CRIME AGAINST WOMEN

CONTENTS
1. Introduction 1
2. Meaning of Crime/Violence against Women
1
3. Constitutional and Legal Provisions for Women 2
- Constitutional Provision 2
- Legal Provisions 3
4. Classification Crime gainst Women 4
- Crimes under Indian Penal Code 4
- Crimes under !"ecial and Local La#s $
- %e"orted Incidents of Crime &
- Crime gainst Women in Cities 13
'. !e(ual )arassment Cases *ealt #it+, I% to )C
-. International Initiatives to Cur. /ender Violence 14
-. 0ational Initiatives to Cur. /ender Violence 1'
$. Verma Committee %e"ort 1-
1. Conclusion 1$
&. nne(ures 1&
1
2
CRIME AGAINST WOMEN
1. INTRODUCTION
In t+e ancient Indian #omen +eld a +ig+ "lace of res"ect in t+e societ2 as mentioned
in Rigveda and ot+er scri"tures. Volumes can .e #ritten a.out t+e status of our #omen and
t+eir +eroic deeds from t+e vedic "eriod to t+e modern times. 3ut later on, .ecause of social,
"olitical and economic c+anges, #omen lost t+eir status and #ere relegated to t+e
.ac4ground. Man2 evil customs and traditions ste""ed in #+ic+ enslaved
t+e #omen and tied t+em to t+e .oundaries of t+e +ouse
1
.
5+e official statistics s+o#ed a declining se(-ratio, +ealt+ status, literac2 rate, #or4
"artici"ation rate and "olitical "artici"ation among #omen. W+ile on t+e ot+er +and t+e
s"read of social evils li4e do#r2 deat+s, c+ild marriage, domestic violence, ra"e, se(ual
+arassment, e("loitation of #omen #or4ers are ram"ant in different "arts of India.
)umiliation, ra"e, 4idna""ing, molestation, do#r2 deat+, torture, #ife-.eating etc. +ave
gro#n u" over t+e 2ears
2
.
2. MEANING OF CRIME / VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN
“5+e !emantic meaning of „crime against #omen‟ is direct or indirect "+2sical or mental
cruelt2 to #omen. Crimes #+ic+ are „directed s"ecificall2 against #omen‟ and in #+ic+
„onl2 #omen are victims‟ are c+aracteri6ed as „Crime gainst Women‟
3
.
It is e7uall2 im"ortant to clarif2 t+e conce"t of „Violence‟ against #omen. Violence is
also 4no#n as a.use and include an2 sort of "+2sical aggression or mis.e+ave. W+en
3
violence is committed at +ome it .ecomes domestic violence and involves famil2 mem.ers
suc+ as c+ildren, s"ouse, "arents or servants. *omestic violence ma2 involve different means
suc+ as +itting, 4ic4ing, .iting, s+oving, restraining, t+ro#ing o.8ects. In .road terms, it
includes t+reats, se(ual a.use, emotional a.use, controlling or domineering,
1
Violence and Protective Measures for Women *evelo"ment and 9m"o#erment .2 runa
/oel, 0e# *el+i, *ee" : *ee" Pu.lications, 2;;4, "". 3-4
2
Violence against Women and C+ildren-Issues and Concerns, 32 #ad+es+ <umar
!ing+ and
=a2anta C+oud+ur2, 0e# *el+i, !erials Pu.lications, 2;12, ".1
3
I.id, ".2
intimidation, stal4ing, "assive/covert a.use and economic de"rivation, ra"e, a.duction,
4idna""ing, murder >all cases of criminal violence, do#r2 deat+, #ife .attering, se(ual
a.use, maltreatment of a #ido# and for an elderl2 #omen >all cases of domestic violence?
and eve-teasing, forcing #ife/daug+ter-in-la# to go for foeticide, forcing a 2oung #ido# to
commit sati, etc >all cases of social violence?, are issues #+ic+ affect a large section of
societ2
4
.
5+e @nited 0ations defined “Violence against Women” in 1&&3 in *eclaration on t+e
9limination of Violence against Women. It defines it as an2 act of gender-.ased violence
t+at results in, or is li4el2 to result in, "+2sical, se(ual or "s2c+ological +arm or suffering to
#omen, including t+reats of suc+ acts, coercion or ar.itrar2 de"rivation of li.ert2, #+et+er
occurring in "u.lic or "rivate life
'
.
3. CONSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL PROVISION FOR WOMEN
5+e "rinci"le of gender e7ualit2 is ens+rined in t+e Indian Constitution in its
Pream.le, Aundamental %ig+ts, Aundamental *uties and *irective Princi"les.
4
5+e Constitution not onl2 grants e7ualit2 to #omen, .ut also em"o#ers t+e !tate to ado"t
measures of "ositive discrimination in favour of #omen for neutrali6ing t+e cumulative
socio economic, education and "olitical disadvantages faced .2 t+em. Wit+in t+e
frame#or4 of a democratic "olit2, our la#s, develo"ment "olicies, Plans and "rogrammes
+ave aimed at #omen‟s advancement in different s"+eres. India +as also ratified various
international conventions and +uman rig+ts instruments committing to secure e7ual rig+ts of
#omen. <e2 among t+em is t+e ratification of t+e Convention on 9limination of ll Aorms
of *iscrimination gainst Women >C9*W? in 1&&3
-
.
Constitutiona P!o"isions #o! $o%&n a!& as un'&!(
B rticle 14, confers on men and #omen e7ual rig+ts and o""ortunities in "olitical,
economic and social s"+ere.
4
I.id, 2;12, "".2-3
'
Violence gainst Women in India 32 /urua""a 0aidu, 0e# *el+i, !erials Pu.lications,
2;11, ". 23
-
India, Ministr2 of !tatistics and "rogramme Im"lementation, Women and Men in India
2;12, 14
t+
Issue, ". (iii
5
B rticle 1', "ro+i.its, discrimination against an2 citi6en on grounds of religion, race, caste,
se( etc.
B rticle 1-, "rovides for e7ualit2 of o""ortunities matters relating to em"lo2ment or
a""ointment to an2 office under t+e state.
B rticle 3&>a?>d?, mentions "olic2 securit2 of state e7ualit2 for .ot+ men and #omen t+e
rig+t to a means of liveli+ood and e7ual "a2 for e7ual #or4 for .ot+ men and #omen.
B rticle 42, *irect t+e !tate to ma4e "rovision for ensuring 8ust and +umane
conditions of #or4 and maternit2 relief.
L&)a P!o"isions #o! $o%&n a!& as un'&!(
B Factories Act 1948C @nder t+is ct, a #oman cannot .e forced to #or4 .e2ond 1 +ours
and "ro+i.its em"lo2ment of #omen e(ce"t .et#een - .M. and $ P.M.
B Maternity Benefit Act 1961C Woman is entitled 12 #ee4s maternit2 leave #it+ full
#ages.
B The Dowry Prohibition Act 1961! @nder t+e "rovisions of t+is ct demand of do#r2
eit+er .efore marriage, during marriage and or after t+e marriage is an offence.
6
B The "#$a% Re&$neration Act of 19'6C 5+is act "rovides e7ual #ages for e7ual #or4C It
"rovides for t+e "a2ment of e7ual #ages to .ot+ men and #omen #or4ers for t+e same #or4
or #or4 of similar nature. It also "ro+i.its discrimination against #omen in t+e matter of
recruitment.
B The (hi%d Marriage Restrain Act of 19'6C 5+is act raises t+e age for marriage of a girl to
11 2ears from 1' 2ears and t+at of a .o2 to 21 2ears.
B )ndian Pena% (odeC !ection 3'4 and ';& safeguards t+e interests of #omen.
B The Medica% Ter&ination of Pregnancy Act of 19'1! 5+e ct safeguards #omen from
unnecessar2 and com"ulsor2 a.ortions.
B mendments to Criminal La# 1&13, #+ic+ "rovides for a "unis+ment of $ 2ears in
ordinar2 cases and 1; 2ears for custodial ra"e cases.
7
B '*rd and '4th (onstit$tiona% A&end&ent Act reserved 1/3
rd
seats in Panc+a2at and
@r.an Local 3odies for #omen.
B The +ationa% (o&&ission for ,o&en Act 199-C 5+e Commission #as set u" in
=anuar2, 1&&2 to revie# t+e Constitutional and legal safeguards for #omen.
B The Protection of .$&an Rights Act 1993C
B Protection of ,o&en fro& Do&estic /io%ence Act 0--1C 5+is ct "rotects #omen from
an2 act/conduct/omission/commission t+at +arms, in8ures or "otential to +arm is to .e
considered as domestic violence. It "rotects t+e #omen from "+2sical, se(ual, emotional,
ver.al, "s2c+ological, economic a.use.
$
.
B Protection of ,o&en against 2e3$a% .arass&ent at ,or45%ace Bi%% 0-1-C on
0ovem.er 4, 2;1;, t+e /overnment introduced "rotection of Women gainst !e(ual
)arassment at Wor4"lace 3ill, 2;1;, #+ic+ aims at "rotecting t+e #omen at #or4"lace not
onl2 to #omen em"lo2ee .ut also to female clients, customer, students, researc+
sc+olars in colleges and universities "atients in +os"itals. 5+e 3ill #as "assed in Lo4 !a.+a
on 3.&.2;12.
*. CLASSIFICATION OF CRIME AGAINST WOMEN
lt+oug+ Women ma2 .e victims of an2 of t+e general crimes suc+ as „Murder‟,
8
„%o..er2‟, „C+eating‟ etc., onl2 t+e crimes #+ic+ are directed s"ecificall2 against #omen
are c+aracterised as „Crimes gainst Women‟. Various ne# legislations +ave .een .roug+t
and amendments +ave .een made in e(isting la#s #it+ a vie# to +andle t+ese crimes
effectivel2. 5+ese are .roadl2 classified under t#o categories i.e. >? 5+e Crimes under t+e
Indian Penal Code >IPC? and >3? 5+e Crimes under t+e !"ecial : Local La#s >!LL?
1
.
A. T+& C!i%&s un'&! t+& In'ian P&na Co'& ,IPC-
!even Crimes included under t+is +ead are as follo#sC
,i- Ra.& ,S&/tion 301 IPC- ,in/i'&n/& 2*2231 2 Rat&(2.3-
n increasing trend in cases of ra"e +as .een o.served during 2;;$-;1. mi(ed trend in t+e
incidence of ra"e +as .een o.served during t+e "eriods 2;;1-11. 5+ese cases
+ave re"orted an increase of 3.'D in t+e 2ear 2;;1 over t+e 2ear 2;;$, a decline of ;.3D
$
E".cit, Violence against Women, "".2'-2$
1
India, Ministr2 of )ome ffairs, 0ational Crime %ecords 3ureau, Crime in India, 2;11,
".$&
9
in t+e 2ear 2;;& over 2;;1 and an increase of 3.-D in t+e 2ear 2;1; over 2;;& and furt+er an
increase of &.2D in t+e 2ear 2;11 over t+e 2ear 2;1;. Mad+2a Prades+ +as re"orted t+e
+ig+est num.er of %a"e cases >3,4;-? accounting for 14.1D of total suc+ cases re"orted in
t+e countr2. Mi6oram +as re"orted t+e +ig+est crime rate $.1 as com"ared to 0ational
average of 2.;
&
.
%a"e cases +ave .een furt+er categorised as Incest %a"e and ot+er %a"e cases.
In/&st Ra.& ,In/i'&n/&4210-
Incest ra"e cases +ave decreased .2 $.3D from 211 cases in 2;1; to 2-$ cases in
2;11 as com"ared to &.2D increase in overall %a"e cases. Ma+aras+tra >44 cases? +as
accounted for t+e +ig+est >1'.3D? of t+e total suc+ cases re"orted in t+e countr2 Ta5& at
Ann&6u!& 7 I.
Ra.& Vi/ti%s
5+ere #ere 24,2$; victims of %a"e out of 24,2;- re"orted %a"e cases in t+e countr2. 1;.-D
>2,'12? of t+e total victims of %a"e #ere girls under 14 2ears of age, #+ile
1&.;D >4,-4-? victims #ere teenaged girls >14-11 2ears?. '4.$D >13,2-4? victims #ere
#omen in t+e age-grou" 11-3; 2ears. )o#ever, 1'.;D >3-3$? victims #ere in t+e age-
grou" of 3;-'; 2ears #+ile ;.-D >141 victims? #as over '; 2ears of age. 5+e details are
given in Ta5& at Ann&6u!& 8I.
Effenders #ere 4no#n to t+e victims in as man2 as 22,'4& >&4.2D? cases.
Parents/close famil2 mem.ers #ere involved in 1.2D >2-$ out of 22,'4&? of t+ese cases,
10
neig+.ours #ere involved in 34.$D cases >$,13' out of 22,'4& cases? and relatives #ere
involved in -.&D >1'-; out of 22,'4& cases?. 5+e !tate / @5 / Cit2-#ise details are "resented
in Ta5& at Ann&6u!&8II.
,ii- 9i'na..in) : A5'u/tion ,S&/. 3138303 IPC- ,In/i'&n/&43;2 ;1;2 Rat&42.<-
5+ese cases +ave re"orted an increase of 1&.4D during t+e 2ear as com"ared to "revious 2ear
>2&,$&' cases?. @ttar Prades+ #it+ $,'2' cases +as accounted for 21.2D of
&
I.id, ". 13
11
6
t+e total cases at t+e 0ational level. *el+i @5 +as re"orted t+e +ig+est crime rate at 12.4 as
com"ared to t+e 0ational average of 2.&
1;
Ta5& at Ann&6u!&8III.
,iii- Do$!= D&at+ ,S&/.3322 33*> IPC- an' Do$!= P!o+i5ition A/t2 1<11
uni7ue form of violence e("erienced .2 #omen is „*o#r2 *eat+‟ and no#, t+e most
common one. 5+ese cases +ave increased .2 2.$D during t+e 2ear 2;11 over t+e "revious
2ear >1,3&1 cases?. 2-.&D of t+e total suc+ cases re"orted in t+e countr2 #ere
re"orted from @ttar Prades+ >2,322? cases alone follo#ed .2 3i+ar >1,413 cases? >1-.4D?.
5+e +ig+est rate of crime >1.4? #as re"orted from 3i+ar as com"ared to t+e 0ational average
of ;.$
11
Ta5& at Ann&6u!&8III.
,i"- To!tu!& ,C!u&t= 5= ?us5an' : R&ati"&s- ,S&6.*<@8A
IPC-
,In/i'&n/& 4<<213;2 Rat&4@.2-
„5orture‟ cases in t+e countr2 +ave increased .2 '.4D over t+e "revious 2ear
>&4,;41 cases?. 1&.&D of t+ese #ere re"orted form West 3engal >1&,$$2 cases?. 5+e +ig+est
crime rate of 21.- #as also re"orted from West 3engal as com"ared to t+e 0ational rate at
1.2
12
Ta5& at Ann&6u!&8III.
,"- Mo&station ,S&/.3;* IPC- ,In/i'&n/& 4.*22<1@ Rat&43.1-
Incidents of Molestation in t+e countr2 +ave increased .2 '.1D over t+e "revious 2ear
>4;,-13 cases?. Mad+2a Prades+ +as re"orted t+e +ig+est incidence >-,--'?
amounting to 1'.'D of total suc+ incidences. <erala +as re"orted t+e +ig+est crime rate
>11.2.? as com"ared to t+e 0ational average of 3.-
13
Ta5& at Ann&6u!&8III.
,"i- S&6ua ?a!ass%&nt ,S&/.;3< IPC- ,In/i'&n/&4@2;03 Rat&43.0-
6
7
5+e num.er of suc+ cases +as decreased .2 14.;D during t+e 2ear over t+e "revious 2ear
>&,&-1 cases?. Andhra Pradesh has re5orted 406'78*618 cases9 fo%%owed by Maharashtra
1061781-'1 cases9 of tota% incidences d$ring the year 0-116 Andhra Prades+ +as re"orted
t+e +ig+est crime rate >4.3? as com"ared to t+e 0ational average of
;.$
14
Ta5& at Ann&6u!&8III.
1;
I.id, ".13
11
I.id, ".14
12
I.id,".14
13
I.id,".14
14
I.id,".14
7
7
!e(ual +arassment "ersists in man2 of t+e #or4"laces in India des"ite stringent legislation
enforced against it. !e(ual +arassment of #omen is a violation of
t+e fundamental rig+t of #omen to #or4 in a safe environment
1'
.
