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Resource File: Examples of Continental Army Camp Equipage and Vehicle Returns

,
1775-1781 (John U. Rees)

So, what were the men who fought at Bunker Hill in 1775 wearing or carrying in their
knapsacks? How many wagons did a Continental regiment have, and what kinds of tools
were considered necessary. Were there enough tents to shelter the men, or sufficient
quantities of knapsacks, bowls, spoons?
This compendium of returns shows numbers of clothing and equipment issued to the
Continental Army or in use by various units. I have used these documents in my own
research, and make them available in case someone else may find them of some use and
interest. Also included are images of some of the items listed.

Two of four Continental soldiers drawn in 1781 by French Sublieutenant Jean-Baptiste-Antoine de
Verger, Royal Deux-Ponts Regiment. The soldier on the left has long been thought to be from the
Rhode Island Regiment of 1781, that on the right of Hazen’s Canadian Regiment. Another version,
found in French officer Baron Ludwig von Closen’s journal, is headed “Costumer de l’Armé
Américaine en 1782.” Closen’s copy notes that the left-hand soldier belongs to a Massachusetts
Continental regiment, that on the right a New Jersey regiment. Howard C. Rice and Anne S.K.
Brown, eds. and trans., The American Campaigns of Rochambeau's Army 1780, 1781, 1782, 1783, vol. I
(Princeton, N.J. and Providence, R.I.,: Princeton University Press, 1972), between pages 142-143
(description on page xxi). Anne S.K. Brown Military Collection, Brown University. Sidney Kaplan, The
Black Presence in the Era of the American Revolution, 1770-1800 (Greenwich, Ct.: New York Graphic
Society, Ltd. in Association with the Smithsonian Institution Press, 1973), 42.
Contents
1. Clothing and Equipment Lost at Bunker Hill, 17 June 1775 (including a discussion of
“snapsacks”)
2. Cooking and Other Equipment in Brig. Gen. John Sullivan’s Brigade, 24 March 1776
3. Main Army: Return of Arms and Accoutrements issued from 1 April to 1 August 1777
4. Return of Camp Equipage Delivered to the Army during the 1777 Campaign
5. Partial List of Stores Captured on the British Ship Symmetry, Wilmington, Delaware,
January 1778
6. Camp Equipage in the 1st Pennsylvania Brigade, Valley Forge, 3 June 1778
7. "A Return of Quarter-Master-General's Stores in The Brigades at West Point &
Constitution Island," 1 August 1779: North Carolina, 4th Massachusetts, and Paterson’s
(Massachusetts) Brigades
8. "A Return of Quarter-Master-General's Stores in the Second Pennsylvania Brigade ... at
Camp West Point," 4 August 1779
9. Return of Quartermaster’s Stores for Maj. Gen. John Sullivan’s Army, Tioga, 21 August
1779.
10. Return of Clothing and Camp Equipment in Maj. Gen. Arthur St. Clair’s Pennsylvania
Division in the Hudson Highlands, 1 October 1779.
11. Return of Quartermaster’s Stores in the 1st Connecticut Brigade (Including Brigadier
General and Staff), Hudson Highlands, 25 May 1781
12. "Return of Waggons, Horses … &c the property of the United States Army – Camp
Tappan – 27th September 1780"
13. "Return of all Public Property in the Quarter Masters Department with the Southern
Army"
14. Two Returns of Horse and Wagons with the Pennsylvania Line in Virginia, 12 June and 27
November 1781

Appendices:
1. Overview of Wheeled Transportation.
2. Material Culture Articles Related to Items on the Equipment Returns
3. Dutch blankets
Addenda
Additional images:
Musket tools
Rose blanket (Robert G. Stone)
Staved mess bowls
“New Model” cartridge pouch
Additional equipment returns:
New Jersey Brigade, 1780
2d Massachusetts Brigade, 1781
3d Massachusetts Brigade, 1781
2d New York Regiment, 1780 and 1782
2d New Jersey Regiment, May and December 1782
Lincoln’s Company, 7th Massachusetts Regiment, 1782
"A Return of Military Stores wanting for Six compleat Regiments of Va Troops to enable them to
perform their Duty in the Field"
______________
"’An Account of some things I carried … in my Pack.’: The Continental Soldier's
Burden in the American War for Independence”
https://www.scribd.com/document/340889214/An-Account-of-some-things-I-carried-in-my-Pack-
The-Continental-Soldier-s-Burden-in-the-American-War-for-Independence

Two image collections created to accompany the above article on Continental
soldiers' belongings carried on campaign:
IMAGES, PART ONE
Wool and Linen Caps, Combs, Razors, Neckwear, Shirts, Drawers, Breeches, Overalls,
Stockings, Shoes and Buckles, Watches, Sewing Gear (including Housewives), and Fire
Making Equipment.
https://tinyurl.com/Images-Part-One
Contents
1. Contents of Main Monograph
2. 18th Century Material Culture Resource Center
3. Items Carried by Ezra Tilden During Military Service, 1776, 1777, 1779, and 1780
4. Equipment Lost on 17 June 1775 in Col. James Reid’s New Hampshire Regiment
5. Images Included in the Narrative of
"An Account of some things I carried … in my Pack.”
The Continental Soldier's Burden in the American War for Independence
6. Additional images and examples of personal items soldiers carried.
Part 1: Wool and Linen Caps, Combs, Razors, Neckwear, Shirts, Drawers, Breeches, Overalls,
Stockings, Shoes and Buckles, Watches, Sewing Gear (including Housewives), and Fire Making
Equipment.
7. Related Articles by the Author

IMAGES, PART TWO
Plates, Bowls, Eating Utensils, Clasp Knives, Pillow Cases, Blankets, Rugs,
Coverlets, Slipcase Pocket Books, common Pocket Books, Linen Wallets, Mittens,
Cups, Pipes, Tobacco and Snuff Boxes, and Writing Implements.
https://tinyurl.com/Image-Part-Two
Contents
1. Contents of Primary Monograph
2. 18th Century Material Culture Resource Center
3. Items Carried by Ezra Tilden During Military Service, 1776, 1777, 1779, and 1780
4. Equipment Lost on 17 June 1775 in Col. James Reid’s New Hampshire Regiment
5. Additional images and examples of personal items soldiers carried.
Part 1: Wool and Linen Caps, Combs, Razors, Neckwear, Shirts, Drawers, Breeches, Overalls,
Stockings, Shoes and Buckles, Watches, Sewing Gear (including Housewives), and Fire Making
Equipment.
6. Related Articles by the Author
While tin or sheet-iron camp kettles were usually sought to supply a mobile army, cast-
iron pots were more widely available early in the war. This example measures 11
inches at its widest point (10 inches wide at the mouth) by 7 inches high, weighs in at 6
pounds, 15.5 ounces, and holds 2 gallons (8 quarts). Of the same construction as a
larger pot found on the Gunboat Philadelphia, cast-iron cooking vessels of this capacity
were provided for the Connecticut militia in autumn 1776. (Original iron pot from
author's collection Photo by Ross Hamel.)
1. Clothing and Equipment Lost at Bunker Hill, 17 June 1775

Minute Company officer, April 1775, carrying a knapsack with a tumpline and
blanket. Greg Hurley, Captain David Brown’s Company of Concord Minutemen,
19-20 April 2014, Minuteman National Historic Park.
____________

At the Bunker Hill action (17 June 1775), a company of Hollis, New Hampshire men
served with Col. William Prescott’s Massachusetts regiment. Their captain tallied the
equipment they lost that day, beginning with six who died:
Cambridge, Dec. 22, 1775.
Nathan Blood, Isaac Hobart, Jacob Boynton, Thomas Wheat, Peter Poor, Phineas Nevins.
The men whose names are above written belonged to Capt. [Reuben] Dow's company,
and Col. William Prescott's regiment and were all killed in the battle of Bunker Hill, on
the 17th of June last, and were furnished each of them with a good gun, judged to be
worth Eight Dollars apiece — also were furnished with other materials, viz. Cartridge
Boxes, Knapsacks and Tump-lines * — and were well clothed for soldiers — Also had
each of them a good blanket. Nathan Blood had a good Hanger.15 [*A strap made of woven
fiber, linen webbing, or leather, used to carry a load. A Native-American innovation.]
Captain Dow then listed lost items for twenty-eight men who survived. Of those, twenty-
five lost knapsacks, and twenty-three lost tumplines; both items were valued at one shilling,
six pence each. All of Dow’s men were using tumplines in conjunction with knapsacks,
leading to the assumption that the former were used to carry blankets, the latter extra
clothing and small necessary items. There seems to be no other explanation; the only thing
that quashes this notion is that there were no blankets included in the roster of lost goods.
Perhaps they were not considered valuable enough to include or were not personal
property.16 Besides Dow’s men, ten companies in Col. James Reid’s New Hampshire
regiment tallied equipment lost that day: Note in the synopsis below the further use of
tumplines in conjunction with packs, and several alternate spellings of knapsack.
Reid’s New Hampshire Regiment, Equipment Lost on 17 June 1775 17
Capt. Hezekiah Hutchins’ Company Capt. Jacob Hind’s Company
10 knapsacks 20 knapsacks (spelled “napsack”)
5 packs 1 tumpline
19 blankets 11 blankets

Capt. Levi Spalding’s Company Capt. Ezra Town’s Company
2 (or 20?) knapsacks (spelled “snapsack”) 6 knapsacks (spelled “napsack”)
26 blankets 2 tumplines
3 blankets

Capt. Jonathan Whitcomb’s Company Capt. William Walker’s Company
2 knapsacks (spelled “snapsack”) 13 knapsacks (spelled “snapsack”)
4 blankets 7 knapsacks (spelled “gnapsack”)
1 bed rug 13 blankets

Capt. Philip Thomas’s Company Capt. Benjamin Mann’s Company
1 pack 11 knapsacks (spelled “snapsack”)
5 haversacks 5 tumplines
8 blankets

Capt. Josiah Crosby’s Company Capt. John Marcy’s Company
5 knapsacks (spelled “gnapsack”) 1 knapsack (spelled “snapsack”)
3 blankets 14 tumplines
1 coverlet 18 blankets

*Ens. James Taggart lost “2 good shurts, 3 pr stockings, 1 pr sadelbags, 1 pr Shous, 1 tumpline, 1
pillar case”
[Note: See endnote 18 for discussion of the term “snapsack.”]
A 3-point blanket (53 inches by 72 inches) carried by Private Henry Marble of
Massachusetts in the Revolutionary War. White wool, with 2 3/4 inch indigo blue stripes
and points. Museum of the Fur Trade Collections, Chadron, Nebraska. Frederick C. Gaede
and E. Bryce Workman, "Notes on Point Blankets in the Military Service," The Museum of
the Fur Trade Quarterly, vol. 15, 2, (Summer 1979), 1-2.

Of those listed for Captain Marcy’s company, one ensign and thirteen enlisted men lost
pillow cases (out of a total of three officers and twenty-eight enlisted men), the only
company to list that item. Possibly the pillow cases were used as a wallet to store extra
clothing and personal items carried in knapsacks or rolled inside the slung blankets. The
British 40th Regiment used specially made linen wallets for that purpose in 1777. (Complete
lists of the lost equipment in Reid’s Regiment are included in endnote 18.)
These early American knapsacks likely had two shoulder straps attached to a body with a
single large pocket in which gear was carried. Bennett Cuthbertson’s 1768 treatise, System
for the Compleat Interior Management and Oeconomy of a Battalion of Infantry, available
in the colonies, laid out his opinion on the best design:
Square knapsacks are most convenient, for packing up the Soldier’s necessaries, and
should be made with a division, to hold the shoes, black-ball and brushes, separate from
the linen: a certain size must be determined on for the whole, and it will have a pleasing
effect upon a March, if care has been taken, to get them of all white goat-skins, with
leather-slings well whitened, to hang over each shoulder; which method makes the
carriage of the Knapsack much easier, than across the breast, and by no means so
heating.18

Massachusetts militia colonel Timothy Pickering, who wrote his own manual of
discipline in 1775, endorsed similarly-made packs:
A knapsack may be contrived that a man may load and fire, in case of necessity, without
throwing down his pack. Let the knapsack lay lengthways upon the back: from each side
at the top let a strap come over the shoulders, go under the arms, and be fastened about
half way down the knapsack. Secure these shoulder straps in their places by two other
straps which are to go across and buckle before the middle of the breast. The mouth of
the knapsack is at the top, and is covered by a flap made like the flap of saddlebags.- The
outside of the knapsack should be fuller than the other which lies next to your back; and
of course must be sewed in gathers at the bottom. Many of the knapsacks used in the
army are, I believe, in this fashion, though made of some kind of skins.19

Returns of Clothing and Equipment Lost 17 June 1775

15. Samuel T. Worcester, History of the Town of Hollis, New Hampshire, from its First Settlement to
the Year 1879 (Press of O. C. Moore, 1879), 155-156.
16. Ibid., 155.
“Cambridge, December ye 22d, 1775.
This may certify that we the Subscribers in Capt Reuben Dow's Company in Col. Wm. Prescott's Regt
in the Continental Army, that we lost the following Articles in the late engagement on Bunker's Hill at
Charlestown on ye 17th of June last.
James McConnor, 1 gun, 1 napsack, l hat, 1 Jaccat, 1 tumpline.
Wm. Nevins, 1 knapsack, 1 jacket, 1 tumpline.
Minott Farmer, 1 knapsack, 1 sword, 1 tumpline.
Sam1 Hill, 1 knapsack, 1 tumpline.
Ephraim Blood, 1 gun, 1 knapsack, 1 tumpline.
James Macintosh, 1 knapsack, 1 jacket, 1 tumpline.
Libbeus Wheeler, 1 knapsack, 1 hat, 1 tumpline.
David Farnsworth, 1 knapsack, 1 tumpline.
Noah Worcester, 1 knapsack, 1 tumpline.
Elias Boynton, 1 gun.
Francis Blood, 1 knapsack, 1 tumpline.
Abel Brown, 1 gun, 1 cartridge box, 1 tumpline.
Nahum Powers, 1 knapsack, l hat, 1 jacket, 1 bayonet, 1 tumpline.
Isaac Stearns, 1 gun, 1 knapsack.
Israel Kenney, 1 knapsack, 1 tumpline.
Titos Pratt, 1 gun, 1 knapsack, 1 tumpline.
Nath1 Patten, 1 knapsack, 1 jacket, 1 tumpline.
David Ames, 1 knapsack, 1 cartridge box, 1 tumpline.
Sam1 Jewett, 1 knapsack, 1 tumpline.
Wm. Wood, 1 gun, 1 knapsack, 1 tumpline.
Benjn Cumings, 1 knapsack, 1 tumpline.
Francis Powers, 1 gun, 1 bayonet.
Wm. Adams, 1 knapsack.
Josiah Fisk, 1 knapsack, 1 cartridge box, 1 tumpline. >
Wilder Chamberlin, 1 knapsack.
Nehemiah Pierce, 1 knapsack, 1 hat, 1 tumpline.
Abel Conant, 1 knapsack, 1 tumpline.
Uriah Wright, 1 knapsack, 1 tumpline.”
[Note: The estimated value of the above said articles, was (on an average) for a gun, £2: 4.11; a knapsack,
0: 1:6; a jacket, 0: 16: 0; a cartridge box, 0: 4: 8; a tumpline, 0: 1:6.]
“It appears that the eight Hollis men in Capt. Spalding's company, in the New Hampshire regiment of Col.
Reed, were all present in the battle, and that each of them lost portions of his clothing or equipments, as is
shown from the returns of losses made after the battle, now to be found in the New Hampshire Provincial
Papers (Volume 6, page 592). These losses … were as follows:
Andrew Bailey, 1 coat, 1 shirt, trousers, stockings,
Job Bailey, 1 cartridge box, knapsack, and shirt,
Phineas Hardy, 1 blanket, coat, shirt, breeches,
Thomas Hardy, 1 blanket, coat, jacket, stockings,
Ephraim [?] 1 gun, breeches and shirt,
Samuel Leeman, 3 coats and 1 blanket,
Ephraim Rolfe, 1 gun, blanket, shirt, stockings,
Ephraim Smith, 1 knapsack, shirt, stockings”

Concord Minute Company on the march before dawn. All carry knapsacks based
on the extant David Uhl pack. Blankets are carried on tumplines, or by tying to the
top of bottom the knapsacks. Captain David Brown’s Company of Concord
Minutemen, 19-20 April 2014, Minuteman National Historic Park.
Nathaniel Bouton, ed., Provincial Papers: Documents and Records Relating to the Province
of New-Hampshire, from 1764 to 1776, vol. VII (Nashua: Orren C. Moore, State Printer,
1873), 586-597, 603.
(page 590)
A Return of the packs & Bagag lost by the Solders to Capt. Hezekiah Hutching Company, lost in the
Battle of the 17th Day of June, 1775.
Sargent James Goss 1 great coat ;
Sargent John Lane 1 coat, 1 Blanket, 2 shirts, 1 pr Trousers, 2 prs stockens, 1 lb [i.e., pound] rope, napsack
and catterage Box ;
Corp'l John Tuck 1 Blankett, 1 coat, 1 shirt, 2 pr stockens, 1 pr Trousers, 1 jacket, 1 knapsack, with sundry
articles.
Wil'm Harraman 1 coat, 1 Tin Quart [canteen?].
Benj'n Couch, 1 Blanket, 1 coat, 1 shirt, 2 pr. Stockens, 1 pr. Trousers, 1 Tin poynt [pint canteen?], 1
knapsack with rope.
Levi Hildreth 1 coat, 1 Blanket, 1 pr stockens, 1 pr Trousers, 1 pr Breeches, 1 shirt. 1 pack, 1-2 lb rope.
John Clifford 1 coat, 1 Blanket, 1 shirte. 1 pr. Trousers, 1 pr. stockens, 1 pack.
Sam'l Heath 1 pr Breeches, 1 shirte, 1 coat, 1 Blanket, 1 pr Stockens.
Moses Webster 1 coat, 1 Blanket, 1 shirte, 1 pr Trousers, 1 pr Stockens. 1 Tin poynt [pint canteen?].
Thomas Wilson 1 coat, 1 pr Breeches, 1 Blanket, 1 shirt, 1 pr stockens. 1 pr shoes, 1-2 lb rope, 1 Tin poynt
[pint canteen?] , 1 knapsack.
Gilbert Bond 1 Blanket, 1 pr Breeches. 1 shirt, 1 jacket, 1 pr stockens, 1 coat, 1 knapsack.
Simon Norton 1 coat, 1 jacket, 1 shirt, 1 pr stockens, 1 blanket, 1 pr shoes, 1 knapsack with sundrys.
John Lane 3d 1 coat, 1 shirt, 1 pr stockens, 1 pr Breeches.
Thomas Waddly 1 shirt, 1 pr stockens, 1 knapsack, 1-2 lb rope.
Amos Knowls 1 coat, 1 Blanket, 1 shirt, 1 pr stockens, 1 knapsack.
Ebenezer Wells 1 pr shoes.
Sam'l Healy 1 coat & jacket, 1 pr Breeches, 2 pr stockens, 2 shirts, 1 Blanket, 1 pack, 1 pr Trousers.
Simon Merrill 1 gun, 1-2 lb rope, 1 Tin poynt [pint canteen?].
Wm. Severance 1 pr shoes, 1 pr stockens, 3-4 lb. rope.
Peter Severance, Josiah Morss 1 blanket.
Moses Kimball 1 coat, 1 pr Breeches, 2 shirts, 1 pr Trousers, 1 pr stockens, 1 Blanket, 1 knapsack.
Wm. Gross 1 Blanket, 1 shirte, 1 pr stockens.
Sam'l Morrill 1 blanket, 2 jackets, 1 shirte, 2 pr trousers, 1 pr stockens, 1 pack, 1 gun.
Thomas Wadley 1 shirt, 1 pr trousers, 1 pr stockens, knapsack, 1 lb rope.
Nath'l Levite 1 gun, 1 knapsack, 1 shirt, 1 blanket, 1 coat, 1 pr Breeches, 1 pr stockens.
John Varnum 1 blanket, gun, shirt, coat, pack.
Moses Quimby 1 gun, 1 blanket, 1 shirt, coat, pack.
Stephen Peabody 1 blanket, 1 shirt.
Blanket, undyed and dark blue wool, twill. Woven in pieces sewn in the center with 4-ply S
twist cotton, twill goes in opposite direction on the two panels. Center seam doesn't keep the
continuity of the pattern. The hem was sewn with 2-ply cotton overcast. (American Textile
History Museum, Lowell, Massachusetts; Accession Number: 1966.33.2.) (Image courtesy of
Mara Riley)

(page 591)
An acount of the things that was lost in Capt. Jacob Hinds company in Col James Read's Ridgment lost
in the Field of Batel on the 17th Dav of June at Charlestown 1775.
Capt. Jacob Hinds, blanket, 3 shirts, trouses, stockings;
Serg't Richard Cochlan shirt, shoes, gun;
Serg't Ezekiel Davis 1 blanket;
Serj. William Farwell l blanket, 2 shirts, 1 pr trouses, 3 pr stockings;
Corp. Samuel White, blanket, shurts, trouses, stockings, shooes.
Corp. Nath'l Petingel, blanket, shurts, trouses, stockings, shooes.
Job Britun. Buckels, shoes, handkerchief.
Luther Windslow, blanket, 1 shurt, 1 pr trouses
Silas Farnsworth, blanket, shirt, pr. trouses, 2 pr stockings, shooes.
Ira Evans 1 pr stockings.
Israel Thomas, shurt, trouses, shooes.
John White 1 shurt, 1 pr shooes.
Jonathan Wright, stockings.
David Darby, 1 blanket, 3 shirts, 1 pr stockings, shoes.
Lemuel Wintworth, shirt, 1 gun? —
John McMitchell 1 Pocket book.
David Robens, shirts, trousers, 2 pr stockings, caps.
Samuel Robens, shirts, trousers, stockings.
Elezer Robens 1 handkerchief.
Elijah Elmer blanket, shirt, trousers, stockings, handkerchief.
Elijah Taylor, shirt, trousers, stockings.
Nahum Goodenow, 1 drum.
James Symonds 1 shirt, trousers.
Oliver Johnson 1 shirt, one pr. stockings.
Ebenezer Chamberlin, blanket, stockings, shoes, razor;
Jonathan Barret, coat, shirt, blanket, 2 pr shoes, sack, tumplines, stockings, trousers;
Elisha Balding, coat, shurt, shoes, sack & sundry articles;
Daniel Carlile, shoes, stockings;
Lewis Acres, 1 gun, 1 pr shoes, 1 pr stockings ;
Ephraim Stone, 1 fine shirt, 1 blanket, 1 pr shoes, 1tow shirt, 1 pr stockings ;
Ruben Tarble, shirt, shoes.

