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EXCURSIONS

IGC 2020 DELHI


Geological Survey of India
Ministry of Mines
Government of India
IGC
DELHI 2020
Contents
1 Jammu and
Kashmir Ladakh 1b 4 Days 3 Nights 4
1c 4 Days 3 Nights 5
Glacial-Deglacial Archives, Ladakh 1d 4 Days 3 Nights 7
2 Himachal The Thrust Sequence of NW Himalaya 2a 4 Days 3 Nights 9
Intensified Monsoon phases in Satluj Valley 2c 4 Days 3 Nights 12
3 Uttarakhand Thrust Tectonics in Central Himalaya 3a 5 Days 4 Nights 14
3b 5 Days 4 Nights 15
Late Quaternary Aggradation Degradation of Alaknanda River 3c 4 Days 3 Nights 17
4 Haryana Holocene Climate and Harappan Civilization 4 3 Days 2 Nights 19
5 Uttar Pradesh Geodiversity of Ganga Dispersal System 5 3 Days 2 Nights 21
6 Rajasthan Paleoproterozoic Lead-Zinc sulfide metallogenesis in
Aravalli-Delhi Orogenic Belt 6b 4 Days 3 Nights 24
6c 4 Days 3 Nights 25
Malani Volcanic Province- Hot Spot Triggered Felsic Volcanism 6d 4 Days 3 Nights 29
Thar Desert and its Evolution 6e 4 Days 3 Nights 31
6f 3 Days 2 Nights 31
7 Gujarat Stratigraphic Architecture of Rift to Passive Margin Evolution
in Kutch Basin
Surat - Diamond Cutting and Polishing Hub 7b 2 Days 1 Night 35
8 Madhya Archaean Craton and Mineralization 8a 4 Days 3 Nights 37
8b 3 Days 2 Nights 38
Sausar Mobile Belt of Central Indian Tectonic Zone 8c 4 Days 3 Nights 40
Precambrian Paleobiology - A Window for the Microbial Earth 8d 4 Days 3 Nights 42
Panna Diamond Belt- A Historical Diamond Mining Center 8e 4 Days 3 Nights 44
The Indus Suture Zone of the Himalayan Collision Belt, 1a 4 Days 3 Nights 3
Pradesh 2b 4 Days 3 Nights 10
6a 2 Days 1 Night 23
7a 4 Days 3 Nights 33
Pradesh
9 Maharashtra The Deccan Volcanic Province 9a 5 Days 4 Nights 46
The Western Ghats 9b 4 Days 3 Nights 50
Sr.
No. No.
State Excursion Theme Trip Plan Duration Page
No.
Excursion Destinations
2
SynopticGeology
The Ladakh and KarakorumTerranes expose the rocks of north Indian Continental margin, the Indus and Shyok suture and the
southern part of the Eurasian plate. The Indus Suture marks the line of collision dated at early Eocene. To the south of the Indus
suture is the Tethyan Lower Mesozoic carbonates deposited in the Neotethyan shelf zone. To the west the Spongtang Ophiolite
represents the remains of the post collision obduction of the ophiolite on to the Indian shelf. Eclogite indicative of high-pressure
metamorphismin the suture zone are exposed in SEpart of the area near Tso Morari.
The rocks of the Indus Suture Zone are represented by slope sediments of Lamayuru Formation containing Permian and
Triassic Olistoliths; thinly bedded flysch sediments of Nidam Formation; the late Jurassic to Cretaceous arc sequence of
volcanics and radiolarian chert of Dras Formation; the Shergol Ophiolite Complex in the NWand Nidar Ophiolite Complex in the
SE and post collisional intermontane continental deposit (Indus Formation and Kargil Formation). The northward drift of the
Indian plate resulted in development of the Ladakh volcanic arc with intrusion of voluminous Ladakh granodiorite (110 - 40 Ma)
and extrusion of Dras and Khardung volcanics preserved in the southern and northern margin of the arc.