,"ii- I%.o!tation o# Gi!s ,S&/.3118> IPC- ,In/i'&n/&4@3-
n increase of 122.2D +as .een o.served in Crime )ead as 1; cases #ere re"orted
during t+e 2ear 2;11 as com"ared to 3- cases in t+e "revious 2ear >2;1;?. Madhya Pradesh
841 cases9 Bihar 81- cases9 and :arnata4a 810 cases have together contrib$ted &ore than
two;third of tota% s$ch cases at the +ationa% %eve%
16
Ta5& at Ann&6u!&8III6
>. T+& C!i%&s un'&! t+& S.&/ia : Lo/a La$s ,SLL-
lt+oug+ all la#s are not gender s"ecific, t+e "rovisions of la# affecting #omen
significantl2 +ave .een revie#ed "eriodicall2 and amendments carried out to 4ee" "ace #it+
t+e emerging re7uirements. 5+e gender s"ecific la#s for #+ic+ crime statistics are recorded
t+roug+out t+e countr2 are as follo#sC
,i- I%%o!a T!a##i/ ,P!&"&ntion- A/t2 1<;1 ,In/i'&n/&422*3; Rat&43.2-
The n$&ber of cases $nder this Act have registered a decrease of 0667 d$ring the year as
co&5ared to the 5revio$s year 8049996 2;.4D >4&$? cases #ere re"orted from nd+ra
Prades+ follo#ed .2 5amil 0adu 1$.2D>42; cases?. *aman : *iu re"orted t+e +ig+est
crime rate of 2.' as com"ared to t+e 0ational average of ;.2
1$
Ta5& at Ann&6u!&8
II.
7
8
,ii- Do$!= P!o+i5ition A/t ,In/i'&n/&41211< Rat&43.;-
5+e cases under t+is ct +ave increased .2 2$.$D during t+e 2ear 2;11 as com"ared
to t+e "revious 2ear >',112 cases?. 21.$D of cases #ere re"orted from nd+ra Prades+
>1,1&&? follo#ed .2 <arnata4a >121; cases? accounting for 11.3D of total cases at t+e
0ational level. 5+e +ig+est crime rate of 2.' #as re"orted from Edis+a as com"ared
to ;.' at t+e 0ational level Ta5& at Ann&6u!&8II.
1'
E".cit, Violence against Women and C+ildren, ".11
1-
E".cit, 0ational Crime %ecords 3ureau Crime in India, 2;11, ".14
1$
I.id, ".1$
8
9
,iii- In'&/&nt R&.!&s&ntation o# Wo%&n ,P!o+i5ition- A/t
,In/i'&n/&4*;3
Rat&4N&)i)&n/&-
decrease of 4&.4D #as noticed in t+is crime +ead during t+e 2ear 2;11 as com"ared to
t+e "revious 2ear >1&'? cases. nd+ra Prades+ #it+ 314 cases +as accounted for -&.3D
of total suc+ cases at t+e 0ational level #+ic+ +as also re"orted t+e +ig+est crime
rate of ;.4. *ata s+o#ed t+at cases registered under
Indecent %e"resentation of Women >Pro+i.ition? ct,1&1- +as seen a s+ar"
decline over t+e
2ears
11
Ta5& at Ann&6u!&8II.
,i"- Sati P!&"&ntion A/t2 1<@0 ,In/i'&n/&41-
<ne case was registered $nder this (ri&e .ead in =a&&$ > :ash&ir d$ring the year
0-11
19
6
9
1
0
11
I.id, ".11
1&
I.id,".1$
10
1
1
C. R&.o!t&' In/i'&nts o# /!i%& ,In/i'&n/&4222@21;3-
A tota% of 00861- incidents of cri&e against wo&en 8both $nder )P( and 2??9
were re5orted in the co$ntry d$ring the year 0-11 as co&5ared to 01*181 incidences in the
11
1
2
year 0-1- recording an increase of '617 d$ring the year 0-11.
R&.o!t&' In/i'&nts o# /!i%&
A&a! Cas&s
2;;$ 1,1',312
2;;1 1,&',1'-
2;;& 2,;3,1;4
2;1; 2,13,'1'
2;11 2,21,-';
,est Benga% with '617 share of co$ntry@s 5o5$%ation has acco$nted for near%y
106'7 of tota% cri&e against wo&en by re5orting 091** cases6 Andhra
Pradesh acco$nting for near%y '6-7 of the co$ntry@s 5o5$%ation has acco$nted for 10647
of tota% cri&es against wo&en in the co$ntry by re5orting 08046 cases in the year 0-11
0-
Ta5&
at Ann&6u!&8IV.
2;
I.id, ".$&
12
13
11
C!i%& Rat& ,C!i%& !at&4 1@.<-(5+e rate of crime +as increased marginall2 from 11.; in
t+e 2ear 2;1; to 11.& during t+e 2ears 2;11. Tri5$ra has re5orted the highest
rate of cri&e against wo&en at *'6- d$ring the year 0-11 as co&5ared to 1869 cri&e rate at
the +ationa% %eve% Ta5& at Ann&6u!&8IV.
14
15
12
T!&n' Ana=sis( 5+e crime +ead-#ise details of re"orted crimes during t+e 2ear 2;;$ to 2ear
2;11 along #it+ "ercentage variation are "resented in Table-I(A) be%ow. The cri&e against
wo&en d$ring the year 0-11 has increased by '617 over the year 0-1- and by
0*647 over the year 0--'. 5+e IPC com"onent of crimes against #omen +as accounted for
&'.1D of total crimes and t+e rest 4.2D #ere !LL crimes against #omen. The
5ro5ortion of )P( cri&es co&&itted against wo&en towards tota% )P( cri&es has
increased d$ring %ast 1 years fro& 8687 in the year 0--' to 9647 d$ring the year 0-11.
Ta5& 8 1,A-
C!i%& ?&a'8$is& In/i'&nts o# C!i%& A)ainst Wo%&n 'u!in) 233082311 an' P&!/&nta)& "a!iation in 2311
A&a! P&!/&nta)&
"a!iation in
o"&! 2313
S.
No
C!i%& ?&a' 2330 233@ 233< 2313 2311
1. %a"e >!ec. 3$- IPC? 2;,$3$ 21,4-$ 21,3&$ 22,1$2 24,2;-
2. <idna""ing : .duction
>!ec. 3-3 to 3$3 IPC?
2;,41- 22,&3& 2',$41 2&,$&' 3','-'
3. *o#r2 *eat+>!ec. 3;2 / 3;4
IPC?
1,;&3 1,1$2 1,313 1,3&1 1,-11
4. Cruelt2 .2 )us.and and
%elatives >!ec.4&1- IPC?
$',&3; 11,344 1&,'4- &4,;41 &&,13'
'. Molestation >!ec. 3'4 IPC? 31,$34 4;,413 31,$11 4;,-13 42,&-1
-. !e(ual )arassment
>!ec.';& IPC?
1;,&'; 12,214 11,;;& &,&-1 1,'$;
$. Im"ortation of /irls
>!ec.3---3 IPC?
-1 -$ 41 3- 1;
1. !ati Prevention ct, 1&1$ ; 1 ; ; 1
&. Immoral 5raffic
>Prevention?
3,'-1 2,-'& 2,4$4 2,4&& 2,43'
1;. Indecent %e"resentation of
#omen >Pro+i.ition? ct,
1,2;; 1,;2' 14' 1&' 4'3
11. *o#r2 Pro+i.ition ct, ',-23 ',''' ',-'; ',112 -,-1&
Tota 12@;2312 12<;2@;1 22332@3* 22132;@; 222@21;3
Ta5& 8 1,>-
P!o.o!tion o# C!i%& a)ainst Wo%&n ,IPC- to$a!'s tota IPC /!i%&s
23
!l.
0o.
Fear 5otal IPC Crimes Crime gainst #omen >IPC
cases?
Percentage to total
IPC crimes
1. 2;;$ 1&,1&,-$3 1,$4,&21 1.1
2. 2;;1 2;,&3,3$& 1,1-,-1$ 1.&
3. 2;;& 21,21,34' 2,;3,1;4 &.2
16
12
4. 2;1; 22,24,131 2,13,'1' &.-
'. 2;11 23,2','$' 2,1&,142 &.4
22
I.id, ".11
23
I.id, ".13
17
C!i%& a)ainst Wo%&n in Citi&s ,A8In'ia4222@21;3 Citi&s43320@<-( '3 cities +aving
"o"ulation over 1; la4+ +ave .een identified as Mega cities as "er "o"ulation census
2;11. total ;f 33,$1& cases of crimes against #omen #ere re"orted from t+ese '3 cities
during t+e 2ear 2;11 as com"ared to 24,33' cases >3' mega cities? in t+e 2ear 2;1;. 5+e rate
of crime in cities at 21.; #as com"arativel2 +ig+er as com"ared to t+e 0ational rate of
11.&.
mong '3 cities, *el+i >4,41& cases? +as accounted for 13.3D of total suc+ crimes follo#ed
.2 3engaluru >1,1&; cases? >'.-D? )2dera.ad >11-; cases? >'.'D? and Vi8a2a#ada
>1,$&$ cases? >'.3D?. 5+e crime rate #as significantl2 +ig+er in Vi8a2a#ads, <ota, <ollam,
=ai"ur and sansol at 12;.', '$.', '4.2, 41.-, and 41.2 res"ectivel2 as com"ared to average
of mega cities at 21.; Ta5& at Ann&6u!&8IV.
De%hi city has acco$nted for 1'667 of Ra5e cases *1687 of :idna55ing > Abd$ction
cases 146-7 of Dowry Deaths and 1-617 of Mo%estation cases a&ong 1* cities6 )2dera.ad
+as re"orted 12.2D >1,3&;? of incidences of Cruelt2 .2 )us.and and %elatives. Vi8a2a#ada
+as re"orted 11.;D incidence of 9ve-teasing. Indore and =a.al"ur +aving 3 cases and 2 cases
res"ectivel2, +ave altoget+er contri.uted 13.3D of total cases
of „Im"ortation of /irls‟ at all India level Ta5& at Ann&6u!&8III..
)t is worthwhi%e to &ention that Banga%$r$ .yderabad M$&bai and Patna have boo4ed
&ore cases $nder 25ecia% > ?oca% ?aws a&ong the &ega cities6 1'.'D >1&1 out of
1,234? of cases under Immoral 5raffic "revention? ct and 1;.1D >''3 out of '';1? of cases
under Molestation #as re"orted in Mum.ai alone. !imilarl2, '-.;D
>42? and
34.$D>2-? of $' cases of Indecent %e"resentation of Women ct #as re"orted in =ai"ur and
=od+"ur res"ectivel2. $;.$D >-;'? cases under *o#r2 Pro+i.ition ct during t+e 2ear
2;11 #as registered in 3engaluru cit2 alone
24
Ta5& at Ann&6u!&8III..
18
%P9 LW! I0 I0*I
%a"e is a stigma #+ic+ e(ists in t+e societ2 from a long time. 5+e dictionar2 meaning of
#ord ra"e is Gt+e ravis+ing or violation of a #oman.H 5+e ra"e victim i.e. a #oman as
#oman cannot commit ra"e due to .iological reasons. !+e is traumati6ed after t+e eventI it is
ver2 difficult for a #oman to come out of t+is trauma. %a"e in India is a cogni6a.le offence.
5+ere are man2 "rovisions in various cts. 5+e #ord ra"e is legall2 defined u/s 3$' of
19
Indian Penal Code, 11-;. It defines t+e ra"e and also "rescri.es its "unis+ment. W+enever a
man "enetrates or does se(ual intercourse #it+ a #oman #it+out +er consent or #ill it
amounts to ra"e. Penetration +ere means t+at onl2 a slig+test of t+e touc+ of "enis to vagina
amounts to ra"e, unru"tured +2men of #oman does not "rove t+at ra"e #as not committed.
5+ere are e(ce"tions to it also i.e. #+en a man does se(ual intercourse #it+ +is #ife #+o is
a.ove 1' 2ears of age. 5+e ra"e la# under Indian Penal Code +ad gone t+roug+ a lot of
amendments. In 1&13, amendment #as made and !. 3$->2? i.e. Custodial ra"e, !. 3$->? i.e.
marital ra"e : !. 3$->3 to *? i.e. !e(ual Intercourse not amounting to ra"e #ere added.
@/s 221 of Indian Penal Code, 0o "erson can disclose t+e name of t+e ra"e victim and if
an2.od2 discloses t+e name, +e s+all .e "unis+ed #it+ eit+er descri"tion for a term #+ic+
ma2 e(tend to t#o 2ears and s+all also .e lia.le for fine.
@/s 114- of Indian 9vidence ct, "resum"tion can .e made as to t+e a.sence of consent in
certain "rosecutions for ra"e.
@/s '3>1? of Code of Criminal Procedure, W+en a "erson is arrested on a c+arge of
committing an offence of suc+ a nature and alleged to +ave .een committed under suc+
circumstances t+at t+ere are reasona.le grounds for .elieving t+at an e(amination of +is
"erson #ill afford evidence as to t+e commission of an offence, it s+all .e la#ful for a
registered medical "ractitioner, acting at t+e re7uest of a "olice officer not .elo# t+e ran4 of
su.-ins"ector, and for an2 "erson acting in good fait+ in +is aid and under +is direction, to
ma4e suc+ an e(amination of t+e "erson arrested as is reasona.l2 necessar2 in order to
ascertain t+e facts #+ic+ ma2 afford suc+ evidence, and to use suc+ force as is reasona.l2
necessar2 for t+at "ur"ose.
@/s 1-4 of Code of Criminal Procedure, "rovisions for medical e(amination of ra"e victim
are given.
@/s 32$>2? of Code of Criminal Procedure, t+ere s+ould .e in camera trial for all ra"e
victims.
5+e =udiciar2 in India is .urdened #it+ a lot of #or4 and t+erefore 8udgment of t+e ra"e
cases comes ver2 late. !ometimes it comes so late t+at eit+er of t+e "arties +ad died. !o, t+ere
s+ould .e s"eed2 trials in ra"e cases so t+at t+e victim gets 8ustice as it is rig+tl2 stated t+at
G=ustice dela2ed is 8ustice denied.H
20
s ever2 coin +as t#o sides, in t+is case also t+ere are t#o sides. Man2 a times girls also
ma4e fa4e com"laints 8ust to ruin t+e life of a .o2, sometimes t+e "arents of girl com"els +er
to file a com"laint against t+e .o2 s+e loves, as t+e la# s+o#s a lot of s2m"at+2 to#ards t+e
girl. 5+e accused is left #it+ not+ing, #+en t+e com"laint is made +is life is ruined
irres"ective of t+e fact t+at +e #as "roved guilt2 or not. !o, in m2 vie#s t+ere must come an
amendment #+ic+ e7uali6es t+e .urden of "roof on .ot+ t+e sides and t+e la# #or4s
smoot+l2. It s+ould .e suc+ t+at is contradicts t+e statement i.e. GLa# is t+ere for vigilant.H
IntroductionC
%a"e is a crime, #+ic+ +as a devastating effect on t+e survivorsI it +as .een descri.ed as a
G.eginning of a nig+tmareH. 5+e afters+oc4s include de"ression, fear, guilt-com"le(,
suicidal-action, diminis+ed se(ual interest. etc., Gone .ecomes afraid ofJKK..#rites a
victim, G+alf t+e +uman raceH. %eferring to t+e "itia.le condition of #omen in societ2 Mr.
=ustice !. +mad o.served t+at Gunfortunatel2, a #oman in our countr2, .elongs to a class or
grou" of societ2 #+o are in a disadvantaged "osition on account of several social .arriers and
im"ediments and +ave t+erefore, .een victims of t2rann2 at t+e +ands of men #it+ #+om
t+e2, unfortunatel2, under t+e Constitution Gen8o2, e7ual statusH. GWomen also +ave t+e rig+t
to life and li.ert2I t+e2 also +ave t+e rig+t to .e res"ected and treated as e7ual citi6ens. 5+eir
+onour and dignit2 cannot .e touc+ed or violated. 5+e2 also +ave t+e rig+t to lead an
+onora.le and "eaceful lifeH.
%a"e is a crime against .asic +uman rig+ts and is also violative of t+e victimJs most
c+eris+ed of t+e fundamental rig+ts, normall2, t+e rig+t to life contained in rticle 21 .
Incidence and "revalenceC
!out+ frica +as t+e +ig+est "er ca"ita rate of re"orted ra"es in t+e #orldC 11& "er 1;;;;;
"eo"le, according to t+e @0. 5+at com"ares #it+ 3; "er 1;;;;; in t+e @!. nal2sts and
#omenJs advocac2 grou"s argue !out+ fricaJs total, including unre"orted ra"es could .e
five to nine times +ig+er .