(pages 591-592)
A Return of clothing and other things lost in the fight of the 17th of June, 1775, Belonging to Capt.
Spaldings company.
Capt. Spalding, one shurt, 2 pair stockings, 1 Briches:
Lieut. Bradford, 1 Blanket, 1 Shurt;
Ens. Butte, 2 shurts, 1 jackett, 2 pr stockings;
Serjant Lee, 1 Blanket. 1 coat, 1 jacett, stoking & shoes;
Serj.Hutchins, 1 blankett, &c. ;
Serj. Merril, 1 coat, 1 blanket, bed-tiking shurt;
Serj. Bayley, Catridge Box, 1 shurt, a snapsack;
Corporal Pike, 1 Blanket, 1shurt, 2 pair stokins, 1 pr shoes;
Do. Hutchinson, 1 blanket, 1 coat, 1 jacett, 2 shurts, &c.;
Do. Walker, 1 blankett;
Do. Campbell, 1 blanket, 1 coat, 2 shurts, 1 pair stokons;
Joshua Chace, 1 blanket, 1 shurt, 1 pr Briches, stokens;
John Johnson, 1 shurt. 1 pair stokens, 1 pail Briches;
Edward Bevins. 1 blanket. 1 shurt, 1 pair stokens;
John Osgood, 1 Gun. 1 coat, 1 Blanket, 2 pr stokens, 2 shurts;
Andrew Thompson, l coat, 1 Blankett, 1 Hankercheff;
David Glover, 1 Blanket, 1 coat, 1 pr Briches, 1 shurt, 1 pair stokins;
Robert Glover 1 blanket, 2 shurts, 2 pr stokens, pr. Briches;
Samuel Currier, 1 gun, 1 blankett, 1 coat & jacket & Briches;
Thomas Harday, 1 blanket, coat, jacket, stocking &c;
Benja. Starnes, 1 jacket, 2 shirts, 1 pr. Briches;
Jona. Starnes. 1 gun, 1 coat, 2 shurts, 1 pr. Briches, 1 pr Trowsers;
Natha'l Bacheldor, 1 blanket, 1 coat, 3 shirts, 1 pr Briches;
James Campbell, 2 shirts, briches, stockens, hand kerchief;
Timothy Mclntire, 1 Blanket, 1 shirt, catreg [box?];
David Carlton. 1 coat, 1 Blanket, 1 stokens, 2 shirts;
Phineas Hardy, 1 coat, 1 Blanket, 1 shurt, Briches;
Joseph Elingwood, 1 coat, 2 Blankets, 1 shurt, &c.;
Samuel Lowel, 2 shurts. 1 jacket, Catridge Box;
Samuel Leeman, 2 coats, 1 Blankett;
Isaac Carkin, 2shurts, 1 Briches, 1 pair Trowsers;
Ezra Button, 1 coat, 1 shurt, Briches, stokens, &c;
Eaphraim Rolf, 1 gun. 1 Blankett, 1 shurt, stockens;
Ephraim Smith, 1 shurt, 1 snapsack, stockings;
Samuel Stils, 1 shurt, 1 Trowsers, Catridge Box;
Richard Hughes, 1 pair Briches, 1 coat, stokens;
William Brown, 2 coats, 1 Briches, 2 shurts, stokens;
William Duck. 2 coats, 1 shurt, 2 pair stokens;
Andrew Baley, 1 coat, 1 shurt, 1 Trousers, stokens;
Isaac Cowen, 1 Blankett, 1 coat, Trowsers;
Robert Wilkins, 1 Blankett, 1 shurt, Briches. stokens. shoos;
Jacob Wellman, 1 coat, 1 jacot, 1 shurt;
Ephraim How, 1 gun Briches and shurt.

(page 592)
A Return of the things lost in Capt. Ezra Towne's Company, in Col. Reed's Regiment on the
seventeenth of June, 1775, in the fight at Charleston.
The names of those that lost things:
Lieut Josiah Brown, 1 hat, 1 sword, 1 Malitia Book, one Bottle;
Ensign John Harkness, 1 gr't coat, 1 st[raight?] Bod'd do., 1 sword, 1 Ink-pot;
Benja. Williams, 1 cutlass. 1 Razor. 1 Bottle, tobacco;
Farrow Miller, 1 st. Bod'd coat, 1 shirt, 1 pair hose, 1 Napsack;
Isaac Stanhope, 1 Blanket;
Timo. Avery, 1 Cartridge Box;
Sam'l Soper, 1 gun;
Eben'r Pratt, 1 st. Bod'd coat, 1 blankett, 1 Napsack;
Josiah Stone, 1 coat, 2 shirts, 2 pair of hose, 1 pr. shoes. 1 hankerchief, 1 razor, Napsack; 1 pair Breeches, 1
pair of Trowsers;
Levi Adams, 1 pr. of Trowsers;
Daniel Severance, 1 g't coat, 1 st. Bod'd Do, 1 pr. of Breeches, 1 pr. trowsers, 1 bayonet, 1 pr. hose; 1 shirt,
1 Napsack. 1 Tumpline, 1 hankerchief, 1 waistcoat. 1 shirt, 1 Psalm book, 1 pr. spectacles, 1 gun lock;
Daniel White, 1 Blanket, 1 coat, 1 shirt, 1 pr. hose, 1 Napsack, 1 hankerc'f ;
Jonathan Stevens, 1 st. Bod'd coat, 1 g't coat, 1 pr. Breeches, 1 pr. hose, hat; 1 razor, 1 pr. of shoes, 1
Napsack, 1 Tumpline;
Nath'l Carlton, 1 pr of shoes, 1 pr. of Buckles, 1 razor, 1 Book;
Thos. Pattison, 1 Blanket, 1 shirt, 1 gun, 1 pr. Trowsers, 1 coat;
Arch'l White, 1 hankerchief, 3 Fills [phials?] of Firr Balsome;
Stephen Adams, 1 bayonet, 1 razor;
David Eliot, 1 gun;
Sam'l Hutchins, 1 st. bod'd coat, three shirts;
Jeremy Pichard, 1 st. Bod'd coat, 1 bayonet ;
David Avery, 1 cartridge box.
(page 593)
An account of the things that was lost in Capt. Whitcomb's company In Colo. Reed's Regiment on the
17th day of June, 1775, by the fight that was between the Continental troops, and General Gage's troops on
Bunker Hill, at Charlestown.
Capt. Jonathan Whitcomb, Great coat, St. Bod'd coat, handkerchief, sundries;
Ens. Stephen Carter, shirt, hat;
Sarg't William Heaton. shoes;
Sarg't Amos Boynton, great coat, stockens;
Sarg't Josiah Hastings, St. Bod'd coat. stockens, shirts. pocket book;
Sarg't Silvenus Reed, St. Bod'd coat, jacket, shoes, stockens, trousers, handkerchief, short breeches, shirt;
Corp'l Luther Trowbridge, stockens, short breeches;
Elisha Walton, stockens;
Samuel Follet, shoes, trousers, shirt;
Stephen Brigum. St. Bod'd coat;
Jo. Harrendon, St. Bod'd coat, stockens, trousers, shirt, hat ;
Moses Tucker, St. Bod'd coat, trousers, handerkerchief;
Asa Gale, st. Bod. coat, stockens, shirt;
John Merrill, st. Bod. coat, shoes, stockens, short breeches, shirts, sundries;
Edward Arnold, great coat, jacket, cartridge box, &c;
Joshua Farr, st. Bod'd coat, hat, &c;
Holowel Merril, great coat, stockens, short breeches, shirt;
Eleazur Gurdin, stockens, trousers, short breeches;
Jonathan Farr, hat, &C ;
Charles Millens, st. Bod'd coat, stockens;
Josiah Burton, cartridge box shot to pieces;
Charles Jonston, great coat, shoes, stockens, short breeches, shirt;
Luther Trobridge, stockens, short breeches;
Jesse Cheney, great coat, st. Bod'd coat, shoes, stockens, tronsers, short breeches, shirt;
Joshua Ellis, wounded, st. Bod'd coat. stockens, shirt, gun, &c.;
Ebenezer Parsons, jacket, shoes;
Benjamin Toleman, shoes, stockens. trousers shirt:
Joseph Fassett, great coat, shoes, stockens, trousers, shirt. &c;
Andrew Butler, great coat, stockens, trousers, shirt, &c.;
William Toleman, stockens. trousers short breeches;
John Whitney, shoes, stockens;
Enoch Cummins, sundries;
Amasa Parker, stockens, short breeches, shirt;
Pearson Newell, sundries;
Abija Whitcomb, st. Bod'd coat, shoes, stockens, trousers, shirt.
(page 594)
A Return of what was Lost in Capt. Wm. Walker's company on the 17th of June, 1775.
Lieut. James Brown, 1 surtoot, coat;
Francis Putnam, 1 blanket, 1 surtoot, 1 shirt, 1 gun ;
Jona. Emerson, 1 gun;
Israel How, 1 snapsack, 1 great coat, 1 shirt, 1 pare Trowsers, 1 pr Hoes;
Wm. Harris, jun 1 pr. Mooskin-breeches, 1 snapsack, 1 shirt, 3 woolen shirts, 1 pr. hoes;
Abel Danforth, 1 snapsack. 1 shirt. 1 pr. hoes, 1 great coat;
Jona. Danforth, 2 shirts. 1 tow-shirt, 1 pair breeches, 1 blanket, 1 catteridge box. 2 pr. hoes;
Phineas Whitnev. 1 shirt, 2 pr Trowsers. 1 pr. hoes, 1 pr. shoes, 1 blanket, 1 snapsack;
Paul Clogston, 1 snapsack. 1 pr. mooskin breeches, 2 shirts, 1 pr. trowsers, 1 blanket, 2 pr. hoes;
Henry Lovewell. 1 snapsack, 1 coat, 1 shirt. 1 pair Hoes;
Medad Combs, 1 snapsack, 1 shirt, l pr. Hoes;
Ichabod Lovewell, 1 Blanket, 1 shirt, 1 pr. Hoes, 1 coat. 1 Pistol, 1 Fife;
Phillip A. Roby, 1 snapsack, 1 blanket, 1 shirt, 1 pr. trousers, 1 pr. Hoes;
John Snow, snapsack, 1 blanket. 1 shirt, 1 pr. trowsers, 1 pr. Hoes;
Eleazer Blanchard, 1 new Blue serge coat lin'd;
Nehemiah Winn, 1 shurt ;
Wm. Butterfield, 1 snapsack, 1 shirt, 1 pr. Hoes;
Joseph Greele, 1 snapsack, 2 shirts, 2 pr. Leather-breeches, Cartridge-box;
Jacob Blodgett, 1 pr. hoes:
Jona. Harris, 2 shirts, 1 pr. Trousers, 1 Blanket, 1 gun, 1 Catteridge Box ;
Nehemiah Lovewell, 1 shirt, 1 gnapsack;
Adrian Hawkins, 1 pr. shoes. 1 pr. Hoes;
Mansfield Toplin. 1 shirt, 1 pr. Hoes, 1 gnapsack;
Silas Chamberlain, 1 coat, 1 jacket, 2 shirts, 1 gnapsack;
John Lovewell, 1 gnapsack, 2 shirts. 1 pr. Hoes;
Henry Lovejoy, 1 gnapsack, 1 Blanket, 1 shirt. 1 great coat, 1 pr. Deerskin-breeches. 1 pr. sheepskin-
breeches, 2 Hoes;
Jona. Gray, 1 gnapsack. 1 Blanket, 1 great coat, 1 shirt, 2 pr. Hoes, 1 pr. trowzers;
Wm. Harris. Drum sticks & sling;
Isaac Brown, 1 gnapsack, 1 pr. Hoes, 1 pr. shoes, 1 shirt, 1 pr. breeches, 1 surtoot, 1 jacket, 1 pr. trowsers;
James Harwood, 1 coat, 1 pr. Breeches. 1 shirt, 1 pr. Hoes;
Benja. Whitney, 1 snapsack, 1 shirt, 1 pr. trowsers, 1 blanket, 1 pr. shoes. 1 Bible;
Timothv Darlin, 1 coat, l snapsack;
Benj. Bayley. 1 Powder horn, 1 cattridge-box ;
Capt. Wm. Walker, 2 pair shoes, 1 3-4 yds. fine cloth att 3-4 per yd.;
Asa Cram, 1 gun and bayonet.
The above Account is the true account of what my company Lost on Bunker Hill, Charlestown. the 17th of
June, 1775, and justly prized according to the best of my knowledge. Winter Hill, July 15th, 1775. William
Walker, Capt.
(page 595)
A List of Losses, sustained in the Batal and Retreat on bunker hill the 17th of June, 1775, of Capt.
Thomas's Company in the New Hampshire Reserves.
Lieut. [John Harper,] one hat;
Ens'n [Ezekiel Rand] coat two shirts, one gun, iron strike sword, pr hose;
Sarg't. Benjamin Davis, a blanket, surtout. one byanot;
Ezekiel Larned, one gone [gun] one byanot & belt, one powder horn;
Sarg't Simon Dans, one coat;
Sarg't Jacob Pierce, a coat, a shag great coat & pack;
Corporal John Demary, one blanket, one byanot. one haversack;
Corp'l Semion Inglas, one Cartridge Box, one gun, & byanot, one powder horn, one blanket:
Corp'l. Benjamin Lovring, Cadous Box & silke handkerchief ;
Drums & Fifers —
Daniel Lake, one pair of suse [shoes] one blanket;
Lemi Page, one shagge greatcoat;
Richard Alexander, caduse Box & a coat;
Thomas Hutchinson, a pare of trowsors;
David Daves, a fine shirt, & a pair of yarn hose;
Jonathan Lovejoy, a surtoot, four shirts, one coat, two waistcoats, one gun. three pare of hoe, one pouch,
neckcloth, one pr. of trousers, one cat— box, Baynot;
Thomas Henderson. 2 shirts. 2 pr. hose, coat & waistcoat, & a pare of Lether breeches;
James Cochran, blanket, pr. Briches, a pr. of hose, a Rasor, havsak;
Dudley Griffin, a coat & shirt;
Benjamin Beales, a shirt, two pr. of hose;
Ezekiel Demary, one pr. of hose;
Reuben Paige, a great cote, & one shirt. 1 pr. of hose, l powder horn, one cartridge Box, one wastcoat;
Obadiah Marsh, one shirt. 1 pr. of hose, one Havisack;
Joell Russell, 1 coat, 1 pr. Leather-briches, 1 pr. hose, two shirts, one hat, 1 powder horn, haversack;
Jacob Hobbs, one blanket;
Timothy Rogers, one shirt :
Godfary Richison, one pare of suse [shoes] :
Henry Davis, one pare or trousers;
Hugh Gregg, one shag great coat, 1shirt. 1 powder horn. Bulet-pouch.
Philip Thomas. Capt.

(pages 595-596)
A True account of what was lost in the Battle on Bunkers Hill in Capt. Benjamin Mann's Company in
June ye 17th 1775.
Samuel Campbell, a coat, a pare of Trousers, shirt, Snapsac, Tumpline, Blanket, a pr. Of Breches, a pare
Stockens; ;
John Adams, a pare of Soes;
John Buxton, a gun;
John Thomas, a coat, a pr. of shoes,,a Snapsack, a Tumpline;
Robert Wolsey, a pare of Stockens;
John Slone, a coat, shirt, a Snapsack & Blankett;
Zacheus Hodgman, a Blankett;
William Parker, a shirt, a pare of Trousers, snapsack, a pr. of stockens, hat;
Amos Coburn, a coat, a pr. of trousers, a snapsack, a Blankett, pr. Stockens;
Joseph Hodgman, a Blankett;
Thomas Tarbell. a coat;
Isaac Barrett, a Blankett;
Samuel Scripture, 2 shirts, a gun, a snapsack ;
Elijah Avery, a pair of Stockens, a gun ;
Benjamin Mann, a gun ;
James Brewer, a pare of shoes;
Jeremiah Holt, Snapsack;
Samuel Right, a coat, 2 shirts, 1 gun, a snapsack, a Tumpline, a Blankett, a pr. of breeches, a pr. of
Stockens;
Isaac Flagg, 2 coats, a shurt, a pr of shoes, a Snapsack & tumpline, a Blankett, a pare of Breeches, a pr.
of stockens;
Samuel Abbott, a gun & Bayonet;
John Fish, a jacot, a pare of trousers, 2 shurts, a pr. of shoes, a Snapsack & Tumpline, a pair of breeches;
Daniel Collins, a pr. of Breeches;
Simeon Hildreth, a coat, a shurt, a snapsack, a Blankett;
Ebenezer Carlton, a silk handkerchief;
Geo. Willson, a coat and handkerchief.
Benjamin Mann, Capt.

(page 596)
An account of things that was lost at the Battle on Bunkers hill, on the 17th of June, 1775, belonging to
Capt. Crosby's Company, viz.
Capt. Crosby's things are 1 pistel & 1 pair of worsted stockings;
Lieut. Daniel Wilkins 1 cotton shirt;
Ens'n Thomson Maxwell, 1 fine shirt & one powder horn ;
Adg't Stephen Peabody one blanket & one shirt;
Quarter Master Frye one coat & one Hatt ;
Serg't William Bradford one shirt;
Serg't Lemuel Winchester one pair of shoes;
Eli Wilkins 1 Blanket& one Bullet Mold;
Alexander Brown 1 cotton shirt, one pair of stockings & one gnapsack;
Thaddeus Fitch 1 shirt, 1 pair of calfskin pumps, 1 pr. trowzers & Gnapsack;
Samuel Starnes 1 pair of shoes;
Stephen Crosby, 1 great coat& 1 shirt;
Jona. Wilkins 1 shirt;
Thomas Giles one gun, 1 cartooch Box & one jacket;
Thomas Perry one woolen shirt, one powder horn & one gnapsack;
Joseph Boutel, one pair of stockings, 1 pair of Leather-Breeches;
Nathaniel Barrett 1 gnapsack, one pair of shoes & buckles & 1 handkerchief;
Sam'l Williams 1 shirt & one handkerchief & one gun;
James Gilman, 1 Blanket & one Handkerchief;
Joseph Wakeiield, 1 pr of Deer-skin Breeches, 1 Cartooch Box;
Eben'r Wakeiield, 1 sett of shoe-makers Tools, 1 shirt 2 pr of stockings & 1 pr of shoes;
Dan'l Kenney, 1 great coat & one gun;
Joseph Wallis 1 pair of shoes;
Andrew Leavitt, 1 coverlid, one pr. of stockings, 1 gnapsack & Handkerchief:
Josiah Sawyer one gun, one coat, one Powder horn & one Bible;
Joshua Abbot 1 gnapsack & pair of stockings.
Josiah Crosby. Capt.
Private soldier, Massachusetts militia, 1775. Damian Niescior, Captain David
Brown’s Company of Concord Minutemen, 19-20 April 2014, Minuteman National
Historic Park.
(page 597)
Charleston, June ye 21. This is the acompt of the Packs that was lost in the fite the 18[sic] of the same
month Belonging to Capt. John Marcy.
Capt. Marcy 1 good coat, 2 good fine shurts, 1 pr. stockings, 1 blanket, 1 pr Boots:
Lt. Farwell, 1 sword, 1 good coat, 4 good shurts, 4 pr. of stockings, 1 pr of Boots, 1 pr. Sadelbags, 1 pr of
spurs, 1 pr. Lether briches, 2 silk handkerchief, 1 Blanket;
Ens. James Tagard, 2 good shurts, 3 pr stockings. 1 pr sadelbags. 1 pr shous, 1 Tumpline, 1 pillar case:
Isaac Johnson, 1 good Blanket. 1 good piller case. 3 good shurts. 3 good pr. of stockings. 1 good pr.
trouses, 1 good frock. 1 good razor and sum other things Besides;
Ebenezer Kingsbury 1 good shurt, 1 pr. stockings. 1 pr trouses, 1 pr. shoos, 1 tumpline, 1 Blanket;
Jonathan Eastman, 1 good Blanket, 1 good shurt, 1 pr trouses, 2 good capes. 1 good Rasher, 1 new pair of
shoues;
Jonathan Eastman jun'r. 1 good piller-case. 1 good Blanket. 1 shurt. 1 pair trouses;
Heskier Clark. 1 Blanket, 1 shurt, 1 pr. trouses. 1 pr stockings;
Daniel Adams, 1 Blanket, 1 coat, 1 shurt, 1 pr velvet briches;
Elisha Gustin 1 Blanket. 1 shurt, 2 pr stockings. 1 piller case, 1 tumpline;
Stephen Gilman. 1 shurt, 1 pr stockings, 1 piller case. 1 pair shous, 1 pr buckels;
Joseph Parke, 1 velvet jacat. 1 shurt, 2 pr stockings, 1 tumpline;
Amos Flud, 1 shurt, 1 pr trouses. 1 piller case, 1 shurt;
Alexander Dihbel, l Blanket, l pr cloath Briches. 1 pr stockings;
Caleb Airl, 1 pr stockings. 1 tumpline;
John Downs. 1 blanket, 1 tumpline, 1 pr stockings, 1 shurt, 1piller case;
Gilbert Castwell, 1 blanket. 1 coat. 1 fir stockings. 1 shurt. 1 piller case;
David Cross. 1 blanket. 1 shurt. 1 coat. 1 jacut, 1 pr trouses. 1 pr stockings. 1 tumpline:
Cornelius Warren, 1 blanket, 1 piller-case, 1 shurt. 1 pr trouses. 1 Rasher;
Samuel Marcy, 1 blanket, 1 pr stockings,
Samuel Bur, 1 blanket, 1 pr of Lether Briches. 1 gun. 1 tumpline, 1 pr stockings, 1 piller case;
Isac Read, 1 gun. 1 coat, 1 Blanket. 1 shurt. 1 pr stockings, 1 piller case, l tumpline. l pr Briches;
Jesse Knot, 1 Blanket;
John Cross. 1 shurt. 1 snapsack, 1tumplin, 2 pr stockings;
Joseph Powars, 1 pr trouses, 1 pr stockings, 1 piller case. 1 tumpline;
John Pulsepher, 1 piller case, 1 blanket. 2 shurts. 1 good pr. briches. 1 pr trouses,
Timothy Clark, 1 grate coat, 1 tite coat, 1 good shirt, 1 good Drum. 1 tumpline;
John Barrett, 2 pr stockings, 2 shurts, 1 pr lether Briches, 1 pr shous, l pr white briches, 1 white shurt;
Phillip Huntoon. 1 grate coat. 1 Blanket. 2 shurts. 2 pr stockings. 1 piller [case], 1 tumpline. 1 pr shous:
Edward Kies. 2 good shirts. 1 pr shous, 1 grate coat, 1 pr stockings,
John Calkins. 1 shurt. 1 tumpline.
Snapsacks: Several of the above returns listing clothing and equipment lost at Bunker Hill
contain alternate spellings of the word knapsack; the variations are “napsack,” “gnapsack,” and
“snapsack.” The list for a single company, Capt. William Walker’s, uses two of those variations,
“gnapsack” and “snapsack,” leaving one to think the writer was describing two different items.
Possibly the list may have been written by two different people, each with their own spelling
preference. Unfortunately, without examining the handwriting on the original document we have
no way of knowing.
In recent years, the term “snapsack” has been linked to a simple single-strap crude knapsack,
formed like a bag and closed by a drawstring at one end. The examples pictured in period images
of British soldiers were made of skin, but many reproductions have been made of linen.
Previously this author broadcast requests for others to provide research confirming that such
receptacles were named snapsacks in 18th century America or Britain, and, failing that, have also
been unable to do so myself. Pending solid information on the matter, I am left to conclude that
the term “snapsack” is an alternate spelling of knapsack, and a generic term referring to no
specific design. For now, let us close with the definition provided by the Oxford English
Dictionary, “Snapsack … A knapsack. Common from c 1650 to 1700.”
The Compact Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary, vol. 2 (Oxford University Press, 1971),
2889.
Finally, at this time there is no evidence at all that the single-sling drawstring bag/knapsack
was used during the American Revolution by anyone, even American militia.