The Ladakh Terrane is juxtaposed with the KarakorumTerrane along the Shyok Suture Zone comprising dismembered units of
ultramafics, gabbro, basalt and sediments including molasse. The Karakorum Terrane representing the southern margin of
Eurasia exposes the Karakorum Plutonic Complex and marble - metapelite - amphibolite rocks of the Pengong Metamorphic
Complex.
The Shyok Suture Zone is disrupted by the 700 km long NE - SW
trending Karakorum fault. The fault bifurcates at Sati and is
exposed as the northern Pangong and the southern Tangtse
strand. The Pangong Range has formed due to transpressive
dextral strike-slip movement along this fault with estimated
displacement ranging from40 to 400 km.
The Pangong range exposes calc-silicate, migmatised diorite (107
to 82 Ma) and amphibolite intruded by 15 to 22 Ma two mica +
garnet monzogranite.
The Pengong Tso
1. Jammu & Kashmir:
The Indus Suture Zone of
the Himalayan Collision Belt, Ladakh
The Diskit Gompa
Overview
Ladakh, a mountainous cold desert in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, is situated at the western end of the
Tibetan Plateau. The present rugged topography with altitudes ranging from 3000 to 8000 m is the result of
upliftment of the entire region due to the collision of India with Eurasia and concomitant denudation by ice,
wind and rivers. The people of this region are hardy, high spirited and maintain their cultural traditions.
Ladakh is famous for numerous lakes, monasteries, palaces and some of the highest motorable passes in
the world.
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TripPlanNo. 1a: 4 Days 3 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi Vruins visit to Hemis Gompa, Semo Gompa, Shey,
Arrival Leh by air Thicksey, Sindhu Darshan, Spituk etc.
Shopping for souvenirs and curios at Leh
Day 2 Leh-Lamayuru- Study outcrops of Ladakh Granitoid Visit to Alchi Gompa, Lamayuru Gompa and Mulbek.
Mulbek-Kargil Complex, Indus Group and Sangeluma Rock carving of Maitreva Buddha at Mulbekh
Group including Dras Volcanic Formation.
Excellent palaeo-lake deposits at
Spituk and Lamayuru
Day 3 Kargil-Batalik- Study outcrops of Ladakh Granitoid Visit to Dah-Hanu settlements of Drokpa,
Hanuthang-Leh Complex, Indus Group and Dras Likir Gompa, Pathar Sahib Gurudwara
Volcanic Formation
Day 4 Departure Leh Arrival
New Delhi by air
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
View of Lamayuru Gompa Rock cut Buddha at Mulbek
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TripPlanNo. 1b: 4 Days 3 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi Visit to , Shey, Thicksey, Sindhu Darshan,
Spituk Hemis Gompa etc.
Sightseeing and shopping for souvenirs
and curios at Leh
Day 2 Leh-Chang La (pass) Study rocks of Ladakh Granitoid Complex
(LGC); dismembered ophiolite lenses at
Tsoltak; intermediate-basic volcanics and
sediments of Shyok Group;
Day 3 Darbuk-Pangong Tso High grade rocks of Pangong Metamorphic Visit to Pangong Tso (Lake Pangong)
Complex and Karakoram meta-sedimentaries
(Lukung Formation). Pillow basalt at Chusul
Day 4 Departure Leh Arrival
New Delhi by air
Arrival Leh by air
-Darbuk
-Chusul-Leh
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
Pengong Injection Complex near Tangtse. Marble amphibolite metapelite sequence, on way to Pengong Tso.