Police statistics s+o# more t+an ';;;; ra"es are re"orted ever2 2ear . In 1&1$ and 1&&1
num.er of cases re"orted #ere$$-$ and &$&3 res"ectivel2. .out 2-D >11112? increase in
num.er in t+e 2ear 1&&2 L >0C%3?. 5+ere is one ra"e in ever2 '4 minutes .
s o.served .2 =ustice r8it Pasa2atC
21
H W+ile a murderer destro2s t+e "+2sical frame of t+e victim, a ra"ist degrades and defiles
t+e soul of a +el"less female.H
=ustice <ris+na I2er +as o.served in a ver2 famous case of %afi7 v. !tate C
G murderer 4ills t+e .od2 .ut a ra"ist 4ills t+e soul.H
W+at is %a"eM
%a"e under 9nglis+ la# is defined more "articularl2 #+ere t+e la# cover all t+e as"ect of
ra"e. @nder t+e !e(ual Effences ct 2;;3, #+ic+ came into force in "ril 2;;4, ra"e in
9ngland and Wales #as redefined from non-consensual vaginal or anal intercourse, and is
no# defined as non-consensual "enile "enetration of t+e vagina, anus or mout+ of anot+er
"erson. 5+e c+anges also made ra"e "unis+a.le #it+ a ma(imum sentence of life
im"risonment. lt+oug+ a #oman #+o forces a man to +ave se( cannot .e "rosecuted for
ra"e under 9nglis+ la#, if s+e +el"s a man commit a ra"e s+e can .e "rosecuted for t+e crime
>see, for e(am"le, t+e conviction of Claire Mars+ in 2;;1?. #oman can also .e "rosecuted
for causing a man to engage in se(ual activit2 #it+out +is consent, a crime #+ic+ also carries
a ma(imum life sentence if it involves "enetration of t+e mout+, anus or vagina. 5+e statute
also includes a ne# se(ual crime, called Gassault .2 "enetrationH, #+ic+ also +as t+e same
"unis+ment as ra"e, and is committed #+en someone se(uall2 "enetrates t+e anus or vagina
#it+ a "art of +is or +er .od2, or #it+ an o.8ect, #it+out t+at "ersonJs consent.
!e(ual offence act, 2;;3 states as follo#sC-
%a"e
>1? "erson >? commits an offence if-
>a? +e intentionall2 "enetrates t+e vagina, anus or mout+ of anot+er "erson >3? #it+ +is "enis,
>.? 3 does not consent to t+e "enetration, and
>c? does not reasona.l2 .elieve t+at 3 consents.
>2? W+et+er a .elief is reasona.le is to .e determined +aving regard to all t+e circumstances,
including an2 ste"s +as ta4en to ascertain #+et+er 3 consents .
Wit+ com"are to t+is la#, la# of India under "enal code not cover t+e "enetration of mout+
and if suc+ +a""ened t+en t+at not amount to ra"e under our "resent la# a.ove all in India it
is o.serve .2 our )onJ.le courts t+at in case of ra"e if an2 #oman +el" to commit suc+ ra"e
s+e #ill .e not c+arge for t+e offence of ra"e as s+e +el" to commit t+e ra"e .ut in 9ngland it
22
+a""ens and t+eir "unis+ment are also more t+an us so an2 one .efore committing t+is must
t+in4 and in t+e mind of "eo"le t+ere is some fear a.out la# and itJs "unis+ment.
Li4e ever2 ot+er countr2, la#s relating to ra"e do e(ist in India. )o#ever, 8ustice is rarel2
ac+ieved. In most cases, ra"e victims t+emselves +esitate to ma4e a com"laint due to t+e
stigma attac+ed to it in societ2. !ometimes, even if a com"laint is made, t+e offender gets
a#a2 due to #ide s"read ignorance of t+e la#s relating to t+e offense.
%a"e means an unla#ful intercourse done .2 a man #it+ a #oman #it+out +er valid consent.
>!ection 3$' of t+e Indian Penal Code, 11-; ?
man is said to commit Gra"eH if +e +as se(ual intercourse #it+ a #oman under
circumstances falling under an2 of t+e si( follo#ing descri"tions C-
1. gainst +er #ill.
2. Wit+out +er consent.
3. Wit+ +er consent, #+en +er consent +as .een o.tained .2 "utting +er or an2 "erson in
#+om s+e is interested in fear of deat+ or of +urt.
4. Wit+ +er consent, #+en t+e man 4no#s t+at +e is not +er +us.and, and t+at +er consent is
given .ecause s+e .elieves t+at +e is anot+er man to #+om s+e is or .elieves +erself to .e
la#full2 married.
'. Wit+ +er consent, #+en, at t+e time of giving suc+ consent, .2 reason of unsoundness of
mind or into(ication or t+e administration .2 +im "ersonall2 or t+roug+ anot+er of an2
stu"ef2ing or un#+olesome su.stance, s+e is una.le to understand t+e nature and
conse7uences of t+at to #+ic+ s+e gives consent.
-. Wit+ or #it+out +er consent, #+en s+e is under si(teen 2ears of age.
9("lanationC Penetration is sufficient to constitute t+e se(ual intercourse necessar2 to t+e
offence of ra"e.
9(ce"tionC !e(ual intercourse .2 a man #it+ +is o#n #ife, t+e #ife not .eing under fifteen
2ears of age, is not ra"e.
M90*M905! 5E %P9 LW! I0 1&13 #ere made to address mainl2 3 issues C
. Minimum Punis+ment in ra"e cases >IPC !ection 3$- su. section 1?
3. !"ecial cases of ra"e >IPC !ection 3$- su.section 2 a-g ?: ?
C. Marital %a"e >IPC !ection 3$- ?
*. .use of official "o#er >IPC !ection 3$-,3,C,*?
23
. MI0I@M P@0I!)M905 >!ection 3$- su.section 1 of Indian Penal Code?
1. W+oever, e(ce"t in t+e cases "rovided for .2 su.-section >2?, commits ra"e s+all .e
"unis+ed #it+ im"risonment of eit+er descri"tion for a term #+ic+ s+all not .e less t+an
seven 2ears .ut #+ic+ ma2 .e for life or for a term #+ic+ ma2 e(tend to ten 2ears and s+all
also .e lia.le to fine unless t+e #oman ra"ed is +is o#n #ife and is not under t#elve 2ears of
age, in #+ic+ case, +e s+all .e "unis+ed #it+ im"risonment of eit+er descri"tion for a term
#+ic+ ma2 e(tend to t#o 2ears or #it+ fine or #it+ .ot+ C Provided t+at t+e court ma2, for
ade7uate and s"ecial reasons to .e mentioned in t+e 8udgment, im"ose a sentence of
im"risonment for a term of less t+an seven 2ears.
Issues
Prior to t+is amendment, minimum "unis+ment #asnJt s"ecified, +ence t+is is commenda.le,
.ut if t+e 8udge decides t+at t+ere is an ade7uate reason t+e "unis+ment can .e reduced.
3. !P9CIL C!9! EA %P9 li4e ra"e of a girl #+o is .elo# t#elve 2ears of age, ra"e
4no#ing t+e #oman to .e "regnant , gang ra"e, and custodial ra"e definitions, !"ecific >and
sometimes increased? Punis+ment in some of t+ese cases !+ift of .urden of "roof to
defendant from t+e victim in some of t+ese cases. >!ection 3$- su.section 2 >a-g? of Indian
Penal Code?
1. %a"e of a #oman #+o is under t#elve 2ears of age N!ec.3$- >2? >f?O
Punis+ment
%igorous im"risonment for a term #+ic+ s+all not .e less t+an ten 2ears .ut #+ic+ ma2 .e
for life and s+all also .e lia.le to fineC Provided t+at t+e court ma2, for ade7uate and s"ecial
reasons to .e mentioned in t+e 8udgment, im"ose a sentence of im"risonment of eit+er
descri"tion for a term of less t+an ten 2ears.
Issues
@nfortunatel2 ot+er t+an t+e increased minimum "unis+ment from $ 2ears to 1; 2ears, no
ot+er s"ecial concession is given to C+ild %a"e given t+e increased trauma for t+e girl. !ince
even t+e minimum "unis+ment can .e reduced .2 t+e 8udges, muc+ needs to .e done in t+is
area.
2. %a"e of a #oman, 4no#ing +er to .e "regnant >!ec.3$- !u.section 2- e?
Punis+ment
24
%igorous im"risonment for a term #+ic+ s+all not .e less t+an ten 2ears .ut #+ic+ ma2 .e
for life and s+all also .e lia.le to fineC Provided t+at t+e court ma2, for ade7uate and s"ecial
reasons to .e mentioned in t+e 8udgment, im"ose a sentence of im"risonment of eit+er
descri"tion for a term of less t+an ten 2ears.
9(em"tion from .urden of "roof if t+e victim states in court t+at s+e did not consent, t+en t+e
court s+all "resume t+at s+e did not consent and t+e .urden of "roving consent s+all s+ift to
t+e accused
3. /ang %a"e > !ec.3$- !u.section 2- g?
GW+ere a #oman is ra"ed .2 one or more in a grou" of "ersons acting in furt+erance of t+eir
common intention, eac+ of t+e "ersons s+all .e deemed to +ave committed gang ra"e #it+in
t+e meaning of t+is su.-section. H
5+us even if five men force a #omen into +aving se(ual intercourse #it+ onl2 one of t+em,
t+e remaining four #ill also .e considered to +ave committed ra"e under t+is la#.
Punis+ment
%igorous im"risonment for a term #+ic+ s+all not .e less t+an ten 2ears .ut #+ic+ ma2 .e
for life and s+all also .e lia.le to fineC Provided t+at t+e court ma2, for ade7uate and s"ecial
reasons to .e mentioned in t+e 8udgment, im"ose a sentence of im"risonment of eit+er
descri"tion for a term of less t+an ten 2ears.
9(em"tion from .urden of "roof C
If t+e victim states in court t+at s+e did not consent, t+en t+e court s+all "resume t+at s+e did
not consent and t+e .urden of "roving consent s+all s+ift to t+e accused.
4. Custodial %a"eC >!ec.3$- !u.section 2 a, ., c , d?C
%a"e committed on a #oman in t+eir or t+eir su.ordinateJs custod2 .2
a? "olice officer
>i? #it+in t+e limits of t+e "olice station to #+ic+ +e is a""ointedI or
>ii? in t+e "remises of an2 station +ouse #+et+er or not situated in t+e "olice station to, #+ic+
+e is a""ointedI or
>iii? on a #oman in +is custod2 or in t+e custod2 of a "olice officer su.ordinate to +imI
.? "u.lic servant
c? management or t+e staff of a 8ail, remand +ome or ot+er "lace of custod2 or a #omenJs or
c+ildrenJs institution
25
d? management or on t+e staff of a +os"ital
Punis+ment
%igorous im"risonment for a term #+ic+ s+all not .e less t+an ten 2ears .ut #+ic+ ma2 .e
for life and s+all also .e lia.le to fine CProvided t+at t+e court.
5o understand t+e im"act of se(ual +arassment on #omen one must listen to t+e account of
its victims as no one conve2s t+e meaning and trut+ of se(ual +arassment .etter t+an t+e
#omen #+o +ave endured it. In res"onse to t+e 7uestion GW+at 4ind of emotional res"onse
do eve-teasing /se(ual +arassment evo4e in 2ouH, not a single #oman tic4ed t+e categor2 of
GindifferentH. 5+e surve2 of t+e /ender !tud2 /rou" s+o#s t+at most #omen felt disgusted,
insulted and scared .2 an2 sort of +arassment.
Women often internalise male "erce"tions of se(ual +arassment and .lame t+emselves for
+aving .roug+t on t+e +arassment. 5+e2 not onl2 dou.t t+e validit2 of t+eir o#n e("eriences
.ut .egin to .elieve t+at t+e2 t+emselves must .e Pa.normalJ, Pc+ea"J, PindecentJ or
deserving t+e violence t+at comes t+eir #a2.
!e(ual +arassment is not+ing less t+an t+e s+o#casing of male dominance. /iven an
o""ortunit2, suc+ men >t+ose committing se(ual +arassment? #ould tr2 fulfilling t+eir desire.
)o#ever, it also not true t+at all cases of se(ual +arassment are suc+- #+ere t+e accused is
guilt2 of conceiving t+e intention of a se(ual intercourse. 3ut it also de"ends on eac+
individual case and circumstances, .ecause it ma2 #ell .e t+e case t+at t+e #oman ma2 also
.e at fault.
9ver2 -; minutes, t#o #omen are ra"ed in t+is countr2. W+at is more +orrendous is t+at 133
elderl2 #omen #ere se(uall2 assaulted last 2ear, according to t+e latest re"ort "re"ared .2
t+e 0ational Crime %ecords 3ureau >0C%3?. total of 2;,$3$ cases of ra"e #ere re"orted
last 2ear registering a $.2 "er cent increase over t+e "revious 2ear, #it+ Mad+2a Prades+
.ecoming t+e Gra"e ca"italH of t+e countr2 .2 to""ing t+e list of suc+ incidents.
/oing .2 t+e 0C%3 statistics, t#o #omen are ra"ed in t+e countr2 ever2 +our. Mad+2a
Prades+ accounted for 14.' "er cent of t+e total cases >3,;1;?, #it+ West 3engal follo#ing
#it+ 2,1;- suc+ incidents. %ecords of +ig+ incidence in ot+er states include @ttar Prades+
>1,-41?, 3i+ar >1,'''? and %a8ast+an >1,231?. 5+e national ca"ital +ad '&1 cases in #+ic+
-;2 #omen #ere se(uall2 assaulted.
26
In its re"ort Crime in India Q 2;;$, t+e 0C%3 noted t+at offenders #ere 4no#n to t+e
victims in as man2 as 1&,111 cases >&2.' "er cent?. 5+at included -,&;2 incidents in #+ic+
neig+.ours #ere involved. Parents or close famil2 mem.ers #ere involved in 4;' cases
#+ile in 1,441 cases relatives #ere involved. G9ver2#+ere in t+is countr2, over &; "er cent
of t+e victims are ra"ed .2 "erson 4no#n to t+em,H a senior "olice official said.
ccording to t+e official statistics of 1&&1, one #oman is molested ever2 2- minutes. 5+ese
statistics refer to t+e re"orted cases. W+ereas, if t+e unre"orted cases #ere to .e included, it
#ould .e a matter of seconds- rat+er t+an minutes. investigation of Most cases are not
re"orted .2 victims .ecause of various reasons suc+ as famil2 "ressures, t+e manner of t+e
"olice, t+e unreasona.l2 long and un8ust "rocess and a""lication of la#I and t+e resulting
conse7uences t+ereof.
In instances #+ere #omen +ave re"orted suc+ illegal and un#elcome .e+avior, t+ere +ave
.een significant victories in t+e "ast decade or so. lso considering t+e fact t+e sometimes
t+ese victories are ac+ieved after a #ait of a decade or so.
s <iran 3edi., %etd. =oint Commissioner, !"ecial 3ranc+ +as o.servedC
G5+e la# of ra"e is not 8ust a fe# sentences. It is a #+ole .oo4, #+ic+ +as clearl2 demarcated
c+a"ters and cannot .e read selectivel2. We cannot read t+e "ream.le and suddenl2 reac+ t+e
last c+a"ter and claim to +ave understood and a""lied it.H
In t+e Mat+ura ra"e case , #+erein Mat+ura- a si(teen 2ear old tri.al girl #as ra"ed .2 t#o
"olicemen in t+e com"ound of *esai /an8 Police station in C+andra"ur district of
Ma+aras+tra.
)er relatives, #+o +ad come to register a com"laint, #ere "atientl2 #aiting outside even as
t+e +einous act #as .eing committed in t+e "olice station. W+en +er relatives and t+e
assem.led cro#d t+reatened to .urn do#n t+e "olice c+o#42, t+e t#o guilt2 "olicemen,
/an"at and 5u4aram, reluctantl2 agreed to file a "anc+nama.
5+e case came for +earing on 1st =une, 1&$4 in t+e sessionJs court. 5+e 8udgment +o#ever
turned out to .e in favour of t+e accused. Mat+ura #as accused of .eing a liar. It #as stated
t+at since s+e #as P+a.ituated to se(ual intercourseJ +er consent #as voluntar2I under t+e
circumstances onl2 se(ual intercourse could .e "roved and not ra"e.
En a""eal t+e 0ag"ur .enc+ of t+e 3om.a2 )ig+ Court set aside t+e 8udgment of t+e
!essions Court, and sentenced t+e accused namel2 5u4aram and /an"at to one and five 2ears
27
of rigorous im"risonment res"ectivel2. 5+e Court +eld t+at "assive su.mission due to fear
induced .2 serious t+reats could not .e construed as consent or #illing se(ual intercourse.
W+en t+e a""eal #as made to t+e !u"reme Court, t+e !enior Counsel G%am =et+malaniH
#+ile defending t+e accused Policemen divided t+e conce"t of consent into t#o i.e. 9("ress
and Im"lied consent. )e said t+at t+ere #as not e("ress consent .ut it #as im"lied .ecause
Mat+ura raised no alarm, t+ere #as no tearing of clot+es, no semen on clot+es, no cr2 for
+el" etc, +e again said if t+ere +ad not .een an2 consent, t+ere #ould +ave .een at least a cr2
for +el". 5+ese circumstances are enoug+ to s+o# t+at t+ere #as im"lied consent. 5+e
!u"reme Court ac7uitted .ot+ t+e accused and +eld t+at Mat+ura +ad raised no alarmI and
also t+at t+ere #ere no visi.le mar4s of in8ur2 on +er "erson t+ere.2 negating t+e struggle .2
+er.