Linen drawstring knapsack, modern reproduction.
http://blueboxsutlery.com/photos4.html
See also, http://www.18cnewenglandlife.org/18cnel/wallets.htm

Hair single-strap knapsack. Detail from David Morier, “Grenadiers, 16th and
17th Regiments of Foot, and Grenadier and Drummer, 18th Royal Irish
Regiment of Foot, 1751”
Detail from David Morier, “Grenadiers, 46th, 47th and 48th Regiments of Foot, 1751”
http://www.royalcollection.org.uk/collection-search/david%2520morier

Detail from Edward Penny, R.A. (1714-1791), “An Officer Giving Alms to a Sick Soldier”
(circa 1765, oil on canvas). The painting depicts an officer of the 3rd Irish Horse (now the
Scots Dragoons Guards) extending charity to an infantryman and his family. A variant of
the Marquis of Granby relieving a sick soldier, which was exhibited by Penny at the Society
of Artists in 1765 and which was presented to the Bodleian by the artist in 1787. The 3rd
Irish Horse fought under Granby at the battle of Warburg in 1760 during the Seven Years
War, and it is probable that this painting may have been commissioned from the artist at
the same date.

Here is a letter possibly describing the use of knapsacks (not snapsacks) in the form of
a bag with a drawstring closure used by Connecticut Provincial troops:
Norwich Connecticut, 6 September 1755
“Capt [John] Terry [Maj. Gen. Phineas Lyman’s 1st Connecticut Provincial Regiment]
Sir....I send you by the Bearor … 33 knapsacks with cord and straps and twine to whip the end of
the cords which your men may do and put them in; I sent 50 knapsacks to Lieut. [Prince] Tracy
but had not their straps made and if he has supply'd that matter please to send back the 50 now
sent by the bearor.
Your humble servt
Hez. Huntington [Col. Hezekiah Huntington, commissary to the Connecticut Provincial troops]”
Connecticut Historical Society, Miscellaneous Manuscripts. (Courtesy of Gary Zaboly, via Rob
Frasier)

18. Bennett Cuthbertson, System for the Compleat Interior Management and Oeconomy of a Battalion of
Infantry, (Dublin, 1768), 82-85, 93, 101. The 1779 edition included the amended directive that the leather straps
be “coloured as the Accoutrements.”
19. Timothy Pickering, Jr., An Easy Plan of Discipline for a Militia (Salem, Massachusetts: Printed by
Samuel and Ebenezer Hall, 1775), 3-4. Massachusetts authorized use of Pickering’s Easy Plan for its
militia in May 1776, though whether that extended to Continental regiments is unknown. Joseph R. Riling,
The Art and Science of War in America: A Bibliography of American Military Imprints, 1690-1800
(Bloomfield, Ontario: Museum Restoration Service, 1990), 8, 9, 36-37.
____________
(Above and below) Early war cartridge pouch used by militia and Continental troops, made
by Andrew Watson Kirk. With a block pierced to hold nineteen rounds, many of these
pouches are still extant, some of which were found in Continental vessels sunk in Lake
Champlain. Some examples have had a small block holding five cartridges added in front of
the original block, making the carrying capacity twenty-four rounds when that became the
Continental Army standard. One such pouch belonged to Benjamin Fogg, a Connecticut
militiaman who served in the 1776 New York campaign. Don Troiani, Soldiers in America,
1754-1865 (Mechanicsburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 1998), 53.
Regarding cartridge pouches holding 24 rounds: Army orders, Cambridge,
Massachusetts, 16 February 1776, “All the Regiments are immediately to be compleated, to
Twenty-four rounds of Ammunition a man … The General is surprised to find the Militia
applying for Cartouch Boxes and other Accoutrements, when he had not a doubt, but they
would have come compleatly equipt -- As the ease however is otherwise, he directs that they
should be served with Powder-horns and Shot pouches, in lieu of Cartouch Boxes …”;
Army orders, Harlem Heights, Manhattan Island, 2 October 1776 noted, “It is once more
repeated, that every Soldier is to be completed with Ammunition to 24 Rounds a Man; and
it is the duty of Officers to see that they have it -- Some of the troops who went out on the
covering party this morning, had not their Complement, nor had their Officers examined
their Arms and Ammunition, before they marched them on the Grand Parade -- This
Conduct if not amended will be fatal to the Army and the Country -- Where the Cartridge-
Boxes will not hold the full Complement, application is to be made for Pouches, which may
be had at the Commissary's Store.”; Army orders, New York, 19 May 1776, “The Colonels,
and Officers commanding Corps, are immediately to have their men compleated with
twenty-four Rounds of powder and ball, properly, and compleatly, made up into
Cartridges, six rounds of which, each man is to have in his pouch, or cartridge box, for
ordinary duty; the remaining eighteen, are to be wrapped up tight, in a Cloth, or coarse
Paper, and mark'd with the name of the soldier to whom they belong, and carefully packed
into an empty powder barrel. The Captains, or Officers commanding Companies, are to see
that this is done, and to take into his own possession, the barrel, with the cartridges so
packed, and to have them delivered to the men, as occasion may require …” General orders,
16 February 1776, John C. Fitzpatrick, ed., The Writings of George Washington from the
Original Manuscript Sources 1745-1799, vol. 4 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1931), 334-335;
General orders, 19 May 1776, ibid., vol. 5 (1932), 59-60. . General orders, 2 October 1776,
ibid., vol. 6 (1932), 147-148. See also, George Washington to the President of Congress, 18
February 1776, vol. 4, 335-337; General orders, 30 June and 23 August 1776, ibid., vol. 5
(1932), 205-206, 478-479; General orders, 3 September 1776, ibid., vol. 9 (1933), 168-169.

_______________________
The gridiron portrayed above was excavated at a Continental Army camp site, circa
1776-1780. George C. Neumann and Frank J. Kravic, Collector's Illustrated
Encyclopedia of the American Revolution (Harrisburg, Pa., 1975), 93. Illustration by
Ross Hamel.)
____________

2. Cooking and Other Equipment in Brig. Gen. John Sullivan’s Brigade,
24 March 1776

Brig. Gen. John Sullivan’s Brigade, March 1776.
A return of Camp Utensils in four Regts in Genl Sullivans Brigade 1
Wooden
Iron plates & Tea
pots Kettles Pails platters Bowls Canteens Spiders Kettles

Vizt in Colo Starks Regt 65 36 42 79

Do Colo Nixons 80 64 97 163 2

Do Colo Poors 89 35 64 183 83 4 2

Do Colo Reeds 107 48 114 44 1

Do Brigade Store 1 3 1 3 1 1 1

Whole Number 336 74 219 183 293 291 5 6

A true Return as recd. from the QMr of each Regt – Attestd N Norton [illegible letters]

Majr Frazier at Boston
E[rrors] Excepted
March 24th 1776 Jno. G. Frazer AQMG
Compare that return with cooking and eating utensils in the store at Medford,
Massachusetts, in a listing dated 25 March 1776: 11 “Potts,” 0 kettles, 4 “Spiders” (frying
pans with three legs), 1 skillet, 1 “Stewpan,” 1 frying pan, 2 tea kettles, 12 wooden
bowls, 2 canteens, 1 “Cheese Toaster,” 1 grid iron, 1 ladle, and 1 flesh fork. The frying
pans, tea kettles, skillet, stew pan, toaster, and grid iron would have been reserved for the
officers of the brigade.2
The size of the iron pots in Sullivan’s Brigade is not known, but perhaps the ones
procured by Connecticut give some indication. During the 1776 campaigns around New
York, Connecticut militia troops (including Joseph Plumb Martin, author of Private Yankee
Doodle) carried heavy cooking gear. In October, with many troops already in the field and
supplies of light-weight kettles strained to the utmost, the Connecticut Assembly decided to
gather additional supplies, including "for the use of the militia ... when called into actual
service … two thousand Iron Pots containing two gallons each ..."3

Small three-legged fry pans such as this were probably used on occasion by
Continental soldiers. This illustration is based on a large example found aboard the
Gunboat Philadelphia. That artifact has a 14 3/4 inch wide pan, a handle 14 3/4 inches
long, and stands 8 1/2 inches high. George C. Neumann and Frank J. Kravic,
Collector's Illustrated Encyclopedia of the American Revolution (Harrisburg, Pa., 1975),
91. Illustration by Ross Hamel.

Several kinds of cooking implements are pictured and listed on this trade card, including,
“Potts & Kettles of all sizes,” “Skillets of all Sizes,” “Large & small Spiders,” “Stew Pans,
with covers,” “Tea Kettles,” “Pudding-pans, & basons,” and “Fry-pans & fry Kettles.”
(American Antiquarian Society)
1. John Sullivan, 24 March 1776, Report on Utensils, George Washington Papers, Presidential Papers
Microfilm (Washington: Library of Congress, 1961), series 4 (General Correspondence. 1697–1799); Brig.
Gen. John Sullivan’s March 1776 command comprised the following regiments: Col. James Reed’s 2nd
Continental (New Hampshire), Col. John Nixon’s 4th Continental (Massachusetts), Col. John Stark’s 5th
Continental (New Hampshire), and Col. Enoch Poor’s 8th Continental (New Hampshire). For the ensuing
campaign, these units were split between the Northern (2nd, 5th, and 8th regiments) and Main armies.
Charles H. Lesser, Sinews of Independence: Monthly Strength Reports of the Continental Army (Chicago, Il.
and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1976), 20-21, 24-25; Fred Anderson Berg, Encyclopedia of
Continental Army Units: Battalions, Regiments and Independent Corps (Harrisburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books,
1972), 32-33.
2. John G. Frazer, “A Return of Camp-Utensils &c in Store at Medford,” 25 March 1776, George
Washington Papers (Library of Congress, 1961), series 4.
3. In his memoirs Joseph Martin noted the camp kettle he carried when serving with the Connecticut militia in
1776: "There were but three men present [in the mess]. We had our cooking utensils ... to carry in our hands.
They were made of cast iron and consequently heavy." Joseph Plumb Martin, Private Yankee Doodle: A
Narrative of Some of the Adventures, Dangers and Sufferings of a Revolutionary Soldier (Boston and Toronto:
Little, Brown and Co., 1962), 51; Peter Force, American Archives, series 5, vol. III (Washington, D.C.:
Published by M. St. Clair and Peter Force, 1853), 453.
____________

New York militia captain David Uhl’s knapsack, said to have been “worn by him when he
joined the army at Harlem.” Little is known of the knapsacks worn by American troops
early in the war, but it is likely they were similar to Captain Uhl’s. His pack is of simple
design, with two shoulder straps attached to a body with a single pocket. Overall
measurements are 17 inches wide by 18 high. E.M Ruttenbur, Catalog of Manuscripts and
Relics in Washington’s Head-Quarters, with Historical Sketch (Newburgh, N.Y.: E.M
Ruttenbur and Son Printers, 1874) (Collection of Washington's Headquarters State
Historic Site, Newburgh, New York.)
“Rough draft of the new Invented Napsack and haversack in one,” included with J. Young’s
February 9 1776 letter to Maryland Congressman Samuel Chase. In his proposal Mr.
Young noted, “The above is a rough draft of the new Invented Napsack and haversack in
one That is adopted by the American Regulars of Pennsylvania, New Jersey & Virginia @
8/6 each. I could furnish any quantity that may be wanted for Maryland by ye first of
April.” J. Young to Samuel Chase, 9 February 1776, enclosed in Samuel Chase to Thomas
Jenifer, 10 February 1776, "Journal of the Maryland Convention, 26 July-14 August
1775/Journal and Correspondence of the Maryland Council of Safety, August 29, 1775-July 6,
1776," William Hand Brown, Archives of Maryland, vol. 11, (Baltimore, Md., 1892), 150. A
"rough draft of the new Invented napsack and haversack in one that is adopted by the
American regulars of Pennsylvania, New Jersey & Virginia ...," contained in Samuel Chase to
J. Young, 9 February 1776, is found in the Maryland State Papers, (Red Books), Archives of
the State of Maryland, access. no. MdHR 4561, loc. 1-6-3-38, 4, item 13.
Reproduction of the “the new Invented Napsack and haversack.” The unit identification
marked on the pack is conjectural.

Reproduction of the “the new Invented Napsack and haversack.” The upper bag
with the slit opening is intended to carry foodstuff. These knapsacks were likely not
popular with the troops, having limited space for extra clothing and necessaries, as
well as a single-strap suspension, uncomfortable on a long march. The single
shoulder strap could be made less burdensome by wearing it across both shoulders,
as Native American tumplines were often worn.
Reproduction of Benjamin Warner’s linen knapsack. Made by Matthew White from Stuart
Lilie kit, it measures, closed, 18 ½ inches wide by 15 ½ inches high. Warner’s knapsack, in
the collections of the Fort Ticonderoga Museum, may be the only extant example remaining
from the thousands of linen knapsacks issued to Continental troops. Unfortunately, it
cannot be certainly determined at which point it was issued during the soldier’s varied
career. Of its provenance Connecticut soldier Benjamin Warner merely noted in March
1837, “This Napsack I carryd through the war of the Revolution to acthieve the Merican
Independence.” Warner served in four foot regiments from 1775 to 1777, and again with a
Continental artillery regiment for three months in 1780.
____________
3. Main Army: Return of Arms and Accoutrements issued
from 1 April to 1 August 1777

Continental Congress War Board, August 11, 1777, Distribution of Arms and Stores
"Abstract of the Arms & Accoutrements deliverd out at Philadelphia to the Continental
Troops by the Commissary Genl. of Military Stores from the 1st. of April 1777 to the 1st of
August following. As taken from the several Returns made to the War Office and agreable
to the Orders issued from sd. Office on the sd. Commissy."
13,200 stands of Armes
13,095 Cartouch Boxes
11,626 Canteens
13,297 Knapsacks
3135 Haversacks
14,107 Bayonet Belts
13,800 Brushes & Wires
170 Rifles pouches & Horns
Richard Peters Secy.
"Abstract of the Arms & Accoutrements deliverd out at Philadelphia to the Continental
Troops by the Commissary Genl. of Military Stores from the 1st. of April 1777 to the 1st of
August following ...," (enclosure) Board of War to Washington, 18 October 1777, George
Washington Papers at the Library of Congress, 1741-1799: Series 4, reel 43. General
Correspondence. 1697-1799
____________
British linen haversack, late 18th/early 19th century. J. Craig Nannos Collection.

____________
4. Return of Camp Equipage Delivered to the Army during the 1777 Campaign

Anthony Butler, March 9, 1778, Supply Prospects; with Copy
“General Return of Camp Equipage &c deliverd in the Campaign – 1777
68 Casks Nails
6545 Shovels
3128 Spades
575 Picks
2345 Fascine Hatchets and Bill Hooks
121 Crosscut Saws
9 Pitt Saws
268 Wheel Barrows
228 hand Barrows
2690 Shovel Handles
6 Traveling Forges
130 Setts Artillery & Waggon Harnesse
31 Sets of Artillery Traces
133 Saddles and Bridles
13,134 Setts of Horsehoes
367 Setts of Clouts for Waggons
16,274 Knapsacks
37,018 Tomahawks
14,874 Canteens
6 Markees with Poles and Pins
116 horsemans Tents ditto
3690 Soldiers Tents
6071 Soldiers Tent Poles
23,951 Tent Pins
6,348 Camp Kettles
33,186 Bushells of Indian Corn
24,321 Ditto Oats
George Washington Papers at the Library of Congress, 1741-1799: Series 4. General
Correspondence. 1697-1799
____________
Spade made by Hoffman’s Forge (, http://www.hoffmansforge.com/ )

Shovel and spade.
(Image courtesy of Hoffman’s Forge, http://www.hoffmansforge.com/)
Pick-axe
(Image courtesy of Hoffman’s Forge, http://www.hoffmansforge.com/)
____________
5. Partial List of Stores Captured on the British Ship Symmetry, January 1778

Clement Biddle, January 10, 1778, Cargo List of the Symetry (brigantine)
“List of Camp Equipage, Military Stores, Baggage &c. taken in the Brig Symmetry
Capt[ured]. at Wilmington Jan: 1778” included “35 hair knapsacks” (“Delivered Genl
Sullivans Division”), “a Cask Kettles & Canteens” plus “about 30 loose Kettles (“remain
at Wilmington not dld.”), “56 Camp Kettles,” “424 Tin Canteens,” “1066 New
Knapsacks,” “230 New Tecklenburg Tents,” “20 Pack Saddles in Complete Order”
(“sent to Faggs Manor Meetinghouse”)
George Washington Papers at the Library of Congress, 1741-1799: Series 4. General
Correspondence. 1697-1799.
____________

British crescent-shaped tin canteen, with straight sides, 7 inches high, 4 7/8 inches wide, and 2 1/2
deep. The spout is 7/8 inch diameter and 1 inch high. Another similar canteen in the Troiani
collection is 8 1 /2 inches high, 4 3/4 wide, and 2 3/4 deep. Mike O’Donnell, U.S. Army & Militia
Canteens, 1775-1910 (Alexandria, Va.: O’Donnell Publications, 2008), 14-16.
(Courtesy of Bob McDonald)
Top view of canteen from the collection of Bob McDonald.

Canteen stopper made of tin. Detail of British crescent-shaped tin canteen in the J.
Craig Nannos Collection (Photograph courtesy of Andrew Watson Kirk.)
American tin canteen, with an angled profile, differing it from the straight-
sided British version. Height, 5 5/8 inches; bottom width, 4 3/8 inches; top
width, 3 1/2 inches; 3 inches at bottom, front to back. This example is noted
to have been carried Abraham Van Vlack, 2d Regiment Dutchess County
Militia, while at Fort Constitution in 1777. E.M Ruttenbur, Catalog of
Manuscripts and Relics in Washington’s Head-Quarters, with Historical Sketch
(Newburgh, N.Y.: E.M Ruttenbur and Son Printers, 1874), item 585
(Collection of Washington's Headquarters State Historic Site, Newburgh,
New York.) For additional details see, Robert L. Klinger & Richard A. Wilder,
Sketchbook '76, The American Soldier, 1775-1781 (Union City, Tn.: Pioneer Press,
1974), 48. See also, Mike O’Donnell, U.S. Army & Militia Canteens, 1775-1910
(Alexandria, Va.: O’Donnell Publications, 2008), 28.

____________
Image: Plate 10, No. 1, Heinrich Medicus, Was ist jedem Officier waehrend eines Feldzugs zu
wissen noethig. Mit zehen Kupferplatten (Carlsruhe, 1788).
Description (translation courtesy of Robert A Selig, PhD.)

A Pack Saddle
a) the Front Strap
b) the Belly Strap
c) the Rear Strap
d) the strap to hang things with, the haunch
e) is hung into hook "f"
g) the rings into which the fodder/feed bag, boot cleaning material bag, (hair) powder bag
and bread bag are tied

2. The Pack Saddle from the front

3. The Pack Saddle from the rear

4. Packed Tent

5. Mantle Sack/Greatcoat Pack ready to be packed (onto the horse) seen from the side
facing the horse

6. Mantle Sack with spun hay on it

7. Bed Sack.
N(ota) B(ene). During packing the rings o of numbers 4, 5, or 6 are hung into the hooks o.

8. The Pack Strap, of which each Pack Saddle has four
Pack horse, likely Prussian (undated, circa mid-eighteenth century). Plates
(unbound) from the Society of the Cincinnati collections (courtesy of Marko
Zlatich). The Society of the Cincinnati, 2118 Massachusetts Ave NW, Washington,
DC 20008.

