Respiratory System

Chapter 8
D. Safa
- Sara Subhi
Respiratory system

Main function:

1. Gas exchange (getting oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide)

2. Vocalization "produce sound": such as speech

3. The respiratory system contains olfactory membrane that
function in detecting odors (smelling)

4. Helps in getting rid off excess body heat

5. Maintains the PH balance

6. Plays a role in homeostasis

Respiration includes:

1. Breathing (ventilation): movement of air in and
out of lung (inspiration and expiration)

2. External (pulmonary) respiration: exchange of
gases between air and blood in the lung

3.Internal respiration: exchange of gases
between blood and tissue fluid

4.Cellular respiration: calls use O2 for production
of ATP
Components of respiratory
system

See Table figure (8-1)

Respiratory airways:

A. Air conducting portion:

Nasal cavity, oral cavity

Pharynx (throat)

Larynx (voice box)

Trachea (windpipe)

Bronchi (2)

Bronchioles (many)

B. Gas exchange portion:

Alveoli of lungs


With each branching they
become smaller and more
numerous
Inspiration Expiration

The respiratory system in direct contact with
external environment

- It is susceptible to infectious organisms and
pollutant particles

During the passage of air in the conducting portion,
it is filtered, moistened and wormed

A. Filtered:

By coarse hair, cilia, and mucus

Some fine toxic particulates can penetrate lung causing cancer

Bacteria and viruses can also penetrate lung causing infection

B. Warmed:

By heat given off by capillaries beneath respiratory epithelium

C. Moistened:

By wet surface as the moisture released from capillaries into the
air
A. Nasal cavity (!"#$% &'()*+%)


It transports air to the
pharynx(,(-./+%)
B. Pharynx(throat)


Funnel-shaped structure that opens into nose and
mouth

Common passage for food& air
• The entrance to the larynx (01)23+%)
C. Larynx (voice box)

Rigid hollow made of cartilage

Located at the top of the trachea

Has vocal cords (two folds of tissue that contain
elastic bands) which vibrate to produces sounds

During swallowing larynx rises, epiglottis acts as
trap door and covers glottis (gap between vocal
cords) preventing food from entering trachea
D. Trachea (wind pipe)

It extends from larynx and branches to 2 bronchi (left
and right)

It is supported and held opened by rings of hyaline
cartilage

It is lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar
epithelium

If food enters the larynx, coughing reflex helps to eject
food from trachea quickly or suffocation (452*67%) may
occur
E. Bronchi

They are supported by hyaline
cartilage

Inside each lung, each
bronchus branches into a great
number of small bronchioles
F. Bronchioles

The narrowest smallest branches that lead to
alveoli

Their wall consist largely of smooth muscles so can
open and close to control air flow in the lung
G. Alveoli

They are sacs surrounded by
blood capillaries

Alveoli provide huge surface area
for gas exchange

Gas exchange is a passive
process occur by simple diffusion

What is the specific type of tissue
of alveolar wall?

Simple Squamous epithelium
Respiratory membrane

It is very thin, moist and highly vascular

It has a very large surface area
H. Lungs

Many millions of alveoli make up the lungs

Two cone-shaped gas exchange organs

Soft, spongy, and elastic

Found inside the ribcage (chest) to the left and right of the
heart above the diaphragm
• The diaphragm(8953+% :5)3+%) is a dome-shaped muscular
partition separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities

Lung are enclosed by pleura (pleural membrane)
Inspiration and expiration
(Respiratory cycle)

Human breaths automatically about 16 times/min

Respiratory cycle (breathing, ventilation) consist of 2 phases:

A. Inspiration (inhalation): a single breath of air drawn into the air
way

B. Expiration (exhalation): a single breath out

Inspiration is active process controlled by nerve impulse but
expiration is passive process
A. Inspiration (inhalation)

The diaphragm contracts, flattens and
moves down

The intercostal muscle between ribs
also contract, the ribcage moves
upward and outward

The chest expands, the lung volume
increases

The air pressure inside lungs
(intrapulmonary) lowers

Air follows the pressure gradient and
moves into the alveoli
B. Expiration (exhalation)

The diaphragm relaxes and resumes
its domed shape

The intercostals muscle relax and the
ribcage moves downward and inward

The lung volume decreases

The intrapulmonary pressure
increases

The lung recoil forcing air out
Measurement of air flow in the
lung (lung capacities, volumes)

The vital capacity: the maximum volume of air that can move out of
the lungs after deepest inhalation

Residual volume: the amount of air remaining in the lungs, after a
forced (deepest) expiration ~ 1200 ml

The tidal volume: amount of air flowing into or out of the lungs during
normal (passive) breathing

Inspiratory reserve volume: the amount of air that can be drawn more
than the tidal volume during deep (forcible) inhalation

Expiratory reserve volume: the ................ Exhalation
Control of breathing

Breathing is controlled by:

1. Breathing center in medulla oblongata (part of
brain stem)

It acts as pacemaker sends periodic nerve
impulses stimulate inhalation by causing periodic
contraction of the diaphragm and intercostal
muscles

When the lung is full, impulses cease (stop),
muscle relaxes, air is forced out of the lung

2. Other factors: (affect the breathing center, then breathing
range)

A. Chemical receptors for CO2 in brain and arteries like aorta
and carotid arteries: detect CO2 level and send an impulse
to breathing center to increase or decrease depth and rate of
breathing

B. Stretch receptors in the lung: function only during exercise
when large volume of air is moved in and out of the lung.
When the lungs is full send an impulse to breathing center to
stop firing

C. Oxygen receptors: not sensitive as others. O2 must fall
considerably before generating impulse that increase
breathing