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Chest Physiotherapy is the removal of excess secretions (also called mucus, phlegm, sputum) from inside the lungs, by physical means. It is used to assist a cough, re-educate breathing muscles and to try to improve ventilation of the lungs. ALSO CALLEDPostural drainage therapy ,Cough or airway PDT 2.0 DESCRIPTION/DEFINITION:Postural drainage therapy is designed to improve the mobilization of bronchial secretions(2,4,5,8-10,13-18) and the matching of ventilation and perfusion,(1923) and to normalize functional residual capacity (FRC)(17,24-30) based on the effects of gravity and external manipulation of the thorax. This includes turning, postural drainage, percussion, vibration, and cough. 2.1 Turning Turning is the rotation of the body around the longitudinal axis to promote unilateral or bilateral lung expansion(19,22) and improve arterial oxygenation.(19-21,31) Regular turning can be to either side or the prone position,(32) with the bed at any degree of inclination (as indicated and tolerated). Patients may turn themselves or they may turned by the caregiver or by a special bed or device.(21,22,33-35) 2.2 Postural Drainage Postural drainage is the drainage of secretions, by the effect of gravity, from one or more lung segments to the central airways (where they can be removed by cough or mechanical aspiration). (2,4,5,11,13,15-18,26,29,36,37) Each position consists of placing the target lung segment(s) superior to the carina. Positions should generally be held for 3 to 15 minutes (longer in special situations).(4,6,13,16,18,20,29,38-40) Standard positions are modified as the patient's condition and tolerance warrant. 2.3 External Manipulation of the Thorax 2.3.1 Percussion Percussion is also referred to as cupping, clapping, and tapotement. The purpose of percussion is to intermittently apply kinetic energy to the chest wall and lung. This is accomplished by rhythmically striking the thorax with cupped hand or mechanical device directly over the lung segment(s) being drained. No convincing evidence demonstrates the superiority of one method over the other.(4,18,41-44) 2.3.2 Vibration Vibration involves the application of a fine tremorous action (manually performed by pressing in the direction that the ribs and soft tissue of the chest move during expiration) over the draining area. No conclusive evidence supports the efficacy of vibration, the superiority of either manual or mechanical methods, or an optimum frequency.(2,4,13,27,28,30,36,38,39,45-47) PDT 3.0 SETTING: Although PDT can be used with neonates, infants, childrens, and adults, this Guideline applies primarily to older children and adults. PDT can be performed in a wide variety of settings. 3.1 Critical care 3.2 In-patient acute care 3.3 Extended care and skilled nursing facility care 3.4 Home care 3.5 Outpatient/ambulatory care 3.6 Pulmonary diagnostic (bronchoscopy) laboratory PDT 4.0 INDICATIONS: 4.1 Turning 4.1.1 inability or reluctance of patient to change body position. (eg, mechanical ventilation, neuromuscular disease, drug-induced paralysis)
4.1.2 poor oxygenation associated with position(20,22,48-50) (eg, unilateral lung disease) 4.1.3 potential for or presence of atelectasis(24,26,30) 4.1.4 presence of artificial airway 4.2 Postural Drainage 4.2.1 evidence or suggestion of difficulty with secretion clearance 18.104.22.168 difficulty clearing secretions with expectorated sputum production greater than 25-30 mL/day (adult)(3,7,9,11,12,27,38,40, 46,51-53) 22.214.171.124 evidence or suggestion of re-tained secretions in the presence of an artificial airway 4.2.2 presence of atelectasis caused by or suspected of being caused by mucus plugging(24,26,29,30,54) 4.2.3 diagnosis of diseases such as cystic fibrosis,(1,5,6,13-15,18,36,55) bronchiectasis,(4,5,14) or cavitating lung disease 4.2.4 presence of foreign body in airway(56-58) 4.3 External Manipulation of the Thorax 4.3.1 sputum volume or consistency suggesting a need for additional manipulation (eg, percussion and/or vibration) to assist movement of secretions by gravity, in a patient receiving postural drainage PDT 5.0 CONTRAINDICATIONS: The decision to use postural drainage therapy requires assessment of potential benefits versus potential risks. Therapy should be provided for no longer than necessary to obtain the desired therapeutic results. Listed contraindications are relative unless marked as absolute (A). 