6. Camp Equipage in the 1st Pennsylvania Brigade, Valley Forge, 3 June 1778

“A Return of officers and men Camp Equipage now Present in the 1st. Penna. Brigade Commanded by Coln.
William Irvine” [included the 1st, 2nd, 7th, and 10th Pennsylvania Regiments. The original return is broken down
by regiment.]
June 3, 1778
Field Officers 10
Commissioned Officers 79
Staff Officers 14
Non Commissioned Officers 111
Rank and File 729

Marquees 2 Wooden Bowls 4
Horsemans Tents 4 Axes 13
Common Tents 74 Hatchets 0
Knapsacks 505 Tomahawks 44
Haversacks 24 Spades 9
Camp Kettles 128 Shovels 6
Canteens 112 Pickaxes 0
Buckets 11 Bell Tents 24

“A Return of officers and men Camp Equipage now Present in the 1st. Penna. Brigade Commanded by Coln.
William Irvine” (Included the 1st, 2nd, 7th, and 10th Pennsylvania Regiments. The original return is broken down
by regiment.) Thomas Alexander, Brigade Quartermaster, 3 June 1778, General William Irvine Papers,
Historical Society of Pennsylvania. (Courtesy of Lee Boyle)
____________

Continental Army staved canteen.
(Museum of the American Revolution, Philadelphia)
Soldiers of the 4th Connecticut Regiment, 1778.
Model Company event, Valley Forge. 29-30 March 2014.
____________
7. "A Return of Quarter-Master-General's Stores in The Brigades at West Point &
Constitution Island," 1 August 1779: North Carolina, 4th Massachusetts, and
Paterson’s (Massachusetts) Brigades

Col. Clark’s North Carolina Brigade (1st and 2nd NC), Col. Bailey’s 4th Massachusetts
Brigade (2nd, 8th, 9th, Mass.), and General Paterson’s Brigade (10th, 11th, 12th, 14th, Mass.).

North Carolina Brigade (126 officers, 541 rank and file present, fit for duty; 128 rank & file sick, on
command, and on furlough)
2 marquees
21 horseman’s tents
168 common tents
123 tent poles
122 camp kettles
495 knapsacks
98 haversacks
26 pails
185 canteens
31 leather portmanteau
12 leather valises
1 canvas valise
1 cutting box
1 cutting knife
1 broad axe
14 narrow axes
2 handsaws
6 chisels
2 augers
2 hammers
4 shovels
4 spades
3 picks
2 covered wagons
16 open wagons
64 wagon horses C.P. *
8 ditto P.P. **
6 riding horses C.P.
8 ditto P.P.

______________________
* Continental property
** Personal or private property
4th Massachusetts Brigade (164 officers, 628 rank and file present, fit for duty; 229 rank & file sick, on
command, and on furlough)
4 marquees
26 horseman’s tents
173 common tents
10 tent poles
25 tent lines
136 camp kettles
132 knapsacks
22 haversacks
19 wooden bowls
58 pails
559 canteens
65 leather portmanteau
4 canvas valise
30 iron cups
26 narrow axes
1 handsaw
1 drawknife
2 chisels
1 gouge
1 iron square
1 compass
1 gimblet
1 file
5 shovels
7 spades
1 picks
23 wagon horses C.P.
1 riding horses C.P.
16 ditto P.P.
Patterson’s Brigade (223 officers, 981 rank and file present, fit for duty; 147 rank & file sick, on command,
and on furlough)
3 marquees
22 horseman’s tents
192 common tents
23 tent poles
27 tent lines
174 camp kettles
346 knapsacks
64 wooden bowls
76 pails
797 canteens
84 leather portmanteau
6 canvas valise
32 iron cups
26 narrow axes
8 shovels
11 spades
6 picks
1 covered wagon
4 wagon horses C.P.
1 riding horses C.P.
6 ditto P.P.
"A Return of Quarter-Master-General's Stores in The Brigades at West Point &
Constitution Island," 1 August 1779, The Papers of the Continental Congress 1774-1789,
(National Archives Microfilm Publication M247, 1958, vol. 3, reel 192, 145).
____________

Wooden cheesebox canteen.
Private, 4th Connecticut Regiment, 1778-79.
Continental soldier’s mess bowl, with horn spoon and cup. Bowl dimensions are as
follows: The base is oval, 4 3/8 X 3 7/8 inches; top of bowl (outside measurements), 5
1/8 inches; bottom of bowl (outside measurements), 4 3/4 inches at the widest; side
staves are 3/16 inch thick at top and 1/8 inch at bottom; staves are 2 3/4 inches high;
side bands are crude, reminiscent of the bands on twig furniture. The top band is
from 1/4 inch to 3/8 inch, the lower bands seem more uniform being about 1/2 inch
wide.
Unlike this example, most soldiers’ bowls were likely carved or turned from a
single piece of wood. This singular artifact, belonging to a soldier purportedly with
Maj. Gen. Charles Lee’s Division marching from Valley Forge to Monmouth in
June 1778, was left in the hands of the Benjamin Paxson family of Bucks County,
Pennsylvania, after the man took sick and died in their care.
(Artifact courtesy of the late Sally Paxson Davis. Photograph by the author.)
Most soldiers’ mess bowls were likely turned, as is this example. Wooden bowl from the wreck
of the HMS Invincible, sunk in 1758. A total of 11 wood bowls (ranging from 9 inches to 13.4
inches in diameter), the fragments of 13 other wood bowls, plus 1 pewter bowl, 1 gourd
bowl, and the remains of a “green glazed stoneware” bowl were recovered from the
Invincible. Image courtesy of John Broomhead, director Invincible Conservations Ltd.
(http://www.invincible1758.co.uk/)
Wooden spoons excavated from HMS Invincible, which sank in 1758. Identified as being
made of sycamore. Maritime Archaeology Trust.
http://www.maritimearchaeologytrust.org/mapguide/invincible/main.php
http://www.hwtma.org.uk/mapguide/Invincible/images/ARTEFACTSsub/136.jpg

____________
Sheet-iron camp kettle as per Timothy Pickering's 1782 specifications. This
reproduction, by Patrick M. Cunningham, measures 9 1/2 inches wide by 9 1/2 inches
high, weighs 2 pounds, 12.1 ounces, and holds 2 gallons, 1 pint (8 1/2 quarts), and was
the standard-size mess kettle for the Continental Army during 1782. American sheet-
iron kettles issued in 1781 "average[d] about 8 Inches High and about eight and a half
or nine Inches wide, made without Ears and without covers." From the beginning of
the war kettles of this type were issued in large numbers to soldiers on both sides. (To
determine capacity kettles were filled with water to one inch below the rim.) (Photo by
Ross Hamel)

____________
8. Return of Quartermaster’s Stores for Maj. Gen. John Sullivan’s Army, Tioga, 21
August 1779.

Maj. Gen. John Sullivan’s army, Tioga, 21 August 1779
(present-day Athens, Pennsylvania).
Brig. Gen. William Maxwell’s brigade: 1st, 2d, and 3d New Jersey, and Spencer’s Additional Regiments.
Brig. Gen. Enoch Poor’s brigade:1st, 2d, and 3d New Hampshire, and 6th Massachusetts Regiments.
Brig. Gen. Edward Hand’s brigade: 11th Pennsylvania Regiment, German Regiment, Morgan’s Riflemen,
Selin’s Independent Rifle Company, Wyoming (Pennsylvania) Militia, Spalding’s Wyoming Company.

Present Officers N.C.O.'s and Privates
Fit for Duty and Staff Present, Fit for Duty
Maxwell's Brigade 1225 83 1142
Poor's Brigade 1049 85 964
Hand's Brigade 800 66 754
Procter's Artillery 147 16 131
(4th Battalion, Continental Artillery)

July 1779 strength return, Lesser, 124-125.
Procter's Artillery Battalion, October 1779 return, 138 (N.C.O.'s and privates)

Camp
Kettles Bowls
with Camp Iron and
Covers Kettles Cups Dishes Canteens
Maxwell's Brigade 184 26 80 957
Poor's Brigade 213 19 869
Hand's Brigade 109 555
Proctor's Artillery 13 39 180

Leather
Knapsacks Haversacks Portmanteaus
Maxwell's Brigade 1044 765 85
Poor's Brigade 851 535 80
Hand's Brigade 625 526 41
Proctor's Artillery 100 22

Felling Fascine Fascine
Axes Shovels Spades Picks Knives Hatchets
Maxwell's Brigade 56 8
Poor's Brigade 96 4 11 3
Hand's Brigade 22 5
Proctor's Artillery 10 5 8 6 6
Pack Bell Leather Horse
Saddles Collars Hopples Bells
Major General Sullivan 6
and Staff
Maxwell's Brigade 270
Poor's Brigade 220
Hand's Brigade 115
Proctor's Artillery 80
Deputy QM General 4
and Staff
Pack Horse Department 19
Flying Hospital 1
Stores on hand 250 204 27
715 250 204 27

Pieces of Ammunition Travelling
Artillery Wagons Tumbrils Forges
Maxwell's Brigade 1
Poor's Brigade 1
Hand's Brigade 1
Proctor's Artillery 8 5 2 1
8 8 2 1

Artillery
& Wagon Pack* Blind** Pairs of
Horses Horses Bridles Collars Harness
Major General Sullivan 6
and Staff
Maxwell's Brigade 264 4 4 4
Poor's Brigade 313 4 4 4
Hand's Brigade 157 4 4 4
Proctor's Artillery 66 90 90 84
Deputy QM General 4
and Staff
Deputy Commissary 6
General and Staff
Pack Horse Department 60
66 810 102 98 96

* Continental property; four privately-owned pack horses are also listed for Maxwell’s Brigade. Public
and privately-owned riding horses are also given.
** Note: On the original the entries from “Blind Bridles” to “Breech Bands” look to have been
accidentally shifted up one row. This transcription corrects that error.
Pairs of Back Belly Breech**
Traces Bands Bands Bands Cruppers
Maxwell's Brigade 4 2 4 2
Poor's Brigade 4 2 4 2
Hand's Brigade 4 2 4 2
Proctor's Artillery 55 65 79 20 24
Stores on hand 148
215 71 91 26 24

** Note: On the original the entries from “Blind Bridles” to “Breech Bands” look to have been
accidentally shifted up one row. This transcription corrects that error.

Cart Ham Wagon Rope
Saddles Strings Whips Halters
Maxwell's Brigade 185
Poor's Brigade 313
Hand's Brigade 157
Proctor's Artillery 11 212 17
Pack Horse Department 19
Stores on hand 344
11 212 1,035

The following were also listed in this return:

Proctor's Artillery, 1 adze, 1 handsaw, 1 "Tennant" saw, 1 fore plane, 1 jack plane, 3 chisels, 1
gouge, 3 augers, 0 files.

Artificers, 0 adzes, 8 handsaws, 1 compass saw, 5 smoothing planes, 4 fore planes, 4 jack planes, 22
chisels, 4 gouges, 22 augers, 4 gimlets, 11 rules, 3 compasses, 0 files.

Stores on hand, 4 adzes, 7 handsaws, 2 "Tennant" saws, 4 compass saws, 2 "saw Sets," 6 smoothing
planes, 5 fore planes, 5 jack planes, 16 chisels, 6 gouges, 29 augers, 6 gimlets, 7 rules, 6 compasses, 5
files.
Thomas Armstrong to Nathanael Greene, 21 August 1779, "A General Return of Stores in
The Quarter Master General's Department with the Army under the Command of ... Major
General John Sullivan on the Western Expedition Fort Sullivan, Tioga," Miscellaneous
Numbered Records (The Manuscript File) in the War Department Collection of
Revolutionary War Records 1775-1790's, National Archives Microfilm Publication M859,
Record Group 93 (Washington, D.C., 1971), reel 94, no. 27523.
____________
(Above and below)Three mid-18th century Conestoga wagons of differing design,
reconstructed for Fort Ligonier, Ligonier, Pennsylvania. (http://fortligonier.org/ ).
Conestogas were more likely used for carrying supplies to the army, rather than for
baggage wagons following the troops. See Appendices for more on Continental
Army vehicles.
Wooden pack saddle, provenance unknown, date unknown. Regarding padding for
these saddles, Quartermaster General Timothy Pickering wrote this missive, “If you
have about three yards linnen to spare without spoiling a tent, issue it to Major
Murnand [John Bernard de Murnan] of the Corps of Engineers for making the
pads of a pack saddle. T. Pickering” Timothy Pickering to [Abner or Abraham]
Mery, 22 October 1780, Quartermaster General, Letter Book, 28 September 1780-13
August 1781, Miscellaneous Numbered Records (The Manuscript File) in the War
Department Collection of Revolutionary War Records 1775-1790's, no. 28630, folio 24
(National Archives Microfilm Publication M859, reel 98) U.S. War Department
Collection of Revolutionary War Records, Record Group 93, Washington.
Felling axe (above). Fascine knife (below). (Knife made by Hoffman’s Forge.)
Tin cup. British camp, New York City, 1776 - 1783.

"Description - has an engraved silver band on handle of spoon a silver label has been added
to the back of the spoon: Porridge Ladle/made by/Samuel Adams/at/Valley Forge/ 1778..."
Maine Historical Society. http://mainehistory.pastperfect-
online.com/32314cgi/mweb.exe?request=record%3Bid%3D89BEEE69-0AB6-47FF-B7A8-
951653866210%3Btype%3D10
(Above and following page.) Pewter spoon excavated on Brandywine battlefield (found on
the southwest side of Sandy Hollow, across the road, along the line of retreat from
Birmingham Hill). The handle was purposely cut off, similar to several others of pewter and
lead excavated by Frank J. Kravic at Hudson Highland camp sites. Overall length, 4 1/8
inches; bowl of spoon, 2 1/2 inches long by 2 1/4 wide; length of remaining handle, 1 3/4
inches. The maker’s mark “WB with a fleur-de-lis,” denotes New York pewterer William
Bradford. (Courtesy of Bob McDonald.) George C. Neumann and Frank J. Kravic,
Collector's Illustrated Encyclopedia of the American Revolution (Harrisburg, Pa., 1975), 110.
Morrison H. Heckscher and Leslie Greene Bowman, American Rococo, 1770-1775: Elegance
in Ornament (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1992), 107.
Images of the back of Brandywine spoon and a close-up of the maker’s mark.
Above is an unexcavated example of the same pattern spoon, with full-length handle intact.
Lot 602, pewter spoon, William Bradford (1688-1759). New York City, 1719-1759. Maker's
mark stamped inside bowl. Length 6 5/8 inches, width 2 1/8 inches. Provenance: William D.
Carlebach, Bedford, New York, 1990. New Hampshire Weekend Auction Platinum House
(Northeast Auctions) 24 February 24, 2007, Manchester, NH, USA.
http://www.invaluable.com/auction-lot/602-pewter-spoon.-william-bradford-1688-1759-.-
602-c-bc1tesevx9

A soldier’s spoon with initials. Charles L. Fisher, ed., The Most Advantageous Situation in
the Highlands. An Archaeological Study of Fort Montgomery State Historic Site (Albany:
(New York State Education Department, 2004), 17.
____________

9. "A Return of Quarter-Master-General's Stores in the Second Pennsylvania Brigade
... at Camp West Point," 4 August 1779

3rd, 5th, 6th, 9th Pennsylvania Regiments, plus “Brigadier and others.”
The brigade returned 4 covered camp kettles (two with the 5th Regiment, two with the brigadier general), 196
camp kettles (61 (3rd), 48 (5th), 41 (6th), 44 (9th), and two with the “Brigadier and others”), 36 wooden bowls
(10, 17, 2, 6), and 20 iron spoons (12, -, -, 8).
Total brigade strength was:
3rd (55 officers, 240 rank and file present, fit for duty; 80 rank & file sick, on command, and on furlough)
5th (51 officers, 201 rank and file present, fit for duty; 78 rank & file sick, on command, and on furlough)
6th (41 officers, 162 rank and file present, fit for duty; 42 rank & file sick, on command, and on furlough)
9th (40 officers, 138 rank and file present, fit for duty; 51 rank & file sick, on command, and on furlough)

3rd (55 officers, 240 rank and file present, fit for duty; 80 rank & file sick, on command, and on furlough)
1 marquee
10 horseman’s tents
61 common tents
1 wall tent
50 tent poles
61 camp kettles
208 knapsacks
10 wooden bowls
215 canteens
12 leather portmanteau
3 canvas valises
12 iron spoons
18 espontoons
1 scythe
1 scythe stone
17 narrow axes
1 adze
1 handsaw
2 chisels
1 auger
1 gimblet
1 file
1 plane
1 shovel
1 spade
2 picks
4 open wagons
21 wagon horses C.P.*
8. riding horses P.P.**

___________________________

* Continental property
** Private or personal property
5th (51 officers, 201 rank and file present, fit for duty; 78 rank & file sick, on command, and on furlough)
1 marquee
7 horseman’s tents
57 common tents
3 wall tents
41 camp kettles
224 knapsacks
17 wooden bowls
229 canteens
15 leather portmanteau
3 canvas valises
12 narrow axes
7 shovels
6 spades
5 picks
1 covered wagon
4 open wagons
20 wagon horses C.P.
1 riding horses C.P.
7 riding horses P.P.

6th (41 officers, 162 rank and file present, fit for duty; 42 rank & file sick, on command, and on furlough)
1 marquee
9 horseman’s tents
42 common tents
2 wall tents
50 tent poles
41 camp kettles
166 knapsacks
2 wooden bowls
126 canteens
17 leather portmanteau
1 scythe
10 narrow axes
1 shovel
1 spade
1 pick
1 covered wagon
4 open wagons
21 wagon horses C.P.
4 riding horses C.P.
2 riding horses P.P.

9th (40 officers, 138 rank and file present, fit for duty; 51 rank & file sick, on command, and on furlough)
8 horseman’s tents
33 common tents
2 wall tent
45 tent poles
44 camp kettles
144 knapsacks
6 wooden bowls
84 canteens
12 leather portmanteau
2 canvas valises
8 iron spoons
11 espontoons
1 scythe
1 scythe stone
10 narrow axes
1 gimblet
2 shovels
3 spades
4 picks
1 covered wagon
4 open wagons
20 wagon horses C.P.
3 riding horses C.P.
3 riding horses P.P.

“Brigadier and others”
4 marquees
1 horseman’s tents
3 common tents
5 tent poles
2 covered camp kettles
2 camp kettles
1 wooden bowl
1 canteen
2 leather portmanteau
2 canvas valises
1 espontoon
3 narrow axes
1 chisel
1 iron square
1 ruler
1 gimblet
4 shovels
4 spades
4 picks
2 covered wagon
8 open wagons
1 riding horse C.P.
2 riding horses P.P.

"A Return of Quarter-Master-General's Stores in the Second Pennsylvania Brigade ... at Camp West
Point," 4 August 1779, The Papers of the Continental Congress 1774-1789, (National Archives
Microfilm Publication M247, 1958, vol. 3, reel 192, 153). Lesser, Sinews of Independence: Monthly
Strength Reports of the Continental Army, 124, July 1779 return.

____________
10. Return of Clothing and Camp Equipment in Maj. Gen. Arthur St. Clair’s
Pennsylvania Division in the Hudson Highlands, 1 October 1779.
1st Brigade: 1st, 2d, 7th, 10th Regiments
2d Brigade: 3d, 5th, 6th, 9th Regiments
4,032 rank and file (not including officers, staff, and non-commissioned officers)

Good Wanting repair
Clothing
coats 293 1632
waistcoats 364 1566
breeches 171 834
linen overalls 2586 560
stockings 149 632
neckstocks 112 3
hunting shirts 10
shoes 887 967
hats 9 1545
caps 407 176
blankets 546 570

Camp Equipage
marquees 9 2
horseman’s tenst 66 5
wall tents 14 2
common tents 315 98
valises 21 2
leather portmanteau 17
knapsacks 1692 86
covered kettles 60
common kettles 389 41
canteens 967 38
bowls 51 5
spoons 84
axes 96 21
spades 22
shovels 8
picks 6

Woolen overalls and axe slings are returned as zero.

“Return of the Pennsylvania Division in the service of the United States, Commanded by
The Honble Major General Arthur St: Clair. October 1st. 1779.” (Transcribed by Mathew
Grubel, 6 October 2003, from pprox. ts in the collections of Morristown National
Historical Park filed under United States Army, Returns. Original manuscripts at the
Historical Society of Pennsylvania.)

____________
Spade (Made by Hoffman’s Forge)
____________

11. Return of Quartermaster’s Stores in the 1st Connecticut Brigade (Including
Brigadier General and Staff), Hudson Highlands, 25 May 1781

“Return of Quarter-Master General Stores on hand in the first Connecticut Brigade Commanded by J
Huntington B.G.,” “Camp Highlands,” 25 May 1781.
1st. Regiment (45 officers, 147 rank and file present, fit for duty; 224 rank & file sick, on command, and on
furlough)
1 marquee tent
2 horsemen’s tents
1 wall tent
42 camp kettles
161 knapsacks
7 wooden bowls
4 pails
34 canteens
31 portmanteaus
3 iron wedges
1 broad axe
10 narrow axes
1 handsaw
1 hammer
5 spades
2 picks
1 covered wagon
22 espontoons
1 set of wagon gears
Copy of portmanteau in the collections of Fort Ticonderoga Museum.
Reproduction made by Brendan Menz brendan.menz@aol.com
3rd Regiment (42 officers, 187 rank and file present, fit for duty; 144 rank & file sick, on command, and on
furlough)
2 horsemen’s tents
1 wall tent
73 camp kettles
138 knapsacks
18 wooden bowls
15 canteens
27 portmanteaus
9 canvas valises
1 iron pot
1 brass kettle
2 iron wedges
1 grindstone
1 broad axe
25 narrow axes
1 adze
1 handsaw
1 drawknife
1 auger
3 pincers
1 hammer
1 gimblet
6 spades
3 picks
1 covered wagon
18 espontoons
1 set of wagon gears

5th Regiment (39 officers, 118 rank and file present, fit for duty; 177 rank & file sick, on command, and on
furlough)
2 horsemen’s tents
4 common tents
1 wall tent
54 camp kettles
43 knapsacks
23 wooden bowls
2 pails
21 canteens
27 portmanteaus
6 canvas valises
1 broad axe
14 narrow axes
1 handsaw
1 drawknife
1 hammer
3 spades
2 picks
1 covered wagon
12 espontoons
B[rigadier]. & staff
3 horsemen’s tents
4 common tents
1 wall tent
4 camp kettles
1 pail
3 portmanteaus
2 canvas valises
1 grindstone
3 narrow axes
1 adze
2 hammer
2 covered wagons
18 espontoons
1 set of wagon gears

Also listed are 112 “Bad” knapsacks, 3 covered wagons “wanting Repair,” and 8 “Bad” espontoons
“Return of Quarter-Master General Stores on hand in the first Connecticut Brigade
Commanded by J Huntington B.G.,” “Camp Highlands,” 25 May 1781, Miscellaneous
Numbered Records (The Manuscript File) in the War Department Collection of
Revolutionary War Records 1775-1790's, National Archives Microfilm Publication M859,
Record Group 93 (Washington, D.C., 1971), reel 94, no. 27553 (hereafter cited as Misc.
Nod. Records, NA). Lesser, May 1781 return, 202.
_________________________

12. "Return of Waggons, Horses … &c the property of the United States Army –
Camp Tappan – 27th September 1780"

Commander in Chiefs Baggage (Wagon Conductor, Alexander McCullock)
16 enlisted waggoners, 8 close covered wagons, 7 open wagons, 60 wagon horses, 1 riding horse, 1
saddle, 60 blind bridles, 6 collars, 60 pair hames*, 60 pair traces, 60 back bands, 30 belly bands, 30
“britch” bands**, 15 pair breast chains, 15 pair tongue chains, 15 pair stretchers, 15 pair double trees,
7 wagon covers, 4 water buckets, 6 tar pots, 60 halters, 60 slips[?], 15 lock chains, 16 feed bags, 6
feed troughs, 6 leading lines.

