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The Definition of Cross Polarization

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TABLE I

CONPARISON OF CALCULATED E, FOR FRILL WITH a =0.003X AND b =0.005X ALONG 45 LINE

z =p(in X) Improved Form (14) Numerical Different.iation [l, eq. (12)]

0.0005

0.0015

0 .W25

0.0035

0.0045

0.0055

0.0065

0.0075

0.0085

0,0095

0,2047159302 - jO.10292763 -

0.1688536EO2 - j0.1029251E -

0,9610034EOl - j0.10301923 -

0,4387174301 - j0.10314203 -

0.2015982EOl - j0.10326333 -

0.1019608EOl - j0.1032623E -

0.5716718300 - j0.1029731E -

0.3493902300 - jO.102935OE -

0.2285606300 - jO.10274983 -

0.1576996300 - jO.10281123 -

03

03

03

03

03

03

03

03

03

03

0.2046579302 - j0.11196733 - 03

0.9614460E01 - j0.10498563 - 03

0.4387884301 - i o. 10376903 - 03

0.168847OE02 - jO.10449823 - 03

0.571536136fl - > 0 ; 1031028E - 03

0.3491055EOO - j0.1038956E - 03

~.~

0,2286559300 - jO.10374563 - 03

0.1576202EOO - jO.10357463 - 03

Substitution of (8) and (9) into (7) and replacement of aR/a&

and aR/ap by their respective equivalents,

- -

aR ppr .

a+

- - x sln (+- +)

and

reduce E, to

E. - 1 / [: A[exp ( - j kR)

4~In @/ a) +,=,, aR R 1

I n (12), the term in t,he braces is recognized to be aR/ap; hence,

E, simpmes to

whose integrand is an exact differential with respect to p and which

, becomes

-1 exp ( -jkR)

E, =

4a In @/ a) ll[ R

(14)

Equation (14) i s exact and applies for all observation points not

on the frill proper, but unlike [l, eq. (12)], no numerical differentia-

.tion is required. This results in increased efficiency and accuracy

since only a simple numerical integration is now needed. Equat,ion

(14) reduces readily to the axial form (limp + 0) given earlier

i n [l, eq. (25)]. A comparison of the calculated E, using both (14)

and the numerical differentiation form of [l, eq. (12)] is of interest

and is presented in Table I. Fields are observed along a 45 line

( p =z) for increasing p where one notices that the agreement is

qui te close. Equation (14) is found to be much more efficient, its

evaluation requiring approximately one-tenth the computer time

needed for [l, eq. (12)].

The simpliiication thus achieved for the computation of El is

perhaps somexhat fortuitous in t,hat. the same procedure does not

reduce the complexity for calculat.ing E,. Thus the numerical

differentiation process given in [l] is still needed for the computa

tion of E,. However, the simpler form for E, in (14) can certainly

be employed to good advantage in a study of ground-plane mounted

antennas, part.icularly, in an analysis of arrays of parallel monopoles

such as the Yagi-Uda and log-periodic antennas, =-here the only

knowledge needed of the excitation from the primary frill drive

is the z component of elect.ric field E, on the wire elements.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors acknowledge a reviewers suggestion which rendered

the above development more direct. Also, t,hey wish to mention,

as was pointed out to t.hem by Prof. B. IC. Park, that. (14) can be

obt.ained in a formal manner by employing several vector ident,ii?es,

symmetry properties of R, and Stokes theorem.

REFEREWCES

L. L. Tsai A numerical solution for the near and far flelds of an

annular ri& of magnetic currentL I EEE Trans. Antennas Propaget.,

vol. AP-20, pp. 56+576, Sept. 19r2.

The Definition of Cross Polarization

ARTHUR C. LUDWIG

Abstract-There are at least three different definitions of cross

polarization used in the literature. The alternative definitions are

discussed with respect to several applications, and the definition

which corresponds to one standard measurement practice is proposed

as the best choice.

L

The use of orthogonal polarization to provide two communications

channels for each frequency band has led to int.erest in the-

. It is a surprising fact t.hat there is

no universally accepted definition of cross polarization at the

present, and at least t,hree different definitions have been used either

explicitly or implicitly in the literature. The IEEE standard [l]

definition i s The polarizat,ion orthogonal to a reference polariza

tion. For circular polarization this is adequate, but for linear or

elliptical polarizat.ion the direct,ion of the reference polarization

must still be defined.