5.1 Positioning 5.1.1 All positions are contraindicated for 126.96.36.199 intracranial pressure (ICP) > 20 mm Hg(59,60) 188.8.131.52 head and neck injury until stabilized (A) 184.108.40.206 active hemorrhage with hemodynamic instability (A) 220.127.116.11 recent spinal surgery (eg, laminectomy) or acute spinal injury 18.104.22.168 acute spinal injury or active hemoptysis 22.214.171.124 empyema 126.96.36.199 bronchopleural fistula 188.8.131.52 pulmonary edema associated with congestive heart failure 184.108.40.206 large pleural effusions 220.127.116.11 pulmonary embolism 18.104.22.168 aged, confused, or anxious patients who do not tolerate position changes 22.214.171.124 rib fracture, with or without flail chest 126.96.36.199 surgical wound or healing tissue 5.1.2 Trendelenburg position is contraindicated for 188.8.131.52 intracranial pressure (ICP) > 20 mm Hg(59,60) 184.108.40.206 patients in whom increased intracranial pressure is to be avoided (eg, neurosurgery, aneurysms, eye surgery) 220.127.116.11 uncontrolled hypertension 18.104.22.168 distended abdome 22.214.171.124 esophageal surgerY 126.96.36.199 recent gross hemoptysis re-lated to recent lung carcinoma treated surgically or with radiation therapy(59) 188.8.131.52 uncontrolled airway at risk for aspiration (tube feeding or recent meal) 5.1.3 Reverse Trendelenburg is contraindicated in the presence of hypotension or vasoactive medication 5.2 External Manipulation of the Thorax In addition to contraindications previously listed 5.2.1subcutaneous emphysema 5.2.2 recent epidural spinal infusion or spinal anesthesia 5.2.3 recent skin grafts, or flaps, on the thorax
5.2.4 burns, open wounds, and skin infections of the thorax 5.2.5 recently placed transvenous pacemaker or subcutaneous pacemaker (particularly if mechanical devices are to be used) 5.2.6 suspected pulmonary tuberculosis 5.2.7 lung contusion 5.2.8 bronchospasm 5.2.9 osteomyelitis of the ribs 5.2.10 osteoporosis 5.2.11 coagulopathy 5.2.12 complaint of chest-wall pain PDT 6.0 HAZARDS/COMPLICATIONS: 6.1 Hypoxemia Action To Be Taken/Possible Intervention: Administer higher oxygen concentrations during procedure if potential for or observed hypoxemia exists. If patient becomes hypoxemic during treatment, administer 100% oxygen, stop therapy immediately, return patient to original resting position, and consult physician. Ensure adequate ventilation. Hypoxemia during postural drainage may be avoided in unilateral lung disease by placing the involved lung up-permost with patient on his or her side.(20,22,48-50) 6.2 Increased Intracranial Pressure Action To Be Taken/Possible Intervention: Stop therapy, return patient to original resting position, and consult physician. 6.3 Acute Hypotension during Procedure Action To Be Taken/Possible Intervention: Stop therapy, return patient to original resting position, and consult physician. 6.4 Pulmonary Hemorrhage Action To Be Taken/Possible Intervention: Stop therapy, return patient to original resting position, call physician immediately. Administer oxygen and maintain an airway until physician responds. 6.5 Pain or Injury to Muscles, Ribs, or Spine Action To Be Taken/Possible Intervention: Stop therapy that appears directly associated with pain or problem, exercise care in moving patient, and consult physician. 6.6 Vomiting and Aspiration Action To Be Taken/Possible Intervention: Stop therapy, clear airway and suction as needed, administer oxygen, maintain airway, return patient to previous resting position, and contact physician immediately. 6.7 Bronchospasm Action To Be Taken/Possible Intervention: Stop therapy, return patient to previous resting position, administer or increase oxygen delivery while contacting physician. Administer physician-ordered bronchodilators. 6.8 Dysrhythmias Action To Be Taken/Possible Intervention: Stop therapy, return patient to previous resting position, administer or increase oxygen delivery while contacting physician. PDT 7.0 LIMITATIONS OF METHOD: 7.1 Presumed effectiveness of PDT and its application may be based more on tradition and anecdotal report than on scientific evidence. The procedure has been used excessively and in patients in whom it is not indicated.(11,40,61-63) 7.2 Airway clearance may be less than optimal in patients with ineffective cough. 7.3 Optimal positioning is difficult in critically ill patients. PDT 8.0 ASSESSMENT OF NEED:
