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Study Guide
This guide contains information to help you introduce your students Rigoletto and opera
in general. There are several lesson plans, all curriculum-based, which are designed to
enhance student appreciation of the opera.
Rigoletto: Synopsis........................................................................................................... 2
Verdi, Piave and Hugo: Biographies................................................................................. 3
Background to the Opera.................................................................................................. 5
Additional resources......................................................................................................... 6
Classroom Activities
Reading/Writing: The characters in Rigoletto................................................................... 7
Guided Listening: Gildas Character................................................................................. 9
Conducting Lesson: Identifying meter............................................................................. 11
Language/Theater Arts: Student dramatization of Rigoletto........................................... 14
History: The Politics of Rigoletto..................................................................................... 16
Writing: Re-setting Rigoletto........................................................................................... 18
Going to the Opera
What to wear to the opera............................................................................................... 21
Entering the performance hall......................................................................................... 21
Performance Etiquette.................................................................................................... 21
When to clap your hands................................................................................................ 21
Leaving the performance hall.......................................................................................... 22
What language is that?................................................................................................... 22
The Creative Team
The conductor................................................................................................................. 23
The stage director........................................................................................................... 23
The singers..................................................................................................................... 23
The music director/accompanist..................................................................................... 24
The designers................................................................................................................. 24
The stage manager......................................................................................................... 24
The process: concept to opening night.......................................................................... 24
Student Handouts
Character Sheet for Rigoletto......................................................................................... 26
Excerpts from English National Opera; Opera Guide 15 ............................................... 28
Italian Politics.................................................................................................................. 29
Essay Organizational Chart: Comparing Two Stories in an Essay................................ 30
Word Search................................................................................................................... 31
Answer Sheets
Word Search................................................................................................................... 32
State Standards.............................................................................................................. 33

Music Libretto
Giuseppe Verdi Francesco Maria Piave
First performed
March 11, 1851, Venice, Italy
Based on
Victor Hugo's play Le roi s'amuse

Place In and around Mantua Time 16th Century
Act I
During a ball at his palace, the Duke of Mantua tells of his designs on a beautiful girl he has seen in
church. Then, admiring Count Ceprano's wife, the Duke rejoices in the beauty of women and his
libertine hedonism (''Questa o quella''). When the Duke's flirtatious dance with Countess Ceprano
draws the couple into another room, Rigoletto, the court jester, mocks the woman's enraged but
helpless husband. The nobles, delighted by the Duke's daring, are even more amused when Marullo
bursts in with the latest gossip: Rigoletto is keeping a young mistress. The jester has been so free with
his jibes that Ceprano plots with other courtiers to punish him. Monterone, an elderly nobleman, forces
his way in and denounces the Duke for seducing his daughter. Ridiculed by Rigoletto, Monterone hurls
a father's curse at both jester and Duke.
On the way home that night, Rigoletto broods over Monterone's curse. Sparafucile steps from the
shadows, offering his services as an assassin. The jester dismisses him, reflecting that his own
tongue is as sharp as any murderer's dagger (''Pari siamo!''). As he enters his courtyard, Gilda, his
daughter, comes out of the house to greet him. When she asks about her long-dead mother, Rigoletto
describes his wife as an angel (''Deh, non parlare al misero''), adding that Gilda is everything to him.
But he will not reveal his name or allow her to leave the house except to go to church. Rigoletto warns
the housekeeper, Giovanna, to admit no one (''Ah! veglia, o donna''). He runs into the street when he
hears someone at the gate; at the same moment, the Duke, in disguise, slips into the courtyard,
bribing Giovanna to keep her quiet. The Duke declares his love to Gilda, who has noticed him in
church ('' il sol dell'anima''). He says he is ''Gualtier Mald,'' a poor student. At the sound of footsteps
-- Ceprano and Borsa are rallying courtiers outside -- Gilda begs him to leave, and they exchange
excited goodbyes (''Addio, speranza ed anima!''). Repeating his name (''Caro nome'' ), Gilda goes up
to bed. Meanwhile, the courtiers stop Rigoletto and ask him to help abduct Ceprano's wife, who lives
across the street. The jester is duped into wearing a blindfold and holding a ladder against his own
garden wall while the courtiers break into his house (''Zitti, zitti'') and carry off Gilda. When Rigoletto
hears her cry for help, he tears off the blindfold and rushes in. Not finding Gilda, he remembers
Monterone's curse (''Ah! la maledizione!'').
Act II
In his palace, the Duke is distraught over the kidnapping of Gilda, whom he imagines alone and in
tears (''Parmi veder le lagrime''). When his courtiers return, saying they took her and she is now in his
chamber, he dashes off to the conquest (''Possente amor mi chiama''). Soon Rigoletto enters,
searching for Gilda. Though the courtiers are astonished to learn she is his daughter, they bar his way.
He lashes out at their cruelty, then weeps for mercy (''Cortigiani! vil razza''). Gilda appears and runs in
shame to her father. Alone with Rigoletto, Gilda tells of falling in love at church, of the Duke's

courtship, of her abduction (''Tutte le feste al tempio''). When Monterone is led through on his way to
the dungeons, Rigoletto declares he will avenge them both (duet: ''Si, vendetta'').
Rigoletto and Gilda wait outside the inn where Sparafucile and his sister, Maddalena, live. Rigoletto
makes Gilda look through an opening in the wall. She sees the Duke, disguised as a soldier and
laughing about the fickleness of women (''La donna mobile'' ), trying to seduce the assassin's sister.
Rigoletto cautions his daughter and plots revenge, as Maddalena draws out the libertine (quartet:
''Bella figlia dell'amore''). Telling Gilda to dress as a boy, the jester sends her to Verona, then pays
Sparafucile to murder the Duke and leaves. A storm breaks. Gilda returns to overhear Maddalena
urging her brother to spare the stranger. Sparafucile agrees to substitute the next person who comes
to the inn. Gilda, resolved to sacrifice herself, knocks at the door and is stabbed. Rigoletto returns to
claim his prize -- only to hear his supposed victim singing in the distance. Frantically opening the sack,
he finds his daughter. Gilda dies asking forgiveness.
Courtesy of Opera News