We dl first. briefly present the definitions known to t,he author.

Only the case of nominally linear poIarization will be considered

since t.he extension to elliptical polarization is straightforward. The

three alternative definitions are: 1) in a rectangular coordinate

system, one unit vector is taken as the direction of the reference

polarization, and another as t.he direction of cross polarization [2];

2) in a spherical coordinate syst.em the same thing is done using

the unit vectors tangent to a spherical surface [a:, [4]; and 3)

reference and cross polarization are defined to be what one measures

when antenna patterns are taken in the usual manner [2, pp.

P

work was support.ed by the European Space Research and Technolo,-

Manuscript received May 30, 1972; revised August 3, 19i 2. This

Centre.

The author mas ~ t h t.he Laborat,ory of Electromagnet,ic Theory,

Technical Unirersity of Denmark. He is now with the J et Propulsion

Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif. 91103.

1

557-5641] [ 5] . These cases, which will be defined more precisely,

are illust.rated in Fig. 1.

TWO different cases in which cross polarization is of interest may

be distinguished: 1) describing the secondary radiation pat,tern of

a complete antenna system, and 2) describing the source or primary

field distribut.ion. I n the h t case, it is desirable to have a dehi -

tion which applies for all pattern angles, and which is easily related

to channel interference, or ot.her requirements such as ensuring

that 5xe. nsidelobe specifica-

tion. I n t.he second case, i t is desirable t.o have a simple relationship

between source cross polarization and secondary pat.tern polariza-

tion. A second common application is t,he calculation of antenna

feed or aperture illumination efficiencv, where cross polarization

must be included as a gain loss factor [SI. I n t.his case, "cross

polarizat.ion" really means fields which are antisymmetric in the

aperture and therefore do not contribute to radiation on-axis.

So i t is desirable that the definit,ion be consistent with t,his usage

also.

We wi l lnow express the three definitions precisely and in terms

of the same antenna pat,tern coordinate system as ijlustrat.e_d in

Fig. 1. This will be done by deriving unit vectors &f and imoB8

such that

*

E. & =the reference polarization component, of E

*

E-i,,.. =the cross polarization component of E. (1)

Definition 1 is a t.rivia1 case with

* * h *

=zy =sin e sin +i, +cos e sin +i s +cos $ i4

ieross~l) =i, =sin e cos 4 i, +cos e cos 6 is - si n+i+. (2)

For the second case, the polarization unit vectors are defined in

a system of rectangular and spherical coordinates related to the

system shown in Fig. 1 by

.?

n * * * A

- - -

x = x y = z z = - y . (3)

Then, by definition 2, we have

It should be noted that these equations depend on t.he choice of the

relative orientation of the pattern and polarization co0rdinat.e

systems. There are really two cases of definition 2 obtained by

interchanging the subscripts ref and cross in (4). If this interchange

is made in dehitions 1 or 3, one obtains a result equivalent to

rotating the coordinate system by 90" about the z axis (neglecting

unimportant sign changes), but this is not true for definition 2.

It is straightforward to show that

A

irsf(2) (e,+) . i ref ( z) (e,+ +goo)

117

TOP DIRECTION OF THE REFERENCE POLARIZATION

BOTTOM: DIRECTION OF THE CROSS POLARI ZATI ON

DEFINITION 1

L Y

DEFINITION 2 DEFINITION 3

t y

Fig. 1. Alternat,e polarizat.ion definition.

I-PLBNE

a' 90

Fig. 2. Antenna pattern measurement syst.em.

- .

-. r

I .

I - ~

The third dehit,ion is simple in practice, but tricky to formulate

precisely. The pattern measurement met.hod that will be described

is probably the one most commonly useb by antenna engineers.