The following should be assessed together to establish a need for postural drainage therapy 8.1 excessive sputum production 8.2 effectiveness of cough 8.3 history of pulmonary problems treated successfully with PDT (eg, bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis, lung abscess) 8.4 decreased breath sounds or crackles or rhonchi suggesting secretions in the airway 8.5 change in vital signs 8.6 Abnormal chest x-ray consistent with atelectasis, mucus plugging, or infiltrates 8.7 deterioration in arterial blood gas values or oxygen saturation PDT 9.0 ASSESSMENT OF OUTCOME: These represent individual criteria that indicate a positive response to therapy (and support continuation of therapy). Not all criteria are required to justify continuation of therapy (eg, a ventilated patient may not have sputum production > 30 mL/day, but have improvement in breath sounds, chest x-ray, or increased compliance or decreased resistance). 9.1 Change in sputum production If sputum production in an optimally hydrated patient is less than 25 mL/day with PDT the procedure is not justified.(3,5,7,9,11,12,38,40,46,51-53) Some patients have productive coughs with sputum production from 15 to 30 mL/day (occasionally as high as 70 or 100 mL/day) without postural drainage. If postural drainage does not increase sputum in a patient who produces > 30 mL/day of sputum without postural drainage, the continuation of the therapy is not indicated. Because sputum production is affected by systemic hydration, apparently ineffective PDT probably should be continued for at least 24 hours after optimal hydration has been judged to be present. 9.2 Change in breath sounds of lung fields being drained With effective therapy, breath sounds may 'worsen' following the therapy as secretions move into the larger airways and increase rhonchi. An increase in adventitious breath sounds can be a marked improvement over absent or diminished breath sounds. Note any effect that coughing may have on breath sounds. One of the favorable effects of coughing is clearing of adventitious breath sounds. 9.3 Patient subjective response to therapy The caregiver should ask patient how he or she feels before, during, and after therapy. Feelings of pain, discomfort, shortness of breath, dizziness, and nausea should be considered in decisions to modify or stop therapy. Easier clearance of secretions and increased volume of secretions during and after treatments support continuation. 9.4 Change in vital signs Moderate changes in respiratory rate and/or pulse rate are expected. Bradycardia, tachycardia, or an increase in irregularity of pulse, or fall or dramatic increase in blood pressure are indications for stopping therapy. 9.5 Change in chest x-ray Resolution or improvement of atelectasis may be slow or dramatic. 9.6 Change in arterial blood gas values or oxygen saturation Oxygenation should improve as atelectasis resolves. 9.7 Change in ventilator variables Resolution of atelectasis and plugging reduces resistance and increases compliance. PDT 10.0 RESOURCES: 10.1 Equipment 10.1.1 bed or table that can be adjusted for a range of positions from Trendelen-burg to Reverse Trendelenburg position 10.1.2 pillows for supporting patient 10.1.3 light towel for covering area of chest during percussion 10.1.4 tissues and/or basin for collecting expectorated sputum
10.1.5 suction equipment for patients unable to clear secretion 10.1.6 gloves, goggles, gown, and mask as indicated for caregiver protection 10.1.7 optional: hand-held and mechanical percussor or vibrator 10.1.8 oxygen delivery device 10.1.9 recent chest x-ray, if available 10.1.10 stethoscope for auscultation 10.2 Personnel A spectrum of education and skill levels is required for personnel who administer postural drainage therapy. Different clinical situations warrant the degree of training necessary to provide optimal respiratory care. 10.2.1. The Level I care provider who provides routine maintenance therapy to the stable patient should possess the following skills and knowledge 10.2.1.1 proper technique for administration of