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TripPlanNo. 1c: 4 Days 3 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi Sightseeing and shopping for souvenirs
Arrival Leh by air
Day 2 Leh-Diskit Ladakh Granitoid Complex; Karakoram Khardung La one of the highest
metasediments and Karakoram Granitoids
Day 3 Diskit-Leh Acid-intermediate volcanics (Khardung Sightseeing along Nubra and Shyok
volcanics); recent river sand dunes at
Hunder
and curios at Leh. Visit to, Shey,
Thicksey, Sindhu Darshan, Spituk Hemis
Gompa etc
(Nubra valley) motorable roads in the world, sightseeing
along Nubra River, Panamik, Diskit
Gompa
Rivers; Hunder is known for Bactrian
camels
Day 4 Departure Leh Arrival
New Delhi by air
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
Bactrian camels of Hunder Sand dunes at Hunder
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SynopticQuaternaryGeology
The Indus River Systemis climate sensitive and has experienced changes due to fluctuations in SouthAsian Monsoon. Loose to
semi-consolidated alluvial, glacial, fluvio-glacial, lacustrine and debris deposits are scattered in Indus, its tributaries and on the
mountain slopes. Quaternary sediments occur as terraces along
the Indus River, moraines in the main river valley and low order
drainages, alluvial fans at the confluence with main river, lake
deposits as patches on the banks of Indus River and debris
deposits on the hill slopes. At most of the places, two or more types
of deposits occur together in inter-layered and inter-fingered
pattern. Lateral, median and terminal moraines are preserved on
northern and southern slopes of Ladakh Range (along Leh-
Khargung-Khalsar road) at Darbuk, Chushul and Nyoma areas,
connected with roads.
1. Jammu & Kashmir:
Glaciation - Deglaciation Archives, Ladakh
Terraces of Indus river near Leh Moraine heaps near Baralacha la
Glacial carved valley near Leh
Shey Monastery, Leh
Overview
Jammu and Kashmir is one of the important tourist states of India in western Himalaya with scenic valleys,
glaciated peaks, meandering rivers and blue lakes. It comprises three regions namely Jammu, Kashmir and
Ladakh. Some of the lofty mountain ranges of the region include Pir Panjal, Zhankar, Ladakh and Karakoram.
Ladakh, also known as the roof of world, is a high altitude, cold - arid region with spectacular landscape
composed by glacial, alluvial and aeolian landforms. Bare valleys ornamented with moraines and glaciers
provide a unique architecture experience of natural beauty. The rock surfaces, bereft of vegetation, exhibit the
geological features like a textbook. The high mountain ranges have the highest motorable pass of the world
Khardung La - at 5870 m. The Indus River valley shows a parallel network of tributaries like Shyok, Nubra,
Tangste and Hanle, imparting pristine beauty to the landscape.
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TripPlanNo. 1d: 4 Days 3 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi Acclimatization and local tourism Leh Palace, Shey, Thicksey and Hemis
Day 2 Leh-Nimoo- Fluvial-glacial-deposits. Alluvial fans and Alchi Gompa, Lamayuru Gompa and
moraines, Lamayuru Lake deposit
Day 3 Leh-Khardung- Glacial morphology. Lateral and median Khardung la (Highest motarable road in
Karoo-Leh
Arrival Leh by air Gompa. Shanti Stupa
Lamayuru-Leh Mulbek temple
moraines in Leh-Khardung valleys. world (5400m)
Terraces of Indus
Day 4 Departure Leh Arrival
New Delhi by air
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
Lake deposit of Lamayuru is one of the best in the world. The laminated clay deposit is an example of
in a cold phase in the region. The Pangong Tso (Pangong Lake) is the largest saline lake of world whose
expansion and contraction during Holocene are exhibited as terraces, water marks and exposed lake floor sediments. The
bouldary fluvial terraces near Darbuk are one of the rare archives of a catastrophic glacial melting. The proposed excursion is
designed to showa comprehensive history of warmand cold periods in Ladakh region and their litho-geomorphic manifestations
.
>80 m thick bowl shaped
slow deposition
Patches of lacustrine clays
along Indus River.
Glacial melt lake deposits, Leh. Lateral moraines on Phyang Plain.
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Snow clad peaks of Himachal Pradesh
SynopticGeology
The E-W trending arcuate Himalayan Orogen is subdivided into four stratigraphic entities disposed parallel to its longitudinal
axis. Fromsouth to north the stratigraphic divisions are (1) The Paleogene and Neogene sequences, (2) the Proterozoic Lesser
Himalayan sequence, (3) the Proterozoic to Ordovician Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex and (4) the Proterozoic to
EoceneTethyan Himalayan sequences.