It is sometimes presented as a standarq'method for testing feeds

or small aperture antennas, [ Z, pp. 55i,L564], [ i ] , but it can also

be used for large antennas. I n the terf;inology used by Scientific-

Atlanta, this method may be impleme$ted by mounting the antenna

being tested, shorrn at t,he origin of the system as illustrated in

Fig. 2, on a model tower or an elivation-over-azimuth PO, citioner

with an auxiliary polarization _ax& bS]. The elevation angle is always

zero (z asi s horizontal) so this ax& is actually not required. Each

pattern cut begins at e =0, where the polarization axis is used to

set t.he pat,tern cut angle +by rot.ating the antenna being tested

about the z axis. The probe is rotated about its axis by a second

polarizat,ion positioner to align the probe polarizat.ion parallel to

the polarization of the antenna being tested for a principal polariza-

tion pattern, or orthogonal to the polarizat.ion of the antenna being

tested for a cross polarizat.ion pattern. Note t.hat t.he orientation

of the polarization of the antenna being tested, at t.he point e =0,

is the basic polarizat.ion reference direction by definition. Then a

pattern is taken by varying 0 by rotating in azimuth. This is equiv-

alent to the probe t,raversing a great circle as illustrated in Fig. 2.

The probe remains fixed about its axi s so it retains the_same relative

orientation 1vit.h respect to the unit vectors io and io. Therefore,

the measured pattern is given by

M( e ) =E(B,$) - (si n p i s +cos

( 6)

118 IEEE TRA?YSACTIONS OK ANTENXAS AND PROPAGATIOX, JASUARI' 1973

TABLE I

SOURCE CURREKT CONTRIBUTIOKS TO RADIATED PaTTERN CROSS POLARI ZATI ON

Source Contribution to Secondary Pattern Cross Polarization

Polarization

Current

Definition 1 Definition 2 Definition 3

I - sin2 e cos2 +

where E (e,+) is the field of the transmitting antenna, and the pattern

cut angle +and probe polarization angle ,9 are fixzd for a given

pattern. For a transmitted field polarized in the i, direction at

e =0, this alignment procedure leads to B =+for a reference

polarization pattern R(e,+) and 6 =+f 90" for a cross polarized

pattern C (e,+). Therefore, ignoring unimportant sign differences,

The procedure defined in the preceding makes i t easy to

avoid which is 2 severe pit.fall

in cro show this, suppose that,

0 =(++90") +E. Then from (6) and (7)

M( e ) =c(e,+) cos E - R(e, +) sin e. (9)

To illustrate what this means in practice, suppose t,hat t,he true

cross polarization is negligible, but -alignment of e =1.5" is

present. Then one would measure a "cross polarized" pattern which

is actually the reference polarization pattern suppressed by

of these definitions, it is

necessary to relate the polarization of source currents J to t.he

polarizabion of the radiated pattern E( &+) , which is given by [9]

where

and the undefined terms are unimportant for present purposes.

I n order to directly relate the components of J at any point to the

components of F at any pat,tern angle, it is necessary to use unit

vectors which do not vary as a function of either the pattern co-

ordinates or t.he int.egration coordinates; the only apparent choice

is rect,angular unit. vectors. Then the 2, y, and z components of

J are uniquely related to the 2, y, and z components of F, respectively.

However, the components of F and E do not have such a simple

relation. From (loa) it can be found that they are coupled by a

Similar factors relating the source current polarizat.ion to the

radiated pattern cross polarization, for all three definit.ions, are

given in Table I. It is seen that in all cases the d_ominant cause of

cross polarization is the i, source currents. The io source current

contribution to cross polarization is syppressed by a factor which

is in excess of 52 dB for e <4". The i, contribution is suppressed

by a factor which is inezcess of 23 dB for 0 <4O. Therefore, i t is

reasonable to define t,he i, component as the cross polarized source

currents, and t o_ use the common terminology of longitudinal

currents for the i, component to distinguish t,he fact that it is a

far less seri_ous source of secondary pattern cross polarization. Of

course, the currents are the reference polarization currents.

Now we will compare the three definitions. Since the far-field

fields of any antenna are tangent to a spherical surface, it is im-

mediately apparent. that. definition 1 is fundamentally inappropriate

for these applications. However, as noted above, i t is the only

apparent. definition which applies to the case of source currents.