Giuseppe Verdi
Born in 1813 in the Italian village of Le Roncole near Busseto, Giuseppe Verdi spent his early years
studying the organ. By the age of seven, he had become an organist at San Michele Arcangelo. It was
there that the young Verdi was an altar boy and, according to myth, his mother saved him from the
French in 1814. In 1823, Verdi moved to Busseto and attended the music school run by Antonio
Provesi. By the age of 13, he was an assistant conductor of the Busseto orchestra. After finishing the
school, Verdi applied for admission to the Milan Conservatory. He was rejected for admission,
although one of the examiners suggested that he "forget about the Conservatory and choose a
maestro in the city." Verdi studied composition in Milan with Vincenzo Lavigna, a composer and the
maestro at La Scala. Verdi bounced back and forth between Milan and Busseto until he was named
maestro of the Busseto Philharmonic in March 1836.
By May 1836, he had married childhood sweetheart, Margherita Barezzi, his greatest benefactor's
daughter. He returned to Milan several years later, this time with a young family.
Verdi's first opera, Oberto, was brought to the stage at La Scala in November 1839 and ran for
multiple performances. The noted Ricordi firm published Oberto and, based upon his initial operatic
effort, Verdi won a contract for three additional operas. He began work on his next opera, Un Giorno di
Regno, but was interrupted when, one by one, the Verdis fell ill. A little over the course of a year, Verdi
lost his son, his daughter, and his beloved wife to illness. Unfortunately, Un Giorno was a complete
Verdi vowed never to compose another comedy and developed a fatalistic belief in inescapable
destiny. Even so, the director at La Scala kept faith with Verdi, who later declared that with his next
work, Nabucco, "my musical career really began." At dress rehearsals for Nabucco in the La Scala
theater, carpenters making repairs to the house gradually stopped hammering and, seating
themselves on scaffolding and ladders, listened with rapt attention to what the composer considered a
lackluster chorus rendering of "Va, pensiero." At the close of the number, the workers pounded the
woodwork with cries of "Bravo, bravo, viva il maestro!" The opening of Nabucco was a triumph. Verdi
was famous, commanding a higher fee than any other composer of his time.

I Lombardi followed Nabucco and won an unprecedented victory over Austrian censors. Verdi's
triumph in retaining the libretto and melodic themes the censors had hoped to ban as "religious" in
nature forged the composer's lifelong reputation as an ideological hero of the Italian people. This
would be the first of his many battles with censors for artistic freedom.
Over the next seven years, the composer penned ten additional operas of varied success, gradually
making the transition between two distinct eras of Verdi composition. Initially captive of the "bel canto"
style and heir to Donizetti's artistic throne, Verdi continually experimented to produce his own operatic
genre in which melodic drama and identifiable musical essence of character took center stage as an
equal to vocal purity and elegance.
It was an inspired stroke of boldness about which Verdi commented in explaining the innovative core
of his work, Il Trovatore, "I think (if I'm not mistaken) that I have done well; but at any rate I have done
it in the way that I felt it." In saying so, he defined his own creative hallmark. Although a musical
genius, Verdi composed spontaneously from the heart. A brilliantly schooled musician, he placed
emotional sensibility above intellect in all that he wrote. In the process, he created the remarkable
marriage of dramatic characterization and vocal power, an indelible artistic signature.
The creation of an operatic tour de force based upon his ingenious artistic formulation assured Verdi's
immortality, beginning in 1851 with Rigoletto, followed soon after by Il Trovatore, La Traviata, and
ultimately in 1871, by Aida. Even without the masterpieces that followed - Simon Boccanegra, Un
Ballo in Maschera, La Forza del Destino, and Don Carlos or his great Requiem Mass - the Maestro
could have afforded to rest on his musical achievements and stand unchallenged as the premier
operatic composer of any age. In fact, with the success of Aida, Verdi seemed to have abandoned
composing altogether, producing no new works for fifteen years.
Fortunately for posterity, an electrifying libretto, Otello, created by poet Arrigo Boito, brought the
composer out of his self-imposed retirement. The opening of Otello in February of 1887 attracted an
international audience to Milan for a dramatic event which ended only after the citizenry had showered
Verdi with gifts and applause throughout twenty curtain calls and towed his carriage to the hotel.
Public festivities continued until dawn.
In 1893, with the premiere of Falstaff, Verdi and his adoring audience repeated the entire sequence of
events at La Scala - all in honor of a comedy he had vowed as a young man never to write. The
maestro finally retreated to his country home in Sant' Agata with his second wife, singer Giuseppina
Strepponi. They spent several peaceful years in retirement until her death in 1897. His wife's death left
Verdi in a state of unbearable grief. He immediately fled Sant' Agata for the Grand Hotel in Milan and,
after four unhappy years, Verdi died in 1901, the victim of a massive stroke. Verdi's death left all Italy
in mourning. He still is revered throughout the music world as the greatest of operatic composers and,
more particularly, in Italy as a patriotic hero and champion of human rights.
Italian librettist. The son of a glass-maker, he studied for the church before obtaining employment as a
proofreader. On the failure of his father's business he went to Rome, where he joined a literary circle
that included the librettist J acopo Ferretti, with whom he remained on close terms. He returned to his
old position in Venice in 1838, and in 1842 wrote a libretto, Don Marzio, for Samuel Levi, but it was not
performed. He also provided the third act of Pacini's Il duca d'Alba, which Giovanni Peruzzini had
been prevented by illness from completing. The autograph survives, heavily corrected by the
composer. Piave was recommended to Verdi by Count Mocenigo, and there began a long and
successful collaboration from Ernani (1844) to La forza del destino (1862). Following a period as poet
and stage director at La Fenice, Piave moved in 1859 to Milan, where on Verdi's recommendation he
obtained the corresponding position at La Scala. On 5 December 1867, on the way to La Scala for a
rehearsal, he suffered a stroke which deprived him of speech and movement; he lingered on for nine
years in this condition, leaving unfinished a libretto (Vico Bentivoglio) for Ponchielli.
Verdi was initially unsure of Piave's abilities and always harried him unmercifully, often having his work

