pelecehan anak atau penganiayaan secara umum didefinisikan sebagai cedera disengaja seorang anak .

itu dapat mencakup kekerasan fisik atau cedera , kelalaian atau kegagalan untuk mencegah kerusakan ,
kegagalan untuk memberikan perawatan fisik atau emosional yang memadai pengawasan , pengabaian ,
kekerasan seksual atau gangguan , dan penyiksaan terbuka atau maiming ( Bernet , 2005). Di Amerika
Serikat , setiap negara mendefinisikan penganiayaan anak , mengidentifikasi prosedur pelaporan
tertentu , dan menetapkan sistem pelayanan . walaupun kesamaan yang ada di antara hukum anak ,
data yang akurat pada jenis , frekuensi dan tingkat keparahan penganiayaan anak di seluruh negeri sulit
untuk mendapatkan .

tahun 2001 di Amerika Serikat 903,000 anak mengalami atau berisiko untuk pelecehan anak atau
kelalaian . lima puluh sembilan persen dari korban penganiayaan anak mengalami penelantaran 19 %
secara fisik disalahgunakan, 10 % mengalami pelecehan seksual , dan 7 % secara psikologis atau
emosional dilecehkan . seribu tiga ratus anak meninggal akibat penganiayaan : 35 % dari kematian
berasal dari kelalaian dan 25 % berasal dari kekerasan fisik ( CDC , 2004)

Fathers, stepfathers, uncle, older siblings, and live in partners of the child's mothers often perpetrate
abuse on girls. about 75% of reported cases involve father-daughter incest; mother - son incest is much
less frequent estimates are that 15 million women in the United States were sexually abused as children,
and one third of all sexually abused victims were molested when they were younger them 9 years of
age. accurate statistics on sexual abuse are difficult to obtain because many incidences are unreported
as a result of shame and embarrassment. in other cases, women do not acknowledge sexual abuse until
they are adults. risk for depression, suicide attempts, marital problems, and marriage to an alcoholic are
increased among adults with a history of childhood sexual abuse (Dube et al.,2005)

types of child abuse
physical abuse of children often result from unreasonably severe corporal punishment of unjustifiable
punishment such as hitting an infant for crying or soiling his or her diapers. intentional, deliberate
assaults on children include burning, biting, cutting, poking,twisting limbs, or scalding with hot water.
The victim often has evidence of old injuries (e.g., scars, untreated fractures, multiple bruises of various
ages) that the history given by parents or caregivers does not explain adequately.

Sexual abuse, involves sexual acts performed by an adult on a child younger than 18 years. Examples
include incest, rape, and sodomy performed dirrectly by the person or with an object, oral-genital
contact , and acts of molestation such as rubbing, fondling, or exposing the adult's genitals. Sexual abuse
may consist of a single incident or multiple episodes over protracted period. A second type of sexual
abuse involves exploitation, such as making, promoting, or selling pornography involving minors, and
coercion of minors to participate in obscene acts.

Neglect is malicious or ignorant with holding of physical, emotional, or educational necessities for the
child's well - being. Child abuse by neglect is the most prevalent type of maltreatment and includes
refusal to seek health care of delay doing so ; abandonment ; inadequate supervision ; reckless disregard
for the child's safety; punitive; exploitive; or abusive emotional treatment

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