The oldest units of the Tethyan Himalayan sequence are the Proterozoic to Middle Cambrian sediments of the Haimanta Group
overlain by Lower Ordovician to Devonian shelf sequence along a plane of regional unconformity. The rocks range in age from
1840 to 40 Ma.
The Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex (GHCC) bound between the Main Central Thrust (MCT) in the south and South
Tibetan Detachment (STD) in the north is represented by inversely metamorphosed high grade rocks with ages ranging from
?1800 to 13 Ma. The MCT in Himachal Pradesh defines broad zone of shearing involving the top levels of Lesser Himalayan
sequence and the lower levels of GHCCbesides different thrust sheets within it such as Kulu Thrust, Jutogh Thrust and Vaikrita
Thrust. Towards the southeast the rocks of the Kulu Group,
are thrust over the Lesser Himalayan sequence. The JutoghThrust Sheet
(JTS) metamorphosed from biotite to sillimanite grade occurs as a klipp in the Shimla area and as a half-klipp in the Chour
area. The JTS rides over the rocks of the Kulu Group along the Jutogh
Thrust and is ridden over by the rocks of the Vaikrita Group along the
VaikritaThrust.
The Vaikrita Thrust Sheet (VTS) is characterized by granitic intrusives
of Lower Paleozoic age. The rocks of the Lesser Himalayan sequence
are exposed between the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) and the Kulu
Thrust. Towards southeast the rocks of Shali Group are overlain by the
Shimla Group and the sedimentary sequences of Blani, Infra-Krol and
Krols. The rocks of Sundernagar Group are thrusted over the
Paleogene sequence and represented by Sirmur Group divisible into
shale, nummulitic limestone bearing Subathu Formation, red to purple
represented by calcareous rocks of the Shali Group and the
quartzite, volcanics and slates of Sundernagar Group,

2. Himachal Pradesh:
The Thrust Sequence of NW Himalaya
Kinnaur apples
Overview
Himachal Pradesh, a state in northern India, is known for its natural beauty. The state is the third fast growing
economy in India. Almost the entire state is mountainous with elevations ranging from 300 to 7000 meters
above mean sea level. Major rivers flowing in the state include Chenab, Ravi, Beas, Sutlej and Yamuna.
Climate varies from hot sub-humid tropical in the south to Alpine and glacial in the north and cold desert in
areas like Lahaul and Spiti. The state is known for its handicraft which include shawls, carpets, wood work
and printing.
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TripPlanNo. 2a: 4 Days 3 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi Sight seeing at Shimla
Arrival Shimla by air
Day 2 Shimla-Rekong Pio Study of Greater Himalayan Sequences of Sight seeing at Rekong Pio
Shimla Klippe; rocks of Proterozoic Rampur
Group (quartzite and metavolcanics)
exposed in Kulu-Rampur-Larji window;
inverse metamorphic sequence of the
over-thrusted rocks
Day 3 Rekong Pio-Shimla Study of South Tibetan Detachment Surface
and the Lower Paleozoic Kinner-Kailash
granite
Day 4 Departure Shimla
Arrival New Delhi by air
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
shale and micaceous sandstone of Dagshai Formation, massive sandstone and grey to red shale dominated Kasauli Formation
along the MBT. The Paleogene sequence is thrust over the clastic fluvial sequence of Neogene Siwalik Group along the
Palampur Thrust.
Rotation of feldspar porphyroclasts in
Lower Palaeozoic Kinner Kailash granite
Sinistral sense of shear in the rocks
of Central Crystallines, Rekong Pio
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TripPlanNo. 2b: 4 Days 3 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure Delhi Sight seeing at Chandigarh and
Arrival Chandigarh
by air
Day 2 Chandigarh-Shimla Himalayan Frontal Fault at Panchkula; Sight seeing at Shimla
Nahan Thrust at Kalka; Main Boundary
Thrust between Kasauli and Blani/Krol
Formations at Anjhi; Chail Thrust
Day 3 Shimla-Kumarhatti- Study of Main Boundary Fault at Kumarhatti
Chandigarh
Day 4 Departure Chandigarh
Arrival Delhi by air
Pinjor Gardens
between Siwalik and Subathu;
Nahan Thrust at Nahan
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
Pinjor Gardens
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Image of a part of Satluj valley
SynopticQuaternaryGeology
Fromits origin in arid zone, the Satluj River passes though humid zone between Karchamand Rampur, semi-arid zone between
Rampur and Luhree and again humid zone between Sundernagar and Ropar. Upstreamof Rampur, the river has steep walled,
V-shaped narrowvalley while in downstreamit shows wide, meandering form.
