minimization have been well recognized and cited by researchers in the field of membrane
science and technology. Dr. Song will take the lead on the experimental designs, data analysis,
report preparation, and graduate student supervision.
Dr. Rainwater is an expert in water resources and groundwater hydrology and currently
Professor and Director of the Water Research Center at Texas Tech University. He has 25 years
of experience in research and teaching in water and wastewater treatment, groundwater
hydrology and contaminant transport, water resource management, remediation of contaminated

11
soil and groundwater, and risk assessment. His consulting experience includes design of well
fields for power plant and municipal supplies. He has worked on the development of wind-
powered RO brackish water desalination for the last three years with funding from the Bureau of
Reclamation, Department of Energy, and Texas Water Development Board. Dr. Rainwater will
contribute his expertise on the groundwater aquifers and equilibrium calculations on chemical
speciation in groundwater to the project.
The graduate student will perform the dissolution, CO2 release, and membrane filtration
tests and carry out water quality analysis under the supervision of the PI and Co-PI. The
graduate student and Drs. Song and Rainwater will meet weekly to discuss project successes and
challenges. Additionally, the graduate student will present the data to the group. The weekly
meeting will be used to monitor project progress, compliance with project timeline and to
conduct quality control on the data produced during the project.

12
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Wastewater, 20th Edition.
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Balkema Publishers, Leiden, Netherland.
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selection in response to climate change, Energy Convers. Mgmt., 41, 953–970.
Bachu, S., 2003, Screening and ranking of sedimentary basins for sequestration of CO2 in
geological media in response to climate change, Environ. Geol., 44, 277–289.
Bachu, S., Adams, J.J., 2003, Sequestration of CO2 in geological media in response to climate
change: capacity of deep saline aquifers to sequester CO2 in solution, Energy Convers. Manag.,
44 (20), 3151–3175.
Backlid, A., KorbbL, R., Orren, G., 1996. Sleipner vest CO2 disposal, CO2 injection into a
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Benson, S.M., 2000, Advances in geologic sequestration: identifying and addressing key issues,
Geol. Soc. Am., Abstr. with Prog., 32, A200.
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dioxide capture and storage, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Interlaken,
Switzerland, pp. 5-1–5-134 (Chapter 5).
Carter, L.S., Kelley, S.A., Blackwell, D.D., Naeser, N.D., 1998, Heat flow and thermal history of
the Anadarko basin, Oklahoma, AAPG Bull., 82, 291–316.
DWPR Report No. 146, 2009, Wind power and water desalination technology integration, U.S.
Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation.
Emberley, S., Hutcheon, I., Shevalier, M., Durocher, K., Mayer, B., Gunter, W.D., Perkins, E.H.,
2005, Monitoring of fluid–rock interaction and CO2 storage through produced fluid sampling at
the Weyburn CO2-injection enhanced oil recovery site, Saskatchewan, Canada. Appl. Geochem.,
20, 1131–1157.
Energy Information Administration (EIA), 2007, Annual energy outlook 2004, with projections
to 2030, Washington, DC. <http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/pdf/emissions_tables.pdf>.
Gunter, W.D., Perkins, E.H., Hutcheon, I., 2000, Aquifer disposal of acid gases: modelling of
water–rock reactions for trapping of acid wastes, Applied Geochemistry 15, 1085–1095.
Gunter, W.D., Perkins, E.H., McCann, T.J., 1993, Aquifer disposal of CO2 – rich gases: reaction
design for added capacity, Energy Convers. Mgmt, 34, 941–948.