revised by others; Piave rewarded him with doglike devotion, and the two remained on terms of
sincere friendship. He was frequently summoned to Verdi's side, and they worked together on
librettos. Both Verdi and his wife came generously to Piave's aid in his last years.
Throughout his career Piave wrote for many other composers, some well known like Pacini, but most
of them insignificant. There is, however, a wide gulf between Piave's Verdian and non-Verdian
librettos. Most of the latter are of poor quality and, with the possible exception of Elisabetta di Valois
(Antonio Buzzolla, 1850; a precursor of Don Carlos) and the extraordinary black comedy Crispino e la
comare (Luigi and Federico Ricci, 1850), might almost have come from another hand: both dramatic
tension and crispness of versification are absent. Verdi, however, used to give Piave explicit instruc-
tions on what he wanted, and often wrote out in prose the passages he needed to have versified.
Piave had a wide vocabulary and a facile pen, and an uncanny ability for turning Verdi's drafts into
verse with an economy of words that satisfied Verdi's insistence on brevity and provided him with the
striking, illuminating expressions he sought. It was Piave's willingness to meet Verdi's detailed
requirements which provided the basis of their work together, and it is on this partnership that his
reputation as a librettist must rest.
Background to the Opera
In April, 1851, the already-established Giuseppe Verdi and Francesco Maria Piave signed a contract
for a new opera for the carnival season. I have in mind, Verdi wrote to him, a subject that would be
one of the greatest creations of the modern theatre if only the police would allow it.... The subject is
grand, immense and theres a character in it who is one of the greatest creations that the theatre of all
countries and all times can boast. The subject is Le Roi samuse...
Victor Hugos powerful play based on the private life of Francis I of France, Le Roi samuse, had
already had problems with the censors. The morning after it opened it was immediately suspended of
all performances, as it was too political and insulting to royalty.
After much fighting and tweaking and a brief suspension of Piaves libretto, the censors finally came to
an agreement on how to appropriately set Hugos play. The setting had to be changed from France to
Mantua, Francis I to an unnamed Duke, and the time period shifted to disconnect the audience from
connecting it to the true story. In the end this made for an enhancement of the story, making it more
familiar in context for Verdis contemporaries. A few quotes about Rigoletto:
From a censor, about the final scene
If you take out the sack it is unlikely that [Rigoletto] would talk to a corpse for half an
hour before a flash of lightning reveals that it is the corpse of his daughter.
From an attendee at opening night, about La donna e mobile
During the first performance of Rigoletto, when the violins of the orchestra
announced that most elegant of motifs in the [third] act, the attentive public foresaw
something new... Hardly had the first verse finished before there arose a great cry from
every part of the theatre, and the tenor failed to find his cue to begin the second verse.
Verdi must have realized that the melody had always existed; he wished to shock the
imagination with the commonplace fact that he had rediscovered it for himself.

From Verdi
Everyone cried out when I proposed to portray a hunchback on the stage. Well, I
was quite happy to write Rigoletto. I found it extremely apt to depict this character,
externally deformed and ridiculous, internally passionate and full of love.
I conceived Rigoletto without arias, without finales, as an unbroken chain
of duets, because I was convinced that that was the most suitable. If
someone remarks, But here you could have done this, there that etc.
etc., I reply: That might be excellent, but I was unable to do it any better.
Additional Resources
All about Verdi:
The Libretto of Rigoletto, in English:
Go to your public library! Youll be amazed how much you can find.

Reading / Writing
The Characters in Rigoletto
Duration Grades
~2 hours (plus homework time) 6-12
Summary of Lesson
Students will exhibit comprehensive understanding of each character in Rigoletto through writing.
State Standards Addressed
Strand 1, Concept 6: PO 3, PO 6
Strand 2, Concept 1: PO 1, PO 3, PO 4, PO 6
Strand 3, Concept 5: PO 1
Strand 2, Concept 4: PO 102
Strand 3, Concept 2: PO 205, PO 207
Copy of the synopsis of Rigoletto for each student
Copy of Characters in Rigoletto sheet for each student (see pages 26-27)
White or chalk board
Lesson Plan Design
A. Have each student read the synopsis of Rigoletto for homework or in class.
B. Have each student fill out the Characters in Rigoletto sheet. Encourage them to think carefully
about each character: Are their actions justified? What does that say about their character? How
do you decide if someone is a good or bad person?
C. Discuss each character as a class. Write the students thoughts on the board and reference back
to them if necessary.
D. Each student must write a comprehensive essay about the character they find most interesting.
They may use their Characters in Rigoletto sheet for reference, and must defend every point
they make about the personality of their character.
E. Once essays are completed, break the class into groups depending upon the character they
chose. If its lop-sided (most of the class picks the Duke) break them into smaller groups. The
group assignment is to discuss and debate the decisions theyve made about their character.
F. After several minutes of debate, each group must present their most compelling arguments to the
Gilda is excluded in this assignment, as her character is significantly
different from the others. She is examined in the next lesson.

Evaluation Rubric
Characters in Rigoletto
Class: Writer:
Title of Essay:
Rating scale: 1 =very weak; 2 =weak; 3 =acceptable; 4 =very good; 5 =excellent
Criteria Rating Comments
1 Student correctly
focuses on one
character in the

2 The essay is

3 Essay arguments
are supported by
examples from the

4 The essay is
constructed in a
cohesive and

5 The connection
between the
character and the
argument is valid

6 Works well with
others in the group

7 Participates
actively in the
group project

8 Understands/
respects the

9 Wording and ideas
are fresh,
interesting, and

10 Presents the group
decision to the

Guided Listening
Gildas Character Development through Music
Duration Grades
30 minutes (plus homework) All
Summary of Lesson
Students will evaluate Verdis writing in reference to developing Gildas character.
State Standards Addressed
Strand 2, Concept 1: PO 106, PO 3
Strand 2, Concept 2: PO 1
Strand 2, Concept 3: PO 1
Strand 3, Concept 1: PO 3
Strand 3, Concept 2: PO 1
Strand 2, Concept 1: PO 3
Strand 2, Concept 4: PO 1
Strand 3, Concept 5: PO 1
Strand 3, Concept 2: PO 1
Excerpt from English National Opera: Opera Guide 15 (see page 28)
CD of Rigoletto (found at most libraries)
Lesson Plan Design
A. Give each student a copy of English National Opera: Opera Guide 15
B. Go through each segment of the excerpt with the CD, first reading the statement aloud then
playing the music relating to that segment.
C. After each individual segment, discuss as a class using musical terms how Verdi demonstrates
character, mood and action through music. Write the ideas and terms on the board.
D. Assignment: Students must choose an appropriate piece of music from their own collection.
Using the musical terms, write a one page essay that describes how the song-writer used similar
or dissimilar methods to express action, emotion and text.