1st Brigade Light Infantry (Wagon Conductor, Joseph Davis)
2 enlisted waggoners, 2 field pieces, 2 tumbrels, 1 forge, 10 close covered wagons, 15 open wagons,
110 wagon horses, 1 riding horse, 1 saddle, 1 bridle, 111 blind bridles, 109 collars, 108 pair hames*,
109 pair traces, 108 back bands, 66 belly bands, 46 “britch” bands**, 8 cruppers, 5 cart saddles, 5
quoilers***, 24 pair breast chains, 25 pair tongue chains, 24 pair stretchers, 25 pair double trees, 8
wagon covers, 4 tar pots, 45 halters, 23 lock chains, 2 feed troughs, 21 leading lines.

2nd Brigade Light Infantry (Wagon Conductors, William Bond and James Monteith)
2 field pieces, 2 tumbrels, 1 forge, 6 close covered wagons, 15 open wagons, 98 wagon horses, 1
riding horse, 2 saddles, 2 bridles, 98 blind bridles, 98 collars, 98 pair hames*, 92 pair traces, 52 back
bands, 52 belly bands, 40 “britch” bands**, 2 cruppers, 6 cart saddles, 6 quoilers***, 20 pair breast
chains, 20 pair tongue chains, 20 pair stretchers, 20 pair double trees, 6 wagon covers, 6 tar pots, 39
halters, 11 lock chains, 3 feed bags, 2 feed troughs, 8 leading lines.
Under the overall charge of James Bartley, Deputy Wagonmaster General
1st Pennsylvania Brigade (Wagon Conductors, Henry Moffat and John Rannals)
1 enlisted waggoner, 2 field pieces, 2 tumbrels, 1 forge, 9 close covered wagons, 22 open wagons,
142 wagon horses, 3 riding horses, 3 saddles, 1 bridle, 144 blind bridles, 144 collars, 144 pair
hames*, 140 pair traces, 98 back bands, 95 belly bands, 66 “britch” bands**, 3 cruppers, 4 cart
saddles, 4 quoilers***, 33 pair breast chains, 32 pair tongue chains, 32 pair stretchers, 32 pair double
trees, 8 wagon covers, 11 water buckets, 28 tar pots, 56 halters, 30 slips, 20 lock chains, 13 feed
bags, 18 feed troughs, 6 leading lines.

2nd Pennsylvania Brigade (Wagon Conductors, David Porter and Abram Rand)
1 enlisted waggoner, 2 field pieces, 2 tumbrels, 1 forge, 10 close covered wagons, 19 open wagons,
132 wagon horses, 2 riding horses, 1 saddles, 3 bridles, 131 blind bridles, 132 collars, 132 pair
hames*, 123 pair traces, 97 back bands, 97 belly bands, 60 “britch” bands**, 25 cruppers, 4 cart
saddles, 4 quoilers***, 30 pair breast chains, 30 pair tongue chains, 30 pair stretchers, 30 pair double
trees, 8 wagon covers, 6 water buckets, 31 tar pots, 72 halters, 79 slips, 22 lock chains, 20 feed bags,
9 feed troughs, 21 leading lines.

1st Connecticut Brigade (Wagon Conductors, Israel Goodrich and Zenas Andrews)
3 enlisted waggoners, 2 field pieces, 2 tumbrels, 1 forge, 7 close covered wagons, 17 open wagons, 2
ox carts, 111 wagon horses, 2 riding horses, 8 oxen, 1 saddle, 107 blind bridles, 111 collars, 111 pair
hames*, 107 pair traces, 73 back bands, 55 belly bands, 50 “britch” bands**, 7 cruppers, 4 cart
saddles, 4 quoilers***, 25 pair breast chains, 25 pair tongue chains, 34 pair stretchers, 25 pair double
trees, 4 ox yokes, 3 ox chains, 4 wagon covers, 1 water buckets, 3 tar pots, 89 halters, 4 slips, 14 lock
chains, 10 leading lines.

2nd Connecticut Brigade (Wagon Conductor, Eliphaz Parsons)
2 enlisted waggoners, 2 field pieces, 2 tumbrels, 1 forge, 8 close covered wagons, 19 open wagons, 1
ox cart, 122 wagon horses, 1 riding horses, 4 oxen, 115 blind bridles, 122 collars, 122 pair hames*,
117 pair traces, 73 back bands, 63 belly bands, 54 “britch” bands**, 15 cruppers, 5 cart saddles, 5
quoilers***, 27 pair breast chains, 27 pair tongue chains, 27 pair stretchers, 27 pair double trees, 2 ox
yokes, 1 ox chain, 5 wagon covers, 18 tar pots, 47 halters, 4 slips, 13 lock chains, 1 feed bags, 1 feed
troughs, 2 leading lines.

New Jersey Brigade (Wagon Conductor, William Horne)
2 field pieces, 2 tumbrels, 1 forge, 6 close covered wagons, 19 open wagons, 112 wagon horses, 1
saddles, 1 bridle, 106 blind bridles, 110 collars, 110 pair hames*, 106 pair traces, 71 back bands, 92
belly bands, 55 “britch” bands**, 16 cruppers, 5 cart saddles, 5 quoilers***, 25 pair breast chains, 25
pair tongue chains, 24 pair stretchers, 25 pair double trees, 7 wagon covers, 4 water buckets, 21 tar
pots, 40 halters, 13 slips, 22 lock chains, 20 feed bags, 9 feed troughs, 9 leading lines.

Under the overall charge of Jonathan Skidmore, Deputy Wagonmaster General
New York Brigade (Wagon Conductor, Samuel Coe)
2 tumbrels, 1 forge, 6 close covered wagons, 26 open wagons, 137 wagon horses, 1 riding horse, 1
saddle, 1 bridle, 137 blind bridles, 137 collars, 137 pair hames*, 132 pair traces, 109 back bands, 72
belly bands, 67 “britch” bands**, 47 cruppers, 6 cart saddles, 6 quoilers***, 30 pair breast chains, 30
pair tongue chains, 30 pair stretchers, 30 pair double trees, 27 tar pots, 4 halters, 7 lock chains.
General Nixon’s Massachusetts Brigade (Wagon Conductor, Jonathan Commins)
2 enlisted waggoners, 2 field pieces, 2 tumbrels, 1 forge, 16 close covered wagons, 19 open wagons,
149 wagon horses, 2 riding horses, 1 saddle, 138 blind bridles, 140 collars, 149 pair hames*, 144 pair
traces, 88 back bands, 127 belly bands, 70 “britch” bands**, 5 cart saddles, 5 quoilers***, 34 pair
breast chains, 34 pair tongue chains, 31 pair stretchers, 35 pair double trees, 7 wagon covers, 1 water
buckets, 27 tar pots, 30 halters, 1 slip, 29 lock chains, 1 feed bags, 5 feed troughs, 10 leading lines.

General Stark’s New Hampshire Brigade (Wagon Conductor, Daniel Hearne)
2 field pieces, 1 forge, 7 close covered wagons, ? open wagons, 100 wagon horses, 1 riding horse, 1
saddle, 1 bridle, 98 blind bridles, 100 collars, 100 pair hames*, 96 pair traces, 98 back bands, 92
belly bands, 46 “britch” bands**, 42 cruppers, 2 cart saddles, 2 quoilers***, 22 pair breast chains, 22
pair tongue chains, 24 pair stretchers, 24 pair double trees, 1 wagon covers, 28 tar pots, 82 halters, 23
lock chains, 14 feed bags, 3 feed troughs, 17 leading lines.

General Glover’s Massachusetts Brigade (Wagon Conductor, James Witherill)
2 field pieces, 2 tumbrels, 1 forge, 8 close covered wagons, 19 open wagons, 119 wagon horses, 110
blind bridles, 122 collars, 122 pair hames*, 118 pair traces, 84 back bands, 73 belly bands, 56
“britch” bands**, 17 cruppers, 4 cart saddles, 4 quoilers***, 28 pair breast chains, 28 pair tongue
chains, 27 pair stretchers, 28 pair double trees, 5 wagon covers, 20 tar pots, 24 halters, 25 lock
chains, 6 feed bags, 5 feed troughs, 11 leading lines.

General Patterson’s Massachusetts Brigade (Wagon Conductors, Joseph Wales)
2 enlisted waggoners, 2 field pieces, 2 tumbrels, 1 forge, 7 close covered wagons, 23 open wagons,
130 wagon horses, 2 riding horses, 1 saddle, 1 bridle, 130 blind bridles, 134 collars, 134 pair hames*,
129 pair traces, 129 back bands, 129 belly bands, 60 “britch” bands**, 5 cart saddles, 5 quoilers***,
30 pair breast chains, 30 pair tongue chains, 30 pair stretchers, 30 pair double trees, 1 wagon covers,
18 water buckets, 20 lock chains.

Commandant Bailey’s Brigade (Wagon Conductors, Jonathan Farman)
2 field pieces, 1 forge, 8 close covered wagons, 15 open wagons, 103 wagon horses, 1 riding horse,
101 blind bridles, 103 collars, 103 pair hames*, 101 pair traces, 101 back bands, 101 belly bands, 49
“britch” bands**, 54 cruppers, 3 cart saddles, 3 quoilers***, 23 pair breast chains, 23 pair tongue
chains, 29 pair stretchers, 23 pair double trees, 9 wagon covers, 17 tar pots, 91 halters, 2 slips, 24
lock chains, 17 leading lines.

Commandant Hazen’s Brigade (Wagon Conductors, Joseph Henderson)
2 field pieces, 2 tumbrels, 1 forge, 8 close covered wagons, 25 open wagons, 132 wagon horses, 1
riding horses, 1 saddle, 1 bridle, 121 blind bridles, 140 collars, 140 pair hames*, 135 pair traces, 107
back bands, 98 belly bands, 60 “britch” bands**, 68 cruppers, 5 cart saddles, 5 quoilers***, 31 pair
breast chains, 31 pair tongue chains, 31 pair stretchers, 31 pair double trees, 23 wagon covers, 12 tar
pots, 19 halters, 9 slips, 29 lock chains, 11 feed troughs, 1 leading line.
Under the overall charge of Alexander Turner, Deputy Wagonmaster General
(Wagon Conductors for the Artillery, Bartholomew Fisher, Michael Dougherty, Jonathan Wright,
Jonathan Cook, William Archbold, Patt Qually)
Artillery Park and Spare Ammunition
47 enlisted waggoners, 9 field pieces, 5 tumbrels, 2 forge, 47 close covered wagons, 23 open
wagons, 307 wagon horses, 7 riding horses, 6 saddles, 4 bridles, 307 blind bridles, 308 collars, 304
pair hames*, 292 pair traces, 172 back bands, 203 belly bands, 136 “britch” bands**, 28 cruppers, 17
cart saddles, 17 quoilers***, 68 pair breast chains, 68 pair tongue chains, 68 pair stretchers, 68 pair
double trees, 11 wagon covers, 32 water buckets, 54 tar pots, 226 halters, 127 slips, 71 lock chains,
64 feed bags, 11 feed troughs, 28 leading lines.

Organizations not under the auspices of a Deputy Wagonmaster General or Conductor
Colonel Moylan’s Light Dragoons
3 close covered wagons, 3 open wagons, 22 wagon horses, 22 blind bridles, 22 collars, 22 pair
hames*, 22 pair traces, 11 back bands, 11 belly bands, 12 “britch” bands**, 2 cruppers, 6 pair breast
chains, 6 pair tongue chains, 6 pair stretchers, 6 pair double trees.

Major Lee’s Corps
4 close covered wagons,12 wagon horses, 10 blind bridles, 12 collars, 12 pair hames*, 12 pair traces,
7 back bands,61 belly bands, 5 “britch” bands**, 1 crupper, 4 pair breast chains, 4 pair tongue
chains, 2 pair stretchers, 4 pair double trees, 2 tar pots, 2 lock chains.

Captain Von Heer’s Corps
1 enlisted waggoner, 1 close covered wagons, 2 open wagons, 4 wagon horses, 12 blind bridles, 12
collars, 12 pair hames*, 12 pair traces, 6 back bands, 6 belly bands, 6 “britch” bands**, 3 pair breast
chains, 3 pair tongue chains, 3 pair stretchers, 3 pair double trees, 3 tar pots, 1 lock chain.

Captain Bedkin’s [Pulaski’s] Corps
1 close covered wagon, 4 wagon horses, 4 blind bridles, 4 collars, 4 pair hames*, 4 pair traces, 4
back bands, 4 belly bands, 2 “britch” bands**, 2 cruppers, 4 pair breast chains, 4 pair tongue chains,
4 pair stretchers, 4 pair double trees, 1 tar pot.

Staff Baggage
11 enlisted waggoners, 1 tumbrel, 20 close covered wagons, 2 open wagons, 82 wagon horses, 79
blind bridles, 79 collars, 79 pair hames*, 78 pair traces, 60 back bands, 60 belly bands, 40 “britch”
bands**, 25 cruppers, 1 cart saddle, 1 quoiler***, 20 pair breast chains, 20 pair tongue chains, 19
pair stretchers, 20 pair double trees, 1 wagon covers, 4 water buckets, 8 tar pots, 79 halters, 18 lock
chains, 15 feed bags, 16 leading lines.

Colonel Baldwin’s Artificers
4 enlisted waggoners, 3 close covered wagons, 10 open wagons, 46 wagon horses, 1 riding horse, 48
blind bridles, 48 collars, 48 pair hames*, 43 pair traces, 37 back bands, 34 belly bands, 26 “britch”
bands**, 13 pair breast chains, 13 pair tongue chains, 11 pair stretchers, 13 pair double trees, 6
wagon covers, 1 water buckets, 13 tar pots, 32 halters, 13 lock chains, 2 feed troughs, 12 leading
lines.
Staff Commissary
1 close covered wagon, 4 wagon horses, 1 riding horse, 4 blind bridles, 4 collars, 4 pair hames*, 4
pair traces, 2 back bands, 2 belly bands, 2 “britch” bands**, 2 cruppers, 1 pair breast chains, 1 pair
tongue chains, 1 pair stretchers, 1 pair double trees, 1 tar pots, 4 halters, 1 lock chains, 2 feed bags, 1
leading lines.

Quartermaster General’s Stores
7 enlisted waggoners, 7 close covered wagons, 2 open wagons, 36 wagon horses, 1 riding horse, 1
saddle, 36 blind bridles, 36 collars, 36 pair hames*, 36 pair traces, 18 back bands, 18 belly bands, 18
“britch” bands**, 2 cruppers, 9 pair breast chains, 9 pair tongue chains, 9 pair stretchers, 9 pair
double trees, 2 wagon covers, 9 water buckets, 9 tar pots, 36 halters, 9 lock chains, 9 feed bags, 2
feed troughs, 9 leading lines.

Flying Hospital
3 enlisted waggoners, 5 close covered wagons, 4 open wagons, 28 wagon horses, 2 riding horses, 25
blind bridles, 32 collars, 32 pair hames*, 32 pair traces, 30 back bands, 30 belly bands, 18 “britch”
bands**, 6 cruppers, 9 pair breast chains, 9 pair tongue chains, 7 pair stretchers, 9 pair double trees, 4
wagon covers, 4 water buckets, 9 tar pots, 30 halters, 7 lock chains, 5 feed troughs.

Major Parr’s Rifle Corps
1 open wagon, 4 wagon horses, 4 blind bridles, 4 collars, 4 pair hames*, 4 pair traces, 2 back bands,
2 belly bands, 2 “britch” bands**, 1 pair breast chains, 1 pair tongue chains, 1 pair stretchers, 1 pair
double trees, 1 tar pot, 4 halters, 1 lock chain.

Extra Teams
1 close covered wagon, 32 open wagons, 127 wagon horses, 130 blind bridles, 130 collars, 136 pair
hames*, 130 pair traces, 64 back bands, 74 belly bands, 66 “britch” bands**, 4 cruppers, 33 pair
breast chains, 33 pair tongue chains, 32 pair stretchers, 33 pair double trees, 31 wagon covers, 11
water buckets, 32 tar pots, 44 halters, 68 slips, 30 lock chains, 103 feed bags, 27 feed troughs, 22
leading lines.

Total
106 enlisted waggoners 37 field pieces, 30 tumbrels, 16 forge, 218 close covered wagons, 351 open
wagons (total covered and open wagons, 569), 3 ox carts, 2,433 wagon horses, 31 riding horses, 12
oxen, 22 saddles, 14 bridles, 2,388 blind bridles, 2,462 collars, 2,563 pair hames*, 2,326 pair traces,
1,761 back bands, 1,697 belly bands, 1,147 britch” bands**, 376 cruppers, 81 cart saddles, 81
quoilers***, 565 pair breast chains, 565 pair tongue chains, 558 pair stretchers, 568 pair double trees,
6 ox yokes, 4 ox chains, 177 wagon covers, 88 water buckets, 418 tar pots, 1,153 halters, 397 slips,
450 lock chains, 290 feed bags, 118 feed troughs, 227 leading lines.
Comparisons
September 1780
37 artillery pieces, 30 tumbrels, 16 forges, 569 closed and open wagons, 3 ox carts, 2,433 wagon
and artillery horses, 31 riding horses, 12 oxen (585 wagons and forges)

September 1780 (without numbers from the extra teams)
37 artillery pieces, 30 tumbrels, 16 forges, 536 closed and open wagons, 3 ox carts, 2,306 wagon
and artillery horses, 31 riding horses, 12 oxen (552 wagons and forges)

June 1778
Total for Washington’s Army, June 1778
33 field pieces, 302 wagons, 1,275 wagon and artillery horses, 5 bat horses, 43 riding horses

1778 return – no tumbrels, no ox carts, fewer forges, five bat horses with artillery
1780 return – no bat (pack) horses

* a pair of curved metal (or sometimes wooden) pieces lying on the horse collar of a horse
harness, taking the pull from the traces

** breech-band - That part of a horse's harness which passes round its breech, and which enables
it to back the vehicle to which it is harnessed. The breeching is connected by straps to the saddle
and shafts.

*** the breeching of a cart-harness
"Return of Waggons, Horses … &c the property of the United States Army – Camp Tappan
– 27th September 1780," Miscellaneous Numbered Records (The Manuscript File) in the
War Department Collection of Revolutionary War Records 1775-1790's, National Archives
Microfilm Publication M859, Record Group 93 (Washington, D.C., 1971), reel 94, no.
27335.

To compare with the 1778 wagon return see:
“’Reach Coryels ferry. Encamp on the Pennsylvania side.’: The March from Valley
Forge to Monmouth Courthouse, 18 to 28 June 1778”
Endnotes: http://www.scribd.com/doc/133293312/Endnotes-“Reach-Coryels-ferry-Encamp-
on-the-Pennsylvania-side-”-The-March-from-Valley-Forge-to-Monmouth-Courthouse-18-
to-28-June-1778
Endnotes contain:
3. Washington’s army vehicle allotment for the march to Coryell’s Ferry,
4. Wheeled Transportation (a primer on the vehicles and artillery on the road to
Monmouth, including twenty-one illustrations)
13. "Return of all Public Property in the Quarter Masters Department with the
Southern Army"

An August 1781 "Return of all Public Property in the Quarter Masters Department with the
Southern Army," lists ("In Use") draft horses (459), "Close Cover'd Waggons" (53), "Road
Waggons, with Linen Covers" (9), "Plain Waggons" (47), blind bridles (439), collars (464),
hamstrings (862), back and belly bands (452), breech bands (223), cruppers (50), pairs iron
traces (466), tongue chains (116), lock chains (41), leading lines (77), leather halters, wagon
whips (63), branding irons (2), and pair breast chains (228).
Cooking and eating equipment in use consisted of, camp kettles (195), iron pots (30), dutch
ovens (5), canteens (42), tin cups (4), and tea kettles (1).
"Return of all Public Property in the Quarter Masters Department with the Southern Army,"
31 August 1781, Miscellaneous Numbered Records (The Manuscript File) in the War
Department Collection of Revolutionary War Records 1775-1790's, National Archives
Microfilm Publication M859, Record Group 93 (Washington, D.C., 1971), reel 94, no.
27556.

14. Two Returns of Horse and Wagons with the Pennsylvania Line in Virginia, 12
June and 27 November 1781

A June 1781 "Return of Horses & Waggons furnish'd the Penns.a. Line by Samuel Miles
DQM for Penns.a," shows 20 four-horse common wagons, 14 four-horse covered wagons, 2
travelling forges and 4 horses, and 6 field pieces each hauled by 4 horses. Two nondescript
four-horse wagons are also listed. Total horses with the division or "Order'd from Lancaster"
were 226. Noted on the bottom, "six of the Cover'd Waggons were for Aminition."
"Return of Horses & Waggons furnish'd the Penns.a. Line by Samuel Miles DQM for
Penns.a," 12 June 1781, Miscellaneous Numbered Records (The Manuscript File) in the
War Department Collection of Revolutionary War Records 1775-1790's, National Archives
Microfilm Publication M859, Record Group 93 (Washington, D.C., 1971), reel 94, no.
27367.