5+e Court in t+is case failed to com"re+end t+at a +el"less resignation in t+e face of
inevita.le com"ulsion or t+e "assive giving in is no consent. )o#ever, t+e Criminal La#
mendment ct, 1&13 +as made a statutor2 "rovision in t+e face of !ection.114 >? of t+e
9vidence ct , #+ic+ states t+at if t+e victim girl sa2s t+at s+e did no consent to t+e se(ual
intercourse, t+e Court s+all "resume t+at s+e did not consent.
In Mo+d.)a.i. Vs !tate , t+e *el+i )ig+ Court allo#ed a ra"ist to go scot-free merel2
.ecause t+ere #ere no mar4s of in8ur2 on +is "enis- #+ic+ t+e )ig+ Court "resumed #as a
indication of no resistance. 5+e most im"ortant facts suc+ as t+e age of t+e victim >.eing
seven 2ears? and t+at s+e +ad suffered a ru"tured +2men and t+e .ite mar4s on +er .od2 #ere
not considered .2 t+e )ig+ Court. 9ven t+e e2e- #itnesses #+o #itnessed t+is g+astl2 act,
could not s#a2 t+e )ig+ CourtJs 8udgment.
In !tate of Pun8a. vs. /urmit !ing+ , t+e !u"reme Court +as advised t+e lo#er 8udiciar2, t+at
even if t+e victim girl is s+o#n to .e +a.ituated to se(, t+e Court s+ould not descri.e +er to
.e of loose c+aracter.
5+e !u"reme Court +as in t+e case of !tate of Ma+aras+tra Vs. Mad+u4ar 0. Mardi4ar , +eld
t+at Gt+e unc+astit2 of a #oman does not ma4e +er o"en to an2 and ever2 "erson to violate
+er "erson as and #+en +e #is+es. !+e is entitled to "rotect +er "erson if t+ere is an attem"t
to violate +er "erson against +er #is+. !+e is e7uall2 entitled to t+e "rotection of la#.
5+erefore merel2 .ecause s+e is of eas2 virtue, +er evidence cannot .e t+ro#n over.oard.H
28
In *el+i *omestic Wor4ing Women v. @nion of India , t+e "e( Court laid do#n t+e
follo#ing .road guidelinesC
R 5+e com"lainants of se(ual assault cases s+ould .e "rovided #it+ legal re"resentation i.e.
t+e2 s+ould .e "rovided an advocate #+o could +el" +er "ro"erl2.
R Legal assistance #ill +ave to .e "rovided at t+e "olice station since victim of se(ual assault
mig+t ver2 #ell .e in a distressed state u"on arrival at t+e "olice station and guidance of a
la#2er at t+at stage is ver2 necessar2.
R 5+e "olice s+ould .e under dut2 to inform t+e victim of +er rig+t to re"resentation .efore
an2 7uestions #ere as4ed of +er and t+at t+e "olice re"ort s+ould state t+at t+e victim #as so
informed.
R list of advocates #+o deal in t+ese cases s+ould .e 4e"t at t+e "olice station for victims
#+o did not +ave a "articular la#2er in mind or #+ose o#n la#2er #as unavaila.le.
R In all ra"e trials anon2mit2 of victim must .e maintained, as far as necessar2.
R GCriminal In8uries Com"ensation 3oardH s+ould .e esta.lis+ed.
R Interim com"ensation s+ould .e given to ra"e victim even if t+e case is still going on in t+e
court.
R Medical +el" s+ould .e "rovided and #oman s+ould .e allo#ed to a.ort t+e c+ild if s+e
.ecomes "regnant due to t+e incidence.
R Com"ensation s+ould .e "rovided to ra"e victim to re+a.ilitate +erself.
In 3. /autam v. !+u.ra C+a4ra.ort+2 , it #as +eld t+at %s. 1;;; "er mont+ s+ould .e given
to ra"e victim as an interim com"ensation.
In C+airman, %ail#a2 3oard vs. C+andrima *as , a "racticing dvocate of t+e Calcutta )ig+
Court filed a "etition under rticle.22- of t+e Constitution of India against t+e various
rail#a2 aut+orities of t+e eastern rail#a2 claiming com"ensation for t+e victim >!mt. )anufa
<+atoon? L a 3anglades+ national- #+o #as ra"ed at t+e )o#ra+ !tation, .2 t+e rail#a2
securit2 men. 5+e )ig+ Court a#arded %s.1; lacs as com"ensation.
n a""eal #as "referred and it #as contended .2 t+e state t+atC
a? 5+e rail#a2 #as not lia.le to "a2 t+e com"ensation to t+e victim for s+e #as a foreigner.
.? 5+at t+e remed2 for com"ensation lies in t+e domain of "rivate la# and not "u.lic la#. i.e.
t+at t+e victim s+ould +ave a""roac+ed t+e Civil Court for see4ing damagesI and s+ould +ave
not come to t+e )ig+ Court under rticle.22-.
29
Considering t+e a.ove said contentions, t+e !u"reme Court o.servedC
GW+ere "u.lic functionaries are involved and t+e matter relates to t+e violation of
fundamental rig+ts or t+e enforcement of "u.lic duties, t+e remed2 #ould .e avoida.le under
"u.lic la#. It #as more so, #+en it #as not a mere violation of an2 ordinar2 rig+t, .ut t+e
violation of fundamental rig+ts #as involved- as t+e "etitioner #as a victim of ra"e, #+ic+ a
violation of fundamental rig+t of ever2 "erson guaranteed under rticle.21 of t+e
Constitution.H
5+e !u"reme Court also +eld t+at t+e relief can .e granted to t+e victim for t#o reasons-
firstl2, on t+e ground of domestic 8uris"rudence .ased on t+e Constitutional "rovisionsI and
secondl2, on t+e ground of )uman %ig+ts =uris"rudence .ased on t+e @niversal *eclaration
of )uman %ig+ts, 1&41 #+ic+ +as international recognition as t+e PMoral Code of ConductJ-
ado"ted .2 t+e /eneral ssem.l2 of t+e @nited 0ation.
Causes of Increased %a"e Cases in IndiaC
%a"e, molestation and a.ductions, t+e crimes are numerous .ut lo# conviction rates for t+e
same is one of t+e ma8or reasons for t+e gro#ing num.er of offences against #omen, "oint
out e("erts.
G"art from ot+er factors, t+e lo# conviction rate in t+e cases of ra"e is t+e .iggest #orr2 #e
+ave toda2. 5+ere is +ardl2 an2 deterrence. La# s+ould "rovide fast trac4 courts to deal #it+
suc+ cases,H sa2s /iri8a V2as, C+air"erson, 0ational Commission for Women >0CW?.
W+ile t+ere #ere 3$,;;; cases of molestation and eve-teasing in 2;;--;$, t+e conviction rate
for suc+ crimes, is .elo# 3; "er cent. Aor ra"e it is 8ust a dismal 2$ "er cent.
3rinda <arat, ll India *emocratic WomenJs ssociation >I*W?, mem.er sa2s, GI +ave
raised t+e issue in t+e Parliament several times t+at t+ere is a need to ste" u" conviction rate
in ra"e cases drasticall2. Poor legal s2stem, #rong understanding of "olicemen in t+ese cases
and lengt+2 "rocedures es"eciall2 in c+ild ra"e #+ere after +orrif2ing rounds of investigation
t+e victim starts feeling t+at s+e is an accused and s+ould not +ave registered t+e case, are
fe# reasons for lo# conviction rate.H
GIn ever2 1; +ours, a girl of t+e age of 1-1; is .eing ra"ed in India. We are raising t+is issue
and +ave demanded enforcement of stringent la#s .2 government,H s+e adds.
%eacting to a recent incident in #+ic+ a minor #as ra"ed .2 a consta.le and +is accom"lice
in a moving car in t+e national ca"ital, V2as sa2s, G5+is is a s"ecial case and it s+ould .e
30
dealt #it+ a fast trac4 court. En man2 occasions, com"lains do not get registered on time and
t+en it is ver2 difficult to "rove t+at ra"e actuall2 +a""ened. It s+ould .e registered #it+in 24
+ours of t+e incident.H
5+e accused .elieve t+e2 can get a#a2 #it+ it. Efficials are corru"t and easil2 .ri.ed >some
are even committing ra"es t+emselves?. Women are s+amed and +umiliated #+en t+e2 come
for#ard .ecause of t+e .ac4#ard notion t+at itJs t+e #omanJs fault >even #+en t+e P#omenJ
are 2oung c+ildren?. If t+e2 ma4e a case, it .ecomes "u.lic 4no#ledge and t+eir families and
societ2 s+un t+em in man2 cases as t+e2 are t+en seen as Pdamaged goodsJ. If unmarried t+e2
#ill +ave great difficult2 getting married. Courts donJt al#a2s do 8ustice for t+e victim and
find ra"ists not guilt2 for ridiculous reasons.
Predators 4no# t+is and ta4e advantage of it. 9ven if t+e2 get caug+t, if t+e2 +ave enoug+
mone2 or influence, not+ing #ill +a""en to t+em. #oman #ould +ave to turn t+e case into
a media circus to +ave a c+ance at 8ustice and &;D of ra"e victims in India #ould not do so
out of fear and s+ame .
5+ere is a need for revie# in certain "rovisions under various la#s related to ra"e so t+at
victims get 8ustice.
5+e 0ational Commission for Women +as identified nine areas for revie# . 5+ese areC
1. %evie# of t+e definition of ra"e
2. %eduction of "rocedural dela2s
3.@niformit2 in age of consent under sections 3$' and 3$- of Indian Penal Code, 11-;, to
.ring it in conformit2 #it+ t+e C+ild Marriage %estraint ct, 11-&
4. W+et+er e(ce"tion to section 3$' s+ould .e deleted
'. W+et+er section 1'' clause 4 of t+e Indian 9vidence ct 11$2 needs to .e amended or
deleted.
-. W+et+er statutor2 "rovisions are needed for com"ensation to t+e ra"e victim
$. W+et+er "rovisions for counseling legal aid s+ould .e made mandator2 under la#s.
1. *eat+ "enalt2 to "ersons convicted for ra"e
&. %ecommendation for en+ancement of "unis+ment in cases #+ere t+e accused, #it+ t+e
4no#ledge of suffering from )IV infection/I*!, infects t+e victim as a result of ra"e.
1. INTERNATIONAL INITIATIVES TO CUR> GENDER VIOLENCE
31
24
I.id, ".11
32
14
5+e advancement of #omen +as .een a focus of t+e #or4 of @nited 0ations since its
creation. 5+e Pream.le of @0 C+arter sets as a .asic goal to reaffirm fait+ in
fundamental +uman rig+ts, in t+e dignit2 and #ort+ of t+e +uman "erson, in t+e e7ual rig+ts
of men and #omen. In 1&4- t+e Commission on t+e !tatus of Women #as
esta.lis+ed to deal #it+ #omen‟s issues. 5+e @niversal *eclaration of )uman %ig+ts +ad
affirmed t+e "rinci"le of inadmissi.ilit2 of discrimination and "roclaimed t+at all +uman
.eings are .orn free and e7ual in dignit2 and rig+ts and rig+ts and ever2one is entitled to all
rig+ts and freedoms set fort+ t+erein, #it+out distinction of an2 4ind, including distinction
.ased on se(. )o#ever, t+ere continued to e(ist considera.le discrimination against
#omen "rimaril2 .ecause #omen and girls face a multitude of constraints im"osed .2
societ2, not .2 la#. It violated t+e "rinci"le of e7ualit2 of rig+ts and res"ect for +uman
rig+ts.
5+e /eneral ssem.l2 on 0ovem.er $, 1&-$ ado"ted a *eclaration on t+e
9limination of *iscrimination gainst Women, and in order to im"lement t+e "rinci"les set
fort+ in t+e *eclaration, a Convention on t+e 9limination of ll Aorms of *iscrimination
gainst Women >C9*W? #as ado"ted. 5+is Convention is often descri.ed as an
International 3ill of %ig+ts for Women. It +as laid do#n a com"re+ensive set of rig+ts to
#+ic+ all "ersons, including #omen are entitled, additional means for "rotecting t+e +uman
rig+ts of #omen. In addition to t+e a.ove Convention, t+ree Conferences #ere +eld during
t+e @.0. s"onsored International Women‟s *ecade >1&$--1&1'? in Me(ico Cit2 >1&$'?,
Co"en+agen >1&1;? and 0airo.i >1&1'?. 5+e fourt+ conference #as +eld at 3ei8ing in
1&&', +ave greatl2 en+anced international a#areness of t+e concerns of #omen. 3ei8ing
Conference stated t+at „Women‟s rig+ts are +uman rig+ts‟ and it called for integration of
Women‟s +uman rig+ts in t+e #or4 of different +uman rig+ts .odies of @nited 0ations. It
considered t+e issue of violence against #omen in "u.lic and "rivate life as +uman rig+ts
33
14
issues. 5+e Conference called for t+e eradication of an2 conflict #+ic+ ma2 arise .et#een
t+e rig+ts of #omen and +armful effects.
5+e @0 /eneral ssem.l2 in 2;;; convened a !"ecial session on „WomenC /ender
97ualit2, *evelo"ment and Peace for 21
st
Centur2‟ to assess t+e "rogress on #omen‟s
issues. In Ae.ruar2 2;;', t+e Commission on t+e !tatus of Women at its 4&
t+
!ession
vie#ed t+e "rogress made on Women‟s )uman %ig+ts greement, 4no#n as
34
15
3ei8ing Platform for ction. 5+e Conference focused on man2 areas including "overt2,
environment, econom2, education, +uman rig+ts, "o#er and decision ma4ing and girl c+ild.
In 2;;', t#ent2 t+ird !"ecial !ession of t+e /eneral ssem.l2 #as reiterated as World
!ummit Eutcome. 5+e !ummit resolved to "romote gender e7ualit2 and eliminate
"ersuasive gender discrimination. @.0. Commission on t+e !tatus of Women met on Marc+
14, 2;11 in t+e 9conomic and !ocial Council C+am.er to discuss t+e "resent
scenario of gender violence in t+e #orld
2'
.
0. NATIONAL INITIATIVES TO CUR> T?E GENDER VIOLENCE ,i-
Nationa Co%%ission #o! Wo%&n
In =anuar2 1&&2, t+e /overnment set-u" t+is statutor2 .od2 #it+ a s"ecific mandate to stud2
and monitor all matters relating to t+e constitutional and legal safeguards "rovided for
#omen, revie# t+e e(isting legislation to suggest amendments #+erever necessar2, etc.
,ii- R&s&!"ation #o! Wo%&n in Lo/a S&# 7Go"&!n%&nt
5+e $3
rd
Constitutional mendment cts "assed in 1&&2 .2 Parliament ensure one- t+ird of
t+e total seats for #omen in all elected offices in local .odies #+et+er in rural areas or ur.an
areas.
,iii- T+& Nationa Pan o# A/tion #o! t+& Gi! C+i' ,1<<182333-
5+e "lan of ction is to ensure survival, "rotection and develo"ment of t+e girl c+ild #it+ t+e
ultimate o.8ective of .uilding u" a .etter future for t+e girl c+ild.
,i"- Nationa Poi/= #o! t+& E%.o$&!%&nt o# Wo%&n2 2331
5+e *e"artment of Women : C+ild *evelo"ment in t+e Ministr2 of )uman %esource
*evelo"ment +as "re"ared a “0ational Polic2 for t+e 9m"o#erment of Women” in t+e 2ear
15
16
2;;1. 5+e goal of t+is "olic2 is to .ring a.out t+e advancement,
develo"ment and em"o#erment of #omen
2-
.
,"- Nationa Mission #o! &%.o$&!%&nt o# Wo%&n2 2313
5+e launc+ of t+e 0ational Mission for 9m"o#erment of Women in Marc+ 2;1; is an
im"ortant develo"ment t+at #ill "rovide t+e muc+ re7uired filli" to a coordinated assessment
of current government interventions and aligning future "rogrammes so as to translate t+e
MP9W "rescri"tion into realit2. 5+e Mission #as o"erationali6ed during 2;11-12
2$
.
