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pf

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- Switching Performance of CBs
- Reactive)
- PF Correction - Con Ed - May 2010
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Power Factor Controller

Heading

What is Power Factor?

Power Factor is a measure of system electrical efficiency.

The power factor of an AC electric power system is defined as the ratio of the real

power flowing to the load to the apparent power, and is a dimensionless number

between 0 and !fre"uently e#pressed as a percentage, e.g. 0.$ pf % $0& pf'.

Real power is the capacity of the circuit for performing wor( in a particular time.

Apparent power is the product of the current and voltage of the circuit.

The total Electrical Power !)ilo *olt Amperes, )*A' used in an electrical system

by an industrial or commercial facility has two components+

i. Productive Power !)ilowatts, (W', which produces wor(.

ii. Reactive Power !)ilo *olt Amperes ,eacti-e, (*A,', which generates the

magnetic fields re"uired in inducti-e electrical e"uipment !AC motors, transformers,

inducti-e furnaces, o-ens, etc.'

Heading

What.s Power Factor?+

Reactive Power doesn't produce any productive work. /ecause the inducti-e

electrical e"uipment employing magnetic fields re"uires this ,eacti-e Power, which

produces no producti-e wor(, the Total Power !(*A' pro-ided by the generating

source must be greater than the Producti-e Power.

The ratio of Producti-e power !(W' to Total Power !(*A' is Power Factor. 0t is a

measure of system electrical efficiency in an alternating current !AC'circuit, and is

represented as a & or a decimal.

Heading

2orse and ,ail Car Analogy+

To understand power actor, visuali!e a horse pulling a railroad car down a railroad trac".

#ecause the railroad ties are uneven, the horse $ust pull the car ro$ the side o the trac".

The horse is pulling the railroad car at an angle to the direction o the car%s travel.

The power re&uired to $ove the car down the trac" is the wor"ing (real) power. The eort o the

horse is the total (apparent) power.

#ecause o the angle o the horse%s pull, not all o the horse%s eort is used to $ove the car down

the trac". The car will not $ove sidewa's( thereore, the sidewa's pull o the horse is wasted eort

or nonwor"ing (reactive) power.

Heading

2orse and ,ail Car Analogy+

The angle o the horse%s pull is related to power actor, which is deined as the

ratio o real )wor"ing* power to apparent )total* power.

I the horse is led closer to the center o the trac", the angle o side pull

decreases and the real power approaches the value o the apparent power.

Thereore, the ratio o real power to apparent power )the power actor*

approaches +. As the power actor approaches +, the reactive )nonwor"ing*

power approaches 0.

Power Factor = [Real Power}/[Apparent Power]

In the ,horse and railcar analogy, this is e&uivalent to decreasing the angle

the horse is pulling on the railcar -' leading the horse closer to the center o

the railroad trac".

#ecause the side pull is $ini$i!ed, less total eort is re&uired ro$ the horse

to do the sa$e a$ount o wor".

Heading

hy !"prove Power Factor#

.o$e o the -eneits o i$proving the power actor are presented -elow/

The utilit' energ' -ill will -e s$aller. 0ow power actor re&uires an increase in the

electric utilit'1s trans$ission and distri-ution capacit' in order to handle the reactive

power co$ponent caused -' inductive loads. An additional ee is usuall' charged -'

utilities on large custo$ers with power actors less than a-out 0.23. Through increasing

the power actor, this additional ee is avoided.

The internal electrical s'ste$1s capacit' will increase.

4ncorrected power actor will cause increased losses in the electrical distri-ution

s'ste$ and li$it capacit' or expansion.

5oltage drop at the point o use will -e reduced.

5oltages -elow e&uip$ent rating will cause reduced eicienc', increased current, and

reduced starting tor&ue in $otors.

4nder6voltage reduces the load which $otors can carr' without overheating or stalling.

4nder6voltage also reduces output ro$ lighting and resistance heating e&uip$ent.

Heading

$ethod to i"prove Poor PF

We may use a wattmeter for measuring true power, whose reading can

be compared against a calculation of apparent power !from multiplying

total -oltage and total current measurements'.

From the -alues of true and apparent power, We can determine reacti-e

power and power factor. 3et4s do an e#ample problem to see how this

wor(s+ !Figure below'

7att$eter reads true power( product o volt$eter and a$$eter readings 'ields apparent power.