Definitions 2 and 3 involve unit vectors t.angent to a sphere SO they

are appropriate for the case of primary or secondary fields. For

evaluating secondary pat.terns for the applicat,ion of orthogonal

channels, we postu1at.e the following ideal case: the transmitting

antenna has two ports, which radiate two patterns that are orthog-

onal at every pattern angle in the coverage region. Clearly, it. is

then possible to receive the two channels without. any interference

anywhere in t.he coverage region (in fact, this is far easier than the

transmit problem since the receiving antenna must be free of cross

polarizat,ion only very close to its &xis). Sow, since any field is

everywhere orthogonal to some other field, t.his still leaves the

"perfect?' pattern undefined. A logical choice is a pattern which is

orthogonal to itself after a 90" rotation about the z axis. This is

also a realistic choice since it corresponds to adding an orthomode

t.ransducer to an otherwise circularly symmet.ric antenna. A pattern

with no cross polarizat.ion by definitions 1 or 3 sat.isfy this require-

ment; t.his is not true for definition 2 as shown by (5), and as I

previously pointed out by Kreutel and Di Fonzo [4].

For relating source current distributions to secondary patterns,

it is logical that a perfect source distribut.ion radiat,e a perfect

pattern; only definition 2 is compatible with this requirement, as

shown in Table I.

For evaluating primary feed patterns for paraboloidal reflectors

a logical requirement is that a perfect feed cause a perfect surface

Y

1

119

current distribution. By definition 2 an inhitesmial electric dipole

pattern contains no cross polarkation (if the subscripts ref and cross

are reversed in definition 2, an infinitesimal magnetic dipole is

perfect,). However, it is well knom that this feed causes substantial

cross polarization [lo]. This question has also been treated in an

excellent paper by Iioffman [ll], where it is shown that a necessary

and sufficient condit.ion for zero cross polarized surface currents is

Ea COS C =E+ si n9. (12)

From (8) i t can be seen that t.his is identically equivalent to dehi -

tion 3. Koffman gives an example of a Huygens source as satisfying

(12). It is also possible to show that a physically circular feed with

equal E- and H-plane amplit,ude and phase patterns is also perfect

by this definition [SI. From (2) it may be seen that a perfect feed

by definition 1 does not satisfy (12) either, so only definition 3

satisfies thk requirement.

Finally, it. has been previously shown by the author [SI that a

feed with no cross polarization by definition 3 is optimum from the

viewpoint. of antenna aperture efficiency. Again, this is not true for

either definition 1 or 2.

From the preceding discussion, it is clear that definit.ion 1 is the

proper choice for describing source current polarizations. It is the

authors opinion that dehition 3 is the best choice for describing

antenna patterns. The only disadvantage of definition 3 is its

imperfect relationship with the source current definition. However,

this point is muddled in any case by t,he existence of longit.udina1

source currents. Definition 2 has the disadvantage of two perfect

secondary patterns rotated 90 with respect to each other not

being ort.hogona1, t.he serious point that a perfect primary pattern

can produce a very poor secondary pattern, and its incompatibility

wit.h feed efficiency usage.

As an illustration of how definition 2 can be misleading, it may

be noted that the cross polarized currents on a paraboloid illuminated

by an infinitesimal electric dipole are frequently attributed to the

reflector curvature. As a result, it is widely accepted that increasing

the reflector f / D ratio substantially reduces cross polarization [l2].

By definition 3, an electric dipole has substantial cross polarization

which increases rapidly with increasing pattern angle (i.e., as the

E- and H-plane edge illuminat.ions diverge). A paraboloid with

lower f / D subtends a larger pattern angle, and this is the reason

that, the cross polarization in the secondary pattern becomes worse.

If the E- and H-plane edge illumination is held constant it is not

difficult to show that the cross polarized currents are actually

zkdependent of t.he f/D ratio. Also, for certain practical feeds it has

been pointed out that cross polarizat.ion may actually increase with

increasing f / D [4]. The f / D ratio does effect the longitudinal cur-

rents, and also can have an effect in the case of defocused feeds,

but m-ith a proper definition i t is seen that secondary pattern cross

polarization is far less dependent on the f / D ratio than it seems

from definition 2.

BCKSOWLEDGMENT

The author would like to acknowledge several interesting dis-

cussions on this topic with D. C. Patel of the European Space

Research and Technology Centre.