A "General Return of Waggons & Horses with General St Clairs [Pennsylvania] Division
November 27th 1781," listed 422 draft horses, 50 "Waggons, Close Covered," 40
"Waggons, with open Covers," 8 tumbrils, and 3 travelling forges. A footnote shows only
459 draft horses serving the rest of the army.
"General Return of Waggons & Horses with General St Clairs Division November 27th
1781," Miscellaneous Numbered Records (The Manuscript File) in the War Department
Collection of Revolutionary War Records 1775-1790's, National Archives Microfilm
Publication M859, Record Group 93 (Washington, D.C., 1971), reel 94, no. 27353.
Appendices

1. Overview of Wheeled Transportation. The types of baggage wagons used by
Washington’s army cannot be certainly known, but must have been a bit of a hodge-
podge. Some vehicles, most notably the large English wagons brought by over from
Britain in 1776 to serve General Sir William Howe’s troops, as well as the larger
Conestoga wagons, were considered too heavy and cumbersome to follow a campaigning
army; others like the “Dutch” wagons of Long and Staten Islands, and northern New
Jersey, were too fragile for hard service. Francis Clark, "Inspector and Superintendent of
His Majesty's Provision Train of Wagons and Horses," reconfigured the large English
wagons, lessening their weight by about five hundred pounds, and also devised an even
lighter “new Waggon” with rope sides. Continental commanders depended on the
Quartermaster Department to build, purchase, or hire wagons for the army. It is known
that large numbers of vehicles were hired or purchased in Pennsylvania, and very likely
during the Monmouth campaign some portion of Continental Army baggage was carried
in smaller Conestoga-style wagons. Other vehicle types were also undoubtedly used for
baggage. Below are images of several wagons available in New Jersey and Pennsylvania
during the War for American Independence. (See endnote 33 for further discussion of
army wagons.)

“A relatively small but graceful nine-bow Conestoga owned by [the late] D.H. Berkebile.”
George Shumway, Edward Durell, and Howard C. Frey, Conestoga Wagon 1750-1850 (York,
Pa., 1964), 51.
Three mid-18th century Conestoga wagons of differing design, reconstructed for Fort
Ligonier, Ligonier, Pennsylvania. (http://fortligonier.org/ )
(Previous page and below.)
Side and rear view of the large Burgner Conestoga wagon, said to have ben built in 1762 at
Waynesboro, Pennsylvania, for Cumberland Valley miller Jonathan Keefer. The wagon bed
is four feet deep, fourteen feet long at the bottom and nineteen at the top. It held a ten ton
load. John Omwake, The Conestoga Six-Horse Bell Teams of Eastern Pennsylvania (Cincinnati,
OH, 1930), 32, 33.

"A Philadelphia Waggon" used by the British army in Pennsylvania. "Narrative of
Occurences, relative to His Majesty's Provision Train in North America," (circa 1778), Francis
Rush Clark Papers (no. 2338), Sol Feinstone Collection, David Library of the American
Revolution. Drawing courtesy of the David Library, Washington Crossing, Pa.)
"A Country Waggon from Long Island & New York" (drawn circa 1778), also known as a
"Dutch" wagon. Francis Rush Clark, "Inspector and Superintendent of His Majesty's
Provision Train of Wagons and Horses," wrote: "These were taken promiscuously from the
Farmers on Long & Island Staten Island, & some from the Jerseys. Many of them in a
wretch'd Condition, & none having any Cover, to protect their Loading." "Narrative of
Occurences, relative to His Majesty's Provision Train in North America," (circa 1778), Francis
Rush Clark Papers (no. 2338), Sol Feinstone Collection, David Library of the American
Revolution. Drawing courtesy of the David Library, Washington Crossing, Pa.)
Early 18th century New York Dutch two-horse farm wagon. Detail from Van Bergen
Overmantel, circa 1733. NO366.54, New York State Historical Association (Cooperstown).
Francis Rush Clark, "Inspector and Superintendent of His Majesty's Provision Train of
Wagons and Horses," sketched the same vehicle in the 1770's. (My thanks to Garry W. Stone
for bringing the Van Bergen Overmantel to my attention.)

English "Tumbrel," circa 1757. The body measures approximately 3 feet 8 inches wide, 4 feet
10 inches long, by 2 feet high. Muller, Treatise of Artillery, plate XVIII.
Cart constructed by the Colonial Williamsburg wheelwright shop
(Photo courtesy of same.)

There were several specialized vehicles supporting the army in 1778. Purpose-built
ammunition wagons and traveling forges were produced for the Quartermaster General,
at first under contract, then beginning in the winter of 1778 by the Artillery Artificers at
manufactories at Carlisle, Pennsylvania, and Springfield, Massachusetts. In January 1777
General Washington recommended using "Chaises marine [two-wheeled carts] made for the
Artillery and Regimental amunition, light, strong and covered ..." Whether or not these carts
were adopted by the Continental Army,in his Treatise of Artillery (first published 1757)
John Muller shows a similar vehicle, the two-wheeled English "Powder Cart," whose
features included a "roof ... covered with oil cloth to prevent dampness from coming to the
powder, and ... shot locker[s] ... divided into four parts by boards an inch thick." Muller
noted several "defects" in these carts: "our powder carts hold no more than four barrels, and
[as] a great quantity is required in all expeditions, they are not sufficient ... there should be
powder waggons to hold twelve barrels each. It is true, that the powder carts carry leaden
bullets and flints at the same time; and are therefore more convenient to follow the
battalions; but the rest should be carried in much larger quantities." He then gave his
objections to two-wheeled transport in general, which "though they may be useful upon
some particular occasions, yet they should not be used in carrying great quantities of any
kind; for the whole weight lying upon one axle-tree, must require more horses to draw a
weight, than when the same weight lies upon two. This every carrier must know; and
therefore no more carts should be used than are necessary." By adopting four-wheel
ammunition wagons both the British and American armies remedied some of these
shortcomings. Several of these vehicles were assigned to each brigade for carrying "spare
ammunition and arms." Muller noted that the British ammunition wagon "serves likewise to
carry bread, it being lined around in the inside with basket work."
In response to the commander-in-chief’s query about wagons needed for the artillery,
Brig. Gen. Henry Knox replied that the “Artillery Artificers will make the cover’d
ammunition Waggons and travelling forges. I expect they will be able at Carlisle and
Springfield to make 200 ammunition Waggons by the Spring which in addition to those
we already have will be nearly sufficient. I have given to the QuarterMaster Genl. Colo.
[Henry Emanuel] Lutterloh’s [deputy quartermaster general for main Continental Army]
return for the Horses and Harness to complete them.” Knox estimated that the artillery
alone would require 1,049 horses, to pull 106 field pieces (at an average of four draft
animals each), 50 ammunition wagons with teams of 5 horses, and 60 wagons for spare
ammunition needing 6 horses each. The cannon traveling with Washington’s army and
used at Monmouth ranged from three to six pound guns, with the majority fours and
sixes. This is based on a letter by Commissary of Military Stores Samuel Hodgdon, written
from "Croton Bridge 19 July 1778" to John Ruddock, Deputy Quartermaster of Stores at
Fishkill:
Sir the great Consumption of Cannon Ammunition in the late Battle at Monmouth Renders
it Necessary that a Supply be sent With all posable dispatch to Camp
200 six pound strap shott
200 four pound Ditto
100 three pound Ditto is Much Wanted also
100 Good Arms & Accutrements
I have sent by Mr. Giles QrM Stores five Load of Damaged Arms & Ammunition Who
Will Conduct the Above stores to Camp

When the army was on the move each piece needed a two-wheel limber plus two to
four draft horses. Drivers for the artillery limbers and horse teams were often provided by
taking common soldiers from infantry regiment for temporary detached duty, though in
some cases hired civilian wagoners may also have served.
___________________________________________
An English "Powder Cart," circa 1757. Overall length is approximately 13 1/2 feet. In January
1777 General Washington recommended for the Continental army "Chaises marine [two-
wheeled carts] made for the Artillery and Regimental amunition, light, strong and covered ..."
It is not known if such vehicles were adopted. John Muller, A Treatise of Artillery, 3rd edition
(London, John Millan, 1780; 1st edition, 1757; reprinted by Museum Restoration Service,
Bloomfield, Ontario, 1977), plate XIX. Washington to Thomas Mifflin, 31 January 1777, John
C. Fitzpatrick, ed., The Writings of George Washington, 7 (Washington, GPO, 1932), 83 (see
also pagenote).
Travelling forge, circa 1757. Overall length, 15 1/2 feet.
Explanation for plate:
a. The bellows.
b. Place boarded up to put the tools in.
c. Iron plate for the fire place.
d. Wooden trough for water.
f. Iron plate to receive the cinders, and to lay
the hammers and tongs upon.
g. Iron plate to prevent the flame setting fire to
the carriage.
"This forge is very ill contrived: it should have four wheels, that it might stand firm, and be
easier carried; the French use such as this last described. Since the first impression of this
work these forges have been made with four wheels …”
John Muller, A Treatise of Artillery, 3rd edition (London, John Millan, 1780; 1st edition, 1757;
reprinted by Museum Restoration Service, Bloomfield, Ontario, 1977), plate XXV, 140.
English ammunition wagon, circa 1757. Overall length is 26 feet; the cargo-carrying body is 14
feet long by 4 feet wide. Most Continental army ammunition wagons were likely made with
four wheels. John Muller, A Treatise of Artillery, 3rd edition (London, John Millan, 1780; 1st
edition, 1757; reprinted by Museum Restoration Service, Bloomfield, Ontario, 1977), plate XX.

Artillery piece on the move, attached to limber and horse team. Detail from Phillippe
Jacques de Loutherbourg (1740-1812), “Warley Camp: The Review” (1780), Oil on canvas
121.3 x 183.5 cm, Painted for George III, RCIN 406349, The Royal Collection.
Artillery piece and limber can be seen in the background of this detail from the painting
“Royal Artillery in the Low Countries, 1748.” Attributed to David Morier (1705?-70),
Oil on canvas, 136.1 x 170.8 cm, Commissioned by William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland
RCIN 407454, The Royal Collection.

Image of artillery field piece and two-horse limber, from a powder horn engraving. This
drawing is from Harold L. Peterson, Round Shot and Rammers: An Introduction to Muzzle-
loading Land Artillery in the United States (South Bend, In.: South Bend Replicas, 1969), 59.
Also see photograph of powder horn in Harold L. Peterson, The Book of the Continental Soldier
(Harrisburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 1968), 132.
Side and overhead views of British 6-pounder field gun. Harold L. Peterson, The Book of the
Continental Soldier (Harrisburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 1968), 116, 121.
Continental Army field artillery in action. Detail from William Mercer, “Battle of Princeton
on 3rd January 1777” (Historical Society of Pennsylvania)

Wheeled Vehicle Sources:
Erna Risch, Supplying Washington's Army (Washington, D.C., 1981), 64-90. J
Henry Knox to Washington, 8 January 1778, George Washington Papers (LOC), series 4,
reel 45.
John U. Rees, "`Employed in carrying cloathing & provisions': Wagons and Watercraft
During the War for Independence," Part I. "`Country Waggons,' `Tumbrils,' and `Philadelphia
Carts': Wheeled Transport in The Armies of the Revolution," ALHFAM Bulletin, vol. XXIX, no.
3 (Fall 1999), 4-9, and The Continental Soldier, vol. XII, no. 2 (Winter 1999), 18-25.
http://www.continentalline.org/articles/article.php?date=9902&article=990202

“`Little chariots painted red …’: Continental Army Vehicle Paint Colors,”
Military Collector & Historian, vol. 60, no. 2 (Summer 2008), 154-156.
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/paint.pdf
“`The road appeared to be full of red Coats …’: The Battle of Millstone, 20 January
1777: An Episode in the Forage War,” Military Collector & Historian, vol. 62, no. 1
(Spring 2010), 24-35. http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/millstone.pdf
“’The great Consumption of Cannon Ammunition …’: Continental Artillery at
Monmouth, 28 June 1778,” Military Collector & Historian, vol. 60, no. 1 (Spring 2008),
38-39.)
“One of the largest of the Conestoga freighters, this is known as the Burgner wagon. The
cloth cover is supported by thirteen bows. George Shumway, Edward Durell, and Howard C.
Frey, Conestoga Wagon 1750-1850 (York, Pa., 1964), 4.
While horses were commonly used to pull wagons the increased use of oxen was suggested
later in the war. Quartermaster General Pickering began a 14 January 1781 letter to George
Washington by discussing the replacement of a proportion of the army's wagon horses.
Curiously, there seems to have been regional differences in the choice of draft animals.
Pickering noted that the "New England states are each very capable of furnishing the ox-teams
necessary for their respective quotas of troops" and "this way any number may be obtained in
Connecticut alone." On the other hand, "The states of New York, New Jersey & Pennsylvania
(the latter especially) have been little used to oxen, and their services would be less grateful to
the troops of those states than those of horses." The next month Washington "advised ... ox
teams for all but the artillery and cavalry, which, from the nature of their service would
sometimes require greater expedition than oxen would be capable of." These recommendations
may have been fully implemented later, but for the rest of that year horses remained the
preferred beasts of burden. Timothy Pickering to Washington (with memorandum), 14
January 1781, GW Papers (series 4, reel 74). Washington to Pickering, 10 February 1781, John
C. Fitzpatrick, ed., The Writings of George Washington, vol. 21 (Washington. D.C., 1937), 205-
206. See also, Pickering to Washington, 18 February 1781, George Washington Papers (series
4, reel 75).
"`Employed in carrying cloathing & provisions': Wagons and Watercraft During
the War for Independence" (abbreviated article):
Part I. "`Country Waggons,' `Tumbrils,' and `Philadelphia Carts': Wheeled Transport in
the Armies of the Revolution," ALHFAM Bulletin, vol. XXIX, no. 3 (Fall 1999), 4-9, and The
Continental Soldier, vol. XII, no. 2 (Winter 1999), 18-25.
http://www.continentalline.org/articles/article.php?date=9902&article=990202
Also from the Fair at New Boston (year unknown).
_______________________
2. Dutch Blankets
Large numbers of Dutch blankets were issued to Continental troops,
from early war to 1783.
(No images are available, see below for documentary evidence.)
__________

To date (March 2018) the exact form and design of Dutch blankets is unknown. Weaver
and historian Robert G. Stone itemizes the known attributes of Dutch blankets:

They are a white woolen blanket with stripes … [and] twilled with no center seam.
They were finished at the mill indicating that they were fulled and napped. They
were not very wide (54"). Some … wider than others. They came in a piece (bolt)
containing 15 or 16. As such, an individual blanket would not have had the ends
finished. There is one reference to the stripes being red, but I doubt that red was the
only color [for the stripes]…

I would add, and Mr. Stone agrees, it is not even certain Dutch blankets were made in the
Netherlands, but that the name could have been an epithet (as very cheap and cheaply-
made blankets the name would reflect what British manufacturer thought of the quality of
Dutch woolen goods), or attached for some other reason.

Mr. Stone offers anyone with solid information enabling reproduction of mid to late 18th
century Dutch blankets a complimentary reproduction of same.

For details contact Mr. Stone at robstoneweaver@gmail.com
Dutch Blanket Controversy

There has been some contention over the design and appearance of Dutch blankets. An
article on the website “Of Sorts for Provincials” includes period references to both Dutch
and striped blankets, inferring that all the pictured blankets can be considered suitable
examples of mid to late 18th century Dutch blankets. While the article content is excellent,
the pictorial evidence covers a wide range of time, from 1566 to 1825, with the bulk of those
dating 1730 and earlier. Additionally, the pictured blankets are so varied in their stripe
placement, color, and number as to allow no conclusive basis for a representative
reproduction of Dutch-made blankets, circa 1770-1783. At one point the Dutch blanket
moniker is connected to a blanket fragment found in a Rhode Island Native-American
grave dated to the late-17th century. While the curator’s description of the fragment as
“Striped Duffel, a trucking cloth of English manufacture” may be contended, there is
certainly nothing connecting the artifact with late-18th century Dutch blankets.
The aforementioned article is available online at
http://ofsortsforprovincials.blogspot.com/2011/05/dutch-blankets.html
Dutch Blanket Use and Issuance, 1775-1783

“DESERTED from Capt. Nathaniel Fox's company of the 6th Virginia, James Anderson,
a black soldier, six feet high, about forty years of age … and fond of liquor; had on when he
went away, a light grey cloth coat and waistcoat: the coat faced with green, a pair of
oznabrig overalls, and a small round hat with a piece of bear-skin on it: He took with him a
pair of leather breeches which he had to clean, and also his firelock, cartridge-box, and new
Dutch blanket … John Gibson, Col. 6th Virginia Reg.” (Pennsylvania Packet, 13 May 1778)

“Report of Clothing Committee,” 1780: ““To Colonel [Daniel] Morgan, for the use the
Light Infantry, twenty four Dutch Blankets & four pair of rose Blankets.”
Walter Clark, ed., The State Records of North Carolina, XIV, 1779-1780 (Wilmington,
N.C.: Broadfoot Publishing Co., 1993), 120.

February 17, 1776 Note for “Fourteen Dutch and homade Blankets for the Use of
Connecticut Troops in the Continental Army,” signed by Abel Hine, one of the
Representatives or Deputies of the Freemen of New Milford in the General Assembly of
Connecticut. (Private Collection) (Courtesy of 18th Century Material Culture Resource
Center, http://materialculture18t.wix.com/18thcmcrc )
Courtesy of Jim Mullins:
Virginia Gazette, (Purdie & Co.), Williamsburg.
May 2, 1766.
“RUN away from the subscriber, the 16th of February last, two Virginia born Negro men
slaves, of a yellow complexion, about 5 feet 8 or 9 inches high; had on when they went away
Negro cotton waistcoat and breeches, shoes and stockings, and osnabrugs shirt, and took
with them several other clothes, and five Dutch Blankets. One named CHARLES, is a
sawyer and shoemaker by trade, carried with him a set of shoemaker tools, is about 28
years of age, speaks slow, can read, and may probably procure a pass and get on board
some vessel. The other named GEORGE, about the same age, is round shouldered, which
causes him to stoop when he walks; they are both outlawed. Whoever brings, or safely
conveys, the said slaves to me, in the upper end of Charles City county, shall have 5 £.
reward for each, if taken in this colony, if out thereof 10 £.
CHARLES FLOYD”

Courtesy of Jim Mullins:
[William Lee] to Richard Henry Lee.
“Paris, 12 September, 1778.
My dear Brother:...
I have sent from Holland 2,000 Dutch blankets and 3,000 pr woolen stockings, on acct of the
Secret Committee.”
Ford, Worthington Chauncey Ford, ed., Letters of William Lee, Sheriff and Alderman of
London; Commercial Agent of the Continental congress in France, and Minister to the Courts
of Vienna and Berlin. 1766 – 1783, vol. II. (Brooklyn: Historical Printing Club, 1891), 480.