Evaluation Rubric
Guided Listening
Class: Writer:
Title of Essay:
Rating scale: 1 =very weak; 2 =weak; 3 =acceptable; 4 =very good; 5 =excellent
Criteria Rating Comments
1 Appropriate music
is chosen for the

2 Musical terms from
the board are used

3 Musical terms are
used appropriately
in the context of the

4 Writer includes
similarities and
between the two

5 Ideas are logical
and well presented

6 Specific examples
are used to support

7 Compare/Contrast
clue words are

8 Wording and ideas
are fresh,
interesting, and

9 Student takes

10 Writing
proper conventions

Conducting Lesson
Identifying Meter
Duration Grades
30 minutes 4-12
Summary of Lesson
Students will learn two basic conducting patterns, in two
styles, and identify meter without looking at a score.
State Standards Addressed
Strand 1, Concept 2: PO 1
Strand 1, Concept 5: PO 2
Strand 2, Concept 1: PO 104, PO 1, PO 3, PO 4
Strand 3, Concept 1: PO 3
Materials (Per Group)
CD of Rigoletto, typically available at the public library
Paper and Pencils
White or Chalk board
Lesson Plan Design
A. Draw the following patterns on the board, largely:

3 1 2
2 1

B. Have the students write the patterns (minus the numbers) on a piece of paper, ten times each.
Have them pay attention to the movement of their arm, and try to improve them each time.
C. Starting with the four pattern, have the class stand and outline the figure on the board with their
dominant hand. Let them do this free for all for a couple moments, than cue them in and count
1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2, 3, 4, etc. until the class seems comfortable. Repeat with the three pattern.
D. Now that the class has a basic sense of three and four, play two excerpts from Rigoletto, and have
them try to conduct to it in either pattern until they figure it out. If they seem to struggle emphasize
where 1 is by calling it out.
Example 1: La donna e mobile
Skip the recitative before the aria and cue it at the main
theme (10 instrumental bars before the singing begins).
This example is in three.
Example 2: Cara nome
Skip the recitative before the aria and cue it at the
main theme (8 bars instrumental bars before the sing-
ing begins).
There is a pick-up to the first full measure so it may
take a little longer for students to settle into the meter.
This example is in four.
E. Homework: Have the students choose a song or piece from their daily listening- it can be any
style. They need to figure out the meter and be able to conduct to it. Each student will present
their song to the class, and the class needs to figure out the meter through conducting.

Evaluation Rubric
Conducting Lesson
Class: Writer:
Title of Essay:
Rating scale: 1 =very weak; 2 =weak; 3 =acceptable; 4 =very good; 5 =excellent

Criteria Rating Comments
1 Student
participates in the
classroom activity

2 Demonstrates
understanding of

3 Correctly identifies
the strong beat in

4 Correctly outlines a
three pattern

5 Correctly outlines a
four pattern

6 Chooses
appropriate music
for assignment

7 Correctly finds the
strong beat for the

8 Correctly identifies
meter of

Language / Theater Arts Lesson
Student Dramatization of Rigoletto
Duration Grades
45 minutes 4-12
Summary of Lesson
Students summarize the story, identify and demonstrate accurate characterizations, and show
comprehension through performing a Readers Theater version of Rigoletto.
State Standards Addressed
Strand 1, Concept 1: PO 201
Strand 1, Concept 2: PO 301, PO 202, PO 203, PO 204
Strand 1, Concept 4: PO 103, PO 202, PO 204
Strand 1, Concept 5: PO 201
Strand 1, Concept 5: PO 1
Strand 2, Concept 1: PO 4
Copies of Rigoletto synopsis from this study guide.
Lesson Plan Design
A. Introductory Activities Have students read the synopsis of Rigoletto. After reading,
discuss the characters and the plot. Discuss the dilemmas and their resolutions. Which
characters are good; which are bad? How do you know?
B. Teaching the Lesson Take the opera synopsis and divide it up into short sections for reading out
loud (e.g. by scene change). Give each section to a small group of students. Cast each section/
scene; either let students choose their character or assign them a part. Assign one student
narrator to each group to read the section. Give the students time to practice their scene. As the
student narrator reads the section, other students in the group act out the story. Encourage
accurate portrayals of the characters.
C. Review/Concluding the Lesson Perform the opera in order with the students narrating and acting.
When students are not actively reading or acting, they are the audience for their classmates.
Extension Activities
Add inexpensive props to your scenes. Perhaps students can perform their opera for another class.

Evaluation Rubric
Student Dramatization
Class: Student:
Rating scale: 1 =very weak; 2 =weak; 3 =acceptable; 4 =very good; 5 =excellent
Criteria Rating Comments
1 Works cooperatively
in a group

2 Demonstrates
understanding of

3 Accurately
summarizes the story

4 Shows understanding
of character

5 Remains in character

6 Shows understanding
of scene

7 Interacts
appropriately with
other characters

8 Successfully portrays
the important
elements of the

9 Performs an
engaging skit

10 Demonstrates

Research and Media Project
The Politics of Rigoletto
Duration Grades
60 minutes (plus homework) All
Summary of Lesson
Students will research and correctly identify major political
events occurring in Italy at the time Rigoletto was written.
State Standards Addressed
Strand 2, Concept 3: PO 2
Strand 2, Concept 4: PO 1
Strand 3, Concept 1: PO 1
Strand 3, Concept 4: PO 1
Strand 3, Concept 6: PO 1b
Social Studies
Strand 2, Concept 1: PO 3
Strand 4, Concept 4: PO 5
Visual Arts
Strand 1, Concept 2: PO 202
Strand 1, Concept 4: PO 201, PO 202, PO 401, PO 301, PO 302
Internet/Library access
Copy of Italian Politics (see page 29)
Construction paper, marker, scissors, glue
Lesson Plan Design
A. Have students read Italian Politics
B. Students must underline one key point they would like to research. For example: VERDI as an
acronym. Students may do their research independently at a library or on the internet. (Public, not
school, libraries are the preferred resource)
C. After compiling notes for their one major point, go around the room and have each student report
on their findings. All students take notes on everyones research.
D. Once the room has completed their reports, break the class into groups. Groups must pick one
topic to create a political pamphlet, advocating a political view. Examples of political pamphlets
are on the Italian Politics reading. Review the room to ensure all pamphlets are created
E. Post pamphlets around the classroom

Evaluation Rubric
The Politics of Rigoletto
Class: Student:
Rating scale: 1 =very weak; 2 =weak; 3 =acceptable; 4 =very good; 5 =excellent
Criteria Rating Comments
1 Student correctly
identifies one topic for

