Pinterest Engineering Tech Talks - 4/29/14 | Pinterest | Apache Hadoop

Discover Pinterest Engineering

Agenda

Mobile & Growth:
Monetization & Data:
Deploying & Shipping Code:
Wendy & Dannie
Pawel
Chris & Jeremy
Wendy Lu
Mobile
Scaling User Education on Mobile
The Experience Framework
Dannie Chu
Growth
User Education
Motivation?
User Education leads to Engagement
First Pin Education
Challenges
1. Preserve a great user experience
Conflicting Education
Never-ending Stream of Nags
Nag that never goes away
2. Targeting
Are you a new user? Invite some friends!
Do you have an empty homefeed? Make it better!
3. Rapid Experimentation
Experiment with messaging w/o requiring a release
4. Keep the client code clean
Solution?
The Experience Framework
Conflicting Experiences
Experiences and Placements
Nag Placement Home view Placement
Pin Tutorial Card
Placement
AB Experimentation, Simple Client Code
Experiences are delivered to the client at runtime
Experience Framework
Decision Engine
Configuration
Handlers
Admin
Dashboard
API
Servers
AB Experiments
Framework
Kafka
(logging)
HBase
(User States,
Experience States)
API Servers
API Servers
Cascading/
MapRed
User State
Batch Loader
Clients
SDK
SDK
What
experience
should the
user see?
Experience Framework
Deep Dive: Nags
What are nags?
"
Important information which we
occasionally display at the top of
a user’s feed
"
Can be a Call to Action “Confirm
your email” or an announcement
“You can now add a map to any
board!”
Enter: The Experience Framework
Enter: The Experience Framework
"
Each time we reload the home
feed, ask the experience
framework: What should I show
in this nag?
Single Nag Manager that relies on the experience
framework to give it the contents to render
Nag Manager
"
Experiment with nag messaging, call to actions, images
"
Add any new nag dynamically, controlled from the backend.
"
Cool-down management - should not see more than one nag in a set
period of time
What does that nag data look like?
Handling actions
"bg_img_url_2x" = "http://mobile-
assets.pinterest.com/iphone/nags/invite-
mail@2x.png"
"title_text" = "Pinspire your friends!"
"detailed_text" = "Know someone who'd like
Pinterest? Invite them along."
"button1_text" = "No, Thanks”
"button1_uri" = ""
"button2_text" = "Invite Friends"
"button2_uri" = "pinterest://invite_friends"
Handling Actions
"
All initialization and presentation of view controllers is handled through a
central “Navigation Manager.”
"
Centralizes code to create and present view controllers
"
Consistency to other platforms for deep links
"
Allows dynamic insertion of nags from the backend without having to write
new client code and submit a new release
[[NavigationManager sharedManager]
handleURL:[NSURL
URLWithString:@“pinterest://
invite_friends]];
Navigation Manager
self.presentationDelegate
presentInviteFriends
Deep Dive: New User Experience
New User Experience
What is NUX?

"
The set of initial tutorials and education presented to a user after they
register
Personalize a user’s content immediately after signup
Connect with Friends Choose Interests
Next, teach users how to Pin
Experiment between classic user ed and NUX
Experiment between classic user ed and NUX
"
When doing experiments where we need to call the network to get the
user’s treatment group, need to make sure we’re not adding perceived
latency
"
Structure view controllers in a way that you can asynchronously load in the modules
dependent on the treatment group
"
If need to transition to di#erent view controllers, set a time out in which we transition
to the control treatment
"
“Be Fast or Fail Fast”
1 step vs. 2 steps vs. 3 steps
Experiment with di#erent versions of NUX
Experiment with di#erent versions of NUX
"
Backend controls all strings, allowing us to dynamically experiment with
di#erent text (Messaging, titles, calls-to-action)
steps = (
{
"continue_button_text" = Continue;
"detailed_text" = "Tap a network to find people who share your interests.";
"follow_button_text" = "Follow selected people";
step = 1;
"title_text" = "First things first";
"total_steps" = 2;
},
{
"completion_message" = "Finding Pins for you...";
"continue_button_text" = "Tap at least {0} more to continue";
"detailed_text" = "Tap whatever you're interested in these days.";
"finish_text" = Finish;
"num_interests" = 5;
"skip_text" = "Pinterest is much more interesting when you tell us what you like.";
step = 2;
"title_text" = "Pick 5 interests";
"total_steps" = 2;
}
);
After signup, request all data for NUX
Enter: Experience Framework
Supports dynamic number and order of steps
NUXViewController : UINavigationController
"
Maps an array of display data to an array of view controllers 
 