2'
E".cit, Violence against Women and C+ildren, "".114-11'
2-
E".cit, Men and Women in India, "".(vii-(viii
2$
India, Ministr2 of Women and C+ild *evelo"ment, nnual %e"ort 2;11-12, ". 2;
16
@. SEBUAL ?ARASSMENT CASES DEALT WIT?2 AIR TO ?C
ll India %adio >I%? Wednesda2 informed t+e *el+i )ig+ Court t+at cases of se(ual
+arassment t+at some radio "resenters of AM /old c+annel com"lained of +ave .een dealt
#it+. In an affidavit filed .2 t+e *irector /eneral >*/? of I%, it #as stated t+at t+e
com"laints +ave .een dealt #it+ as "er Vis+a4+a /uidelines, and from time to time, t+e
organisation +as .een ta4ing ste"s to ensure t+at full securit2 is "rovided to female staff. 5+e
division .enc+ +eaded .2 C+ief =ustice 0.V. %amana "osted t+e matter for *ec 11, sa2ing it
#ill loo4 into t+e affidavit .efore deciding t+e matter. 5+e .enc+ #as +earing t+e "u.lic
interest litigation >PIL? see4ing directions to Gsto" t+e se(ual +arassment and e("loitationH of
female radio "resenters of t+e AM /old C+annel of I%. !ocial #or4er Meera Mis+ra in +er
PIL said t+at s+e came to 4no# of t+e se(ual +arassment of em"lo2ees of t+e AM c+annel
t+roug+ media re"orts. Vanit !ood, director-general of I%, filing t+e affidavit, saidC GI% is
alive to its res"onsi.ilit2 of ensuring t+at no act of se(ual +arassment at t+e #or4 "lace ta4es
"lace. Arom time to time, it +as .een ta4ing ste"s to ensure full securit2 is "rovided to its
#omen staff and t+at t+e2 can #or4 in a safe, congenial and +ealt+2 environment.H
It furt+er stated t+at I% +as also ta4en ste"s for streamlining "rocedures for safet2 of
#omen, including "rovision of trans"ort facilities for "ic4-u" and dro" from t+eir doorste" at
nig+t and earl2 morning. 5+e affidavit also said t+at t+e "etitioner +ad alleged t+at Vis+a4+a
/uidelines +ave not .een im"lemented in I%. )o#ever, t+e2 +ave .een alread2 full2
im"lemented. 5+e PIL +ad soug+t t+at Prasar 3+arti im"lement t+e Vis+a4+a /uidelines laid
do#n .2 t+e !u"reme Court, "ertaining to se(ual +arassment at t+e #or4"lace and soug+t
t+at t+e ministr2 set u" a committee to investigate allegations of se(ual misconduct. !ood
16
also told t+e court t+at t+e organisation +as received certain com"laints of se(ual +arassment
from radio 8o4e2s against t#o "eo"le. GCom"laints of se(ual +arassment +ave .een in7uired
into .2 a dul2 constituted committee in terms of Vis+a4+a /uidelines, and t+ereafter,
a""ro"riate administrative action +as .een ta4e,H t+e re"l2 filed .2 I% said. ll India %adio
3roadcasting Professionals ssociation >I%3P? +ad alleged t+at ade7uate measures to
ensure t+e safet2 of t+e #omen em"lo2ees on nig+t s+ifts #ere not .eing ta4en .2 t+e
de"artment. I%3P +ad earlier filed a com"laint #it+ t+e *el+i Commission for Women
t+at t+e2 #ere facing se(ual +arassment at I% AM /old %adio !tation. 5+e I%3P
alleged .ias and un"rofessional .e+aviour of "rogramme e(ecutives at t+e radio station and
s"ecificall2 named t+e AM /old director general for attac4ing t+e self-res"ect of #omen
"resenters, t+e "lea said. I%3P +ad also alleged t+at t+e staff on dut2 #as sometimes
Ginto(icated and mis.e+avedH #it+ t+e #omen em"lo2ees, .ut officials of I% are not
.ot+ered. 5+e com"laint said t+at #omen #ere Gforced to come to a certain "oint for t+e
"ic4-u", and dro""ed far a#a2 from +omes at odd +oursH. dvocate !ugriv *u.e2, filing t+e
"lea, +ad said t+at t+oug+ t+ese em"lo2ees +ave .een #or4ing #it+ t+e c+annel for more t+an
1' 2ears, t+e2 are se(uall2 +arassed and t+eir services sometimes terminated #it+out
assigning an2 reason.
P*ec 1- ra"e convictsJ counsel ma4ing false statements .efore !CJ
5+e *el+i )ig+ Court Wednesda2 said t+e counsel a""earing for t#o convicts in t+e *ec 1-
gang ra"e case #as ma4ing Gfalse statementsH .efore t+e !u"reme Court.
division .enc+ of =ustice %eva <+etra"al and =ustice Prati.+a %ani said advocate M.L.
!+arma, re"resenting Pa#an /u"ta and Mu4es+ !ing+ in t+e case, misled t+e a"e( court .2
sa2ing +e #as not granted "ermission to file additional grounds for arguments on a""eal.
5+e .enc+ said !+arma never made suc+ a "ra2er for filing additional grounds for arguments
on a""eal .efore t+e +ig+ court.
G5+e2 never made suc+ "ra2er .efore us. 5+is "ra2er #as made for t+e first time .efore t+e
!u"reme Court. We +ave given t+em li.ert2 to file additional grounds for arguments,H t+e
court said.
5+e !u"reme Court 5uesda2 said t+e +ig+ court #as rus+ing t+roug+ #it+ t+e +earing of
deat+ reference and a""eals in t+e case.
17
5+e .enc+ saidC G5+e re"ort sa2s #e are tr2ing to rus+ u" t+e arguments. We +ave never told
t+em not to argue. We +ave never as4ed t+em to rus+. 5+ere is no suc+ t+ing is rus+ing t+e
arguments.H
5+e .enc+ also as4ed !"ecial Pu.lic Prosecutor *a2an <ris+nan if t+e !u"reme Court #as
informed a.out !+arma filing a false affidavit in t+e +ig+ court.
<ris+nan told t+e .enc+ t+at t+e state #as not given t+e o""ortunit2 to file a re"l2.
!+arma +ad filed a false affidavit in t+e +ig+ court sa2ing +e #ent to Mum.ai to argue a case
.efore =ustice *.F. C+andrac+ur and +ence #ould not .e availa.le to "ut fort+ +is
arguments.
)o#ever, <ris+nan "ointed out t+at =ustice C+andrac+ur +ad alread2 ta4en over as t+e c+ief
8ustice of t+e lla+a.ad )ig+ Court.
!+arma +as .een ma4ing e(cuses .efore t+e .enc+ to avoid t+e +earing in t+e +ig+ court,
#+ic+ also made t+e .enc+ #arn +im of a""ointing amicus curiae in t+e case to re"resent +is
t#o clients.
5+e +ig+ court "osted t+e matter for 0ov 2'.
5+e trial court !e" 13 a#arded deat+ sentence to Mu4es+, 2-, 4s+a2, 21, Pa#an, 1&, and
Vina2, 2;, convicted in t+e case, and referred t+e case to t+e +ig+ court for confirmation of
t+eir sentence.
23-2ear-old "+2siot+era"2 student #as .rutall2 gang ra"ed in a moving .us .2 si( "eo"le,
including a 8uvenile. 5+e accused t+en t+re# +er and +er male com"anion out of t+e ve+icle,
stri""ed of clot+ing, to die .2 t+e roadside on t+e cold *ecem.er nig+t.
5+e #oman died of grave intestinal in8uries *ec 2& at !inga"oreJs Mount 9li6a.et+ )os"ital,
#+ere s+e #as airlifted for s"ecialised treatment.
Ene of t+e si( accused #as found dead in a cell in *el+iJs 5i+ar =ail. 8uvenile involved in
t+e crime #as ug 31 sent .2 t+e =uvenile =ustice 3oard to a reform +ome for t+ree 2ears,
t+e ma(imum term under t+e 8uvenile la#.
*el+i gangra"eC Convicts invo4e Ma+atma to o""ose deat+ "enalt2
Invo4ing Ma+atma /and+i, t#o of t+e convicts on deat+ ro# for t+e .rutal torture and
gangra"e of a 23-2ear-old "aramedical student on *ecem.er 1- contested t+e trial courtJs
sentence toda2, telling t+e *el+i )ig+ Court even t+e fat+er of t+e nation #as against ca"ital
"unis+ment.
18
Commencing t+e arguments for convicts Vina2 !+arma and 4s+a2 5+a4ur .efore a .enc+
of 8ustices %eva <+etra"al and Prati.+a %ani, advocate P !ing+ said a#arding Gdeat+
"enalt2 #ill not sto" crime in societ2H and t+e duo donJt deserve deterrent "unis+ment in t+is
case.
Suoting /and+i #+o +ad said GI cannot in all conscience agree to an2 one .eing sent to t+e
gallo#s. /od alone can ta4e a life .ecause +e alone gives it,H !ing+ argued t+at deat+ "enalt2
is not t+e solution to sto" crime.
G*eat+ "enalt2 #ill 4ill t+e criminals .ut t+at #ill not sto" t+e crime in t+e societ2,H t+e
la#2er said adding t+at t+e deat+ "enalt2 is t+e ultimate denial of +uman rig+tsK.H
5+e court is +earing t+e final arguments on a da2-to-da2 .asis on t+e trial courtJs reference to
it for confirmation of deat+ sentence a#arded to four convicts- Mu4es+, Pa#an <umar
/u"ta, Vina2 and 4s+a2 as #ell as t+eir a""eals against t+e trial courtJs 8udgement.
En t+e nig+t of *ecem.er 1-, last 2ear, t+e four convicts along #it+ %am !ing+, #+o died
during trial, and a 8uvenile +ad gangra"ed and .rutall2 tortured t+e student in a .us after
luring +er and +er 21-2ear-old male friend, #+o #as also assaulted, on .oard t+e ve+icle
.efore dum"ing t+em .2 roadside. 5+e girl succum.ed to +er in8uries on *ecem.er 2&, 2;12
at a !inga"ore +os"ital.
dditional !essions =udge Foges+ <+anna +ad +eld t+e four accused guilt2 of gangra"e and
Gcold .loodedH murder of a GdefencelessH girl in a "remeditated manner.
5a4ing t+e "lea of ali.i, t+e la#2er toda2 claimed t+at +is client Vina2 #as not associated
#it+ t+e incident as +e #as ta4ing "art in a C+ristmas cele.rations t+at +ad +eld in %avidas
colon2 on t+e da2 of incident.
Video footage is also availa.le and t+e trial court +ad ignored t+is evidence, !ing+
contended.
Claiming t+at Vina2 is a minor and is doing +is 3 from *el+i @niversit2 >*@? and t+e trial
court +ad re8ected +is "lea for verification of +is age, t+e counsel said t+at court s+ould "ass
an order for ossification test of +is client to find out t+e real age of Vina2.
19
MaidJs deat+C 3!P leader, #ife sent to four da2sJ 8udicial custod2
*el+i court Monda2 sent 3a+u8an !ama8 Part2 >3!P? "arliamentarian *+anan8a2 !ing+
and +is #ife, arrested for allegedl2 torturing t+eir maid to deat+, to four da2sJ 8udicial
custod2.
*+anan8a2 !ing+, #+o re"resents =aun"ur Lo4 !a.+a constituenc2 in @ttar Prades+, #as
arrested and .oo4ed for destruction of evidence and violating t+e "rovisions of t+e =uvenile
=ustice ct.
)is #ife =agriti, a dentist at a government +os"ital, +as .een .oo4ed for murder, attem"t to
murder and for violating t+e =uvenile =ustice ct.
Metro"olitan Magistrate /omati Manoc+a sent t+e cou"le to four da2sJ 8udicial custod2 till
0ov 1', after *el+i Police said t+e2 are #aiting for some re"orts and #ill confront t+e
accused #it+ t+em later.
=agriti allegedl2 .eat and tortured +er maid %a4+i, 3', and anot+er +el", %am"al, 1$, for
da2s.
*+anan8a2 and =agriti #ere "roduced .efore t+e court on e("ir2 of t+eir five da2sJ "olice
custod2.
dditional Pu.lic Prosecutor Mu4ul <umar told t+e court t+at t+e forensic e("erts re7uire
some time to retrieve t+e data of *igital Video %ecorders >*V%s?, #+ic+ #ere "rovided .2
*+anan8a2 to t+e "olice, and t+e2 mig+t ta4e custod2 of t+e accused later to confront t+em
#it+ t+e re"orts and o"inions.
)e said *V%s +ave .een sent to t+e Aorensic !cience La.orator2 >A!L? in %o+ini +ere for
e(amination as #ell as for e("ert o"inion. 5+e "rosecutor told t+e court t+at at t+is stage, t+e
accused need to .e sent to 8udicial custod2 as some more evidence #ill .e collected during
t+is "eriod.
20
lso, during t+e "roceedings, *+anan8a2 moved +is .ail a""lication to #+ic+ t+e court
directed t+e "olice to file its res"onse .2 t+e ne(t date of +earing.
=agritiJs counsel told t+e magistrate t+at +is client is in acute mental de"ression, and t+e
investigating officer s+ould +ave said t+is to t+e court.
5+e counsel also referred to media re"orts and claimed t+at +is client suffered from .outs of
uncontrolla.le .e+aviour.
)o#ever, t+e "rosecutor told t+e court t+at, as of no#, =agriti is medicall2 fit and +er counsel
s+ould not go #it+ media re"orts. 5+e court told =agritiJs counsel to "roduce relevant
medical documents in t+is regard.
5+e "olice +ad said t+at .esides t+e maid, #+o is no# dead, t#o more domestic +el"s,
including %am"al, #ere em"lo2ed at t+e MPJs residence and #ere also .eaten u" mercilessl2
.2 =agriti, 2&, and +er +us.and *+anan8a2, 31.
5+e2 said t+e accused used #ooden stic4s, iron rods, iron "ress and even metallic, artificial
deer +orns to .eat t+e maids. %egarding *+anan8a2, t+e "olice said t+at after t+e incident, +e
tried to destro2 t+e video recording of 2; CC5V cameras installed in +is +ouse.
*+anan8a2 +as alread2 filed for divorce from =agriti, and t+e matter is "ending .efore a court.
=agriti is t+e second #ife of *+anan8a2, #+ose first #ife committed suicide in 2;;$, "olice
said.
=agriti administered first aid to %a4+i and %am"al at +ome itself, instead of ta4ing t+em to
+os"ital.
%a4+i, a native of West 3engal, #as em"lo2ed nine mont+s ago t+roug+ a "lacement agenc2,
#+ile %am"al came from @ttar Prades+Js Varanasi cit2.
21
0)%C see4s re"orts on Edis+a girlJs deat+
5+e 0ational )uman %ig+ts Commission +as as4ed Edis+a and Puduc+err2 aut+orities to
su.mit re"orts #it+in four #ee4s on t+e deat+ in Puduc+err2 of a teenaged girl la.ourer from
Edis+a, a "etitioner said !unda2.
5+e commission directed t+e c+ief secretar2 of Edis+a and director general of "olice of
Puduc+err2 to su.mit t+eir action-ta4en re"orts on t+e .asis of a "etition filed .efore it .2
4+and, an Edis+a-.ased rig+ts activist.
4+and sa2s 1$-2ear-old La(mi 3e+era, a native of <amala !agar Patana village in Puri
district, #as a victim of +uman traffic4ing.
!+e #as ta4en from +er village .2 a middleman to Puduc+err2 as a la.ourer, 8ust 11 da2s
.efore +er deat+, t+e activist told I0!.
)e said t+e girl #as forced to #or4 in a coconut oil factor2 allegedl2 for more t+an 12 +ours
a da2. !+e fell ill due to inade7uate food, #or4 "ressure and un+2gienic living conditions.
!+e died in a government +os"ital at Puduc+err2 !e" 2$ after s+e #as admitted t+ere for
treatment.
5+e activist said even t+e girlJs .od2 #as not sent to +er famil2 in Edis+a. Police in .ot+
Edis+a and Puduc+err2 did not ta4e an2 action against t+e "erson and factor2 o#ner
allegedl2 res"onsi.le for +er condition.
)e said man2 ot+er #or4ers from t+e village of t+e girl and near.2 areas +ave also gone to
various "arts of t+e countr2 for #or4 and are allegedl2 .eing e("loited.
In +is "etition, 4+and "ra2ed .efore t+e commission for action against t+e o#ner of t+e
com"an2 #+o engaged La(mi, and t+e middleman. )e also soug+t a com"ensation of %s.1
la4+ for t+e victimJs famil2.
*el+i Police +ere to +el" nort+east "eo"le
22
5+e *el+i Police is al#a2s t+ere to +el" "eo"le from nort+east India, =oint Commissioner of
Police %o.in )i.u said +ere.
GPeo"le come +ere for stud2, 8o. or tourism or .usiness. We +ave massive res"onsi.ilit2. We
tr2 to reac+ out to t+em t+roug+ email or sms. We #ant to tell t+em, P*onJt .e lonel2 and #e
are +ere for 2ouJ,H )i.u said +ere on first da2 of t+e 0ort+ 9ast Aestival. )e is t+e first
Indian Police !ervice officer from runac+al Prades+.