Quaternary sediments of alluvial, fluvial, debris flow and lacustrine origins occur along the Satluj and its major tributaries in the
formof terraces, hill slope debris and alluvial fans. The river shows both degradational and aggradational habits. The excursion
will show the climatic sensitive sectors where >80 m thick pile of sedimentary deposits show variations in paleo-climatic
conditions.
2. Himachal Pradesh:
Intensified Monsoon Phases in Satluj Valley
Satluj valley architecture near Nogli, Himachal Pradesh Fluvial deposit 200m
above river bed, Himachal Pradesh
Overview
Satluj, a perennial river of Indus System originates from Rakshas Tal and Mansarovar Lake in Tibet at an
elevation of 4572 m. After traversing about 320 km through the Higher, Lesser and Outer Himalayan belts In
Himachal Pradesh, it debouches on the alluvial plain near Ropar in Punjab. Spiti and Baspa Rivers are its
major tributaries.
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TripPlanNo. 2c: 4 Days 3 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
TripDescription
Day 1 Delhi-Chandigarh- Siwalik sections near Kalka Pinjor gardens, Shimla
Shimla by rail/road
Day 2 Shimla-Rampur- Alluvial fans, debris and terrace deposits of Baspa Valley
Satluj along Rampur-Tapri-Karcham.
Lacustrine sequence near Sangla
Day 3 Rampur-Luhree- Gravelly and sandy terrace sections. Satluj Valley
Rampur
Day 4 Rampur-Chandigarh- Landscape along Shimla-Solan highway
Delhi by Road/Rail
Sangla-Rampur
Meandering and straight river morphology
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
Sandy terrace of Satluj near Dattnagar, Himachal Pradesh Gravelly terrace at Luhri, Himachal Pradesh
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Bells toll at Chitai temple, near Almora.
SynopticGeology
The foreland sediments of the IndoGangetic Plains are overthrust by the Neogene Siwalik Group of rocks along the Main Frontal
Thrust. The Siwalik Group is in turn overthrust by the Lesser Himalayan rocks along the Main Boundary Fault. In the outer zone
of the Lesser Himalaya, the Nagthat Formation is overlain by the synformally disposed Mussoorie Group comprising Blaini
Formation, Krol Formation and Tal Formation. Towards the inner zone of Lesser Himalaya the dominant unit is the Garhwal
Group which is subdivided into the granite-gneiss and mica-schist dominatedAgastmuni Formation; metavolcanic and quartzite
dominated Uttarkashi Formation; dolomite with minor phyllite and quartzite bearing Tejam Formation and quartzite-slate-
phyllite dominated Berinag Formation. The rocks of Garhwal Group are tectonically overlain by the rocks of Central Crystalline
Group along the Main Central Thrust (MCT). The MCT is defined by a broad zone constrained by Munsiari thrust (MCT 1) at the
bottom and Vaikrita thrust (MCT 2) at the top. The rocks between these thrust sheets are predominantly chlorite- and garnet-
bearing schist, quartzite with minor granite gneiss belonging to the Helang Formation and streaky biotite gneiss, quartzite, schist
and amphibolite of Bhilangana Formation. The Central Crystalline Group in this area is represented by psammitic gneiss and
schist of Pandukeshwar Formation and garnet, staurolite, kyanite bearing schists, sillimanite bearing migmatites of Badrinath
Formation. Amphibolites and undeformed younger Tertiary granites are the intrusive phases. Overthrust rocks fromthe Central
Crystallines are present as klipp within the Lesser Himalayan Belt.