2 Demonstrates strong
research skills

3 Topics are supported
by research

4 Thoughts are
constructed in a
cohesive and
understandable form

5 Demonstrates
interest and

6 Works well with
others in the group

7 Participates actively
in the group project

8 Understands/
respects the

9 Wording and ideas
are fresh, interesting,
and concise

10 Creates a cohesive

Writing Assignment
Re-setting Rigoletto
Duration Grades
60-75 minutes 4-12
Summary of Lesson
Students write and perform Rigoletto in a new setting.
State Standards Addressed
Strand 1, Concept 1: PO 201
Strand 1, Concept 2: PO 301, PO 202, PO 203, PO 204
Strand 1, Concept 4: PO 103, PO 202, PO 204
Strand 1, Concept 5: PO 201
Strand 2, Concept 2: PO 105
Strand 3, Concept 1: PO 201, PO 301
Strand 2, Concept 3: PO 2
Strand 2, Concept 4: PO 1
Strand 3, Concept 5: PO 1
Listening and Speaking
Distinction, PO 2
Visual Arts
Strand 1, Concept 4: PO 301, PO 302
Chalkboard or whiteboard
Lined paper/pencils
Markers or crayons
Blank paper
Synopsis of Rigoletto for each student
Lesson Plan Design
Prior to lesson, students must be familiar with the synopsis of Rigoletto.
Overview: The play, Le roi samuse, on which Rigoletto is based, is set in 17th century France, and
the Duke is Francis I. Due to heavy censorship, Verdi had to re-set the story as to not offend the
royalty. He chose a random Italian town, Mantua, and changed Francis I to a nameless Duke. In 1982,
in a new J onathan Miller production, it was felt that the setting of the opera could be successfully
updated to the world of the New York Mafia in the 1950s. Given this prior knowledge, students will
re-set Rigoletto in their own synopsis. Encourage creative thinking, keeping in mind the perspective of
the characters. This story can be re-set anywhere at any time.

Body of Lesson
Draw four boxes or circles on the board and write a different characters name within each: The Duke,
Rigoletto, Sparafucile, Gilda.
Discuss each character and fill in the boxes with their traits. Ask questions to guide the class. Ask
questions to guide the class. Some examples: Is this character a nice person? Why or why not? What
are some general traits of this character? What is this characters general mood? Use the character
lesson at the beginning of this guide for reference.
Explain to students that they need to re-write the synopsis of Rigoletto to fit their own creative
scenario. Encourage them to set it anywhere and at anytime. They must keep true to the characters
of the story, keeping in mind their traits and perspectives. This can be assigned in or out of class time.
After students have written their stories, have them volunteer to present them to the class. Discuss
each story after the presentation: Does it make sense? Could it work on stage?
Have the students draw a scene from their opera, and put a brief description of the scene at the
bottom of their drawing. These can be hung around the room or sent to Arizona Opera to participate
in Young Arts Arizona. (See description in packet).

Evaluation Rubric
Re-setting Rigoletto
Class: Student:
Rating scale: 1 =very weak; 2 =weak; 3 =acceptable; 4 =very good; 5 =excellent

Criteria Rating Comments
1 Re-Setting is creative
2 Story basics are

3 Story is true to each
characters traits

4 Writing follows
correct conventions

5 Shows understanding
of assignment

6 Student accurately
identifies character

7 Student re-sets the
opera in a different
time and place

8 Visual art represents
the re-setting

9 Presentation of story
is clear and articulate

Going to the Opera
At a live performance you not only share the performance with the actors or singers but also with
everyone else in the hall. Every noise or movement you make could interrupt the group experience.
Everyone in the hall is a part of the performance, so everyone needs to follow certain guidelines if the
performance is to be a success.
Below are some good things to remember when attending a live performance of an opera or any other
performing group.
What to wear to the opera
Going to the opera provides a unique opportunity to wear your best clothes. However you are
welcome to wear whatever makes you comfortable. Youll see people in tuxedos and gowns, but also
in sports coats and jeans. You can make this event as formal or informal as you like.
Entering the performance hall
Before going into the performance hall, remember to stop by the water fountain and restrooms first.
You will not have a chance to visit these once the show has started (unless it is an emergency).
Walk slowly to your seat and speak in a soft voice.
When you get to your seat take some time to read the program. It will tell you about the opera you are
seeing, the singers who are performing, and many other interesting bits of information.
There is no late seating- make sure you arrive in plenty of time!
Performance etiquette
The lights in the hall will begin to dim just before the performance starts. This is your cue to settle in
your seat and sit quietly.
The orchestra will begin to play when the lights go dim. This is called tuning and is not a part of the
performance. When they finish, a bright light will come on and the conductor will enter. It is polite to
clap when the conductor enters.
When the conductor turns to the orchestra and begins the music, it is your signal that the show has
started and you should again sit quietly.
NEVER bring a camera, video camera, tape recorder or cell phone to a performance. Unlike at a
movie, you may not eat food during a performance.
When to clap your hands
An audience claps to tell the performers that they have done a good job or to say thank you for the
performance. When a performance is exceptionally good the audience will stand and clap. This is
called a standing ovation.
Times when it is appropriate to clap include:
when the conductor enters the orchestra pit
after the overture, at the end of an act or scene
at the end of a special solo
when the opera is over
when the performers take a bow

At an opera people will sometimes yell bravo to the men, brava to the women, or bravi to several
people to tell them they performed very well. This is appropriate to do when clapping even after a
Leaving the performance hall
When the last applause has ended and the stage curtain is closed, you may leave the performance
hall. Never run in the aisles and always allow people in front of you to exit first.
What Language is that?
Translating words meant to be sung is tough. Subject and verb placement varies between languages
and this makes word-order changes often necessary. In turn the pattern of accented and unaccented
syllables is altered which is important because the words must complement the original music and the
new pattern may not fit. Lyrics are usually written in meter, like poetry, with the intent to fit them with a
melodic line.
Imagine translating a current song by someone like Fallout Boys into French and having it still fit the
beat and mean the same thing. It is easy to see that the original language offers the best means of
communicating through music. The audience, however, must not be left in the dark with words they
dont understand. To get the best of both worlds, many opera productions are performed in the
original language with the English translation of the text projected on a screen above the stage.
Projected translations are called surtitles or supertitles.
Audiences arent alone in needing translations. Singers are trained to have a working knowledge of
the languages used in opera, such as Italian, French, German, English, Russian, Spanish, and Czech.
However they are usually not fluent and tend to focus most of their energy on studying pronunciation.
Because of this, when a singer is learning a piece, he or she does a literal, word for word translation of
the text into English before he or she begins singing the new piece. The singer will also translate the
parts of other roles to understand his or her characters response to what the others are saying. This
means that most singers basically translate an entire opera when learning a single role.
Arizona Opera performs primarily in English for schools to make the opera more accessible to
students. Your production of The Mini Elixir of Love will be sung entirely in English. Your students
should however know that if they went to a main-stage performance at the Hall they could expect to
hear the original language of the opera.