 
 
 
"
Protocol method advanceToNextStep called by each child view controller
"
Checks the array it keeps for the next view controller to push
JSON dict for Intro
JSON dict for Friend Selector
JSON dict for Interests Selector
NUXIntroViewController
NUXConnectViewController
NUXInterestsViewController
Wins from Experience Framework
"
Single place in the backend that manages all experiences for all platforms
"
Dynamically trigger display of content
"
Conflict resolution for educations that touch the same views
"
Experiment with flows, messaging, and images
engineering.pinterest.com
Pawel Garbacki
Software Engineer, Monetization
Pinterest Secor
Zero-data-loss log persistence service
Pinterest is a data driven company
"
Data matters
"
100+ experiments active at a given point in time
"
1500+ tracked metrics
"
200+ log types
We produce a lot of data
"
We produce a lot of data
"
PBs of data in S3, growing by Tens of TB a day
"
Hundreds of production hadoop jobs, processing about half a PB of data each day
Singer
(logging
agent)
App
Data pipeline
Local
Disk
S3
Kafka
(log collector)
Secor
(log saver)
Storm
(realtime
stats)
Hive (hadoop
analytics)
Redshift (ad
hoc queries)
Singer
(logging
agent)
App
Local
Disk
S3
Kafka (log
collector)
Secor (log
saver)
Storm
(realtime
stats)
Hive (hadoop
analytics)
Redshift (ad
hoc queries)
Data pipeline
20B messages/day
Kafka 101
"
Distributed pub-sub service
"
Designed for high throughput
Producer Producer Producer
Consumer Consumer Consumer
Kafka
cluster
Anatomy of a topic
"
Topic is a category to which messages are published
"
Partition is a ‘shard’ of a topic controlling the level of consumption parallelism
"
Messages are assigned unique identifiers called o#sets
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Writes
Partition 0
Partition 1
Partition 2
Save the day
"
Kafka is optimized for local writes
"
Local disk capacity is good for a few
days worth of data
"
Data needs to be saved (at least) daily
to long term storage - Amazon S3
How soon is “eventually”
"
Amazon S3 is a cloud file system
"
Eventual consistency model
"
No guarantees on when uploaded data will become visible to the readers
"
No monotonicity - data available in the past may magically disappear
Secor design guidelines
"
Objectives:
"
Persist Kafka logs to S3
"
Cause no data loss
"
Work properly with eventual consistency model
"
Properties:
"
Horizontal scalability
"
Fault tolerance
"
Customizability
No-S3-reads principle
"
Secor never reads data from S3
"
Lightweight metadata is stored in strongly
consistent state repository
"
Strategic choice of file names
"
s3n://logs/<topic>/
<generation>_<partition>_<start_o#set>
"
<generation> represents software compatibility
version
"
Inconsistencies introduced by consumer failures
get fixed automatically by file overwrites
Date clustering
"
Data processing tools rely on date-
partitioned directory structure
"
s3n://logs/event/dt=2014-04-04/
"
Timestamps extracted from messages on
the fly
"
Support for pluggable parsers for thrift,
json, etc.
https://github.com/pinterest/secor
Chris Danford (@chrisdanford)
Jeremy Stanley (@rouxbot)
Web Team
From Development to Production
The life of web features
Develop Review Deploy Measure
Develop Review Deploy Measure
Developing - Ideal state
"
able to iterate quickly
"
easy errors caught automatically
"
easy-to-understand and powerful abstractions
Fast iteration
Developing
"
Build tasks and dependencies modeled as a graph
"
“cumberbatch” watches for changes of file contents
"
“orchestrator” knows tasks and dependencies
"
build the minimum tasks to heal damage in the graph
"
maximize parallelization of tasks
"
built on Grunt - access to large library of build tasks
Self-healing build graph
sprite/*.png
sprite task
sprite.png sprite.scss
