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Section A [45 marks]
Answer all questions in this section.
1 The function f is defined by f(x) =
¹
´
¦
> + ÷
s ÷
3 , 2 3
3 , 3
2
2
x x x
x x x
. Find ( ) x f lim

3 x÷
and ( ) x f lim
3 x
+
÷
.
Hence, determine whether ( ) x f lim
3 x÷
exists. Determine also whether f is continuous at x = 0.
[6 marks]
2 A curve has parametric equations y = , x = t . Find the coordinates of the
points on the curve where the gradient is zero, and, find the equation of the tangent at the
point where t = 2. [8 marks]
3 Find the area included by the curves y
2
= 8x and y = x
2
. Find also the volume of revolution
generated when the area is rotated through four right angles about the x axis. [10 marks]
4 Given that
x
y
d
d
= y sin 2x and that y = 1 when x = 0, find y in terms of x. [5 marks]
5 Given that ; show that y
x
y
x
y
x = + +
d
d
2
d
d
) 1 ( 4
2
2
.
By further differentiation of this result or otherwise, show that the series expansion for y in
ascending powers of x up to the term x
4
is , where k is a
constant. [11 marks]
6 The diagram shows the parts of the graph of
x
y
+
=
1
1
between x = 0 and x = 1.
The four trapeziums drawn under the curve are of equal width, and their total area is an
approximation to the area under the curve from x = 0 and x = 1. Calculate this approximation
to the area under the curve, giving 3 significant figures in your answer.
Determine whether this approximation is an overestimation or underestimation of the exact
area under the curve, stating your reason. [5 marks]
y
0 1 x
954/2
*This question paper is CONFIDENTIAL until the examination is over. CONFIDENTIAL*
CONFIDENTIAL* 3
Section B [15 marks]
Answer ONLY one question in this section.
7 The length x , of a certain leaf, at time t (during a period of its growth) is proportional
to the amount of water it contains. It may be assumed that during this period, the leaf is
square in shape. The leaf absorbs water from the plant at a rate proportional to the length of
the leaf and loses water by evaporation at a rate proportional to the area of the leaf. Show
that the growth of the leaf can be represented by the differential equation ,
d
d
2
bx ax
t
x
÷ =
where a and b are positive constants. Solve this equation, given that, when t = 0,
b
a
x
2
= .
Hence, express x in terms of t and deduce that the length of the leaf never exceeds the value
of
b
a
. Sketch the graph for length of leaf, x against time, t. [15 marks]
8 The equation x
3
– 12x + 1 = 0 has two positive roots, α and β, (α < β), and one negative
root.
(a) Prove that 0 < α < 1 and 3 < β < 4.
(b) Show that the iteration provided that > α will
converge to β and can be used to find the root β.
(c) Form another iteration that will converge to α.
(d) Use the NewtonRaphson method with 3.5 as a starting value to calculate β correct
to two decimal places. [15 marks]
********** END OF QUESTION PAPER **********
Prepared by: Checked by:
Catherine Chang
(Mr. Balasundaram a/l Kumarasamy)
954/2
*
NO Marking Scheme Marks Tota
l
1
The function f is defined by f(x) =
¹
´
¦
> + ÷
s ÷
3 , 2 3
3 , 3
2
2
x x x
x x x
. Find ( ) x f lim

3 x÷
and ( ) x f lim
3 x
+
÷
. Hence, determine whether ( ) x f lim
3 x÷
exists. Determine also
whether f is continuous at x = 0.
[6 marks]
( ) x f lim