GWe are t+e onl2 "olice force in t+e countr2, #+o +ave started standing order "rocedure on
+o# to deal #it+ nort+east citi6ens,H +e added.
)i.u also said volunteers are #elcome to assist t+em too.
GWe +ave 1; advocates #+o volunteered to assist nort+east "eo"le #+en in trou.le. 5+e2
#ill console >"eo"le? #+ile filing AI% and more. 5+e advocateJs details are given on
*el+i"olicefornort+east.com,H +e said.
)el" is also at +and for #omen, #+o fail to find trans"ort "ost sunset. G*ial 1;;, and #e #ill
send a PC% van and dro" t+e lad2 +ome,H +e said. 5+ere is also a s2stem called a"4a
@"date. If 2our case doesnJt "roceed, 2ou can as4 for u"date on #+2 itJs still "ending. )i.u
also urged students from t+e nort+east region to mingle #it+ "eo"le from ot+er states .2
cele.rating and "artici"ating in nort+ Indian festivals for increased communication and
su""ort.
5+ere #ere ot+ers t+ereC 5al#arsJ la#2er in arus+i-)emra8 murder case
In t+e arus+i-)emra8 murder case, defence counsel for t+e 5al#ar dentist cou"le Arida2
told a court +ere t+at contrar2 to t+e C3I t+eor2 t+e .lood stains on a #+is4e2 .ottle could
not .e of arus+iJs "arents.
23
5+e 5al#ars, "arents of t+e 14-2ear-old victim and #+o are accused in t+e case, are
re"resented .2 la#2er !at2a4etu !ing+, #+o su.mitted Arida2 t+at t+e C3I did not agree to
conduct a Gtouc+ *0H test of t+e finger "rints on t+e #+is4e2 .ottle.
5+e "arents of arus+i +ad even suggested t+e names of certain la.oratories in t+e @!,
3ritain and Canada, and +ad agreed to +ave t+e test conducted at t+eir o#n cost.
5+e la#2er also su.mitted to t+e C3I court t+at 3.<. Ma+a"atra, t+e scientist at t+e Central
Aorensic !cience La.orator2 >CA!L?, re"orted t+at t+e finger"rints on t+ree .ottles of
<ingfis+er .eer, !"rite cold drin4 and !ula #+is4e2 #ere of )emra8, a domestic +el" #+ose
.od2 #as found in t+e terrace of t+e 0oida +ouse of t+e 5al#ars a da2 after arus+i #as
found murdered.
5+e la#2er said t+e "artial *0 test suggested t+at t+e finger"rints on t+e .eer .ottle and on
"alm-"rint on t+e terrace #ere of t+e same "erson.
5+ree glasses and t+ree .ottles #ere found in t+e room of )emra8, suggesting t+at t+ree
"eo"le +ad .een drin4ing t+at nig+t. lso, t+e mar4s on t+e domestic +el"Js .ed suggested
t+at t+ree "eo"le +ad sat on it.
5+e food left for )emra8 in t+e 4itc+en +ad .een left untouc+ed.
5+ere #as also evidence t+at )emra8 received calls on t+e tele"+one 2.3; ".m., Ma2 1' 2;;1,
indicating t+at %a8 <umar, #+o #or4ed as a domestic +el" in t+e +ome of a cou"le #+o #ere
associates of t+e 5al#ars, +ad fi(ed t+e time to visit )emra8 in t+e nig+t.
t t+e time t+at %a8 <umar s"o4e to )emra8, %a8es+ 5al#ar, t+e dentist fat+er of arus+i,
#as at a "rivate medical college giving a lecture.
3+arti, a maid in t+e 5al#ar +ouse+old, su.mitted on record t+at s+e as4ed 0u"ur, t+e
mot+er of t+e murdered girl, to t+ro# do#n t+e 4e2s in t+e morning.
5+e famil2Js driver @mes+ and a #as+erman in t+e localit2 also testified t+at alt+oug+ t+e
main gate to t+e +ome remained closed all t+e time, and #as not eas2 to o"en, it could .e
"us+ed +ard and o"ened.
5+e circumstances, t+e la#2er said, suggested t+at entr2 from outside #as "ossi.le, and t+e
mar4s on )emra8Js .ed suggested t+at t+ere #ere "eo"le from outside t+e +ouse #it+in, on
t+e nig+t of t+e murder.
In its arguments, t+e C3I +ad said t+at t+ere #as no one from outside t+e +ouse #it+in, and
t+e "arents #ere solel2 res"onsi.le for #+atever +a""ened t+at nig+t.
24
5+e ne(t +earing in t+e matter #ill .e +eld 0ov &.
arus+i, 14, #as found murdered at +er "arentsJ 0oida residence Ma2 1-, 2;;1. 5+e .od2 of
)emra8 #as found t+e ne(t da2 on t+e terrace of t+e +ouse.
0o .ail for #oman accused of torturing maid
*el+i court Arida2 re8ected t+e .ail "lea of a #oman #+o #as arrested for allegedl2
torturing and illegall2 confining +er teenaged domestic +el" in +er +ouse at Vasant <un8, in
sout+ *el+i.
dditional !essions =udge *a2a Pra4as+ dismissed t+e .ail "lea of t+e accused ';-2ear-old
Vandana *+ir, #+o is under 8udicial custod2.
*+ir and "lacement agent *orot+2 #ere arrested .2 t+e "olice in t+e case.
sessions court +ad Ect 3; granted .ail to *orot+2, #+o +ad arranged t+e maid for *+ir.
*+ir, #+o #as #or4ing #it+ a multinational firm in 0oida, +as .een accused of assaulting
+er domestic +el", .eating +er and .randing +er #it+ a +ot griddle.
5+e maid, #+o +ails from =+ar4+and, #as also forced to drin4 +er urine and #as 4e"t .2 *+ir
in +er Vasant <un8 +ouse in a semi-na4ed condition, t+e victim said.
!+e #as rescued .2 a 8oint team from non-governmental organisation !+a4ti Va+ini and
*el+i Police from *+irJs residence on t+e evening of !e" 3;.
*istur.ed .2 +er s+rie4s, neig+.ours informed t+e "olice.
magisterial court +ad Ect $ dismissed *+irJs .ail "lea.
25
Counsel of *ec 1- gang-ra"e convicts Prunning a#a2J
5+e *el+i )ig+ Court Arida2 e("ressed dis"leasure over t+e a.sence of counsel for convicts
in t+e *ec 1-, 2;12, gang-ra"e deat+ sentence confirmation case, sa2ing t+e2 are Grunning
a#a2H from court and avoiding "roceedings.
GIt is a ver2 unfortunate situation, #e are e(tremel2 "ained. 5+at is #+at #e can sa2,H a
division .enc+ of =ustice %eva <+etra"al and =ustice Prati.+a %ani said on t+e re"eated
a.sence of counsel ML !+arma, #+o is a""earing for t#o convicts.
G%unning a#a2 #ill not solve t+e "ro.lem. )o# long #ill 2ou runM 3etter to "ut 2our .est
foot for#ard,H t+e .enc+ said, and also #arned t+em of a""ointing an amicus curiae. 5+e
court also remar4ed t+at it is a Gdeli.erate attem"tH to GforestallH t+e +earing of a""eal.
5+e .enc+ too4 strong o.8ection to !+armaJs conduct of leaving *el+i #it+out informing t+e
court.
GW+2 #as t+e court not informed t+at +e #as going outstationM )o# discourteous is it to t+e
court to go a#a2 #it+out informing us,H =ustice <+etra"al said.
5+roug+ +is "ro(2 counsel, !+arma filed an affidavit in t+e court sa2ing +e #ent to Mum.ai
Ect $ to argue .efore =ustice C+andrac+ud t+ere, and #ill come .efore t+e *el+i )ig+ Court
for argument 0ov 12.
)o#ever, !"ecial Pu.lic Prosecutor *a2an <ris+nan "ointed out t+at =ustice C+andrac+ud
+as ta4en over as t+e c+ief 8ustice of t+e lla+a.ad )ig+ Court.
5+e court also issued "roduction #arrants for all t+e four convicts L Pa#an /u"ta, 4s+a2
5+a4ur, Vina2 !+arma and Mu4es+ L for 0ov 11. 5+e court noted t+at none of t+e famil2
mem.ers of t+e convicts #as "resent.
26
5+e .enc+ gave a last c+ance to advocate .P. !ing+, a""earing for Vina2 and 4s+a2, to .e
"resent Monda2. 5+e amicus curiae >counsel to assist t+e court? #ill .e a""ointed ot+er#ise,
t+e .enc+ said.
In t+e order, =ustice <+etra"al saidC GCounsel for Vina2 and 4s+a2 is also not "resent. It
a""ears t+at it is a deli.erate attem"t to forestall t+e +earing of t+e a""eal. We are left #it+
no o"tion e(ce"t to ad8ourn t+e +earing for Monda2. En t+at date, if counsel do not come, #e
s+all a""oint amicus curiae. 0ot onl2 t+is, none of t+e famil2 mem.ers are "resent in t+e
court.H
Mean#+ile, t+e "rosecution concluded its arguments on t+e confirmation of deat+ sentence to
t+e four convicts, sa2ingC G32 giving t+e ma(imum sentence, t+e message to t+e societ2
#ould .e t+at deviant .e+aviour of an e(treme 4ind #ill not .e tolerated.H
<ris+nan argued t+at t+e socio-economic status of convicts cannot .e determinative in
sentencing in a gangra"e, cou"led #it+ murder.
5+e trial court !e" 13 a#arded t+e deat+ sentence to Mu4es+, 2-, 4s+a2 5+a4ur, 21, Pa#an
/u"ta, 1&, and Vina2 !+arma, 2;, convicted in t+e case, and referred t+e case to t+e +ig+
court for confirmation of t+eir sentence.
5+e 23-2ear-old student of "+2siot+era"2 #as .rutall2 gangra"ed in a moving .us .2 si(
"eo"le, including a 8uvenile. 5+e accused t+en t+re# +er and +er male com"anion out of t+e
ve+icle, stri""ed of clot+ing, to die .2 t+e roadside on t+e cold *ecem.er nig+t.
5+e #oman died of grave intestinal in8uries *ec 2& at !inga"oreJs Mount 9li6a.et+ )os"ital,
#+ere s+e #as airlifted for s"ecialised treatment.
Ene of t+e si( accused #as found dead in a cell in *el+iJs 5i+ar =ail. 8uvenile involved in
t+e crime #as ug 31 sent .2 t+e =uvenile =ustice 3oard to a reform +ome for t+ree 2ears,
t+e ma(imum term under t+e 8uvenile la#.
*ecem.er 1- gang-ra"e convicts soug+t 4illC)C
*el+i Police on 5+ursda2 told t+e *el+i )ig+ Court +earing t+e confirmation of t+e deat+
"enalt2 a#arded to four convicts in t+e *ecem.er 1-, 2;12 gang-ra"e case t+at a cons"irac2
#as +atc+ed to commit ra"e and t+en 4ill t+e victim.
!"ecial Pu.lic Prosecutor *a2an <ris+nan, a""earing for "olice, also told a division .enc+ of
=ustice %eva <+etra"al and =ustice Prati.+a %ani t+at t+e claim of t+e accused .efore t+e trial
court t+at t+e2 #ere not "resent at t+e time of incident #as false.
27
G5+e manner of t+e crime, t+e nature of #ea"on used and t+e fact t+at t+e2 >t+e victim and
t+e man accom"an2ing +er? #ere t+ro#n out of t+e .us in na4ed condition in t+e cold nig+t
to die, can leave no iota of dou.t in courtJs mind t+at t+ere #as an intention of murder,H
<ris+nan said.
)e addedC G5+e victim and +er male friend #ere lured into t+e .us as t+e2 #ere made to
.elieve t+at it #as a .us of carriageK.H
5+e "rosecutor said t+e Ggruesome nature of in8ur2H on t+e 23-2ear-old student of
"+2siot+era"2, #+o #as returning +ome #it+ a male friend after +aving #atc+ed a movie,
onl2 reflected t+e intention of murder.
G5+ere #as also a clear intention to 4ill t+e victim. I #is+ t+e 9nglis+ language +ad #ords to
descri.e t+e in8ur2 .etter t+an P.rutalJ and Pgrotes7ueJ. P3rutalit2J and PgrievousJ are not
enoug+ to descri.e t+e act,H <ris+nan said.
<ris+nan also told t+e court t+at +e #ould argue Arida2 on t+e trial courtJs sentence a#arded
to t+e convicts and conclude +is arguments .efore t+e courtJs lunc+ .rea4.
5o t+is, t+e .enc+ said t+at after t+e "rosecutor concludes +is argument, defence counsel ML
!+arma, a""earing for accused Mu4es+ and Pa#an /u"ta, #ill .egin +is arguments.
5+e "ro(2 counsel, #+o a""eared on .e+alf of !+arma, +o#ever, said t+at !+arma #ould .e
availa.le for arguments onl2 5uesda2.
En +is contention, t+e .enc+ saidC GIf +e #ill not argue t+e case, #e #ill close it. )e can
move t+e !u"reme Court against our order.H
5+e trial court !e" 13 a#arded t+e deat+ sentence to Mu4es+, 2-, 4s+a2 5+a4ur, 21, Pa#an
/u"ta, 1&, and Vina2 !+arma, 2;, convicted in t+e case, and referred t+e case to t+e +ig+
court for confirmation of t+eir sentence.
5+e #oman #as .rutall2 gangra"ed in a moving .us .2 si( "eo"le, including a 8uvenile. 5+e
accused t+en t+re# +er and +er male com"anion out of t+e ve+icle, stri""ed of clot+ing, to
die .2 t+e roadside on t+e cold *ecem.er nig+t.
5+e #oman died of grave intestinal in8uries *ec 2& at !inga"oreJs Mount 9li6a.et+ )os"ital,
#+ere s+e #as airlifted for s"ecialised treatment.
Ene of t+e si( accused #as found dead in a cell in *el+iJs 5i+ar =ail. 8uvenile involved in
t+e crime #as ug 31 sent .2 t+e =uvenile =ustice 3oard to a reform +ome for t+ree 2ears,
t+e ma(imum term under t+e 8uvenile la#.
28
Marital %a"e and t+e Indian legal scenario
Priyan4a Rath see4s to .ring out t+e la#s regarding ra"e in India #+ile concentrating on t+e
"osition of marital ra"e and its recognition as an offence .2 t+e s2stem and t+e attitude of t+e
societ2 and t+e 8udiciar2 to#ards marital ra"e.
Marital %a"erefers to un#anted intercourse .2 a man #it+ +is #ife o.tained .2 force, t+reat
of force, or "+2sical violence, or #+en s+e is una.le to give consent. Marital ra"e could .e .2
t+e use of force onl2, a .attering ra"e or a sadistic/o.sessive ra"e. It is a non-consensual act
of violent "erversion .2 a +us.and against t+e #ife #+ere s+e is "+2sicall2 and se(uall2
a.used.
""ro(imations +ave 7uoted t+at ever2 - +oursI a 2oung married #oman is .urnt or .eaten
to deat+, or driven to suicide from emotional a.use .2 +er +us.and. 5+e @0 Po"ulation Aund
states t+at more t+an 2/3rds of married #omen in India, aged .et#een 1' to 4& +ave .een
.eaten, ra"ed or forced to "rovide se(. In 2;;', -$1$ cases #ere recorded of #omen
murdered .2 t+eir +us.ands or t+eir +us.andsJ families. '-D of Indian #omen .elieved
occasional #ife-.eating to .e 8ustified.
)istoricall2, GRa5t$sH, t+e generic term of ra"e #as to im"l2 violent t+eft, a""lied to .ot+
"ro"ert2 and "erson. It #as s2non2mous #it+ a.duction and a #omanJs a.duction or se(ual
molestation, #as merel2 t+e t+eft of a #oman against t+e consent of +er guardian or t+ose
#it+ legal "o#er over +er. 5+e +arm, ironicall2, #as treated as a #rong against +er fat+er or
+us.and, #omen .eing #+oll2 o#ned su.sidiaries.
5+e marital ra"e e(em"tion can .e traced to statements .2 !ir Mat+e# )ale, C+ief =ustice in
9ngland, during t+e 1-;;s. )e #rote, G5+e +us.and cannot .e guilt2 of a ra"e committed .2
+imself u"on +is la#ful #ife, for .2 t+eir mutual matrimonial consent and contract, t+e #ife
+at+ given +erself in 4ind unto t+e +us.and, #+om s+e cannot retract.H
0ot sur"risingl2, t+us, married #omen #ere never t+e su.8ect of ra"e la#s. La#s .esto#ed
an a.solute immunit2 on t+e +us.and in res"ect of +is #ife, solel2 on t+e .asis of t+e marital
relation. 5+e revolution started #it+ #omen activists in merica raising t+eir voices in t+e
29
1&$;s for elimination of marital ra"e e(em"tion clause and e(tension of guarantee of e7ual
"rotection to #omen.