The Creative Team
Many people work together to create an opera production. Members of the creative team include the
singers, the conductor, the stage director, and the designers (sets, lighting, costumes, wig and
make-up). These careers are available to everyone, and often involve many years of study and hard
work to master.
The Conductor
Few people realize that the conductor determines and directs the performance that the public hears.
The conductor communicates information about the music and the timing to show to the singers on
stage and to the orchestra through the gestures he makes, often using a baton. The conductor is
usually referred to as Maestro or Maestra.
The conductor trains for his/her work just like the singers. They must be able to play the piano and
must have a broad knowledge of singing, the orchestra, and music in general. The orchestral score,
with approximately twenty staves (individual lines) of music, must be studied and mastered long
before rehearsals even begin. The conductor uses the music as a guide as he or she coaches the
singers and the orchestra toward a great performance.
The Stage Director
An operatic stage director faces all the challenges of a theatrical stage director, plus a few special
operatic concerns. The opera must be staged to obtain the greatest emotional effect by moving the
singers about with a natural flow that enhances the meaning of the story without interfering with the
music. The composer has built the framework within which the stage director must work. Entrances,
duets, fights, exits, shipwrecks, and all other stage business must take place within a specified
number of measures or beats. Action must be compressed or extended as written by the composer.
Like a conductor, a stage director must be completely familiar with the musical score. He/She must
know translations of Italian, French, German, or whatever language is being sung, as well as have a
working knowledge of everything and everyone both on stage and backstage.
At an opera people will sometimes yell bravo to the men, brava to the women, or bravi to several
people to tell them they performed very well. This is appropriate to do when clapping even after a
The Singers
Professional singers are much like professional athletes. They must train for many years to learn to
sing opera. Most singers begin taking voice lessons while teenagers and continue on through college
and beyond. Unlike other singers opera singers do not use microphones when they perform. For this
reason, it takes many years for a great singer to learn to project his or her voice in order to sing opera.
Often a singer is 30 years old before his or her voice is fully developed.
A persons vocal range (how high or low one sings), whether the singers is a professional or amateur,
is determined by many different factors, including the shape and length of ones vocal cords and the
amount of training the person has received. Singers are usually classified in the following ways:
Female Voice Types
Soprano the highest voice, often the heroine of the opera
Mezzo-Soprano a soprano with a slightly lower range and heavier sounding
voice, usually cast as a maternal type, female antagonist, or in a
trouser role (playing a man); mezzo means half, so this is
halfway between soprano and alto

Contralto or alto the lowest female voice

Male Voice Types
Tenor the highest male voice, often the hero or romantic lead
Baritone between tenor and bass, often cast a villain in tragic opera or
as comic relief
Bass the lowest male voice, sometimes in a comic role
The Music Director/ Accompanist
The music director is responsible for coordinating rehearsals and coaching the singers on diction,
balance, and tone quality. He/She also makes musical decisions, replaces the orchestra with piano
accompaniment when the production is on tour, and may also do some conducting from the piano
when necessary.
The Designers
The scenic designer creates sets that transform the stage into the appropriate location for the opera
story. He or she works with the stage director and conductor to create a unified vision. The scenic
designer may also work as the costume designer and lighting designer, requiring the knowledge of an
artist, an architect and builder. A general knowledge of music is also necessary, along with a
thorough knowledge of the score and the story for each operatic production that is being designed.
The lighting designer creates effects with theater lights to make the stage look like another place.
Cleeg lights, spotlights, scoops, and other special lights are used, along with colored gels, to create
day and night scenes, shadows and other special effects.
The costume designer works with the rest of the creative staff to make the best costumes to tell the
operas story. This person may also create wigs and makeup effects for the performers.
The Stage Manager
The stage manager acts as an adjunct to the director in rehearsal. They record the blocking and see
that cast members stay on script and have necessary props. As the lighting, sound and set change
cues are developed, the stage manager meticulously records the timing of each as it relates to the
score and other aspects of the performance, ensuring that the lighting and sound cues are delivered at
the right time.
Once the house opens, the stage manager essentially takes control, calling the cues for all transitions
(this is known as calling the show), as well as acting as communications hub for the cast and crew.
The process: concept to opening night
In the world of professional opera the singer has the part or role fully memorized before the first
rehearsal. Singers are often hired to sing a role several years in advance. If the role is new to them
they need to learn the notes and the language and they need to interpret the basic character on their
own. Voice teachers help to make the voice work technically correct and vocal coaches help with the
language, style, and character development. Coaches also play the entire score on the piano so the
arias and duets are learned in the context of the whole. Singers are always in the process of learning
new roles so that they can work in many places, including other countries.
Ideally, the company enlists the director to assemble a design team prior to hiring a cast for an opera
production. The design team is made up of a set designer, lighting designer, costume designer, and

wig and make-up designer. Their job often begins years before the actual rehearsal process by
choosing a look, a style, and a flow for the production. They then work with the opera company to
build the sets and costumes.
The entire cast of an opera isnt assembled until approximately three weeks before the opening night.
The singers- who are chosen by audition- come from around the world and may not have met each
other before the first rehearsal. The conductor leads them through the music with piano
accompaniment, showing them his or her interpretation of tempo and phrasing. The stage director
shows them where and when and how to move around the stage and how to interpret the drama. This
collaboration of conductor and stage director brings to life the operas plot and music.
The opera is staged in a rehearsal room first. It moves to the theaters stage just a few nights before
opening. It is then that the orchestra is brought into the process, along with the technical aspects of
theater such as lights, costumes, sets, and scenery. Technically and logistically, the opera usually
comes together in just about five days.

Characters in Rigoletto
The main characters to Rigoletto are listed below. Please fill in the sheet, and make a decision as to
whether or not their actions are justified. Examples are given for each character.
Action I ntention Motivation Result Action J ustified?
Rigoletto Insults
The curse of

Action I ntention Motivation Result Action J ustified?
Duke Flirts with the
To seduce the
public criticism

Characters in Rigoletto (continued)
Action I ntention Motivation Result Action J ustified?
Sparafucile Offers
Rigoletto his
To make
Personal gain Eventually
gets hired

Action I ntention Motivation Result Action J ustified?
Monterone Publically
To hurt
Vengeance for
Monterone is