George Washington to Clement Biddle, “Hd. Qrs., Newburgh, May 15, 1783.”
“Dear Sir: It is reported to us, that, Goods in Phila. are now selling below the prime cost, or
below what formerly was the prime cost of the like articles in England. Should this be the
case, of which none can judge better than yourself, it would suit me very well to procure for
my Family the following Articles.
1000 Ells of German Oznabgs. or Ticklinburg
4 ps. of Linn. at abt. 18d
4 Do…Do 2/6
4 Do…Do 4/
2 ps. of Sheeting 3/6
Sterlg. prime Cost
a piece of fine Cambk. 2 pieces strong Check, wide kind 2 dozn. large Table Cloths 3 dozn.
Napkins to suit Do. 12 pt. largest, and best kind of Bed Blankets
200 (Dutch) Blankets for my Negros. …
You will be pleased to observe that the purchase of these things depends absolutely upon the
price; as I do not mean to buy them unless they are as low as they are reported to be.
The Blankets which I used to Import for my Negros came under the description of Dutch
Blankets, abt. 15 in a piece, striped large and of the best quality, such I now want. In case of
a purchase, I would have them sent to my House upon Potomack River consigned to Mr.
Lund Washington at Mr. Vernon abt. 10 Miles below Alexa.
My Compliments to which Mrs. Washingtons are joined are offered to Mrs. Biddle and I
am etc.”
(George Washington Papers, Series 3, Varick Transcripts, 1775-1785, Subseries 3H,
Personal Correspondence, 1775-1783, Letterbook 3: Jan. 8, 1783 - Nov. 15, 1783,
http://www.loc.gov/resource/mgw3h.003 )
George Washington to Clement Biddle, “Rocky Hill, October 2, 1783.”
“Dear Sir … Altho' I am fully persuaded you endeavoured to act for the best, in the
purchase of the Blankets and Ticklenburg (the cost of which you have rendered me) yet I
cannot help observing that the prices greatly exceeded what I was led to believe they could
be had for; and what I have been told by some Gentn. since, they themselves actually
bought for at the Vendue's; where very good Osnabs. sold from 9d. to 11d. The largest and
best kind of (striped) Dutch Blankets that I ever imported, never cost me more than seventy
or seventy five shillings the piece (of I think 16 Blankets). 10/9 then, by the quantity of 200,
would have been esteemed, I conceive, a handsome profit, in the most flourishing period of
the trade.“
(George Washington Papers, Series 2, Letterbooks 1754-1799: Letterbook 11, Feb. 28, 1778
- Feb. 5, 1785, http://www.loc.gov/resource/mgw2.011 )

3. Material Culture Articles Related to Items on the Equipment Returns

(For a complete listing of monographs see, http://tinyurl.com/jureesarticles )

“Spent the winter at Jockey Hollow, and … washed together while there …”: American
Revolution Army Women Names Project - Continental Army
https://www.scribd.com/document/322026319/American-Revolution-Army-Women-Names-
Project-Continental

"’The proportion of Women which ought to be allowed...’: An Overview of Continental
Army Female Camp Followers”
1. “A clog upon every movement. “: Numbers
2. "Rations... Without Whiskey": Women’s Food Allowance
3. "Some men washed their own clothing.": Women's Duties and Shelter
4. Orders Concerning Women in the Summer of 1777 (Delaware Regiment of Maj. Gen.
John Sullivan’s Division
5. "Coming into the line of fire.": Women on the March or on Campaign
Appendices
A. An Estimate of Females with Continental Army Units on the March to
Yorktown, 1781
B. Mess Roll of Capt. John Ross’s Company, 3d New Jersey Regiment
C. Tent Assignments in Lt. Col. John Wrottesley’s (3d) Company, 1st Battalion,
Brigade of (British) Guards (Including “British Army orders regarding female
followers, summer 1777”)
D. Period Images of Army Followers or Poor to Middling Female Civilians
E. Photographs of Army Women at Living History Events

F. Online Articles Pertaining to Female Camp Followers and Related Subjects
During the War for American Independence
G. Other Authors’ Monographs (Women Following the Army)
The Continental Soldier, vol. VIII, no. 3 (Spring 1995), 51-58. ALHFAM Bulletin
(Association of Living History, Farm and Agricultural Museums), vol. XXVIII, no. 4
(Winter 1999), 18-21.
https://www.scribd.com/doc/255868431/The-proportion-of-Women-which-ought-to-be-
allowed-An-Overview-of-Continental-Army-Female-Camp-Followers

“’They were good soldiers.’: African–Americans Serving in the Continental Army,”
http://www.scribd.com/doc/123231213/%E2%80%9CThey-were-good-soldiers-
African%E2%80%93Americans-Serving-in-the-Continental-Army
“’At Eutau Springs he received three wounds …’: Black Soldiers in Southern Continental
Regiments”
Contents
Overview of Numbers
Gleaning Veterans’ Pensions
Georgia
South Carolina
Maryland
Delaware
Virginia
Analysis: William Ranney’s Painting “Battle of Cowpens” and Black Cavalry Soldiers
Analysis: Officers’ Servants
North Carolina
Post-War Comments on Unit Integration, Slavery, and Societal Attitudes towards Blacks
Appendices
A. "Return of the Negroes in the Army," 24 August 1778, White Plains, New York
B. Estimated Populations of the American Colonies, 1700-1780
C. Synopsis of African-American veterans’ pensions found on Southern Campaign Revolutionary
War Pension Statements & Rosters (with links to pension transcriptions)
D. Analysis of average number of African Americans in all the brigades listed in the 24 August 1778
“Return of the Negroes in the Army” showing 755 black soldiers in fifteen brigades of Gen. George
Washington’s main army at White Plains, New York.
E. A Study in Complexity: Comparison of Virginia Continental regiment lineage with that of the
Pennsylvania and Massachusetts Lines
F. Synopsis of the Chesterfield List (Virginia, 1780-1781) (Including, “Numbers of African-
Americans on the Chesterfield List.”)
https://www.scribd.com/doc/290761045/At-Eutau-Springs-he-received-three-wounds-Black-
Soldiers-in-Southern-Continental-Regiments

“When the whole are completely formed, they may ground their arms …”: Grounding
versus Stacking Arms in the Continental Army (With Notes on British and German
Practices)
https://www.scribd.com/doc/292407335/When-the-whole-are-completely-formed-they-may-
ground-their-arms-When-the-whole-are-completely-formed-they-may-ground-their-arms-
Groundin

“’Was not in the battles ... being a Waiter.’ Enlisted Men and Civilians as Officers’ Servants
during the War for American Independence”
Part 1. “Our boys bring down something to eat ...”: Overview: Field and Company Officers’
Servants
https://www.scribd.com/doc/260955648/Was-not-in-the-battles-being-a-Waiter-Enlisted-
Men-and-Civilians-as-Officers-Servants-during-the-War-for-American-
Independence?secret_password=OJ0XV4DLMfjssaEcdU34
"’The load a soldier generally carries during a campaign …”’: The British Soldier's Burden
in the American War for Independence”
(Dedicated to the recreated 17th Regiment of Foot)
Contents
1. Overview
2. “Complement of necessaries, etc., for the soldier.”: Personal Equipage as Stipulated in Military
Treatises
3. "An enormous bulk, weighing about sixty pounds": British Troops’ Necessaries in Garrison and
on Campaign
a. 1762, British Grenadiers
b. 1771, 7th Regiment
c. Undated, Brigade of Guards
d. August 1776, Gen. Sir William Howe’s troops
e. 1776, Brigade of Guards
f. 1777, 40th Regiment, Personal Effects and Blanket Slings
g. 1777, 49th Regiment, Personal Effects and Blanket Slings
h. 1778, Guards Battalion
i. 1779, 17th Regiment
j. 1780-1781, Cornwallis’s Army
4. “A habersack for Each Soldier":Ways and Means of Carrying Food, and the Burden of Rations
5. "Four Days' flour to be Issued to the Troops": The Burden of Rations, 1762-1783
6. "The men having no other way ...": Shortages of Equipment for Food Carriage and Cooking
7. "Very Dirty and muddy.": Carrying Beverages and Difficulties in Finding Drinkable Water
8. Other Resources (Online Articles)
https://www.scribd.com/document/335479170/The-load-a-soldier-generally-carries-during-
a-campaign-The-British-Soldier-s-Burden-in-the-American-War-for-Independence

“’With my pack and large blanket at my back …’: British and American Officers’
Equipage and Campaign Gear
Contents
1. “Things necessary for a Gentleman to be furnished with …”: Officers’ Kit for Regimental Service
a. British Officers’ Belongings
b. Continental Army Officers’ Kit.
c. Cooking and Eating Utensils.
2. "The officers must be satisfied walking …”: Allotment of Horses
3. Officers and Knapsacks: A Compendium of Accounts and Images
a. 1762, British Grenadiers
b. 1771, 7th Regiment
c. Undated, Brigade of Guards
d. August 1776, Gen. Sir William Howe’s troops
e. 1776, Brigade of Guards
f. 1777, 40th Regiment, Personal Effects and Blanket Slings
g. 1777, 49th Regiment, Personal Effects and Blanket Slings
h. 1778, Guards Battalion
4. Other Resources (Online Articles)
Appendix A.
Officers and Knapsacks: A Compendium of Accounts and Images
a. Knapsack: Rufus Lincoln, Massachusetts militia and 14 th Massachusetts
b. 1775, British, 43d Regiment, officer’s knapsack
c. 1776, 17th Regiment, Officer’s Rolled Blanket (“Pedlar's Pack “) and
Personal Belongings
d. 1776, Continental, 22d Continental Regiment, knapsack and belongings
e. 1777, Massachusetts Militia officer carrying a knapsack
f. 1777, British, 42d Regiment, portmanteau, no knapsack
g. 1777, British 49th Regiment, officers’ blanket slings
h. 1777, Continental Officers’ Knapsack Contents Described by a German Officer
i. 1777, British Officers, Saratoga Campaign, Knapsacks and Packhorses
j. 1779, British, 43d Regiment, officer’s marquee and possibly officer’s knapsack
k. 1781, British, Cornwallis’s Southern Army, officers and knapsacks
l. 1782, Continental, 2d Maryland Regiment, lieutenant colonel wearing a knapsack.
m. 1782, Continental Army, New Jersey Regiments, officers issued canteens but not knapsacks
Appendix B.
Miscellaneous Narratives on Officers’ Belongings and Campaign Living
a. 1776, British, Suggested Officers’ Campaign Equipage
b. 1776, British, 5th Regiment, campaign camp and food
c. 1776, Continental, 3d Virginia officer’s chest
d. 1776, Continental, Gen. Thomas Mifflin’s blanket coat and Colonel Lippitt’s andirons
e. 1776/1777, Militia, 1st Battalion Philadelphia Associators, Deceased Officer’s Belongings
f. 1776/1777, British, 33d Regiment, Officer’s Necessaries
g. 1777, British, 40th Regiment, Reduction of Officers’ Baggage
h. 1777, British, 24th Regiment and 24th Regiment, Saratoga Campaign
i. 1777, British, 46th Regiment, Officer’s Field Equipage
j. 1777, Continental, 7th Pennsylvania Regiment, Officer’s Belongings
k. 1777-1778, Continental, Rev. Enos Hitchcock’s personal belongings
l. 1777 and 1782, British and Continental, a bed made of chairs or stools (In honor of Joshua Mason)
m. 1778, Continental Officers and Horse Canteens
n. 1778, British, 42d Regiment, campaign living
o. 1780, German, Jaeger Camp Description
p. 1781, Continental Maryland Regiments, Officers’ Portmanteaus
q. 1781, French Officer’s Remarks on Continental Officers’ Life Style
r. 1781, Continental, 3d Maryland Regiment, Officer’s Greatcoat and wearing red coats
https://www.scribd.com/document/338154147/With-my-pack-and-large-blanket-at-my-
back-British-and-American-Officers-Equipage-and-Campaign-Gear

“’Cost of a Knapsack complete …’: Notes on Continental Army Packs and the Soldiers’
Burden”
Part 1. “This Napsack I carryd through the war of the Revolution”
Knapsacks Used by the Soldiers during the War for American Independence
a. Overview
b. Knapsacks and Tumplines, Massachusetts, 1775
c. The Uhl Knapsack
d. Leather and Hair Packs, and Ezra Tilden’s Narrative
e. The Rufus Lincoln and Elisha Gross Hair Knapsacks
f. The “new Invented Napsack and haversack,” 1776
g. The Benjamin Warner Linen Pack
h. British Linen Knapsacks
Appendices
a. Carrying Blankets in or on Knapsacks.
b. “Like a Pedlar's Pack.”: Blanket Rolls and Slings
c. More Extant Artifacts with Revolutionary War Provenance or with a Design Similar to
Knapsacks Used During the War
d. Extant Knapsacks Discounted as having Revolutionary War Provenance
http://www.scribd.com/doc/210794759/%E2%80%9C-This-Napsack-I-carryd-
through-the-war-of-the-Revolution-Knapsacks-Used-by-the-Soldiers-during-the-
War-for-American-Independence-Part-1-of-%E2%80%9C-Cos
"`The great distress of the Army for want of Blankets ...': Supply Shortages,
Suffering
Soldiers, and a Secret Mission During the Hard Winter of 1780":
1. "Our condition for want of ... Blankets is quite painful ..."
Shortages in the Continental Army, 1776-1779
2. "Without even a shadow of a blanket ..."
Desperate Measures to Procure Covering for the Army, 1780
Addendum.
“To Colonel Morgan, for the use of the Light Infantry, twenty four Dutch Blankets & four pair of
rose Blankets.”: Examples of Bed Coverings Issued to Continental Troops
Endnote Extras.
Note
20. Clothing New Jersey's Soldiers, Winter 1779-1780
38. The Effect of Weather on the Squan Mission
Location of Squan Beach
43. Captain Bowman's Soldiers
46. Bowman's 2d New Jersey Light Company at the Battle of Connecticut Farms
Military Collector & Historian, vol. 52, no. 3 (Fall 2000), 98-110.
https://www.scribd.com/doc/274667902/The-great-distress-of-the-Army-for-want-of-
Blankets-Supply-Shortages-Suffering-Soldiers-and-a-Secret-Mission-During-the-Hard-
Winter-of-1780

“`White Wollen,' 'Striped Indian Blankets,' 'Rugs and Coverlids': The Variety of
Continental Army Blankets," The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXVI, no. 4 (Winter 2000),
11-14. http://www.revwar75.com/library/rees/variety.htm
“To Colonel Morgan, for the use of the Light Infantry, twenty four Dutch Blankets
& four pair of rose Blankets.”: Examples of Bed Coverings Issued to Continental
Troops
https://www.scribd.com/doc/273957204/To-Colonel-Morgan-for-the-use-of-the-Light-
Infantry-twenty-four-Dutch-Blankets-four-pair-of-rose-Blankets-Examples-of-Bed-
Coverings-Issued-to?secret_password=xY0eynb69XnvEPEOnKFY

“Images and Descriptions of Wool Blankets and Wool, Wool/Linen Coverlets in the
American Textile History Museum, Lowell, Massachusetts (The Chace Catalogue)”
https://www.scribd.com/doc/273789670/Images-and-Descriptions-of-Wool-Blankets-and-
Wool-Wool-Linen-Coverlets?secret_password=9AeF0J9Ae2vyuCCoKqRC

“A Quantity of Tow Cloth, for the Purpose of making of Indian or Hunting Shirts …”:
Proper Terminology: Hunting shirt, Rifle Shirt, Rifle Frock … ?
http://www.scribd.com/doc/241410261/A-Quantity-of-Tow-Cloth-for-the-Purpose-of-
making-of-Indian-or-Hunting-Shirts-Proper-Terminology-Hunting-shirt-Rifle-Shirt-Rifle-
Frock?secret_password=B5Ass1zGmYgykkILpBjz

“When the whole are completely formed, they may ground their arms …”: Grounding
versus Stacking Arms in the Continental Army (With Notes on British and German
Practices)
https://www.scribd.com/doc/292407335/When-the-whole-are-completely-formed-they-may-
ground-their-arms-When-the-whole-are-completely-formed-they-may-ground-their-arms-
Groundin
"The Care and Cleaning of Firelocks in the 18th Century: A Discussion of Period Methods
and Their Present Day Applications," published in The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXII,
no. 2 (Summer 1991), 2-11, and Muzzleloader, vol. XXI, no. 4, (September/October
1994), 62-66.
Contents
1. Errata for "The Care and Cleaning of Firelocks in the 18th Century: A Discussion of Period
Methods and Their Present Day Applications."
2. Sweet oil
3. Brick Dust
4. Tying Tow to a Ramrod
5. Metalwork: Brown or Shiny?
6. Excerpts from Four Manuals
7. Soldiers’ Access to Musket Tools
8. More on Bell Tents
9. Scans of complete article, "The Care and Cleaning of Firelocks in the 18th Century …,” : A
Discussion of Period Methods and Their Present Day Applications," Muzzleloader, vol. XXI, no. 4,
(September/October 1994), 62-66.
10. Scans of endnotes from "The Care and Cleaning of Firelocks in the 18th Century …,” The
Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXII, no. 2 (Summer 1991)
11. Scans of article, Richard Claydon, Crown Forces (Summer 1973). Research on the use and
construction of cloth muzzle stoppers, based upon an original.
12 “When the whole are completely formed, they may ground their arms …”: Grounding versus
Stacking Arms in the Continental Army (With Notes on British and German Practices)
https://www.scribd.com/doc/292985859/The-Care-and-Cleaning-of-Firelocks-in-the-
18th-Century-A-Discussion-of-Period-Methods-and-Their-Present-Day-Applications

“’To hold thirty-six cartridges of powder and ball …’: Continental Army Tin and Sheet-Iron
Canisters, 1775-1780”
Including:
“They will … scarcely last one Campaign.” The Problem of Poorly-Made Continental Army Cartridge
Pouches and Introduction of the New Model Box
“The tin magazines … preserve the ammunition from wet … better than any other.”
Miscellania Concerning Crown Forces and Tin Canisters.
Alternative Names for Tin/Iron Cartridge Boxes
“Carried by Moses Currier in the Rev. War.”: Descriptions of Extant Canisters
http://www.scribd.com/doc/145591110/%E2%80%9C-To-hold-thirty-six-cartridges-of-
powder-and-ball-%E2%80%A6-Continental-Army-Tin-and-Sheet-Iron-Canisters-1775-
1780

"’The taylors of the regiment’: Insights on Soldiers Making and Mending Clothing, and
Continental Army Clothing Supply, 1776 to 1783,” Military Collector & Historian, vol. 63,
no. 4 (Winter 2011), 254-265.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/131742393/The-taylors-of-the-regiment-Insights-on-Soldiers-
Making-and-Mending-Clothing-and-Continental-Army-Clothing-Supply-1778-to-1783

"`To subsist an Army well ...': Soldiers' Cooking Equipment, Provisions, and Food
Preparation During the American War for Independence”:
"’All the tin Camp-kettles they can procure ...’: Iron Pots, Pans, and Light-
Weight Military Kettles, 1759-1782”
Subheadings:
Tin Kettles, 1759-1771”
“British Kettles in the American War, 1776-1781”
“Continental Army and States’ Militia, 1775-1780”
“American Sheet Iron Kettles, 1781-1782”
“Iron Pots, Pans, and Makeshift Cookware”
“Eating Utensils”
“Officers’ Cooking Equipment”
“Kettle Covers”
“’The extreme suffering of the army for want of … kettles …’:
Continental Soldiers and Kettle Shortages in 1782”
“’A disgusting incumbrance to the troops …’:
Linen Bags and Carts for Carrying Kettles”
“’The Kettles to be made as formerly …”: Kettle Capacity and Weight,
and Archaeological Finds”
Subheadings:
“Kettle Capacity and Sizes, 1759-1782”
“Louisbourg Kettle, Cape Breton Island”
“Fort Ligonier (Buckets or Kettles?)”
“Rogers Island (Bucket or Kettle?)”
“1812 Kettles, Fort Meigs, Ohio”
“Overview of Cooking Equipment, 1775-1783”
Addendum to online version:
“Two brass kettles, to contain ten gallons each … for each company …”
Brass and Copper Kettles
Military Collector & Historian, vol. 53, no. 1 (Spring 2001), 7-23.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/180835470/To-subsist-an-Army-well-Soldiers-Cooking-
Equipment-Provisions-and-Food-Preparation-During-the-American-War-for-
Independence

"`To the hungry soul every bitter thing is sweet.’: Soldiers' Food and Cooking in the War
for Independence”
"The manner of messing and living together": Continental Army Mess Groups
“Who shall have this?”: Food Distribution
"A hard game ...": Continental Army Cooks
“On with Kittle, to make some hasty Pudding …”: How a "Continental Devil" Broke His Fast
1. The Army Ration and Cooking Methods.
2. Eating Utensils.
3. The Morning Meal.
4. Other Likely Breakfast Fare.
Addenda
“The men were very industrious, in baking, all the forepart of the evening.”: Soldiers’ Ingenuity,
Regimental Bakers, and the Issue of Raw Flour
“The Commissary [is] desired … to furnish biscuit and salt provisions …”:
Hard Bread in the War for Independence.
"The victuals became putrid by sweat & heat ...": Some Peripheral Aspects of Feeding an Army
1. The Ways Soldiers Carried Food
2. The Burden of Rations, 1762-1783
3. Carrying Drink and Procuring Water
4. Equipment Shortages
5. Spoilage of Issued Meats
"We had our cooking utensils ... to carry in our hands.": Continental Army Cooking and Eating Gear,
and Camp Kitchens, 1775-1782
Endnotes:
#50. Compendium of Ration Allotments, 1754-1782
Continental Army rations (summary)
British Army rations (summary)
Caloric Requirements and Intake
#73. Miscellaneous returns of cooking gear and eating utensils, 1778-1781
(Appended) List of author’s articles on food in the armies of the American Revolution
http://www.scribd.com/doc/129368664/To-the-hungry-soul-every-bitter-thing-is-sweet-
Soldiers-Food-and-Cooking-in-the-War-for-Independence

"`As many fireplaces as you have tents ...': Earthen Camp Kitchens”:
Contents
Part I. "Cooking Excavations": Their History and Use by Soldiers in North America
A. Advantages.
B. Digging a Field Kitchen.
Part II. Complete 1762 Kitchen Description and Winter Covering for Field Kitchens
Part III. Matt and I Dig a Kitchen.
Sequenced photos of kitchen construction, June 1997, Bordentown, New Jersey.
Part IV. Original Earthen Kitchens Examined by Archaeologists.
A. The Laughanstown, Ireland Earthen Kitchen.
B. The Gloucester Point (VIMS) Kitchen, 1781.
C. Hessian Kitchens, Winchester, England, 1756.
Appendices:
1. Encampment Plans (with an emphasis on kitchen placement): Continental Army, Hessian, and
British
2. British Image of Cooking Excavations (Redcoat Images No. 2,000)
3. Newspaper Article on the Discovery of the Gloucester Point Kitchen
4. Miscellaneous Images of Earthen Camp Kitchens and Soldiers Cooking
https://www.scribd.com/document/229610630/As-many-fireplaces-as-you-have-tents-Earthen-
Camp-Kitchens
(Video of Old Barracks kitchen, courtesy of David Niescior,
https://vimeo.com/151154631 )
(Video of David Niescior cooking on and speaking about the merits of earthen
kitchens https://www.facebook.com/NewJerseyBuzz/videos/1801416753210960/ )

"`We ... got ourselves cleverly settled for the night': Soldiers' Shelter on Campaign During
the War for Independence,"
Part I, "`Oznabrig tabernacles’: Tents in the Armies of the Revolution":
1. “Put our Men into barns …”: The Vagaries of Shelter
2. "We Lay in the open world": Troops Without Shelter on Campaign
3. "State of Marquees and Tents delivered to the Army...": Varieties of Tentage
a. British Common Tents
b. American Common Tents
c. Horseman’s and Cavalry Tents
d. Wall Tents
e. Marquees
f. Bell Tents for Sheltering Arms
g. Dome, Square, and Hospital Tents
h. French Tents
4. "Return of Camp Equipage": More on Tents.
Appendices
Illustrations of French Tents
The Common Tent as Illustrated in a German Treatise
How to Fold a Common Tent for Transport (from a German Treatise)
Interior Views of Common Tents: Sleeping Arrangements in Three Armies
A Melange of Marquees: Additional Images of Officers’ Tents
Encampment Plans: Continental Army, Hessian, and British
Friedrich Wilhelm de Steuben, Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United
States Part I. (Philadelphia, Pa.: Styner and Cist, 1779)
“A Correct View of the Hessian Camp on Barton Farm near Winchester … by Willm. Godson, Land
Surveyor to the Right Worshipful the Corporation of Winchester occupé le 16 Juillet 1756”
Lewis Lochee, An Essay on Castrametation (London, 1778) (British treatise on tents and
encampments.)
Humphrey Bland, A treatise of military discipline: in which is laid down and explained the duty of
the officer and soldier, through the several branches of the service. The 8th edition revised,
corrected, and altered to the present practice of the army (London: B. Law and T. Caslon, 1762).
Military Collector & Historian, vol. 49, no. 3 (Fall 1997), 98-107.
https://www.scribd.com/doc/262657282/Oznabrig-tabernacles-Tents-in-the-Armies-of-the-
Revolution-part-1-of-We-got-ourselves-cleverly-settled-for-the-night-Soldiers-Shelter