PDT 10.2.1.2 proper use of equipment 10.2.1.3 breathing patterns and cough techniques 10.2.1.4 technique modification in re-sponse to adverse reactions 10.2.1.5 position or frequency modification in response to severity of symptoms 10.2.1.6 ability to assess patient condition and patient response to therapy including physical exam (auscultation and vital signs) and tests of expiratory flow or ventilator mechanics 10.2.1.7 ability to recognize and respond to adverse reactions to and complications of procedure 10.2.1.8 understanding of and compliance with Universal Precautions 10.2.2 For initial assessments and care of the unstable patient, the Level II care provider should possess 10.2.2.1 knowledge of proper use and limitations of equipment 10.2.2.2 ability to assess patient condition and patient response to therapy 10.2.2.3 ability to perform physical exam auscultation and vital signs 10.2.2.4 knowledge of effects of gravity and body position on ventilation, perfusion, and sputum mobilization 10.2.2.5 knowledge of procedures, indications, contraindications, and hazards for turning 10.2.2.6 knowledge of standard drainage positions, techniques for percussion and vibration, segmental and airway anatomy 10.2.2.7 ability to teach diaphragmatic breathing, relaxation, huff cough, forced expiration technique (FET), suctioning 10.2.2.8 ability to monitor effects and patient response to changes in position and other postural drainage therapy techniques 10.2.2.9 understanding of and ability to comply with Universal Precautions and infection control issues related to cleaning and maintaining equipment 10.2.2.10 ability to instruct patient/family/caregiver in goals of therapy and proper technique for administration of PDT and associated therapies 10.2.2.11 knowledge of proper use of equipment, including suction if re-quired 10.2.2.12 ability to prepare, measure, and mix medications if required 10.2.2.13 ability to clean equipment 10.2.2.14 knowledge of breathing patterns and cough techniques 10.2.2.15 abilty to modify techniques in response to adverse reactions 10.2.2.16 ability to modify dosage or frequency in response to severity of symptoms 10.2.3 The subject providing self administration of postural drainage should possess knowledge and skills related to 10.2.3.1 proper technique for administration 10.2.3.2 proper use of equipment 10.2.3.3 breathing patterns and cough techniques 10.2.3.4 technique modification in re-sponse to adverse reactions 10.2.3.5 position or frequency modification in response to severity of symptoms PDT 11.0 MONITORING:
The following should be chosen as appropriate for monitoring a patient's response to postural drainage therapy, before, during, and after therapy. 11.1 Subjective response--pain, discomfort, dyspnea, response to therapy 11.2 Pulse rate, dysrhythmia, and EKG if available 11.3 Breathing pattern and rate, symmetrical chest expansion, synchronous thoracoabdom-inal movement, flail chest 11.4 Sputum production (quantity, color, consistency, odor) and cough effectiveness 11.5 Mental function 11.6 Skin color 11.7 Breath sounds 11.8 blood pressure 11.9 oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (if hypoxemia is suspected) 11.10 intracranial pressure (ICP)
Assist patient in performing coughing and breathing maneuvers. These improve productivity of the cough.
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Instruct patient in the following: Optimal positioning (sitting position) Use of pillow or hand splints when coughing Use of abdominal muscles for more forceful cough Use of quad and huff techniques Use of incentive spirometry Importance of ambulation and frequent position changes
Directed coughing techniques help mobilize secretions from smaller airways to larger airways because the coughing is done at varying times. The sitting position and splinting the abdomen promote more effective coughing by increasing abdominal pressure and upward diaphragmatic movement. Use positioning (if tolerated, head of bed at 45 degrees; sitting in chair, ambulation). These promote better lung expansion and improved air exchange. If patient is bedridden, routinely check the patient’s position so he or she does not slide down in bed. This may cause the abdomen to compress the diaphragm, which would cause respiratory embarrassment.