13
Gunter, W.D., Wiwchar, B., Perkins, E.H., 1997, Aquifer disposal of CO2-rich greenhouse
gases: extension of the time scale of experiment for CO2-sequestering reactions by geochemical
modeling, Mineralogy and Petrology, 59, 121–140.
Heath, R. C., 1983, Basic ground-water hydrology, U.S. Geological Survey, Water supply paper
no. 2220.
Hitchon, B. (Ed.), 1996, Aquifer disposal of carbon dioxide. Geoscience Publishing Ltd.,
Alberta, Canada.
Hitchon, B., Gunter, W.D., Gentzis, T., Bailey, R.T., 1999, Sedimentary basins and greenhouse
gases: a serendipitous association. Energy Convers. Mgmt., 40, 825–843.
Holloway, S., 1997, An overview of the underground disposal of carbon dioxide, Energy
Convers. Manag., 38, 193–198.
Holloway, S., Heederik, J.P., Van der Meer, L.G.H., Czernichowski- Lauriol, I., Harrison, R.,
Lindeberg, E., et al., 1996, The underground disposal of carbon dioxide—summary report,
British Geological Survey Report for JOULE II project CT92-0031.
Hurter, S.J., Pollack, H.N., 1996, Terrestrial heat flow in the Parana Basin, southern Brazil. J.
Geophys. Res., 101, 8659–8671.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2007, Working group assessment report.
(working groups I, II, III and Synthesis Reports) <http://www.ipcc.ch/>.
IPCC, 2001, IPCC Third Assessment Report: Climate Change 2001, Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Kaszuba, J.P., Janecky, D.R., Snow, M.G., 2003, Carbon dioxide reaction processes in a model
brine aquifer at 200 °C and 200 bars: implications for geologic sequestration of carbon. Appl.
Geochem. 18, 1065–1080.
Ketzer J., R. Iglesias, S. Einloft, J. Dullius, R. Ligabue, V. de Lima, 2009, Water–rock–CO2
interactions in saline aquifers aimed for carbon dioxide storage: Experimental and numerical
modeling studies of the Rio Bonito Formation (Permian), southern Brazil, Applied
Geochemistry, 24, 760–767.
Kharaka Y., J. Thordsen, S. Hovorka, H. Nance, D. Cole, T. Phelps, K. Knauss, 2009, Potential
environmental issues of CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers: Geochemical results from the Frio-I
Brine Pilot test, Texas, USA, Applied Geochemistry 24, 1106–1112.
Kharaka, Y.K., Cole, D.R., Hovorka, S.D., Gunter, W.D., Knauss, K.G., Freifeld, B.M., 2006,
Gas–water–rock interactions in Frio Formation following CO2 injection: implications for the
storage of greenhouse gases in sedimentary basins, Geology, 34, 577–580.
Kharaka, Y.K., Thordsen, J.J., Hovorka, S.D., Nance, S.H., Cole, D.R., Phelps, T.J., Knauss,
G.K., 2007, Subsurface monitoring of anthropogenic CO2 injected in sedimentary basins: results

14
from the Frio-I Brine Test, Texas, USA. In: Bullen, T.D., Wang, Y. (Eds.), Proc. 12th Internat.
Symp. Water–Rock Interaction, vol. 1. Taylor & Francis, pp. 597–601.
Lake, L.W., 1989, Enhanced Oil Recovery, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Oelkers, E.H., Schott, J., 2005, Geochemical aspects of CO2 sequestration, Chem. Geol., 217,
183–186.
Oldenburg, C.M., Pruess, K., Benson, S.M., 2001, Process modeling of CO2 injection into
natural gas reservoirs for carbon sequestration and enhanced gas recovery, Energy Fuels 15,
293–298.
Omerod, W.G., 1994, IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme, Carbon dioxide disposal from
power stations, IEA/GHG/SR3.
Pacala, S., Socolow, R., 2004, Stabilization wedges: solving the climate problem for the next 50
years with current technologies, Science 305, 968–972.
Palandri, J.L., Kharaka, Y.K., 2005, Ferric iron-bearing sediments as a mineral trap for CO2
sequestration: iron reduction using sulfur-bearing waste gas, Chem. Geol. 217, 351–364.
Palandri, J.L., Rosenbauer, R.J., Kharaka, Y.K., 2005, Ferric iron in sediments as a novel CO2
mineral trap – CO2–SO2 reaction with hematite. Appl. Geochem, 20, 2038–2048.
Perkins, E.H., Gunter, W.D., 1995. Aquifer disposal of CO2-rich greenhouse gasses: modelling
of water-rock reaction paths in a siliciclastic aquifer. In: Kharaka, Y.K., Chudaev, O.V. (Eds.),
Water–Rock Interactions. Brookfield, Rotterdam, pp. 895–898.
Rainwater, K., Jones, M., Hein, L., Venkataraman, K., Jeong, Y, and McEnery, J., 2006,
Sorption of selected metals on Blackwater Draw sediments, Final report, BWXT-Pantex,
Amarillo, Texas, Volume I, 28 p.
Regnault, V., Lagneau, H. Catalette, H. Schneider, 2005, Experimental study of pure mineral
phases/supercritical CO2 reactivity, Implications for geological CO2 sequestration, C. R.,
Geoscience, 337, 1331-1339.
Rochelle, C.A., Czernichowski-Lauriol, I., Milodowski, A.E., 2004, The impact of chemical
reactions in CO2 storage in geologic formations: a brief review. In: Baines, S.J., Worden, R.H.
(Eds.), Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide, 233. Geological Society, London, Special
Publications, pp. 87–106.
Rosenbauer, R.J., Koksalan, T., Palandri, J.L., 2005, Experimental investigation of CO2–brine–
rock interactions at elevated temperature and pressure: implications for CO2 sequestration in
deep-saline aquifers, Fuel Proc. Technol., 86, 1581–1597.
Spycher, N., Pruess, K., 2005, CO2–H2O mixtures in the geological sequestration of CO2, II.
Partitioning in chloride brines at 12–100 C and up to 600 bar, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 69,
3309–3320.