English Nation Opera: Opera Guide 15
1. Deh, non parlare al misero Ah! veglia, o donna
A sudden burst from the full orchestra introduces Gilda and initiates the first of three extended
duets (on in each act) for father and daughter. This one has two main sections, both led off by
Rigoletto. The first, Deh, non parlare al misero (Ah, do not demand of one so sad), contrasts the
jesters lyrical, paternal vein with Gildas breathless, sobbing line. The second part, Ah!
veglia, o donna (Oh dear Giovanna, guard my daughter), is dramatically interrupted as Rigoletto
rushes off to investigate a noise off-stage (at which point the Duke makes his furtive entrance).
When he resumes, he is joined by Gilda and the musical contrast is even greater, with Gildas
girlish charm portrayed in highly ornamental, exuberant figures.
2. Signor ne principe
When she thinks she is alone, Gildas childlike personality is further revealed by the delightful
music of Signor ne principe, with its delicate orchestral texture of pizzicato strings and its duet
between voice and woodwind. The Dukes passionate interruption leads to another duet which, in
spite of the change in male partner, in some senses resemble the preceding one: the Dukes
simple, direct melodic line-so different from that rather melancholy passion one expects from a
Verdian tenor-eliciting further ornate responses from Gilda. If the hurried duet of farewell loses this
focus of character, it makes up in sheer rhythmic sweep and energy what lacks in subtlety.
3. Caro nome
Gildas only aria in Rigoletto, the famous Caro nome (Dearest name), continues the impression
of her character established in the duets. The two flutes, the tiny violin motif which punctuates
each vocal phrase, and the subtle harmony of the coda all contribute to the delicacy of orchestral
effect, over which Gildas dreamy thoughts of her lover take vocal wing. The opening and closing
of Caro nome illustrate Verdis gradual tendency during these years to blur the outlines of set
pieces. At the beginning, Gildas musings on her lovers name allow the music to modulate subtly
from the key of the proceeding number, while at the end, even more radically, the courtiers enter
and comment on Gilda before her aria is formally complete.
4. Piangi, piangi fanciulla [Act II, after Gilda is abducted and seduced]
After Gildas entrance, Rigoletto rises to newfound authority in dismissing the courtiers; but now
the focus is on Gilda. Unlike the other principals, her character develops in the course of the
tragedy. Compare her narration here with Caro Nome. The luminous two-flute sonority of the
latter now changes to a solo oboe while, in the melody, expressive triplets replace lively, staccato
rhythms. Perhaps most tellingly, the vocal line, which in Caro nome seemed to delight in its own
agility, now uses ornamentation in a far more economical manner, with no sense of surface
decoration. Rigoletto answers Gilda with a static, broken line, which eventually flowers into Piangi,
piangi fanciulla (Weep now, weep now my daughter) where Gildas propensity towards fioritura
(flowery, embellished vocal line) is transformed yet further from its childlike, naive associations.

Italian Politics
Given the times and Italys political situation, the inflexibility of the Austrian censors in Naples
was understandable. There had been an attempt on the life of Napoleon III in Paris in 1858,
and an opera on the assassination of a ruler might give the populace ideas. Revolt was in the
air. The Risorgimento, the movement to unite Italy, was in full swing, and war between the
nationalists and Austria was imminent.
Verdi himself was a popular figure among the nationalists. Not
only did his operas appeal to patriots, but his very name was an
acronym for the revolution. The slogan Viva VERDI
became code for Vittorio Emanuele, Re DItalia (Victor
Emmanuel, King of Italy). Victor Emmanuel was the king of
Piedmont and a prime candidate to be leader of a united Italy.
Piedmont, which had remained independent of Austria during the
19th century, allied with France
and went to war against Austria in
1859, conquering some, but not all
the provinces of Italy. Over the
next decade, in a series of campaigns, bits and pieces were
added on to Italy, but as early as 1861, unification was
sufficiently underway that the first Italian parliament was
established. Verdi himself was elected to this parliament, and
Victor Emmanuel was proclaimed King of Italy. In 1866, when
Italian government forces allied with Prussia against Austria to
conquer the last remaining territories under Austrian control,
Verdi contributed money and guns for the troops. In 1874, King
Victor Emmanuel decreed him a lifetime Senator. Truth be told, Verdi was not a particularly
active statesman. He showed up at the Senate to take his oath and worked on getting
government subsidies for the theatre.

Essay Organizational Chart
Comparing Two Stories in an Essay

Begin with a sentence that will catch the
readers interest.
Name two subjects and say they are very
similar, very different or have many important
(or interesting) similarities and differences.
Paragraph 2
The next paragraph should describe features
of the first subject. Be sure to include
examples proving the similarites and/or
differences exist. Do not mention the second
Paragraph 3
The next section must begin with a transition
showing you are comparing the second
subject to the first.
For each comparison, use compare/contrast
cue words such as like, similar, to, also,
unlike, on the other hand.
Be sure to include examples proving the
similarities and/or differences exist.
In the final paragraph, give a brief, general
summary of the most important similarities
and differences. End with a personal
statement, a prediction about the production,
or any other kind of snappy clincher.

Word Search

The following words are hidden in the grid below. They are written forwards, backwards, up, down,
and diagonally. See if you can find them all!

Answer Sheet
Rigoletto Word Search


State Standards
Strand 1: Writing Process, Concept 1: Prewriting, PO 1. Generate ideas through a variety of
activities (e.g., brainstorming, notes and logs, graphic organizers, record of writing ideas and
discussion, printed material or other sources).
Strand 2: Writing Elements, Concept 1: Ideas and Content, PO 3. Provide sufficient, relevant, and
carefully selected details for support.
Strand 2: Writing Elements, Concept 3: Voice, PO 2. Convey a sense of identity through originality,
sincerity, liveliness, or humor appropriate to the topic and type of writing.
Strand 2: Writing Elements, Concept 4: Word Choice, PO 1. Use accurate, specific, powerful
words and phrases that effectively convey the intended message.
Strand 3: Writing Applications, Concept 2: Expository PO 1 Write a multi-paragraph essay (e.g.,
compare/contrast, cause/effect, process)
Strand 3: Writing Applications, Concept 4: Persuasive, PO 1. Write a persuasive composition (e.g.,
business letter, essay) that:
a. states a position or claim
b. presents detailed evidence, examples, and reasoning to support effective arguments and
emotional appeals
c. attributes sources of information when appropriate
d. structure ideas addresses the readers concerns
Strand 3: Writing Applications, Concept 5: Literary Response, PO 1. Write a literary analysis that:
a. evaluates the authors use of literary elements (i.e., theme, point of view, characterization,
setting, plot)
b. interprets different elements of figurative language (i.e., simile, metaphor, personification,
hyperbole, symbolism, allusion, and imagery, extended metaphor/conceit) with emphasis on
how the authors use of language evokes readers emotions
c. analyzes the way in which the theme, or meaning of a selection, represents a view or
comment on life, providing textual evidence for the identified theme explains how meaning is
enhanced through various features of poetry, including sound (e.g., rhythm, repetition,
alliteration, consonance, assonance), structure (e.g., meter, rhyme scheme), and graphic
elements (e.g., line length, punctuation, word position).
d. Write a response that relates own ideas to supporting details in a clear and logical manner.
Strand 3: Writing Applications, Concept 6: Research, PO 1b Integrate information from two or
more pieces of research information.