3 x÷
=
2
3 x
3 lim

x x ÷
÷
= 0 and 2 3 lim
2
3 x
+ ÷
+
÷
x x = 2
Since ( ) x f lim

3 x÷
= ( ) x f lim
3 x
+
÷
,
( ) x f lim
3 x÷
does not exist.
( ) x f lim

0 x÷
=
2
0 x
3 lim

x x ÷
÷
= 0 and ( ) x f lim
0 x
+
÷
=
2
0 x
3 lim

x x ÷
÷
= 0
f(0) =
2
3 x x ÷ = 0
Since ( ) x f lim

0 x÷
= ( ) x f lim
0 x
+
÷
= f(0), and
( ) x f lim
0 x÷
exists,
f is continuous at x = 0.
B1, B1
Both: A1
B1
M1
A1
6
2
A curve has parametric equations y = , x = t . Find the
coordinates of the points on the curve where the gradient is zero, and, find
the equation of the tangent at the point where t = 2. [8
marks]
2
1
1
d
dy
t t
÷ = and
2
1
1
d
dx
t t
+ =
So
1
1
dx
dy
2
2
+
÷
=
t
t
When gradient is 0, t
2
 1 = 0, so t = ± 1.
Therefore, coordinates when gradient is 0 are (0 , 2) and (0 , 2).
When t = 2,
5
3
dx
dy
= ,
Equation of tangent is )
2
1
1 (
5
3
)
2
1
2 ( ÷ = ÷ x y
5y3x8 = 0 or y = (3/5)x + 8/5
M1
M1
M1
A1, A1
M1
M1
A1
8
3 Find the area bounded by the curves y
2
= 8x and y = x
2
. Find also the
volume of revolution generated when the area is rotated through four right
angles about the x axis.
[10 marks]
At point of intersection, (x
2
)
2
= 8x
x(x
3
– 8) = 0
x = 0 or x = 2
So, points of intersection are (0 , 0) and (2 , 4).
y
(2 , 4)
y
2
= 8x
0 x
y = x
2
Area = dx x
}
2
0
8  dx x
}
2
0
2
= dx x x ) 8 (
2
2
0
÷
}
=
2
0
3
2
3
3
1
)
3
2
( 8
(
¸
(
¸
÷ x x
=
3
8
unit
2
Volume =
}
2
0
8xdx t 
}
2
0
4
dx x t
=
}
÷
2
0
4
) 8 ( dx x x t
= π
2
0
5 2
5
1
4
(
¸
(
¸
÷ x x
=
5
48
π unit
3
B1, B1
D1, D1
M1
M1
A1
M1
M1
A1
10
4
Given that
x
y
d
d
= y sin 2x and that y = 1 when x = 0, find y in terms of x. [5
marks]
y
y
d
1
}
= x x d 2 sin
}
M1
A1
ln c x y + ÷ = 2 cos
2
1
Given x = 0, y = 1, so ln 1 =  ½ + c
c = ½
Therefore, ln
2
1
2 cos
2
1
+ ÷ = x y
= y ℮
x 2 cos
2
1
2
1
÷
or ℮
) 2 cos 1 (
2
1
x ÷
or ℮
x
2
sin
M1
M1
A1
5
5
Given that ; show that y
x
y
x
y
x = + +
d
d
2
d
d
) 1 ( 4
2
2
.
By further differentiation of this result or otherwise, show that the series
expansion for y in ascending powers of x up to the term x
4
is
, where k is a constant. [11
marks]
=
dx
dy
℮
x + 1
( )
(
¸
(
¸
+
÷
) 1 ( 1
2
1
2
1
x
=
x 1 2
1
+
℮
x + 1
=
2
2
dx
y d
2 x + 1 ℮
x + 1
( )
(
¸
(
¸
+
÷
) 1 ( 1
2
1
2
1
x  ℮
x + 1
( )
(
¸
(
¸
+
÷
) 1 ( 1 )
2
1
( 2 2
1
x
4(1+x)
= ℮
x + 1
 ℮
x + 1
/ x + 1
4(1+x)
=
) 1 ( 4
2
x
dx
dy
y
+
÷
4(1+x)
2
2
dx
y d
+2 =
dx
dy
y (shown) (1)
Differentiate (1), 4 ( )
(
¸
(
¸
+ + ) 1 ( 1
2
2
3
3
dx
y d
dx
y d
x + 2 =
2
2
dx
y d
dx
dy
4 ( )
(
¸
(
¸
+
3
3
1
dx
y d
x =
dx
dy
 2
2
2
dx
y d
 4
2
2
dx
y d
4 ( )
(
¸
(
¸
+
3
3
1
dx
y d
x =
dx
dy
 6
2
2
dx
y d
(2)
) 1 ( 4
6
2
2
3
3
x
dx
y d
dx
dy
dx
y d
+
÷
=
M1
M1
M1
A1
M1
Differentiate (2), 4 ( )
(
¸
(
¸
+ + ) 1 ( 1
3
3
4
4
dx
y d
dx
y d
x =
2
2
dx
y d
 6
3
3
dx
y d
) 1 ( 4
10
3
3
2
2
4
4
x
dx
y d
dx
y d
dx
y d
+
÷
=
Let f(x) = y, so f(0) = ℮ , f’(0) = ℮/2, f ‘’(0) = 0, f’’’ (0) = ℮/8 , f’’’’
(0) =
16
5 ÷
℮
Therefore,
= ℮ + ½ ℮x +0 +
8
1
℮


.

\

! 3
3
x
+
16
5 ÷
℮


.

\

! 4
4
x
+…
So ,
where k is
384
5 ÷
.
M1
M1
B1
M1
A1
A1
11
6
The diagram shows the parts of the graph of
x
y
+
=
1
1
between x = 0 and x
= 1.
The four trapeziums drawn under the curve are of equal width, and their
total area is an approximation to the area under the curve from x = 0 and x
= 1. Calculate this approximation to the area under the curve, giving 3
significant figures in your answer.
Determine whether this approximation is an overestimation or under
estimation of the exact area under the curve, stating your reason. [5
marks]
x 0 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00
y=
1/(1+x)
1 4/5 2/3 4/7 1/2
h = ¼
Area =
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

+ + + +

.