Sass task
component/*.scss
components.css
imagemin task Autoprefixer task CSSlint task
Self-healing build graph
sprite/*.png
sprite task
sprite.png sprite.scss
Sass task
component/*.scss
components.css
imagemin task Autoprefixer task CSSlint task
Self-healing build graph
sprite/*.png
sprite task
sprite.png sprite.scss
Sass task
component/*.scss
components.css
imagemin task Autoprefixer task CSSlint task
Self-healing build graph, example 2
sprite/*.png
sprite task
sprite.png sprite.scss
Sass task
component/*.scss
components.css
imagemin task Autoprefixer task CSSlint task
Self-healing build graph, example 2
sprite/*.png
sprite task
sprite.png sprite.scss
Sass task
component/*.scss
components.css
imagemin task Autoprefixer task CSSlint task
Linting
Developing
"
catches easy bugs
"
enforces consistent style
"
pyflakes
"
pep8
"
jshint
"
CSSLint
"
custom RegEx linting
RegEx-based linter
$(‘.item’).addClass(‘selected’);
BoardPicker.js
this.$(‘.item’).addClass(‘selected’);
Static analysis / type safety
Developing
"
Google Closure Compiler
"
template static analysis
"
validation of template inheritance
"
extract used option variable names
"
Thrift clients for service calls (Python) and shared constants (JavaScript)
Closure Compiler - type safety
Generated constants from Thrift
Abstractions
Developing
"
component framework
"
styles are scoped to the component
"
DOM access is scoped to the component’s DOM
"
“events up, methods down”
"
sca#olding script
"
live component catalog - discovery of existing components
"
autoprefixer, spriting - remove boilerplate
component catalog
spriting
.thumbsUpButton {
@include inline-image(‘sprites/main/thumbUp');
}
Usage
Develop Review Deploy Measure
Reviewing - Ideal state
"
the most-relevant person is reviewing changes
"
integration-type issues are caught
Code Reviews
Reviewing
"
local test runner script runs Jasmine and Node tests parallelized
"
“PR watcher” tool - visibility of relevant PRs
"
code review process - R+, E+
Parallelized Jasmine tests in PhantomJS
Github Watcher tool
Integration problems are caught
Reviewing
"
PRs trigger a build and tests - 3 minutes
"
latest.pinterest.com is continuously deployed from “head”
"
Selenium integration tests run against every deploy
Pull request builds
Selenium
Develop Review Deploy Measure
Deploying - Ideal state
"
code deploys are invisible to users
"
frequent and non-disruptive to developers
"
immediate rollback when there’s a problem
User experience
Deploying
"
stickiness to a version
"
flip nearly instantaneously between builds
"
reduce version thrashing
"
worry less about (style mismatches, JS errors due to data format mismatch with
server)
"
asset versioning
Serving multiple application versions
new
sessions
old
sticky
sessions
A B
all
sessions
B
1 2
Serving multiple application versions, cont’d
3 4
new
canary
sessions
all
non-canary
sessions
B C
new
sessions
old
sticky
sessions
B C
Asset versioning
logo.png
rename
hash file
contents
logo.59aa9183.png
bundle.css
background-image: logo.png
background-image: logo.59aa9183.png
update references
bundle.css
bundle.907389d8.css
rename
hash file
contents
When things go wrong
Deploying
"
experiments dashboard - turn o# experiments instantaneously
"
version rollback is nearly instantaneous
Develop Review Deploy Measure
Monitoring health
A/B Dashboard
"
A/B dashboard key metrics
"
Sentry
"
Stats dashboard
"
Alarms - Monit, PagerDuty
A/B Dashboard
Sentry
Sentry error emails
Results
Results
"
5 engineers on web team
"
all teams at Pinterest developing their own web features on our platform
"
components re-used across teams
"
2 scheduled deploys a day
"
anomalies in key metrics surfaced immediately
"
100s of simultaneous experiments

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