Strand 1: Reading Process, Concept 5: Fluency, PO 1. Read from a variety of genres with
accuracy, automaticity (immediate recognition), and prosody (expression).
Strand 1: Reading Process, Concept 6: Comprehension Strategies, PO 3. Use graphic organizers
in order to clarify the meaning of the text.
Strand 1: Reading Process, Concept 6: Comprehension Strategies, PO 6 Apply knowledge of the
organizational structures (e.g., chronological order, time-sequence order, cause and effect relation-
ships) of text to aid comprehension.
Strand 2: Comprehending Literary Text, Concept 1: Elements of Literature, PO 1. Describe the
authors use of literary elements:
5.theme (moral, lesson, meaning, message, view or comment on life),
6.point of view (e.g., first vs. third, limited vs. omniscient),
7.characterization (qualities, motives, actions, thoughts, dialogue, development, interactions),

Strand 2: Comprehending Literary Text, Concept 1: Elements of Literature, PO 3. Compare (and
contrast) works within a literary genre that deal with similar themes (e.g., compare short stories,
novels, short stories, poems)
Strand 2: Comprehending Literary Text, Concept 1: Elements of Literature, PO 6. Describe the
function of dialogue, scene design, soliloquies, asides, and/or character foils in dramatic literature.

Strand 1: Create, Concept 1: Collaboration, PO 201. Collaborate to create a scenario/script as a
Strand 1: Create, Concept 2: Acting, PO 202. As a character, play out his/her wants by maintaining
concentration and contributing to the action.
Strand 1: Create, Concept 2: Acting, PO 203. Demonstrate mental and physical attributes required
to communicate characters different from themselves (e.g. concentration, sense recall, ability to
remember lines and cues, breath and vocal control, body alignment, flexibility, and coordination).
Strand 1: Create, Concept 2: Acting, PO 204. Communicate sensory images through movement,
vocal, visual, or written expression.
Strand 1: Create, Concept 2: Acting, PO 301. Work individually and in an ensemble to create
characters for theatre and/or other media productions (e.g., for classical, contemporary, realistic,
and non-realistic improvisations and scripted plays).
Strand 1: Create, Concept 4: Playwriting, PO 103. Improvise by imitating life experiences,
knowledge of literature, social issues, and/or historical situations, and create imaginary scenes that
include characters, setting, and storyline.
Strand 1: Create, Concept 4: Playwriting, PO 202. Dramatize and document scenes using a variety
of characters to develop monologues and/or dialogue.
Strand 1: Create, Concept 4: Playwriting, PO 204. Dramatize and document, both individually and
in groups, scenarios that develop theme, plot, conflict, and dialogue.
Strand 1: Create, Concept 5: Directing, PO 201. Analyze dramatic text to develop informal
performance describing character motivations, structure of the story, and role of the environment in
the story.
Strand 2: Relate, Concept 2: Acting, PO 105. Infer a characters motivations and emotions and
predict future action.
Strand 2: Relate, Concept 4: Playwriting, PO 102 Determine how place, time, and social and
cultural conditions affect characters and the storyline.
Strand 3: Evaluate, Concept 1: Collaboration, PO 201. Model and use appropriate ways to give,
take, and use praise and constructive criticism.
Strand 3: Evaluate, Concept 1: Collaboration, PO 301. Evaluate the results of implemented
suggestions, ideas, and concepts generated in the collaborative process.
Strand 3: Evaluate, Concept 2: Acting, PO 205 Use developed criteria to interpret dramatic text
and performances in an organized oral or written presentation.
Strand 3: Evaluate, Concept 2: Acting, PO 207 Evaluate and justify, with examples, the meanings
constructed from a dramatic text or performance.

Strand 1: Create, Concept 2, PO 1. Maintaining a steady beat
Strand 1: Create, Concept 5, PO 2. Conducting patterns and cues in duple and triple meter in time
to the music.
Strand 2: Relate, Concept 1: Understanding the relationships among music, the arts, and other
disciplines outside the arts, PO 1. Using body movement to show variations in rhythm, pitch or

Strand 2: Relate, Concept 1: Understanding the relationships among music, the arts, and other
disciplines outside the arts, PO 3 Compare in two or more arts how the basic elements can be
used to express similar events, emotions, scenes, or ideas.
Strand 2: Relate, Concept 1: Understanding the relationships among music, the arts, and other
disciplines outside the arts, PO 4. Exploring and analyzing the relationship of music to language
arts, visual arts, literature
Strand 2: Relate, Concept 1: Understanding the relationships among music, the arts, and other
disciplines outside the arts, PO 104. Recognize and apply the relationship between rhythm and
mathematics as it occurs in the repertoire.
Strand 2: Relate, Concept 1: Understanding the relationships among music, the arts, and other
disciplines outside the arts, PO 106. Explore the connections between choral text and language
Strand 2: Relate, Concept 2: Understanding music in relation to history and culture, PO 1. Describe
the characteristics that distinguish one style/period of music from another.
Strand 2: Relate, Concept 3: Understanding music in relation to self and universal themes, PO 1.
Explain personal reactions to musical experiences, and identify which musical aspects evoke those
Strand 3: Evaluate, Concept 1: Listening to, analyzing, and describing music, PO 3. Analyze
musical elements in aural examples from diverse genres and cultures.
Strand 3: Evaluate, Concept 2: Evaluating music and music performances, PO 1. Create and apply
established criteria to evaluate performances and compositions.

Social Studies

Strand 2: World History, Concept 1: Research Skills for History, PO 3 Formulate questions that
can be answered by historical study and research.
Strand 4: Geography, Concept 4: Human Systems, PO 5 Identify cultural norms that influence
different social, political and economic activities of men and women.

Listening and Speaking

Distinction, PO 2 Deliver creative and dramatic interpretations of literary or original works

Visual Arts

Strand 1: Create, Concept 2: Materials, Tools, and Techniques, PO 202. Demonstrate purposeful
use of materials, tools, and techniques in his or her own artwork.
Strand 1: Create, Concept 4: Meanings or Purposes, PO 201. Explain purposeful use of subject
matter, symbols, and/or themes in his or her own artwork.
Strand 1: Create, Concept 4: Meanings or Purposes, PO 202. Create an artwork that serves a
Strand 1: Create, Concept 4: Meanings or Purposes, PO 301. Demonstrate purposeful use of
subject matter, symbols, and/or themes in his or her own artwork.
Strand 1: Create, Concept 4: Meanings or Purposes, PO 302. Create artwork that communicates
substantive meanings or achieves intended purposes.
Strand 1: Create, Concept 4: Meanings or Purposes, PO 401. Create original artworks that
communicate substantive meanings or achieve intended purposes, (e.g., cultural, political,
personal, spiritual, commercial).