15
Texas Water Development Board, 2008, Guidance manual for brackish groundwater desalination
in Texas, http://www.twdb.state.tx.us/RWPG/rpgm_rpts/0604830581_BrackishDesal.pdf.
Wells, A.W., Diehl, J.R., Bromhal, G., Strazisar, B.R., Wilson, T.H., White, C.M., 2007, The use
of tracers to assess leakage from the sequestration of CO2 in a depleted oil reservoir, New
Mexico, USA. Appl. Geochem., 22, 996–1016.
White, C.M., Strazisar, B.R., Granite, E.J., Hoffman, J.S., Pennline, H.W., 2003, Separation and
capture of CO2 from large stationary sources and sequestration in geological formations –
coalbeds and deep saline aquifers. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 53, 645–715.
White, S.P., Allis, R.G., Moore, J., Chidsey, T., Morgan, C., Gwynn, W., Adams, M., 2005,
Simulation of reactive transport of injected CO2 on the Colorado Plateau, Utah, USA. Chem.
Geol., 217, 387–405.
Wigand M., J. Kaszuba b, J. Carey, W. Hollis, 2009, Geochemical effects of CO2 sequestration
on fractured wellbore cement at the cement/caprock interface, Chemical Geology, 265, 122–133.
Wilson, M., Monea, M., 2004, IEA GHG Weyburn CO2 monitoring & storage project summary
report 2000–2004, Petroleum Technology Research Centre, Canada.
Zhou W. and L. Song, 2005, Experimental study of water and salt fluxes through reverse
osmosis membranes, Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, 3382-3387.

16
SCHEDULE
The project is anticipated to begin in March 2010 and the project will last for 2 years (24
months). The impacts of elevated CO2 level on the water quality and treatability in the fresh
groundwater aquifer will be studied in the first year of the project. The study will be repeated for
the brackish groundwater aquifer in the second year. Table 1 below indicates the time to be
spent on each project task as well as the final report, which is listed as Task 5 in the table.

Table 1. Project Schedule

1st year 2nd year
Project Tasks and Subtasks 2 4 6 8 10 12 2 4 6 8 10 12
Task 1. Mineral dissolution test
Task 2. CO2 release test
Task 3. Equilibrium calculations
Task 4. RO filtration test
Task 5. Final Project Report

17
ATTACHMENT 6
CURRENT AND PENDING FORM
This form must be completed for the Principal Investigator and for each Co-Principal Investigator. Failure to provide
this information may result in disqualification of your proposal.
Other agencies to which this proposal has been/will be submitted.
Investigator: Lianfa Song None

Support: Current Pending Submission Planned in Near Future *Transfer of Support

Project/Proposal Title: Great Plains Wind Power Test Facility

Source of Support: U.S. Department of Energy
Total Award Amount: $1,968,000 Total Award Period Covered: 8/2008-9/2010
Location of Project: Lubbock
Person-Months Per Year Committed to the Project. 0.25
Support: Current Pending Submission Planned in Near Future *Transfer of Support