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If cough is ineffective, use nasotracheal suctioning as needed: Explain procedure to patient. Use soft rubber catheters. This prevents trauma to mucous membranes. Use curved-tip catheters and head positioning (if not contraindicated). These facilitate secretion removal from a specific side (right versus left lung). Instruct the patient to take several deep breaths before and after each nasotracheal suctioning procedure and use supplemental oxygen as appropriate. This prevents suction-related hypoxia. Stop suctioning and provide supplemental oxygen (assisted breaths by Ambu bag as needed) if the patient experiences bradycardia, an increase in ventricular ectopy, and/or desaturation.
Use universal precautions: gloves, goggles, and mask as appropriate. If sputum is purulent, precautions should be instituted before receiving the culture and sensitivity report.
Suctioning is indicated when patients are unable to remove secretions from the airways by coughing because of weakness, thick mucus plugs, or excessive mucus production. Institute appropriate isolation precautions for positive cultures (e.g., methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA] or tuberculosis). Use humidity (humidified oxygen or humidifier at bedside). This loosens secretions. Encourage oral intake of fluids within the limits of cardiac reserve. Increased fluid intake reduces the viscosity of mucus produced by the goblet cells in the airways. It is easier for the patient to mobilize thinner secretions with coughing. Administer medications (e.g., antibiotics, mucolytic agents, bronchodilators, expectorants) as ordered, noting effectiveness and side effects. For patients with chronic problems with bronchoconstriction, instruct in use of metered-dose inhaler (MDI) or nebulizer as prescribed. Consult respiratory therapist for chest physiotherapy and nebulizer treatments as indicated (hospital and home care/rehabilitation environments). Chest physiotherapy includes the techniques of postural drainage and chest percussion to mobilize secretions in smaller airways that cannot be removed by coughing or suctioning. Coordinate optimal time for postural drainage and percussion (i.e., at least 1 hour after eating). This prevents aspiration. For patients with reduced energy, pace activities. Maintain planned rest periods. Promote energy-conservation techniques. Fatigue is a contributing factor to ineffective coughing. For acute problem, assist with bronchoscopy. This obtains lavage samples for culture and sensitivity, and removes mucus plugs. If secretions cannot be cleared, anticipate the need for an artificial airway (intubation). After intubation:
Institute suctioning of airway as determined by presence of adventitious sounds. Use sterile saline instillations during suctioning. This helps facilitate removal of tenacious sputum.
For patients with complete airway obstruction, institute cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) maneuvers.
The upper airway warms, cleans and moistens the air we breathe. The trach tube bypasses these mechanisms, so that the air moving through the tube is cooler, dryer and not as clean. In response to these changes, the body produces more mucus. Suctioning clears mucus from the tracheostomy tube and is essential for proper breathing. Also, secretions left in the tube could become contaminated and a chest infection could develop. Avoid suctioning too frequently as this could lead to more secretion buildup.
Suctioning is important to prevent a mucus plug from blocking the tube and stopping the patient's breathing. Suctioning should be considered
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Any time the patient feels or hears mucus rattling in the tube or airway In the morning when the patient first wakes up When there is an increased respiratory rate (working hard to breathe) Before meals Before going outdoors Before going to sleep
Complication 1. hypoxia/hypoximea 2. cardiac or respiratory arrest 3. pulmonary hemorrahage/bleeding 4. cardiac dysrhythmias 5. interruption of mechanical ventilation COBNTRAINDICATION • suctioning is contra indication when there is fresh bleeding
MAJOR RECOMMENDATIONS Procedure Nasotracheal suctioning (NTS) for tracheal aspiration is a component of bronchial hygiene therapy. Description/Definition NTS is intended to remove accumulated saliva, pulmonary secretions, blood, vomitus, and other foreign material from the trachea and nasopharyngeal area that cannot be removed by the patient's spontaneous cough or other less invasive procedures. NTS has been used to maintain a patent airway thus ensuring adequate oxygenation and ventilation and avoiding intubation that was solely intended for the removal of secretions.