REFERENCES

[l] IEEE standard deftnitions of terms for ante- I EEE Trans.

Antennas Propagat., vol. AP-17, pp. 262-269, May1969.

[2] S. Silver, Mtcrozcaze Antenna Theory and Destgn. New York:

McGraw-Rill, 1949, pp. 423, and 557-564;,

131 V. P. Narbut and S. S. Khmelnitskaya Polarizat.ion st.ructure of

radiation from axisymmetrlc reflectoi antennas, Radio Eng.

141 D. F. Di Fonzo and R. Tir. Feutei, Communications satellite

Electron. Phys., vol. 15, pp. 1786-1796 1970.

antennas for frequency reuse, presented at G-AP Int. Symp.,

paper 12-1. Sept. 1971.

[SI J . D. Kraus, An p n a s . Xew York: McC+~aw-Hill. 1950. ch. 15.

[61 -4. C. Ludwig Antenna feed efficiency J et Prop. Lab., Calif.

Inst. Technol..Pasadena, Space Programs Summary 37-26, vol. IV,

PP. 200-208. 1965.

I71 Test rocedures for antennas, IEEE Publ. So . 149, J an. 1065.

181J. S. gollis, T. J . Lyon, and L. Clayt,on. Microware antenna

measurements, Scientific-Atlanta, Inc., Atlanta. Ga., Tech. Rep.,

1970.

[9] W V T Rusch and P. D Potter Analysis of Refledor Antennas.

New Yoi k: Academic Press, 1970, b. 44.

[lo] E, M . T. J ones, Paraboloid reflector and hyperboloid lens anten-

J uly 1954.

nas, IRE Trans. Antennas Propagat., 701. AP-2, PP. 119-127,

1111I. KoEman, Feed polarization for parallel currents in reflectors

generated by conic sections, I EEE Trans. Antennas Propagat.,

vol. AP-14, pp. 37-40, J an. 1966.

[12] R. E. Collin and F. J. Zucker, Antenna Theory. New York:

McGraw-Eill, 1969, part. 2, p. 44.

Distortion of Electromagnetic Pulses Undergoing Total

Internal Reflection from a Moving Dielectric-Half-space

I. RATTAN, 9. K. CHAKRAVARTI, AND G. D. GAUTAMA

Abstract-Using the covariance of Maxwells equations and the

phase invariance principle of plane waves, distortion of the electro-

magnetic pulses undergoing total internal reflection from a moving

dielectric half-space has been studied. It is concluded that the

distortion of the reflected pulse depends strongly upon the velocity,

direction of motion, and angle of incidence.

I n recent years, much concern has been shown to the reflection

and transmission of electromagnetic waves by moving media

because of its direct relevance t.0 t.he problems of current interest,

vis., satellite communications and reent,ry vehicles etc. With the

plane monochromatic wave propagation problem practically re-

solved, i t is wort.hwhile to investigate the more practical problem

of reflection of pulses from these media. I n this communication,

the distortion of electromagnetic pulses undergoing total internal

reflection from a moving dielectric half-space is st,udied.

Since an electromagnetic pulse can be thought of as the super-

position of plane electromagnetic waves, Yehs [l] treatment for

moving dielectric half-space for studying reflection of electromagnetic

waves can be carefully extended t.0 this case, using Fourier analysis

technique.

Let the pulse be incident, from the denser medium side z <0

to t,he rarer medium side z >0. If Ei ( t ) represents the incident

pulse which is impinging at an angle e, >sin- (s?/Q) at, the boundary

z =0, where and a, are the permittivities of the rarer and denser

media, respectively, we have

where g* (a) is complex conjugate of g ( w)

1

t i =- (&x +kg - w t )

Rz =b sin eo

t, =-ko COS e,

Ro =w (I.lol)Z

w

and e, is also the angle between propagation vector k and positive

z axis in zz plane.

The amplitude of the spectral component g(w) is given by inverse

Fourier transform of Ei (t i ) as

Manuscript received Xay 31, 1972. This work was supported by the

U.S. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration and the

Indian CSIR.

The authors are with the Department of Physics, Indian Institute

of Technology, New Delhi-29, India.

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