Project/Proposal Title: A CRITICAL ASPECT FOR SIGNIFICANT IMPROVEMENT OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN REVERSE
OSMOSIS DESALINATION

Source of Support: NSF
Total Award Amount: $299,680 Total Award Period Covered: 05/2010-04/2014
Location of Project: Lubbock, TX
Person-Months Per Year Committed to the Project. 1
Support: Current Pending Submission Planned in Near Future *Transfer of Support

Project/Proposal Title: DEMONSTRATION OF A HIGH RECOVERY AND ENERGY EFFICIENT RO SYSTEM FOR SMALL-
SCALE BRACKISH WATER DESALINATION

Source of Support: Texas Water Development Board
Total Award Amount: $113,705 Total Award Period Covered: 01/2010-12/2011
Location of Project: Lubbock, TX
Person-Months Per Year Committed to the Project. 1
Support: Current Pending Submission Planned in Near Future *Transfer of Support

Project/Proposal Title: DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF CARBON NANOTUBE BASED BIOSENSORS FOR REAL-TIME
MONITORING OF MEMBRANE INTEGRITY FOR VIRUS REMOVAL

Source of Support: WateReuse Foundation
Total Award Amount: $117,421 Total Award Period Covered: 01/2010-12/2011
Location of Project: Lubbock, TX
Person-Months Per Year Committed to the Project. 0.5
Support: Current Pending Submission Planned in Near Future *Transfer of Support

Project/Proposal Title: EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE IMPACTS OF ELEVATED CARBON DIOXIDE
CONCENTRATION ON QUALITY AND TREATABILITY OF GROUNDWATER

Source of Support: Water Research Foundation
Total Award Amount: $127,904 Total Award Period Covered: 03/2010-02/2012
Location of Project: Lubbock, TX
Person-Months Per Year Committed to the Project. 0.5
*If this project has previously been funded by another agency, please list and furnish information for
immediately preceding funding period.
USE ADDITIONAL SHEETS AS NECESSARY
ATTACHMENT 6
CURRENT AND PENDING FORM
This form must be completed for the Principal Investigator and for each Co-Principal Investigator. Failure to provide

18
this information may result in disqualification of your proposal.
Other agencies to which this proposal has been/will be submitted.
Investigator: Ken Rainwater

Support: Current Pending Submission Planned in Near Future *Transfer of Support

Project/Proposal Title: Assessment of General Circulation Models for Water-Resources Planning Applications

Source of Support: Texas Water Development Board
Total Award Amount: $90,918 Total Award Period Covered: 3/2009-9/2011
Location of Project: Lubbock
Person-Months Per Year Committed to the Project. 0.25
Support: Current Pending Submission Planned in Near Future *Transfer of Support

Project/Proposal Title: Climate Change Impacts on Water Supply in West Texas

Source of Support: Bipartisan Policy Center
Total Award Amount: $54,188 Total Award Period Covered: 8/2009-7/2010
Location of Project: Lubbock
Person-Months Per Year Committed to the Project. 0.25
Support: Current Pending Submission Planned in Near Future *Transfer of Support

Project/Proposal Title: Design of Monitoring Program for Water Yield Enhancement Program

Source of Support: Texas State Soil & Water Conservation Board
Total Award Amount: $100,000 Total Award Period Covered: 1/2009-12/2010
Location of Project: Lubbock
Person-Months Per Year Committed to the Project. 0.25
Support: Current Pending Submission Planned in Near Future *Transfer of Support

Project/Proposal Title: Experimental Investigation of the Impacts of Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration on
Quality and Treatability of Groundwater

Source of Support: WateReuse Foundation
Total Award Amount: $127,904 Total Award Period Covered: 24 months
Location of Project: Lubbock
Person-Months Per Year Committed to the Project. 1.0
Support: Current Pending Submission Planned in Near Future *Transfer of Support

Project/Proposal Title: Influence of U.S. Department of Agriculture Programs on Ecological Services Provided by
Playa Wetlands in the High Plains

Source of Support: U.S. Geological Survey
Total Award Amount: $160,738 Total Award Period Covered: 6/2007-12/2010
Location of Project: Lubbock
Person-Months Per Year Committed to the Project. O.25
*If this project has previously been funded by another agency, please list and furnish information for
immediately preceding funding period.
USE ADDITIONAL SHEETS AS NECESSARY
LUBBOCK WATER UTILITIES SUPPORTING LETTER

19
BUDGET

The total budget for this project is $187,079, with $127,904 requested from Water
Research Foundation and $59,175 provided by the PI and Co-PI from Texas Tech University as
in-kind contribution. The fund requested from the Foundation is broken down in Table 2.