NTS refers to the insertion of a suction catheter through the nasal passage and pharynx into the trachea without a tracheal tube or tracheostomy (although a nasopharyngeal airway may be used) in order to aspirate accumulated secretions or foreign material. The clearance of secretions is accomplished by application of subatmospheric pressure applied to a sterile, flexible, multi-eyed catheter on withdrawal only. Appropriate subatmospheric pressures are • • • • Neonates: 60-80 mm Hg Infants: 80-100 mm Hg Children: 100-120 mm Hg Adults: 100-150 mm Hg
Assessment of Outcome Effectiveness of NTS should be reflected by assessing patient post suction for:
• • • •
Improved breath sounds Removal of secretions Improved blood gas data or pulse oximetry Decreased work of breathing (decreased respiratory rate or dyspnea)
Suctioning a Tracheostomy
The upper airway warms, cleans and moistens the air we breath. The trach tube bypasses these mechanisms, so that the air via the tube is cooler, dryer and not as clean. In response to these changes, the body produces more mucus. The trach tube is suctioned to remove mucus from the tube and trachea to allow for easier breathing. Generally, the child should be suctioned every 4 to 6 hours and as needed. There may be large amounts of mucus with a new tracheostomy. This is a normal reaction to an irritant (the tube) in the airway. The heavy secretions should decrease in a few weeks. While a child is in the hospital, suctioning is done using sterile technique, however a clean technique is usually sufficient for most children at home. If your child has frequent respiratory infections, trach care and suctioning techniques may need to be addressed. Frequency of suctioning will vary from child to child and will increase with respiratory tract infections. Try to avoid suctioning too frequently. The more you suction, the more secretions can be produced. ETS 2.0 DESCRIPTION: Endotracheal suctioning is a component of bronchial hygiene therapy and mechanical ventilation and involves the mechanical aspiration of pulmonary secretions from a patient with an artificial airway in place. The procedure includes patient preparation, the suctioning event(s), and follow-up care. 2.3 Follow-Up Care: Following the suctioning event,
2.3.1 the patient should be hyperoxygenated by delivery of 100% oxygen for > or = 1 minute by the same technique(s) used to preoxygenate the patient. 2.3.2 the patient may be hyperventilated by increasing the respiratory rate and/or tidal volume by the same technique(s) used prior to suctioning. 2.3.3 the patient should be monitored for adverse reactions. ETS 5.0 CONTRAINDICATIONS: Endotracheal suctioning is a necessary procedure for patients with artificial airways. Most contraindications are relative to the patient's risk of developing adverse reactions or worsening clinical condition as result of the procedure. When indicated, there is no absolute contraindication to endotracheal suctioning because the decision to abstain from suctioning in order to avoid a possible adverse reaction may, in fact, be lethal. ETS 4.0 INDICATIONS: 4.1 The need to remove accumulated pulmonary secretions as evidenced by one of the following: 4.1.1 Coarse breath sounds by auscultation or 'noisy' breathing 4.1.2 Increased peak inspiratory pressures during volume-controlled mechanical ventilation or decreased tidal volume during pressure-controlled ventilation. 4.1.3 Patient's inability to generate an effective spontaneous cough. 4.1.4 Visible secretions in the airway
Chest Tube Thoracostomy
Chest tube thoracostomy is done to drain fluid, blood, or air from the space around the lungs. Some diseases, such as pneumonia and cancer, can cause an excess amount of fluid or blood to build up in the space around the lungs (called a pleural effusion). Also, some severe injuries of the chest wall can cause bleeding around the lungs. Sometimes, the lung can be accidentally punctured allowing air to gather outside the lung, causing its collapse (called a pneumothorax). Chest tube thoracostomy (commonly referred to as "putting in a chest tube") involves placing a hollow plastic tube between the ribs and into the chest to drain fluid or air from around the lungs. The tube is often hooked up to a
suction machine to help with drainage. The tube remains in the chest until all or most of the air or fluid has drained out, usually a few days. Occasionally special medicines are given through a chest tube.