Part V, “`We built up housan of branchis and leavs ’: Continental Army Brush Shelters,
1775-1777”
A. "This night we lay out without shelter ...”: Overview of American Soldiers' Campaign
Lodging
B. "We maid us some Bush huts ...": Brush Shelters, 1775 and 1776.
C. "Huts of sticks & leaves": Washington's Army in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, 1777.
Military Collector & Historian, vol. 55, no. 4 (Winter 2003-2004), 213-223.
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/huts5.pdf

Part VI, "`We built up housan of branchis & leavs ...’: Continental Army Brush Shelters,
1778-1782
A. "Found the regiment lying in bush huts ...": Continental Troops on Campaign and on the
March, 1778-1780.
B. "Pine huts," "Huts of rails," and "Bush Tents": Virginia and the Carolinas, 1781-1782.
C. "Return of Camp Equipage": More on Tents.
Military Collector & Historian, vol. 56, no. 2 (2004), 98-106.
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/huts6.pdf

“’Reach Coryels ferry. Encamp on the Pennsylvania side.’: The March from Valley Forge
to Monmouth Courthouse, 18 to 28 June 1778”
http://www.scribd.com/doc/133301501/“Reach-Coryels-ferry-Encamp-on-the-Pennsylvania-
side-”-The-March-from-Valley-Forge-to-Monmouth-Courthouse-18-to-28-June-1778
Endnotes:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/133293312/Endnotes-“Reach-Coryels-ferry-Encamp-on-the-
Pennsylvania-side-”-The-March-from-Valley-Forge-to-Monmouth-Courthouse-18-to-28-
June-1778
Contents
1. “We struck our tents and loaded our baggage.”: Leaving Valley Forge
2. Progress, June 18, 1778.
3. Progress, June 19, 1778.
4. “Crost the dilliware pushed on about 5 milds …”: June 20, 1778: Progress and a River Crossing
5. “4 Wagons & Horses, and 1000 Men at a Try.”: The Mechanics of Ferrying an Army
6. “Halt on the first strong ground after passing the Delaware ...”: June 20th River Crossing
7. “The number of boats … will render the passage of the troops very expeditious.”:
June 21st Ferry Operation
8. “The Troops are passing the River … and are mostly over.”: June 22d Crossing
9. “The Army will march off …”: June 22d and 23d, Camp at Amwell Meeting
10. “Just after we halted we sent out a large detachment …”: Camp and Council: Hopewell
Township, 23 to 24 June
11. “Giving the Enemy a stroke is a very desireable event …”: Advancing to Englishtown,
24 to 28 June
Progress, June 25, 1778.
Progress, June 26, 1778.
Progress, June 27, 1778.
Forward to Battle, June 28, 1778.
12. “Our advanced Corps … took post in the evening on the Monmouth Road …”:
Movements of Continental Detachments Followng the British, 24 to 28 June 1778
The Advance Force: Scott’s, Wayne’s, Lafayette’s, and Lee’s Detachments.
Daily Movements of Detachments Later Incorporated into Lee’s Advanced Corps.
13. Echoes of 1778, Three Years After.
Addendum
1. Driving Directions, Continental Army Route from Valley Forge to Englishtown
2. Day by Day Recap of Route
3. The Road to Hopewell.
4. The Bungtown Road Controversy.
5. Weather During the Monmouth Campaign
6. Selected Accounts of the March from Valley Forge to Englishtown
a. Fifteen-year-old Sally Wister
b. Surgeon Samuel Adams, 3rd Continental Artillery
c. Henry Dearborn, lt. colonel, 3rd New Hampshire Regiment
d. Captain Paul Brigham, 8th Connecticut Regiment
e. Sergeant Ebenezer Wild, 1st Massachusetts Regiment
f. Sgt. Jeremiah Greenman, 2d Rhode Island Regiment
g. Dr. James McHenry, assistant secretary to General Washington
7. List of Related works by the author on military material culture and the Continental Army
Endnotes contain:
1. Army General and Brigade Orders, June 1778.
a. Orders Regulating the Army on the March from Valley Forge.
b. Orders Issued During the Movement from Valley Forge to Englishtown.
2. Division and Brigade Composition for Washington’s Main Army to 22 June 1778
3. Washington’s army vehicle allotment for the march to Coryell’s Ferry,
4. Wheeled Transportation (a primer on the vehicles and artillery on the road to
Monmouth, including twenty-one illustrations)
5. Division and Brigade Composition for Washington’s Main Army after 22 June 1778
Details of a group of Continental soldiers from Pierre Charles L'Enfant’s (1754-1825) painting of
West Point and dependencies. View is from the east side of the Hudson River, at the top is
the lower part of Constitution Island. This was done after August 1782, as service chevrons,
worn on the saluting soldier’s left sleeve, were first authorized on the 7th of that month.
Several soldiers in group are wearing knapsacks, and what appears to be a rolled blanket
can be seen on top of three of the packs. (Second half of the soldier group is included in
Appendix A of this monograph. Library of Congress,
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2004678934/
Date for painting of 1782 is based on the service chevrons on the saluting soldier’s left
sleeve; the chevrons were first authorized on the 7th of that month.
Army orders “Head Quarters, Newburgh, Wednesday, August 7, 1782. … Honorary Badges
of distinction are to be conferred on the veteran Non commissioned officers and soldiers of
the army who have served more than three years with bravery, fidelity and good conduct;
for this purpose a narrow piece of white cloath of an angular form is to be fixed to the left
arm on the uniform Coat. Non commissioned officers and soldiers who have served with
equal reputation more than six years are to be distinguished by two pieces of cloth set in
parellel to each other in a simular form; should any who are not entitled to these honors
have the insolence to assume the badges of them they shall be severely punished. On the
other hand it is expected those gallant men who are thus designated will on all occasions be
treated with particular confidence and consideration.”
Army orders, “Head Quarters, Newburgh, Sunday, August 11, 1782 … In order to prevent
misapplication of the honorary badges of distinction to be conferred on the
Noncommissioned officers and soldiers in consequence of long and faithful service, through
any mistake or misapprehention of the orders of the 7th. instant the general thinks proper
to inform the army that they are only attainable by an uninterrupted series of faithful and
honorable services. A soldier who has once retired from the field of glory forfeits all
pretentions to precedence from former services; and a man who has deservedly met an
ignominious punishmt. or degredation cannot be admitted a Candadate for any honorary
distinction, unless he shall have wiped away the stain his reputation has suffered by some
very brilliant achievement, or by serving with reputation after his disgrace the number of
years which entitle other men to that indulgence. The badges which Noncommissioned
officers and soldiers are permitted to wear on the left arm as a mark of long and faithful
service are to be of the same colour with the facings of the corps they belong to and not
white in every instance as directed in the orders of the 7th. instant.”
General orders, 7 August 1782, John C. Fitzpatrick, ed., The Writings of George Washington
from the Original Manuscript Sources 1745-1799, vol. 24 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1938), 487-
488. General orders, 11 August 1782, ibid., vol. 25 (1938), 7-8.
Dunlap's Partisan Corps (aka Augusta County Militia), fording the Brandywine
Creek. Picquet post at Brandywine event, 24-26 September 2010.

Dunlap's Partisan Corps (aka Augusta County Militia), fording the Brandywine
Creek. Picquet post at Brandywine event, 24-26 September 2010.
Above: Dunlap's Partisan Corps (aka Augusta County Militia), fording the Brandywine
Creek. Picquet post at Brandywine event, 24-26 September 2010.
Below: Followers of the Grenadiers of Virginia. Battle of the Hook, 18-20 October 2013,
Gloucester Virginia.
A soldier of the 6th Connecticut Regiment, Autumn 1780. Captain Barker’s
company of the 6th Connecticut Regiment, circa 1779-80, was composed of black
soldiers. One man stated in support of a pension for Jeffrey Brace, a soldier in
Barker’s Company, “he then well understood that Jeffery … enlisted in the army to
obtain his freedom … [he] remembers that he saw Jeffery a number of times after
his enlistment in a soldiers Uniform with a Leather Cap he further recollects that
some time in the War … does not recollect but thinks it must be in the year 1780 he
was in the State of New York near West Point – met a Seargeants Guard all in
Uniform – among the Guard was Jeffery & conversed with him – I am now
acquainted with a Colored man calling himself Jeffery Brace & know him to be the
same person then known by Jeffery Stiles – Jeffery sometimes was necked named
[i.e., nicknamed] Pomp London.“ Artwork by Don Troiani (Courtesy of the artist,
www.historicalimagebank.com)
A private of the Delaware Regiment, with the distinctive yellow binding on his cocked hat,
1780-1781. Overalls (gaitered trousers), linen for summer, wool for winter, were the
preferred legwear for Continental troops at that period of the war. Philip Katcher,
Uniforms of the Continental Army (York, Pa.: George Shumway Publisher, 1981), 23, 80.
(Painting by Don Troiani, www.historicalimagebank.com)
Addenda

Examples of soldiers’ musket tools.
Above, from the Fort Ticonderoga Museum.
Below, tools excavated on the Saratoga Battlefield.
A 6/4 English rose blanket from the collection of Robert G. Stone, who notes, “It is typical
of the 6/4 rose blankets I have researched.” Mr. Stone provides other details: “Rose
blankets are sized by their width as expressed in quarters of a yard (9 inch multiples)” and
“range from 6/4 (54”) to 14/4 (126”) wide.” “By specification, rose blankets are 2/4 (18”)
longer than they are wide,” but “Seldom do rose blankets in collections measure what they
are suppose to.”
(Information and image courtesy of Robert G. Stone.)
Another view of the soldier’s mess bowl left at the Paxson home in 1778.
“The common necessaries of life …” A Revolutionary Soldier’s Wooden Bowl,” including,
“’Left sick on the Road’: An Attempt to Identify the Soldier Left at the Paxson Home,
‘Rolling Green,’ June 1778.”)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/123562525/%E2%80%9CThe-common-necessaries-of-life-
%E2%80%A6%E2%80%9D-A-Revolutionary-Soldier%E2%80%99s-Wooden-Bowl

Bowl or “mess kid” from U.S.S. Defence, sank in Penobscot Harbor, 1779.
Above and below: Two views of a New Model cartridge pouch, with a block pierced to
carry 29 rounds. First produced in 1778 (copied from captured British 29-hole pouches),
large numbers did not reach the army until 1779 and 1780. J. Craig Nannos Collection.

Examples of typical Continental Army equipment. From left to right: Linen knapsack based
on the pack Benjamin Warner carried in the war. Tin cartridge canister, originally intended
for non-commissioned officers to carry spare ammunition, by 1778 they were carried as a
primary cartridge carrier when leather pouches were in short supply. Leather cartridge
pouch, based on the Benjamin Fogg and Elisha Gross pouches, as well as other examples. This
19-hole pouch was used extensively early in the war, and later revised to hold 24 cartridges.
New Jersey Brigade, 1780

"Return of Arms, Ammunition, Accoutrements, Drums and Fifes, in possession of the
Jersey Brigade" dated January 26, 1780. (Courtesy of Alan Stein and Matt Grubel)
Equipment Ogden Shreve Dayton Spencer Total
Guns 236 275 251 153 915
Bayonets 149 158 101 94 502
Bayonet Belts 148 164 84 93 489
Slings 2 4 23 5 34
Cartridge Boxes 228 265 250 152 895
Brushes & P. Wires 6 7 29 21 63
Gun Worms 5 3 10 3 21
Screw Drivers 14 4 18 3 39
Flints 310 560 409 282 1561
Cartridges 5280 7801 6241 4750 24,072
Drums 9 6 5 4 24
Fifes 6 6 7 5 24
_____________________________________

2d Massachusetts Brigade, 1781

Total “Brush
Rank & File “Wormes” & Picks”
2nd Regiment, Colonel Sprout, 239 53 good 9 good, 247 wanting
4th Regiment, Colonel Shepard 235 40 good, 16 wanting 57 good, 189 wanting
9th Regiment, Colonel Jackson 252 19 good , 1 wanting 167 good, 94 wanting

Total
Rank & File “Screwdrivers”
2nd Regiment, Colonel Sprout, 239 34 good, 222 wanting
4 Regiment, Colonel Shepard 235
th 65 good, 181 wanting
9th Regiment, Colonel Jackson 252 93 good, 168 wanting
“To complete the present force of the Regiments,” total needed are 763 brush and picks
763 screwdrivers
129 worms
“Present State of Camp Equipage in the 2nd. Masst. Brig[ade].”
Total Horseman’s Common
Rank & File Marquees Tents Tents
2nd Regiment, Colonel Sprout, 239 - 2 3
4th Regiment, Colonel Shepard 235 1 - 1
9th Regiment, Colonel Jackson 252 1 - -

Total Camp Wooden
Rank & File Kettles Buckets Bowls Canteens Knapsacks
2nd Regiment, Colonel Sprout, 239 56 1 35 47 25
4th Regiment, Colonel Shepard 235 37 - 9 21 100
9th Regiment, Colonel Jackson 252 64 3 23 25 142

Total Iron Brass
Rank & File Axes Pots Kettles Spades Picks
2nd Regiment, Colonel Sprout, 239 14 - - 10 1
4 Regiment, Colonel Shepard 235
th 6 3 - 5 -
9th Regiment, Colonel Jackson 252 18 - - 4 1

Total Blankets
Rank & File Good Bad Wanting
2nd Regiment, Colonel Sprout, 239 160 3 124
4th Regiment, Colonel Shepard 235 196 8 79
9 Regiment, Colonel Jackson 252
th 215 16 60

“Present State of the Arms Ammunition and Accouterments in the 2nd Massachusetts Brigade
…,” West Point, 25 May 1781, miscellaneous returns, Revolutionary War Rolls, National
Archives, reel 136.
_____________________________________

3d Massachusetts Brigade, 1781

Total Worms “Brushes & Wires”
Rank & File Good Wanting Good Wanting
1st Regiment, Vose 246 31 13 44 219
5th Regiment, Putnam 252 30 37 39 200
7th Regiment, Brook 252 3 46 - 265
New York Regiment, Van Schaik 342 - 60 - 372

Total Screwdrivers
Rank & File Good Wanting
1st Regiment, Vose 246 60 203
5th Regiment, Putnam 252 62 197
7th Regiment, Brook 252 3 262
New York Regiment, Van Schaik 342 - 372
“Present State of Camp Equipage in the 3rd. Masst. Brig[ade].”
Total Marquees Horseman’s Tents Wall Tents Common Tents
Rank & File (Good) Good Bad Good Bad Good Bad
1st Regiment, 246 1 - 6 - 2 2 3
5th Regiment, 252 1 - 3 - - - -
7th Regiment, 252 - 1 2 - - 8 2
1st New York 342 - 5 - 4 3 38 27

Total Camp Kettles Buckets Bowls Canteens Knapsacks
Rank & File Good Bad Good Good Bad Good Bad Good Bad
1st Regiment, Vose 246 60 203 1 1 - 9 - 23 -
5th Regiment, Putnam 252 62 197 2 2 2 5 - 11 35
7th Regiment, Brook 252 3 262 - 3 2 18 2 65 -
1st New York 342 - 372 1 - - - - - -

Total Axes Iron Brass Spades Picks
Rank & File Good Bad Pots Kettles Good Bad Good
1st Regiment, Vose 246 6 - - - 1 - 1
5th Regiment, Putnam 252 7 2 - - 4 1 2
7 Regiment, Brook
th 252 9 2 - - 7 - 2
1st New York 342 - - - - 1 1 -

Total Blankets
Rank & File Good Bad Wanting
1st Regiment, Vose 246 125 1 155
5th Regiment, Putnam 252 134 27 143
7th Regiment, Brook 252 215 - 81
New York Regiment, Van Schaik 342 327 32 29

“Present State of the Arms, Ammunition and Accoutrements in the Third Massachusetts
Brigade …,” 25 May 1781, Miscellaneous returns, Revolutionary War Rolls, National Archives,
reel 136.
_____________________________________

2d New York Regiment, 1780 and 1782

Rank and file strength, 165 (plus 27 sergeants); 133 muskets, 1 screwdriver, and 18
brushes and picks on hand.
“Inspection Return of the Second New York Regiment … for February 1780,” 3 March
1780, Revolutionary War Rolls, National Archives, reel 67.

Rank and file strength, 451 (plus 39 sergeants); 488 muskets, 9 worms, and 21
screwdrivers on hand.
“Inspection Return of the second New York Regiment … for the Month of April 1782,”
12 May 1782, Revolutionary War Rolls, National Archives, reel 67.
_____________________________________
2d New Jersey Regiment, May and December 1782

27 sergeants and 300 rank and file, present fit for duty (8 sergeants on command, 16
rank and file sick absent); equipment on hand, 373 muskets, 363 bayonets, 144
screwdrivers, 144 worms, 9 brush and picks (398 brush and picks wanting). Optimal
establishment, 45 sergeants, 612 rank and file.
“In Use,” 41 camp kettles, 21 bowls, 52 trenchers, 25 portmanteau, 9 canteens, 64
knapsacks, 20 axes, 7 shovels.
“Inspection Return of the 2d. New Jersey Regiment commanded by Colo. E. Dayton for
the Month of May,” 1782 (signed by Friedrich Wilhelm Steuben), Rev War Rolls,
National Archives??

26 sergeants and 265 rank and file, present fit for duty (2 sergeants sick present, 2 on
command, 2 on furlough; 19 rank and file sick present, 5 sick absent, 37 on command,
and 23 on furlough); equipment on hand, 365 muskets, 351 bayonets, 114
screwdrivers, 115 worms. Optimal establishment, 45 sergeants, 612 rank and file.
“In Use,” 33 camp kettles, 13 bowls, 27 portmanteau, 223 canteens, 359 knapsacks, 25
axes and hatchets, 2 picks, 5 spades.
“Inspection Return of the 2nd New Jersey Regiment commanded by Colo. Dayton for
December 1782,” dated 24 January 1783 (signed by Francis Barber), Rev War Rolls,
National Archives??
_____________________________________

Lincoln’s Company, 7th Massachusetts Regiment, 1782

In July 1782 Captain Rufus Lincoln's company, 7th Massachusetts Regiment,
contained one sergeant, three corporals, and forty-three privates. An April company
equipment return listed 37 firelocks, 37 bayonets, no bayonet belts, 37 cartridge
boxes, 15 worms, 4 knapsacks, 1 haversack, 5 canteens; in May knapsacks increased to
40 and canteens to 37. Eventually during 1782 (April to October) 32 worms were
issued, 41 canteens, and 43 knapsacks, but no “B[rush] & Wires,” screw drivers, or
haversacks. An August return lists equipment on hand (13 worms, no screwdrivers),
and states total numbers for the “Establishment” (16 worms, 16 screwdrivers); total
enlisted men, 43. This means the standard was a worm and screwdriver for every two
to three men. (In March 1782 the company had 3 “Gunworms,” 1 screwdriver, 9
knapsacks, 2 haversacks, and 11 canteens.)
James Minor Lincoln, The Papers of Captain Rufus Lincoln of Wareham, Mass. (New
York: Arno Press, 1968; reprint of 1904 edition), 125, 136, 137, 138, 140, 154, 162,
172, 175, 176, 197.
"A Return of Military Stores wanting for Six compleat Regiments of Va Troops to
enable them to perform their Duty in the Field" listed,
6 regimental standards
24 division colors (this number seems to have been reduced to 12 on the return)
144 camp colors
120 espontoons
56 drums and the same number of drum slings, spare cords, spare snares, spare
heads, fifes and fife cases.
112 pairs of sticks
302 sergeant's swords
302 sword belts
3,198 muskets and the same number of bayonets, belts and scabbards, "Cartouch
Boxes," "Tin Canisters with Slings," and gun slings.
533 "Bullet screws"
3,198 screw drivers and a like number of "Brushes & Pickers"
"N.B. out of the 3000 Stands of Arms and Accoutrements sent to the Southward
General Muhlenberg had retained 2000 Stand and in Case the Stores are inadequate
to the Supplies demanded in this Return, Such Number of Arms not less than 1000
as the Board shall think proper will in my Opinion suffice: But the Cartouch Boxes
sent with the 3000 Stand mentiond are chiefly unfit for service being intended only
for the Militia - No Tin Canisters were sent [south] at all The whole
Ammunition was forwarded on and of Course the Quantity demanded being only 72
Rounds pr. Man will be wanting.
P.S. it will be necessary that two Brigade Conductors each with a travelling Forge
be also sent on." Christian Febiger, "Colo 2nd: Va: Regt" Philadelphia, 28
September 1780.

"A Return of Military Stores wanting for Six compleat Regiments of Va Troops to enable
them to perform their Duty in the Field," 28 September 1780, Miscellaneous Numbered
Records (The Manuscript File) in the War Department Collection of Revolutionary War
Records 1775-1790s, no. 21151 (National Archives Microfilm Publication M859, reel
69), U.S. War Department Collection of Revolutionary War Records, Record Group 93,
National Archives.
Grenadiers of Virginia, Yorktown Campaign, 1781

Dunlap’s Partisan Corps, 1777
Dunlap’s Partisan Corps, 1777

Commander-in-Chief’s Guard, Williamsburg, Virginia
Private soldier, Lt. Charles Willson Peale’s company, 2d Battalion, Philadelphia Associators,
January 1777
Peale’s Company, 2d Battalion Philadelphia Associators, Princeton Battlefield
More images from “With Peale to Princeton”
https://www.facebook.com/john.u.rees/media_set?set=a.10205283481149549.1073741830.13
22888567&type=3

“Trenton to Princeton March Route and Schedule”
https://www.scribd.com/doc/251085624/Trenton-to-Princeton-March-Route-and-
Schedule?secret_password=ylNxQE0my27enMtx14oT
Peale’s Company, march to Princeton, January 2017.
Peale’s Company, march to Princeton, January 2017.
4th Connecticut Regiment, 1778-1779
Commander-in-Chief’s Guard, 1778
(Endview Plantation, near Yorktown, Virginia)
Private soldier of the Commander-in-Chief’s Guard. Presidents’ Day 2018, closing day
of the special exhibit, “Among His Troops,” Museum of the American Revolution.