Heading

Method to improve Poor PF

First, we need to calculate the apparent power in (*A. We can do this by

multiplying load -oltage by load current+

S !E "#.$%& A'"()* +' (.,*- .+A

As we can see, 5.607 )*A is a much larger figure then .$ )W, which

tells us that the power factor in this circuit rather poor !substantially less

then '.

8ow we figure the power factor of this load by di-iding the true power

by the apparent power+

Power Factor "P/S' "%.& .0/ (.,*- .+A' *.$&.

9sing this -alue for power factor, we can draw a power triangle, and

from that determine the reacti-e power of this load+

Heading

Method to improve Poor PF

Reactive power $a' -e calculated ro$ true power and appearant power.

To determine the un(nown !reacti-e power' triangle "uantity, we use the Pythagorean

Theorem :bac(wards,; gi-en the length of the hypotenuse !apparent power' and the

length of the ad<acent side !true power'+

Reactive Power "1' S1R2 34 Apparent Power 5

(

6 4 2rue Power 5

(

7 %.8&)

.+AR

Heading

$ethod to i"prove Poor PF

will ha-e a lagging !inducti-e' power factor, which means that we4ll

ha-e to correct for it with a capacitor of appropriate si=e, wired in

parallel.

8ow that we (now the amount of reacti-e power !.>$? (*A,', we can

calculate the si=e of capacitor needed to counteract its effects+

Heading

$ethod to i"prove Poor PF

,ounding this answer off to 70 @F, we can place that si=e of capacitor in

the circuit and calculate the results+ !Figure below'

8arallel capacitor corrects lagging )inductive* load

a current of >.567 amps, and a corresponding reacti-e power of .>6>

(*A, !for the capacitor only'.

o

out of phase from the load4s

inducti-e contribution to current draw, the capacitor4s reacti-e power

will directly subtract from the load4s reacti-e power, resulting in+

Heading

$ethod to i"prove Poor PF

This correction, o course, will not change the a$ount o true power consu$ed

-' the load, -ut it will result in a su-stantial reduction o apparent power, and o

the total current drawn ro$ the 240 5olt source/ )9igure /*

Heading

$ethod to i"prove Poor PF

The new apparent power can be found from the true and new reacti-e

power -alues, using the standard form of the Pythagorean Theorem+

0.EEEE?, and a new total current of !.$000E (*A D 5?0 *olts', or F.5$

amps, a substantial impro-ement o-er the uncorrected -alue of E.F$

ampsG

This lower total current will translate to less heat losses in the circuit

wiring, meaning greater system efficiency !less power wasted'.

Heading

$ethod to i"prove Poor PF

9igure / .ingle6line electrical s'ste$

showing t'pical locations or capacitors

Methods of correction

.For motors of $0 hp and

abo-e, it is best to install power

factor correction capacitors at

the motor terminals !Figure '

since distribution circuit

loading is reduced. ,efer to

manufacturer.s instructions for

recommended ma#imum

capacitance ratings. When this

is done, motor settings that are

o-er current protection relays

must be ad<usted down

accordingly.

Heading

$ethod to i"prove Poor PF

5. The second arrangement !Figure' shows capacitor ban(s

connected at the bus for each motor control centre. This

compromise to Hethod will reduce installation costs.

6.The least e#pensi-e method !Figure' shows capacitor ban(s

connected at the ser-ice entrance. 2owe-er, the disad-antage is

that higher feeder currents still flow from the ser-ice entrance to

the end of line e"uipment.

?. For primary metered ser-ices, primary connected

capacitance may be considered.

Heading

%&&ects o& 'apacitors

When capacitors are used to correct for low power factor the following effects should

be anticipated+

Capacitors consume energy at the rate of about one watt per (*ar, installed. Hore

efficient capacitors ha-e been de-eloped to reduce this rate to about 0.$ watts per (*ar.

A slight increase in -oltage can be e#pected.

There is a chance that resonance may occur between the capacitors and any BC, and

rectifier circuits in the system. The presence of harmonics generated by rectifier

circuits can be amplified because of this resonance resulting in blown fuses and

damage to capacitor ban(s and other electrical e"uipment.

0n the e-ent that the fre"uent blowing of fuses occurs, apparently without reason,

e#pert help should be called in to assist in resol-ing the problem.

0f harmonics are the source of the problem, the addition of the appropriate si=e of

inductor, connected in series with the capacitor ban(s, will filter the harmonics and deI

tune the resonant circuit.

Heading

()""ary o& Reco""endations

system power factor.

facilitate switching for -arying load conditions.

capacitors to pre-ent leading power factor during periods of light loading

and undesirable o-erI-oltages.

Heading

T2A8)B

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