\

7
4
3
2
5
4
2
2
1
1
4
1
2
1
= 0.697
This approximation is an overestimation
because the curve concaves upwards in the interval [0 , 1].
B1
M1
A1
Both B2
or zero
5
7 The length x , of a certain leaf, at time t (during a period of its growth) is
proportional to the amount of water it contains. It may be assumed that
during this period the leaf is square in shape. The leaf absorbs water from
the plant at a rate proportional to the length of the leaf and loses water by
evaporation at a rate proportional to the area of the leaf. Show that the
growth of the leaf can be represented by the differential equation
,
d
d
2
bx ax
t
x
÷ = where a and b are positive constants. Solve this equation,
given that, when t = 0,
b
a
x
2
= . Hence, express x in terms of t and deduce
that the length of the leaf never exceeds the value of
b
a
. Sketch the graph
for length of leaf, x against time, t. [15 marks]
Absorption of water α length, x
Loss of water α area, x
2
Given that length, x at time t α amount of water contained,
So, growth of leaf,
t
x
d
d
α absorption – loss of water
Therefore, ,
d
d
2
bx ax
t
x
÷ = where a and b are positive constants.
dx
1
2 }
÷bx ax
= t d
}
Let ÷
÷ ) (
1
bx a x
+
x
A
bx a
B
÷
,
1 = A(abx) + B(x)
Taking x = 0, A = 1/a and Taking x = a/b, B = b/a.
So, dx
1
2 }
÷bx ax
= t d
}
becomes
dx
) ( ax
1
} (
¸
(
¸
÷
+
bx a a
b
= t d
}
x
a
ln
1
 ) ln(
1
bx a
a
÷ = t + c
Given when t = 0,
b
a
x
2
= , so c =
b a
1
ln
1
Therefore, x
a
ln
1
 ) ln(
1
bx a
a
÷ = t +
b a
1
ln
1
Both: B1
M1
A1
M1
M1
A1
M1
M1
M1
) (
ln
1
bx a
bx
a ÷
= t
bx
bx a ÷
= ℮
at
a
bx
= 1/(1+℮
at
)
X =
b
a
[1/(1+℮
at
)].
When t ∞ , ℮
at
0, so x a/b.
Therefore, the length of leaf never exceed
b
a
.
x
b
a
b
a
2
0 t
M1
A1
M1
A1
D1 for
shape.
D1 for
both a/b
line &
a/2b
15
8 The equation x
3
– 12x + 1 = 0 has two positive roots, α and β, (α < β), and
one negative root.
(e) Prove that 0 < α < 1 and 3 < β < 4.
(f) Show that the iteration
provided that > α will converge to β and can be used to find the
root β.
(g) Form another iteration that will converge to α.
(h) Use the NewtonRaphson method with 3.5 as a starting value to
calculate β correct to two decimal places. [15 marks]
a) Let f(x) = x
3
– 12x + 1
f(0) = 1 and f(1) = 10
There is a change in sign.
So there is a root between 0 and 1.
f(3) = 8 and f(4) = 17
Opposite signs. So there is a root between 3 and 4.
Given root α < β, proven that 0 < α < 1 and 3 < β < 4
b) x
3
– 12x + 1 = 0
x
3
= 12x  1
x =
3
1
) 1 12 ( ÷ x
M1
A1
M1
A1
B1
So, F(x) =
F’(x) =
3
2
) 1 12 (
4
÷ x
F’(3.5) = 0.34 (less than 1)
Since
) ( ' x F
< 1, and
> α,
the iteration
will converge to β
and can be used to find the root β.
c) From x
3
– 12x + 1 = 0
x
3
+ 1 = 12x
x =
12
1
3
+ x
F(x) = xn+1 =
12
1
3
+
n
x
F’(x) =
4
2
x
F’(0.5) = 0.06 (less than 1)
Since
) ( ' x F
< 1,
the iteration xn+1 =
12
1
3
+
n
x
will converge to α..
d) Let f(x) = x
3
– 12x + 1
f’(x) = 3x
2
– 12
Using NewtonRaphson and taking x0 = 3.5, x1 = 3.5 
75 . 24
875 . 1
= 3.424
x1 = 3.424 
171 . 23
0542 . 0
= 3.422
Therefore, β is 3.42 correct to 2 decimal places.
M1
M1
A1
B1
M1
A1
M1
M1
M1
A1
15
Prepared by: Chang SS, Catherine
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