Common reasons for its use and benefits:
Collapsed lung (pneumothorax) - Air has built up in the pleural space from a leak in the lung. This leak may be the result of lung disease. It can also occur as a risk (complication) of certain procedures. Chest tubes are frequently needed to remove air from around the lung. Failure to remove such air can be lifethreatening. Removing the air allows the lung to re-expand and seal the leak. Infection - If the fluid building up around the lung is infected, it may be necessary to insert a chest tube to remove the fluid. Cancer - Some cancers spread and cause large amounts of fluid to build up around the lung. Doctors usually drain the fluid with a needle (see Information Sheet on Thoracentesis). If the fluid keeps coming back, however, it may be necessary to insert a chest tube to first drain the fluid, and then deliver special medicines into the chest that reduce the likelihood of the fluid building up again. Comfort - A large build up of fluid or air in the chest can make it difficult to breathe. Removing some of the fluid or air may decrease discomfort.
Some of the risks of chest tube thoracostomy include:
Pain during placement - Discomfort can result as the chest tube is inserted. Doctors try to lessen the pain with a local numbing medicine (anesthetic like novocaine). The discomfort can be severe at first but usually decreases once the tube is in place. Bleeding - During insertion of the tube, a blood vessel in the skin or chest wall may be accidentally nicked. Bleeding is usually minor and stops on its own. Bleeding can occur as a bruise of the chest wall. Rarely bleeding can occur into or around the lung and may require surgery. Infection - Bacteria can enter around the tube and cause an infection around the lung. The longer the chest tube stays in the chest, the greater the risk for infection. The risk of infection is decreased by special care in bandaging the skin at the point where the tube goes into the chest.
• • Hemothorax Chylothorax
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Decreased breath sounds in unstable patient after blunt or penetrating trauma Multiple rib fractures, sucking chest wound, subcutaneous air in intubated trauma patient Complicated pleural effusion, empyema, lung abscess Thoracotomy, decortication Pleural lavage for active rewarming for hypothermia
COPLICATIONS: Undrained PTX, hemothorax, or effusion despite TT à clotted hemothorax, empyema, fibrothorax Improper placement +/- iatrogenic injuries (lung, diaphragm, subclavian, right atrium) Recurrent PTX after tube removal Intrapleural collections following tube removal Thoracic empyema
When a chest drain is needed for any of the indications listed above, no absolute contraindications exist for chest drain insertion.
Nursing management • • Keep the patient in a propped-up position (ie, 45-90°). Check that all connections are secure. o All joints must be well-taped with adhesive. o A single layer of tape across the long axis of each joint holds better than layers of circular tape over the joint. This prevents disconnection and the subsequent loss of the negative pressure. Always ensure the correct position of the underwater seal bottle. o The bottle should be erect and at least 100 cm below the level of the patient’s chest. o The tip of the glass tube that connects to the chest drain should be at least 2 cm below the fluid level in the bottle (and not more than 7 cm below the fluid level). In addition to vital signs, the following items need to be monitored every 4 hours: o Swinging or oscillation of the column of water in the glass tube connected to the chest drain o Blowing or air bubbling in drainage bottle with quiet respiration and on coughing (Bubbling of air indicates that the lung is still leaking air. The cessation of bubbling during both quiet respiration and coughing indicates that the air leak in the lung has closed.) o Type and quantity of drainage (Inform practitioner if drainage is >100 mL/h or if frank blood.) Never lift the drainage bottle above the level of the patient’s chest, as fluid from the bottle may siphon off into the patient’s chest. Keep 2 clamps (angled) at the bed side. Do not clamp a bubbling chest drain.11 o All nursing procedures, patient movement, and physiotherapy are permitted without clamping the drain. o Clamp tubes only for procedures related to the tube or bottle (eg, to change the tube or bottle, to empty the bottle, to reconnect an accidental disconnection of the tube at any of the joints). Avoid kinks in the tubes. Teach the patient to look for kinks and to avoid sitting or lying on the tubes.
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"Milk" the tubes frequently to avoid blockage by fibrin plugs or clots. Change the connecting tube and bottle at least once every 48 hours, and replace them with sterile equivalents. Wash and disinfect equipment to remove all residue before sterilization.
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