In t+e "resent da2, studies indicate t+at .et#een 1; and 14D of married #omen are ra"ed .2
t+eir +us.andsC t+e incidents of marital ra"e soars to 1/3rd to T among clinical sam"les of
.attered #omen. !e(ual assault .2 oneJs s"ouse accounts for a""ro(imatel2 2'D of ra"es
committed. Women #+o .ecame "rime targets for marital ra"e are t+ose #+o attem"t to flee.
Criminal c+arges of se(ual assault ma2 .e triggered .2 ot+er acts, #+ic+ ma2 include genital
contact #it+ t+e mout+ or anus or t+e insertion of o.8ects into t+e vagina or t+e anus, all
#it+out t+e consent of t+e victim. It is a conscious "rocess of intimidation and assertion of
t+e su"eriorit2 of men over #omen.
dvancing #ell into t+e timeline, marital ra"e is not an offence in India. *es"ite
amendments, la# commissions and ne# legislations, one of t+e most +umiliating and
de.ilitating acts is not an offence in India. loo4 at t+e o"tions a #oman +as to "rotect
+erself in a marriage, tells us t+at t+e legislations +ave .een eit+er non-e(istent or o.scure
and ever2t+ing +as 8ust de"ended on t+e inter"retation .2 Courts.
!ection 3$', t+e "rovision of ra"e in t+e Indian Penal Code >IPC?, +as ec+oing ver2 arc+aic
sentiments, mentioned as its e(ce"tion clause- G!e(ual intercourse .2 man #it+ +is o#n
#ife, t+e #ife not .eing under 1' 2ears of age, is not ra"e.H !ection 3$- of IPC "rovides
"unis+ment for ra"e. ccording to t+e section, t+e ra"ist s+ould .e "unis+ed #it+
im"risonment of eit+er descri"tion for a term #+ic+ s+all not .e less t+an $ 2ears .ut #+ic+
ma2 e(tend to life or for a term e(tending u" to 1; 2ears and s+all also .e lia.le to fine
unless t+e #oman ra"ed is +is o#n #ife, and is not under 12 2ears of age, in #+ic+ case, +e
s+all .e "unis+ed #it+ im"risonment of eit+er descri"tion for a term #+ic+ ma2 e(tend to 2
2ears #it+ fine or #it+ .ot+.
5+is section in dealing #it+ se(ual assault, in a ver2 narro# "urvie# la2s do#n t+at, an
offence of ra"e #it+in marital .onds stands onl2 if t+e #ife .e less t+an 12 2ears of age, if
s+e .e .et#een 12 to 1- 2ears, an offence is committed, +o#ever, less serious, attracting
milder "unis+ment. Ence, t+e age crosses 1-, t+ere is no legal "rotection accorded to t+e
#ife, in direct contravention of +uman rig+ts regulations.
30
)o# can t+e same la# "rovide for t+e legal age of consent for marriage to .e 11 #+ile
"rotecting form se(ual a.use, onl2 t+ose u" to t+e age of 1-M 3e2ond t+e age of 1-, t+ere is
no remed2 t+e #oman +as.
5+e #ifeJs role +as traditionall2 .een understood as su.missive, docile and t+at of a
+omema4er. !e( +as .een treated as o.ligator2 in a marriage and also ta.oo. tleast t+e
discussion o"enl2 of it, +ence, t+e a#areness remains dismal. 9conomic inde"endence, a
dream for man2 Indian #omen still is an undenia.l2 im"ortant factor for .eing +eard and
res"ected. Wit+ t+e #omen .eing fed t+e .itter medicine of .eing Ggood #ivesH, to 7uietl2
serve and not #as+ dirt2 linen in "u.lic, even counseling remains inaccessi.le.
Legislators use results of researc+ studies as an e(cuse against ma4ing marital ra"e an
offence, #+ic+ indicates t+at man2 survivors of marital ra"e, re"ort flas+ .ac4, se(ual
d2sfunction, emotional "ain, even 2ears out of t+e violence and #orse, t+e2 sometimes
continue living #it+ t+e a.user. Aor t+ese reasons, even t+e latest re"ort of t+e La#
Commission +as "referred to ad+ere to its earlier o"inion of non-recognition of Gra"e #it+in
t+e .onds of marriageH as suc+ a "rovision ma2 amount to" e(cessive interference #it t+e
marital relations+i".
marriage is a .ond of trust and t+at of affection. +us.and e(ercising se(ual su"eriorit2,
.2 getting it on demand and t+roug+ an2 means "ossi.le, is not "art of t+e institution.
!ur"risingl2, t+is is not, as 2et, in an2 la# .oo4 in India.
5+e ver2 definition of ra"e >section 3$' of IPC? demands c+ange. 5+e narro# definition +as
.een critici6ed .2 Indian and international #omenJs and c+ildren organi6ations, #+o insist
t+at including oral se(, sodom2 and "enetration .2 foreign o.8ects #it+in t+e meaning of
ra"e #ould not +ave .een inconsistent #it+ na2 constitutional "rovisions, natural 8ustice or
e7uit2. 9ven international la# no# sa2s t+at ra"e ma2 .e acce"ted a s t+e Gse(ual
"enetration, not 8ust "enal "enetration, .ut also t+reatening, forceful, coercive use of force
against t+e victim, or t+e "enetration .2 an2 o.8ect, +o#ever slig+t.H rticle 2 of t+e
*eclaration of t+e 9limination of Violence against Women includes marital ra"e e("licitl2 in
t+e definition of violence against #omen. 9m"+asis on t+ese "rovisions is not meant to
tantali6e, .ut to give t+e victim and not t+e criminal, t+e .enefit of dou.t.
Marital ra"e is illegal in 11 merican !tates, 3 ustralian !tates, 0e# Uealand, Canada,
Israel, Arance, !#eden, *enmar4, 0or#a2, !oviet @nion, Poland and C6ec+oslova4ia. %a"e
31
in an2 form is an act of utter +umiliation, degradation and violation rat+er t+an an outdated
conce"t of "enile/vaginal "enetration. %estricting an understanding of ra"e reaffirms t+e vie#
t+at ra"ists treat ra"e as se( and not violence and +ence, condone suc+ .e+aviour.

5+e im"ortance of consent for ever2 individual decision cannot .e over em"+asi6ed.
#oman can "rotect +er rig+t to life and li.ert2, .ut not +er .od2, #it+in +er marriage, #+ic+
is 8ust ironical. Women so far +ave +ad recourse onl2 to section 4&1- of t+e IPC, dealing
#it+ cruelt2, to "rotect t+emselves against G"erverse se(ual conduct .2 t+e +us.andH. 3ut,
#+ere is t+e standard of measure or inter"retation for t+e courts, of P"erversionJ or
PunnaturalJ, t+e definitions #it+in intimate s"ousal relationsM Is e(cessive demand for se(
"erverseM IsnJt consent a sine 7ua nonM Is marriage a license to ra"eM 5+ere is no ans#er,
.ecause t+e 8udiciar2 and t+e legislature +ave .een silent.
5+e 1$2nd La# Commission re"ort +ad made t+e follo#ing recommendations for su.stantial
c+ange in t+e la# #it+ regard to ra"e.
1. P%a"eJ s+ould .e re"laced .2 t+e term Pse(ual assaultJ.
2. P!e(ual intercourse as contained in section 3$' of IPC s+ould include all forms of
"enetration suc+ as "enile/vaginal, "enile/oral, finger/vaginal, finger/anal and o.8ect/vaginal.
3. In t+e lig+t of !a4s+i v. @nion of India and Et+ers N2;;4 >'? !CC '11O, Pse(ual
assault on an2 "art of t+e .od2 s+ould .e construed as ra"e.
4. %a"e la#s s+ould .e made gender neutral as custodial ra"e of 2oung .o2s +as .een
neglected .2 la#.
'. ne# offence, namel2 section 3$-9 #it+ t+e title Punla#ful se(ual conductJ s+ould
.e created.
-. !ection ';& of t+e IPC #as also soug+t to .e amended, "roviding +ig+er "unis+ment
#+ere t+e offence set out in t+e said section is committed #it+ se(ual intent.
$. Marital ra"eC e("lanation >2? of section 3$' of IPC s+ould .e deleted. Aorced se(ual
intercourse .2 a +us.and #it+ +is #ife s+ould .e treated e7uall2 as an offence 8ust as an2
"+2sical violence .2 a +us.and against t+e #ife is treated as an offence. En t+e same
reasoning, section 3$- #as to .e deleted.
1. @nder t+e Indian 9vidence ct >I9?, #+en alleged t+at a victim consented to t+e
se(ual act and it is denied, t+e court s+all "resume it to .e so.
32
5+e muc+ a#aited *omestic Violence ct, 2;;' >*V? +as also .een a disa""ointment. It
+as "rovided civil remedies to #+at t+e "rovision of cruelt2 alread2 gave criminal remedies,
#+ile 4ee"ing t+e status of t+e matter of marital ra"e in continuing disregard. !ection 3 of t+e
*omestic Violence ct, amongst ot+er t+ings in t+e definition of domestic violence, +as
included an2 act causing +arm, in8ur2, an2t+ing endangering +ealt+, life, etc., K mental,
"+2sical, or se(ual.
It condones se(ual a.use in a domestic relations+i" of marriage or a live-in, onl2 if it is life
t+reatening or grievousl2 +urtful. It is not a.out t+e freedom of decision of a #omanJs #ants.
It is a.out t+e fundamental design of t+e marital institution t+at des"ite .eing married, s+e
retains and individual status, #+ere s+e doesnJt need to concede to ever2 "+2sical overture
even t+oug+ it is onl2 .e +er +us.and. )onour and dignit2 remains #it+ an individual,
irres"ective of marital status.
!ection 122 of t+e Indian 9vidence ct "revents communication during marriage from .eing
disclosed in court e(ce"t #+en one married "artner is .eing "ersecuted for n offence against
t+e ot+er. !ince, marital ra"e is not an offence, t+e evidence is inadmissi.le, alt+oug+
relevant, unless it is a "rosecution for .atter2, or some related "+2sical or mental a.use under
t+e "rovision of cruelt2. !etting out to "rove t+e offence of marital ra"e in court, com.ining
t+e "rovisions of t+e *V and IPC #ill .e a nearl2 im"ossi.le tas4.
5+e trou.le is, it +as .een acce"ted t+at a marital relations+i" is "racticall2 sacrosanct.
%at+er t+an, ma4ing t+e #ife #ors+i" t+e +us.andJs ever2 #+im, es"eciall2 se(ual, it is
su""osed to t+rive n mutual res"ect and trust. It is muc+ more traumatic .eing a victim of
ra"e .2 someone 4no#n, a famil2 mem.er, and #orse to +ave to co+a.it #it+ +im. )o# can
t+e la# ignore suc+ a +uge violation of a fundamental rig+t of freedom of an2 married
#oman, t+e rig+t to +er .od2, to "rotect +er from an2 a.useM
s a final "iece of argument to s+o# t+e "ressing need for "rotection of #oman, +ere are
some effects a ra"e victim ma2 +ave to live #it+,-
• P+2sical in8uries to vaginal and anal areas, lacerations, .ruising.
• n(iet2, s+oc4, de"ression and suicidal t+oug+ts.
• /2necological effects including miscarriage, still.irt+s, .ladder infections, !5*s and
infertilit2.
33
• Long dra#n s2m"toms li4e insomnia, eating disorders, se(ual d2sfunction, and
negative self image.
Marriage does not t+rive on se( and t+e fear of frivolous litigation s+ould not sto" "rotection
from .eing offered to t+ose caug+t in a.usive tra"s, #+ere t+e2 are denigrated to t+e status of
c+attel. "art form 8udicial a#a4eningI #e "rimaril2 re7uire generation of a#areness. Men
are t+e "er"etrators of t+is crime. P9ducating .o2s and men to vie# #omen as valua.le
"artners in life, in t+e develo"ment of societ2 and t+e attainment of "eace are 8ust as
im"ortant as ta4ing legal ste"s "rotect #omenJs +uman rig+tsJ, sa2s t+e @0. Men +ave t+e
social, economic, moral, "olitical, religious and social res"onsi.ilit2 to com.at all forms of
gender discrimination.
In a countr2 rife #it+ misconce"tions of ra"e, dee"l2 ingrained cultural and religious
stereot2"es, and c+anging social values, glo.ali6ation +as to fast alter t+e letter of la#.
@" to eig+t men gang ra"ed a 3&-2ear-old !#iss #oman cam"ing #it+ +er +us.and .et#een
t+e to#ns of *atia and Erc+aa in India. 5+e men .eat t+e +us.and #it+ stic4s and forced +im
to #atc+ t+e .rutal crime after t2ing +im to a tree. 5+e2 also stole t+e cou"leVs "+one, la"to"s
and ru"ees #ort+ around W11;. 5+e cou"le +ad .een .ic2cling to t+e 5a8 Ma+al.
5+e #oman received treatment at a +os"ital in /#alior. !+e +as not .een identifiedI in
"ictures of +er .eing lead to t+e courtroom s+e #ears a +ood. 3esides concern for "rivac2,
t+ere is a stigma against ra"e survivors in t+e countr2.
5+irteen men #ere detained .ut none +ave .een c+arged. !i( +ave alread2 .een released.
re"orter descri.ed t+e region as X4no#n for its .anditr2X and Xfairl2 la#less and it is also
ver2 "oor.X
5+e case comes at a time #+en violence against #omen in India is in t+e #orldVs
s"otlig+t. %a"e in India +as .een encouraged .2 "overt2 and gender ine7ualit2. In *ecem.er,
si( men gang ra"ed a 23-2ear-old #oman on a .us in 0e# *el+i. !+e #as violated #it+
an iron rod also used to .eat +er male com"anion. !+e later died in a !inga"ore +os"ital after
doctors #ere forced to remove +er infected intestines.
5+e driver of t+e .us "artici"ated in t+e attac4. )e #as found +anging in "rison last #ee4.
5+e "olice sa2 +e +anged +imselfI +is famil2 and la#2ers sa2 t+ere #as foul "la2 involved.
34
5+e incident s"urred "rotests calling on t+e government to do more to "rotect #omen. 5+e2
received attention around t+e #orld.
lso in *ecem.er, a Pun8a.i survivor of gang ra"e committed suicide after "olice refused to
register +er crime, let alone arrest +er ra"ists.
5+e .roader conte(t of t+is e(treme violence is one of e(treme "overt2. In @ttar Prades+,
man2 2oung #omen +ave .een ra"ed .ecause t+e2 +ave to go to t+e .at+room in t+e fields
outside t+eir +ouse. 5+e average #age t+ere is W1.2' "er da2.
5+e "oorest and t+e lo#er castes, es"eciall2 t+e *alits, formerl2 4no#n as Xuntouc+a.les,X
are t+e most vulnera.le. !% *ara"uri, vice-"resident of t+e Peo"leVs @nion for Civil Li.erties
in @ttar Prades+, sa2s, X&;D of Nra"eO victims #ere *alits and 1'D of *alit ra"e victims
#ere underage girls.X
)e also said, Xt+e "olice do not #ant to register cases .ecause t+e2 +ave .een told .2 t+eir
"olitical .osses to 4ee" t+e crime figures lo#X so onl2 one out of 1; cases is re"orted.
ttitudes against ra"e are +eld .ac4 .2 older ideas. 5+e female C+ief Minister of West
3engal said , Xearlier if men and #omen #ould +old +ands, t+e2 #ould get caug+t .2 "arents
and re"rimanded .ut no# ever2t+ing is so o"en ... 9ver2da2 ra"e incidents are .eing
+ig+lig+ted as if t+e entire state +as .ecome t+e land of ra"ists.X In 2;;& a /oa
congressman said t+at #omen invite ra"e .2 sociali6ing #it+ strangers.
%oo" %e4+a Verma, of #omenVs activist grou" !+ared World, sa2s t+at t+e stigma against
survivors and t+e desire to marr2 virgins furt+er de"resses t+e re"orting rate. Man2 survivors
#+o do re"ort are su.8ected to +umiliating Xfinger testsX .2 doctors #+o "ro.e not onl2 for
signs of assault, .ut also virginit2.
9ven #orse, once ra"es are re"orted t+e standards of evidence are so +ig+ t+at t+ere is onl2 a
2'D conviction rate.
More distur.ingl2, t+e aut+orities ma2 .e 8ust as cul"a.le. )uman %ig+ts Watc+ >)%W?
+as documented t+e Indian militar2 ra"ing civilians .elieved to s2m"at+i6e #it+ Islamist
terrorists in <as+mir. Most of t+e victims a""ear to .e selected ar.itraril2. 5+e insurgents
also ra"e civilians.