Table 2. Fund requested from Water Research Foundation

First year Second year Total
Personal
Senior 6,803 6,803 13,606
Graduate Student 24,124 24,124 48,248

Consumables
Chemicals 2,000 2,000 4,000
Containers 4,000 0 4,000
Membranes 1,000 1,000 2,000
Others 2,000 0 2,000
Travel 1,500 1,500 3,000

Subtotal 41,427 35,427 76,854
Indirect 19,263 16,473 35,736

Tuition 7,657 7,657 15,314
Total 68,347 59,557 127,904

The details of the budget can be found in the WRF Universal Budget Form and the bases
and justifications for the requested amounts in different categories are provided in the Budget
Narrative. Both documents are submitted with the proposal as stand along items.

20
RESUMES
LIANFA SONG, Ph. D.

CONTACT
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Tel: (806) 742-3598 (O)
Texas Tech University (806) 783-8987 (H)
10th and Akron, Room 203H, Box 41023 Fax: (806) 742-3449
Lubbock, Texas 79409-1023 Email: lianfa.song@ttu.edu

EDUCATION
Peking University, Beijing, China Physical Geography B.S. 1982
Peking University, Beijing, China Environmental Science M.S. 1984
University of California, Los Angeles Environmental Engineering Ph.D. 1993

APPOINTMENTS:
2007- Present Associate Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Texas Tech University,
Lubbock, Texas
2000-07 Assistant Professor and Associate Professor (from Jan 1 2002), Environmental Science &
Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore
1996-99 Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and
Technology, Hong Kong
1995-96 Research Associate, Environmental Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee
1993-94 Postdoctoral Researcher, Civil Engineering, UCLA, California
1984-89 Lecturer, Environmental Engineering and Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing

RESEARCH INTERESTS:
Membrane filtration processes in water quality control
Physical and chemical processes in water and wastewater treatment
Colloidal phenomena in aquatic systems
Water chemistry

PUBLICATIONS:
Five Related Publications
1. Liang, S., C. Liu, and L. Song, “Two-step optimization of pressure and recovery of cross flow
reverse osmosis desalination process”, Environmental Science & Technology, 43 (9), 2009, 3272-
3277.
2. Maung, H.O. and L. Song, "Effect of pH and ionic strength on boron removal by RO
membranes", Desalination, 246, 2009, 605-612.
3. Song, L. and K.G. Tay, "Performance prediction of a long crossflow reverse osmosis membrane
channel", Journal of Membrane Science, 281 (1-2), 163-169, 2006.
4. Song, L. and S.W. Ma, “Numerical studies of the impact of spacer geometry on concentration
polarization in spiral wound membrane modules”, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 44
(20), 7638-7645, 2005.
5. Chen, K.L., L. Song, S.L. Ong and W.J. Ng, “Prediction of membrane fouling in full-scale RO
process”, Journal of Membrane Science, 232, 63–72, 2004.
Five Other Significant Publications

21
1. Song, L., “A new model for the calculation of the limiting flux in ultrafiltration”, Journal of
Membrane Science, 144, 173-185, 1998.
2. Song, L., “Flux decline in crossflow microfiltration and ultrafiltration: mechanisms and modeling of
membrane fouling”, Journal of Membrane Science, 139 (2), 183-200, 1998.
3. Song, L., and M. Elimelech, “Theory of concentration polarization in crossflow filtration”, Journal
of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions, 91, 3389-3398, 1995.
4. Song, L., P.R. Johnson, and M. Elimelech, "Kinetics of colloid deposition onto heterogeneously
charged surfaces in porous media", Environmental Science & Technology, 28(6), 1164-1171, 1994.
5. Song, L. and M. Elimelech, "Dynamics of colloid deposition in porous media: modeling the role of
retained particles", Colloids and Surfaces A, 73, 49-63, 1993.

SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITIES:
Invited seminars or presentations
• Keynote speaker at the Leading-edge Strategies and Technologies for Sustainable Urban Water
Management on Sept 16-20 2006 at HKUST, Hong Kong.
• Invited speaker at International Congress on Membranes and Membrane Processes (ICOM),
August 21-26, 2005, Seoul, Korea.
• Invited speaker at the 2008 IWA Membrane Research Conference, Amherst, Massachusetts,
August 10-13, 2008
Short Courses Organized or Taught
• Physical and Chemical Wastewater Treatment, Hong Kong University of Science and
Technology, October 31 - November 1, 1997.
• Fundamentals of Industrial Water and Wastewater Treatment, German Institute of Science and
Technology, Singapore, March 17-21, 2003
Consulting to industry
• “Pilot Test and Evaluation of NOVO-MOTIAN PVDF Hollow Fiber Membrane as Pre-treatment
of RO process”, NOVO Environmental Technology Service Pte Ltd, Singapore, June - December,
2003.
• “CFD study of spacer arrangement to reduce membrane fouling in spiral wound UF module”,
GramTech, Singapore Pte Ltd, January-May, 2004.
Reviewer for Scholarly Journals
Environmental Science & Technology, Journal of Membrane Science, Journal of Environmental
Engineering, Water Environment Research, Water Research, Desalination, Industrial and Engineering
Chemistry Research, Environmental Engineering Science, Chemical Engineering Communications,
Chemical Engineering Science

COLLABORATORS & OTHER AFFILIATIONS
Graduate advisor: Menachem Elimelech, Yale University
Postdoctoral Advisor: John McCarthy, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee.
Graduate students: Gurdev Singh (U. of Ottawa, Canada), Liang Shuang (Shandong U, China), Tay
Kwee Guan (NUS, Singapore), Ma Shengwei (U. of Cyprus), Zhou Wenwen (CK-Life, Hong Kong),
Yuan Liangyong (Dayuan, Singapore), Zou Yang (E-lab, Singapore), Chen Kai Loon (Yale), Vincent
Ng (Hong Kong), Zhang Miaomiao (CH2M, Seattle)

Postdoctoral Fellows: Sheng Pingxin (Singapore), Zhang Jinchang (Beijing U. of Chem. Tech.), Zhang
Guojun (Beijing U. of Tech.), Dr. Hu Xiang (Beijing U. of Chem. Tech.).

22
KEN A. RAINWATER, Ph.D., P.E., BCEE, D.WRE
Address
Home: 3113 81st Street Work: Water Resources Center
Lubbock, Texas 79423 Texas Tech University
Phone: 806-745-7943 Lubbock, Texas 79409-1022

e-mail: ken.rainwater@ttu.edu Phone: (806) 742-3490
Fax: (806) 742-3449
Biographical Sketch
Ken Rainwater is the Director of the Texas Tech University Water Resources Center and a Professor in
the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. He is a registered Professional Engineer in
Texas and has a B.S. in Civil Engineering from Rice University (1979), and M.S. (1982) and Ph.D.
(1985) in Civil Engineering from the University of Texas at Austin. Ken has 22 years of experience in
water resources and environmental engineering. He teaches courses in environmental engineering,
engineering hydrology, water systems design, groundwater hydrology, groundwater contaminant
transport, and water resources management. His research expertise is in problems of groundwater
quantity and quality, remediation of soil and groundwater contamination, and water resources
management. His research has been funded by the Environmental Protection Agency, Department of
Energy, Department of Defense, Bureau of Reclamation, Texas Commission on Environmental Quality,
and Texas Water Development Board. He has been honored with several teaching award at Texas Tech,
including with the Abell Faculty Teaching Award and the President’s Excellence in Teaching Award.
Education
B.S.C.E. Rice University 1979
M.S.C.E. The University of Texas at Austin 1982
Ph.D. The University of Texas at Austin 1985
Professional Positions
Cost Engineer, Petrochemical Division, Brown and Root, Inc., Houston, Texas, 1979-80.
Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, 1985-91.
Associate Professor of Civil Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, 1991-2002.
Joint Faculty, Department of Geosciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, 1992-.
Professor, Civil Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, 2002-.
Director, Texas Tech University Water Resources Center, 2002-.
Professional Societies
American Society of Civil Engineers
American Geophysical Union
Association of Ground Water Scientists and Engineers
Delegate, Universities Council on Water Resources
Professional Registration
Registered Professional Engineer, State of Texas No. 65348
Board Certified (Water/Wastewater), American Academy of Environmental Engineers
Diplomate Water Resources Engineer, American Society of Civil Engineers
Recent Related Publications

