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The properties of a high-strength concrete-mix with a compressive strength of more than 40 MPa
is greatly influenced by the properties of aggregates in addition to that of the water-cement ratio.
To achieve high strength, it is necessary to use lowest possible water-cement ratio, which
invariably affects the worability of the mix and necessitates the use of special vibration
techni!ues for proper compaction. "n the present state of art, a concrete with a desired #$ day
compressive strength of upto %0 MPa can be made with suitably proportioning the ingredients
using normal vibration techni!ues for compacting the concrete mix.
Erntroy and Shacklocks Em!r!cal Grahs" &rntroy and 'hacloc have suggested empirical
graphs relating the compressive strength to an arbitrary (reference number) for concrete made
with crushed granite, coarse aggregates and irregular gravel. These graphs are shown in figure *
and # for mixes with ordinary Portland cement and in figure + and 4 for mixes with rapid
hardening Portland cement. The relation between water cement ratio and the reference number
for #0mm and *0mm maximum si,e aggregates is shown in figure -, in which four different
degrees of worability are considered. The range of the degrees of worability varying from
extremely low to high corresponds to the compacting factor values of 0..- and 0./- respectively
The relation between the aggregate-cement and water-cement ratios, to achieve the desired
degree of worability with a given type and maximum si,e of aggregate are compiled in table-*
and # for two different types of cements. The limitations of these design tables being that they
were obtained with aggregates containing +0 percent of the material passing the 4.%- mm "'
sieve. Thus, if other ingredients are used suitable ad0ustments have to be made. 1ggregates
available at site may be suitably combined by the graphical method to satisfy the above
re!uirement. "n view of the considerable variations in the properties of aggregates, it is generally
recommended that trial mixes must first be made and suitable ad0ustments in grading and mix
proportions effected to achieve the desired results.
Table 2 *3 1ggregate cement ratio 4by weight5 re!uired to give four degrees of worability with
different water 2cement ratios using ordinary Portland cement
Table 2 #3 1ggregate cement ratio 4by weight5 re!uired to give four degrees of worability with
different water 2cement ratios using rapid hardening cement
*. The mean design strength is obtained by applying suitable control factors to the specified
minimum strength.
#. 6or a given type of cement and aggregates used, the reference number corresponding to
the design strength at a particular age is interpolated from figure * to 4.
+. The water-cement ratio to achieve the re!uired worability and corresponding to the
reference number is obtained from figure - for aggregates with maximum si,es of #0mm and
4. The aggregate-cement ratio to give the desired worability with the nown water cement
is obtained by absolute volume method.
-. 7atch !uantities are wored out after ad0ustments for moisture content in the aggregates.
6ig.*3 8elation between compressive strength and reference number 4&rntroy and 'hacloc5
6ig-#3 between compressive strength and reference number 4&rntroy and 'hacloc5
6ig-+3 8elation between compressive strength and reference number 4&rntroy and 'hacloc5
6ig-43 8elation between compressive strength and reference number 4&rntroy and 'hacloc5
6ig--3 8elation between water-cement ratio and 8eference 9umber
6ig-.3 :ombining of 6ine aggregates and :oarse aggregates
Table 2 +3 7atch ;uantities per cubic metre of concrete
<esign a high strength concrete for use in the production of precast prestressed concrete to suit
the following re!uirements3
'pecified #$-day wors cube strength = -0 MPa
>ery good degree of control? control factor = 0.$0
<egree of worability = very low
Type of cement = ordinary Portland cement
Type of coarse aggregate = crushed granite 4angular5 of maximum si,e *0mm.
Type of fine aggregate = natural sand
'pecific gravity of sand = #..0
'pecific gravity of cement = +.*-
'pecific gravity of coarse aggregates = #.-0
6ine and coarse aggregates contain - and * percent moisture respectively and have grading
characteristics as detailed as follows3

IS s!e'e s!(e #ercenta)e #ass!n)
Coarse a))re)ate F!ne a))re)ate
#0mm *00 -
*0mm /. *00
4.%-mm $ /$ - $0
*.*$mm - .-
.00 micron - -0
+00 micron *0
*-0 micron - 0

Mean strength = 4-0 @ 0.$05 = .+ MPa
8eference number 4fig.*5= #-
Aater cement ratio 4fig -5 = 0.+-
6or a *0mm maximum si,e aggregate and very low worability, the aggregate-cement ratio for
the desired worability 4table-*5 =+.#
The aggregates are combined by the graphical method as shown in figure ., so that +0 percent of
the material passes through the 4.%- mm "' sieve.
8atio of fine to total aggregate = #-B
8e!uired proportions by weight of dry materials3
:ement 2 *
6ine aggregates 2 C4#-@*005x+.#D = 0.$
:oarse aggregates 2 C4%-@*005x+.#5D = #.4
Aater = 0.+-
"f : = weight of cement re!uired per cubic meter of concrete, then