)%W also alleges t+at t+e "olice in India ra"e #omen, es"eciall2 t+ose from lo#er castes
and minorit2 grou"s. Women are detained on false c+arges or even sim"l2 +eld for ransom.
35
side from ra"e, #omen in India suffer from a dee"l2 "atriarc+al societ2. ccording to t+e
Indian Council of /lo.al %elations, most #omen are victims of se(ual +arassment in
"u.lic. @0 inde( measuring gender dis"arities in education, em"lo2ment, +ealt+ care,
"olitical re"resentation and more ran4ed India 134 out of 11$ countries, .elo# !audi ra.ia
and C+ina.
India +as la#s against marital ra"e, se( selective a.ortion, and .ridal do#ries, .ut all t+ese
"ractices continue toda2. Marital ra"e onl2 .ecame illegal #it+in t+e last 3; 2ears.
5+e +ome affairs minister a""ointed a "anel follo#ing t+e *ecem.er .us ra"e case #+ic+
called for ma4ing gang ra"e "unis+a.le .2 2; 2ears in "rison, ma4ing it a crime for not
investigating se(ual assault com"laints, and ma4ing it a crime to consider t+e survivorVs
c+aracter or se(ual +istor2 in a trial. 0o la# +as .een "assed 2et.
%ig+ts grou"s suc+ as )%W +ave called for more stringent la#s, "unis+ing non-"enetrative
assault and inflicting +ars+er "enalties for ra"es committed .2 militar2 and "olice officials.
India is t+e #orldVs largest democrac2. 9nding t+e "atriarc+2 and t+e ra"e "ro.lems it .rings
loo4s to .e its ne(t .ig c+allenge.
36
ConclusionC
5+e courts and t+e legislature +ave to ma4e man2 c+anges if t+e la#s of ra"e are to .e an2
deterrence. 5+e sentence of "unis+ment, #+ic+ normall2 ranges from one to ten 2ears, #+ere
on an average most convicts get a#a2 #it+ t+ree to four 2ears of rigorous im"risonment #it+
a ver2 small fineI and in some cases, #+ere t+e accused is resourceful or influential- ma2
even e("iate .2 "a2ing +uge amounts of mone2 and get e(cul"ated. 5+e courts +ave to
com"re+end t+e fact t+at t+ese conscienceless criminals- #+o sometimes even .eat and
torture t+eir victims- #+o even include small c+ildren, are not going to .e deterred or
enno.led .2 suc+ a small time of im"risonment. 5+erefore, in t+e .est interest of 8ustice and
t+e societ2, t+ese criminals s+ould .e sentenced to life im"risonment.
La# remains .ut t+e num.er of victims >including minor? continues to increase destro2ing
t+e ver2 soul of t+e +el"less #omen. 5+e conce"t of marital ra"e does not e(ist in India.
Contrar2 to t+e "o"ular .elief ra"e is almost never "er"etrated for se(ual gratification. It is an
Pacts of violence t+at +a""ens to .e e("ressed t+roug+ se(ual meansJ.
5+e mendment 1&13 +as .roug+t a.out some im"ortant c+anges in t+e e(isting la#s of ra"e
as a res"onse to t+e gro#ing "u.lic o"inion demanding more stringent anti ra"e la#s. It
amends !ection 3$- IPC and en+ances t+e "unis+ment of ra"e it also "rovides en+anced
"unis+ment of minimum of 1; 2ears of im"risonment for "olice officers or staff of 8ail, t+e
remand +omes or ot+er "laces of custod2 esta.lis+ed .2 la#. 5+e ct furt+er inserts a ne#
!ection 114- I9, .2 raising a "resum"tion as to a.sence of consent in cases of custodial
ra"e, ra"e on "regnant #omen and gang ra"e at least "artiall2, removed t+e infirmit2 from
t+e evidence of a victim of ra"e t+at #as +it+erto un8ustl2 attac+ed to +er testimon2 #it+out
ta4ing note of t+e fact t+at in India, unli4e t+e occident a disclosure of t+e girls identit2,
re+a.ilitation in societ2 for all times to come and unless +er stor2 #as "ainfull2 true s+e
#ould not +ave ta4en suc+ a grave ris4 merel2 to malign t+e accused.
!evere and certain "unis+ment in a time .ound manner, of t+e ra"ists +as some deterrent
value. rrest alone ma2 not constitute a strong societal res"onse. Lengt+2 "rison sentences
+ave some .e+avior-altering deterrent values. Man2 #ell-4no#n 8urists and "u.lic men +ave
advocated ca"ital "unis+ment for t+e criminals #+o commit ra"e as it is an offence #orse
37
t+an murder so far as its im"act is concerned. !till t+ere is need for amending t+e anomal2
related to t+e age of consent, and of #ife in accordance #it+ t+e Marriage ct in India.
MaCin) )ui'&in&s #o! a'o.tion 5= #o!&i)n&!s2 ?C to'
5+e central government informed t+e *el+i )ig+ Court t+at t+e #omen and c+ild
develo"ment ministr2 and t+e Central do"tion %esource ut+orit2 >C%? #ere #or4ing
to formulate guidelines t+at #ill govern t+e ado"tion of Indian 4ids .2 foreign citi6en.
.enc+ of =ustice 3.*. +med and =ustice !idd+art+ Mridul directed Gconcerned officialsH
from t+e ministr2 to .e "resent in court during t+e ne(t +earing Ae. '.
5+e su.mission #as made .2 t+e government during t+e +earing of "leas .2 t#o ado"tive
"arents from t+e @! #+o +ave .een see4ing a no-o.8ection certificate for nearl2 t#o 2ears
no# to ta4e t+eir ado"ted 4ids a.road #it+ t+em.
9arlier, t+e amicus curiae in t+e case, advocate Maninder c+ar2a, told t+e court t+at t+e
government needs to frame guidelines concerning inter-countr2 ado"tion, #+ere .iological
"arents directl2 give t+eir c+ild for ado"tion .2 foreigners.
5+e court +as to decide #+et+er an ado"tion in #+ic+ t+e c+ild is given directl2 .2 t+e
.iological "arents to anot+er "erson for ado"tion, #it+out t+e intervention of t+e C%, is
valid in t+e e2es of t+e la#.
C% is an autonomous .od2 under t+e ministr2 and functions as t+e nodal .od2 for
ado"tion of Indian c+ildren. It is mandated to monitor and regulate in-countr2 and inter-
countr2 ado"tions.
c+ar2a told t+e court t+at in t+e interest of t+e c+ildren .eing ado"ted, a s"ecialised
ado"tion agenc2 #ould need to intervene in t+e matter.
5+e advocate said t+ere are ado"tion guidelines onl2 for or"+aned, a.andoned and
surrendered c+ildren #+o are governed .2 la#s relating to 8uveniles and .2 t+e C%.
)o#ever, t+ere are no guidelines for direct ado"tion #+ere "arents give t+eir c+ildren in
ado"tion directl2 to anot+er cou"le.
Ene "etitioner #as a #oman doctor from t+e @! #+o +ad ado"ted a c+ild from a cou"le in
@ttar Prades+. !+e got t+e ado"tion deed registered .ut #+en s+e a""lied for t+e "ass"ort of
38
t+e c+ild, t+e "ass"ort aut+orit2 refused sa2ing s+e +as to o.tain a Gno o.8ection certificate
from C% #+ic+ refused to give +er t+e 0EC.
5+e second "etitioner #ere a cou"le from t+e @! #+o ado"ted a c+ild from a single mot+er
#+o remarried after t+e deat+ of +er first +us.and. C% also refused to give an 0EC to t+e
cou"le #+en t+e2 a""lied for t+e c+ildJs "ass"ort.
5+e advocate said t+at in .ot+ cases, t+e ado"tive "arents too4 t+e route of direct ado"tion,
#+ic+ in a sense Ge(cludes t+e c+ec4s and .alances "rovided in t+e .est interests of t+e c+ild
at t+e "re-ado"tion, ado"tion and "ost-ado"tion stagesH.
5+e counsel told t+e court t+at t+e Indian government =une 2$, 2;11 notified guidelines
governing ado"tion of c+ildren in furt+erance of "rovisions contained in t+e =uvenile =ustice
ct and t+e )ague Convention of 1&&3, to #+ic+ India .ecame a signator2 in 2;;3.
5+e ado"tive "arents, +o#ever, said C% +as Gno roleH to "la2 in t+e facts and
circumstances of t+e case as t+e Gc+ildren #ere given in ado"tion to t+eir res"ective ado"tive
"arents .2 t+eir .iological "arentsH.
5+e intercession of C% #as mandated onl2 in cases of t+ose c+ildren #+o are or"+aned
or a.andoned .2 t+eir .iological "arents, t+e ado"tive "arents said.
<. VERMA COMMITTEE REPORT
t+ree-mem.er Commission, +eaded .2 former C+ief =ustice of India, =ustice =.!. Verma
#+ic+ #as assigned to revie# la#s for se(ual crimes su.mitted its re"ort to t+e /overnment
during =anuar2 2;13. 5+e Commission +as recommended
com"re+ensive c+anges in criminal la#s to deal #it+ crimes and atrocities against #omen
#+ic+ are as underC
Punis+%&nt #o! Ra.&( 5+e "anel +as not recommended t+e deat+ "enalt2 for ra"ists. It
suggests t+at t+e "unis+ment for ra"e s+ould .e rigorous im"risonment or %I for seven 2ears
to life. It recommends t+at "unis+ment for causing deat+ or a X"ersistent vegetative stateX
s+ould .e %I for a term not .e less t+an 2; 2ears, .ut ma2 .e for life also, #+ic+ s+all mean
t+e rest of t+e "ersonVs life. /ang-ra"e, it suggests s+ould entail "unis+ment of not less t+an
2; 2ears, #+ic+ ma2 also e(tend to life and gang-ra"e follo#ed .2 deat+, s+ould .e "unis+ed
39
#it+ life im"risonment.
Punis+%&nt #o! ot+&! s&6ua o##&n/&s( 5+e "anel recognised t+e need to cur. all forms of
se(ual offences and recommended - Vo2eurism .e "unis+ed #it+ u"to seven 2ears in 8ailI
stal4ing or attem"ts to contact a "erson re"eatedl2 t+roug+ an2 means .2 u" to t+ree 2ears.
cid attac4s #ould .e "unis+ed .2 u" to seven 2ears if im"risonmentI traffic4ing #ill .e
"unis+ed #it+ %I for seven to ten 2ears.
R&)ist&!in) /o%.aints an' %&'i/a &6a%ination( 9ver2 com"laint of ra"e must .e
registered .2 t+e "olice and civil societ2 s+ould "erform its dut2 to re"ort an2 case of ra"e
coming to its 4no#ledge. Xn2 officer, #+o fails to register a case of ra"e re"orted to +im, or
attem"ts to a.ort its investigation, commits an offence #+ic+ s+all .e "unis+a.le as
"rescri.ed,X t+e re"ort sa2s. 5+e "rotocols for medical e(amination of victims of se(ual
assault +ave also .een suggested. 5+e "anel said, X!uc+ "rotocol .ased, "rofessional medical
e(amination is im"erative for uniform "ractice and im"lementation.X
Ma!!ia)&s to 5& !&)ist&!&'( s a "rimar2 recommendation, all marriages in India
>irres"ective of t+e "ersonal la#s under #+ic+ suc+ marriages are solemni6ed? s+ould
mandatoril2 .e registered in t+e "resence of a magistrate. 5+e magistrate #ill ensure t+at t+e
marriage +as .een solemni6ed #it+out an2 demand for do#r2 +aving .een made and t+at it
+as ta4en "lace #it+ t+e full and free consent of .ot+ "artners.
A%&n'%&nts to t+& Co'& o# C!i%ina P!o/&'u!&( 5+e "anel o.served, X5+e manner in
#+ic+ t+e rig+ts of #omen can .e recognised can onl2 .e manifested #+en t+e2 +ave full
access to 8ustice and #+en t+e rule of la# can .e u"+eld in t+eir favour.X 5+e "ro"osed
Criminal La# mendment ct, 2;12, s+ould .e modified, suggests t+e "anel. X!ince t+e
"ossi.ilit2 of se(ual assault on men, as #ell as +omose(ual, transgender and transse(ual
ra"e, is a realit2 t+e "rovisions +ave to .e cogni6ant of t+e same,X it sa2s. s"ecial
"rocedure for "rotecting "ersons #it+ disa.ilities from ra"e, and re7uisite "rocedures for
access to 8ustice for suc+ "ersons, t+e "anel said #as an Xurgent need.X
40
>i o# Ri)+ts #o! $o%&n( se"arate 3ill of %ig+ts for #omen t+at entitles a #oman a life
of dignit2 and securit2 and #ill ensure t+at a #oman s+all +ave t+e rig+t to +ave com"lete
se(ual autonom2 including #it+ res"ect to +er relations+i"s.
R&"i&$ o# t+& A!%&' Fo!/&s S.&/ia Po$&!s A/t( 5+e "anel +as o.served t+at t+e
Xim"unit2 of s2stematic se(ual violence is .eing legitimised .2 t+e armed forces s"ecial
"o#ers act.X It +as said t+ere is an imminent need to revie# t+e continuance of A!P
>rmed Aorces !"ecial Po#er ct? in areas as soon as "ossi.le. It +as also recommended
"osting s"ecial commissioners for #omenVs safet2 in conflict areas.
Poi/& !&#o!%s( 5o ins"ire "u.lic confidence, t+e "anel said, X"olice officers #it+
re"utations of outstanding a.ilit2 and c+aracter must .e "laced at t+e +ig+er levels of t+e
"olice force.X ll e(isting a""ointments need to .e revie#ed to ensure t+at t+e "olice force
+as t+e re7uisite moral vision. 5+e "anel strongl2 recommended t+at Xla# enforcement
agencies do not .ecome tools at t+e +ands of "olitical masters.X It said, X9ver2 mem.er of t+e
"olice force must understand t+eir accounta.ilit2 is onl2 to t+e la# and to none else in t+e
disc+arge of t+eir dut2.X
Ro& o# t+& Du'i/ia!=( 5+e 8udiciar2 +as t+e "rimar2 res"onsi.ilit2 of
enforcing fundamental rig+ts, t+roug+ constitutional
remedies. 5+e 8udiciar2 can ta4e s$o;&ot$ cogni6ance of suc+ issues .eing
dee"l2 concerned #it+ t+em .ot+ in t+e !u"reme Court and t+e )ig+ Court. n all India
strateg2 to deal #it+ t+is issue #ould .e advisa.le. 5+e C+ief =ustice of India could .e
a""roac+ed to commence a""ro"riate "roceedings on t+e 8udicial side. 5+e C+ief =ustice
ma2 consider ma4ing a""ro"riate orders relating to t+e issue of missing c+ildren to cur. t+e
illegal trade of t+eir traffic4ing etc.
Poiti/a R&#o!%s( 5+e =ustice Verma committee o.served t+at reforms are needed to deal
#it+ criminalisation of "olitics. 5+e "anel +as suggest t+at, in t+e event cogni6ance +as .een
ta4en .2 a magistrate of an criminal offence, t+e candidate oug+t to .e dis7ualified
41
from "artici"ating in t+e electoral "rocess. n2 candidate #+o fails to disclose a c+arge
s+ould .e dis7ualified su.se7uentl2. It suggested la#ma4ers facing criminal c+arges, #+o
+ave alread2 .een elected to Parliament and state legislatures, s+ould voluntaril2 vacate t+eir
seats
21
.
< Con/usion
Enl2 legislation and la# enforcement agencies cannot "revent t+e incident of crime against
#omen. 5+ere is need of social a#a4ening and c+ange in t+e attitude of masses,
so t+at due res"ect and e7ual status is given to #omen. It‟s a time #+en t+e #omen need
to .e given +er due. 5+is a#a4ening can .e .roug+t .2 education cam"aign among 2out+
ma4ing t+em a#are of e(isting social evils and t+e means to eradicate same. Mass media
can "la2 an active role +ere as in t+e "resent da2s it +as reac+ed ever2 corner of t+e
21
+tt"C//###.ndtv.com/article/c+eat-s+eet/recommendations-of-t+e-8ustice-verma-
committee-...2/1/2;13
42
nation. Various 0/Es can +old a res"onsi.le "osition +ere .2 assigning t+em #it+ t+e tas4
of +ig+lig+ting socio-economic causes leading to suc+ crimes and .2 disseminating
information a.out t+eir catastro"+ic effect on t+e #oman+ood and t+e societ2 at large
2&
.
43
44
2&
E".cit, .2 F. /ura""a 0aidu, ".21
45
BIBLIOGRAPHY
2&
E".cit, .2 F. /ura""a 0aidu, ".21
46
Annexures
CRIME AGAINST WOMEN8 2311
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