23
Swift, A., Rainwater, K., Chapman, J., Noll, D., Jackson, A., Ewing, B., Song, L., Ganesan, G., Marshall,
R., Doon, V., and Nash, P. 2009. “Wind Power and Water Desalination Technology Integration,” Final
Report, Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, Colorado. (in press with Reclamation polishing)
Rainwater, K.A., 2007. ”Engineering Evaluation of Perched Groundwater Treatment System Expansion,”
Final Report, BWXT-Pantex, LLC, Amarillo, Texas, 53 p.

Berge, M.D., Harkins, D., Rainwater, K.A., Stovall, J.N., and Barber, F., 2004. “Groundwater
Management Plan for Mustang Station Power Plant,” Conference Proceedings, High Plains Groundwater
Resources: Challenges and Opportunities, Texas Tech University Water Resources Center, Lubbock,
Texas, pp. 124-133.

Jackson, W.A., Anandam, S., Anderson, T., Lehman, T.M., Rainwater, K.A., Rajagopalan, S., Ridley, M.,
and Tock, W.R., 2005. “Occurrence of Perchlorate in the Texas Southern High Plains Aquifer System,”
Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, NGWA, Vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 137-149.
Rainwater, K.A., Jackson, W.A., Ingram, W., Lee, C.Y., Thompson, D.B., Mollhagen, T.R., Ramsey,
R.H., and Urban, L.V., 2005. “Field Demonstration of the Combined Effects of Absorption and
Evapotranspiration on Septic System Drainfield Capacity,” Water Environment Research, Vol. 77, no. 2,
pp. 150-161.
Rajagopalan, S., Anderson, T.A., Fahlquist, L., Rainwater, K.A., Ridley, M., and Jackson, W.A., 2006,
“Widespread Presence of Naturally Occurring Perchlorate in High Plains of Texas and New Mexico,”
Environmental Science and Technology, Vo. 40, no. 10, pp. 3156-3162. [Response to Comment, Vol. 40,
no. 22, p. 7102.]
Rao, B., Anderson, T.A., Orris, G.J., Rainwater, K.A., Rajagopalan, S., Sandvig, R.M., Scanlon, B.R.,
Stonestrom, D.A., Walvoord, M.A., and Jackson, W.A. (2007). “Widespread Natural Perchlorate in
Unsaturated Zones of Dry Regions,” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 41, no. 33, pp. 4487-
4832.

Recent Funded Research Projects
Co-principal Investigator (with A. Jackson and T. Anderson [TIEHH]), “Laboratory Demonstration of In
Situ Treatment Effectiveness for Reduction of Perchlorate, TCE, and Chromium at Pantex Plant,” B&W
Pantex LLC, 2008-09, $115,776.

Co-Principal Investigator (with A. Swift), “Great Plains Wind Power Test Facility,” Department of
Energy, 2006-07, $1,485,000.

Principal Investigator (Task 2 with L. Song, A. Jackson, A. Morse, and P. Nash), “Great Plains Wind
Power Test Facility,” Department of Energy, 2008-, $688,000 (total project $1,968,000).

Prinicipal Investigator (with A. Swift and W.A. Jackson), “Wind Power and Water Desalination
Technology Integration,” Bureau of Reclamation, 2005-06, $99,735.
Co-Principal Investigator (with A. Swift), “DOE Integrated Wind-Water System,” Department of
Energy/Texas State Energy Conservation Office, 2005-07, $50,000.
Co-Principal Investigator (with J. Johnson [AAEC], D. Willis [AAEC], D. Ethridge [AAEC], K.
Mulligan [Geog], and E. Fish [NRM], “Ogallala Initiative: Sustainable Rural Economics Through New
Water Management Technologies,” Department of Agriculture, 2007-2009, $1,000,000.

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