3. Uttarakhand:
Thrust Tectonics in Central Himalaya
Folded quartzite near Takula, Almora District Wild flowers in bloom
Overview
Uttarakhand is a hilly state in the northern part of India. It is commonly referred as Dev bhumi (land of gods)
due to presence of numerous temples in the state. The northern part of the state is covered by high mountains
and large glaciers. Nanda Devi (7816 m), the second highest mountain in India is located in Uttarakhand. The
dense forest covering most of the state supports a high floral and faunal diversity. Many national parks and wild
life sanctuaries are present including Nanda Devi National Park and Valley of Flowers National Park, both
being UNESCOWorld Heritage Sites. The JimCorbett National Park is a famous and the oldest tiger reserve
forest present in theTarai region of Uttarakhand.
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TripPlanNo. 3a: 5 Days 4 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi Sight seeing at Rishikesh
Arrival Rishikesh
by bus
Day 2 Rishikesh-Srinagar Blaini Diamictite near Shivpuri; Tal Group and
Garhwal Nappe near Bayasi; Precambrian-
Cambrian boundary near Kauriyala; rocks of
Chandpur phyllite and Jaunsar Group of
Lesser Himalayas and North Almora Thrust
at Kirtinagar
Day 3 Srinagar-Joshimath Observing old workings for base metals; Rudraprayag and Joshimath are scenic
stromatolite at Rudraprayag, exposures of
Garhwal metavolcanics and MCT (Munsiari
Thrust) at Helang
Day 4 Joshimath-Hardwar Exposures of Higher Himalayan Sight seeing at Hardwar
Crystallines at Joshimath
Day 5 Departure Hardwar
Arrival New Delhi
Travel by road
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
Migmatite of Central Crystallines Shearing in chlorite schist of Helang Formation
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TripPlanNo. 3b: 5 Days 4 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure Delhi Arrival Sightseeing at Bhimtal
Bhimtal Travel by road
Day 2 Bhimtal-Nainital Himalayan Frontal Fault at Kathgodam/ Sightseeing at Nainital
Haldwani; Main Boundary Thrust at Jeolikot;
rocks of Krol Group at Nainital; Krol Thrust
at Bhumiadhar
Day 3 Nainital-Kausani Ramgarh Thrust south of Gagar; Ramgarh Sightseeing at Kausani
Group and South Almora Thrust south of
Bhatelia, rocks of crystalline nappes of
Lesser Himalaya (Almora Nappe) and North
Almora Thrust at Someshwar/ Manan
Day 4 Kausani-Sattal Sightseeing at Sattal (Seven Lakes)
Day 5 Departure Sattal
Arrival Delhi
Travel by road
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
Kyanite schist of Almora crystallines North Almora Thrust near Someshwar
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SynopticQuaternaryGeology
Uttarakhand, in the western Himalayas, exhibits important geological sequences and thrust sheets. From north to south, the
fossiliferous sedimentary and meta-sedimentary rocks of Tethyan sequence lie north of South Tibetan Detachment (STD), the
mediumto high grade metamorphic rocks of Higher Himalayan Crystalline (HHC) occur between STD and Main Central Thrust
(MCT) while the sedimentary and low grade rocks of lesser Himalaya occur between MCT and MBT. The southernmost ranges
are constituted by Neogenerocks of Siwalik Group which are thrusted over the alluviumalong Himalayan Frontal Fault (HFT).
The Quaternary deposits are scattered as moraines and glacio-fluvial deposits in the higher reaches. These sediments also
occur as terraces and lacustrine deposits along the rivers in the middle and lower reaches and as alluvial fans, debri deposits
along the valleys. This field excursion would depict the diversity in terms of river morphology, sedimentary architecture and
processes in the cliff sections of terraces in mountain region. The focus will be on the study of fluvial sedimentary packages that
illustrate the response of the Ganga systemto late Quaternary climate changes.
Alaknanda River with unpaired terraces Confluence of Bhagirathi and Alaknanda rivers at Devprayag
Badrinath Shrine
3. Uttarakhand:
Late Quaternary Aggradation Degradation
of Alaknanda River
Overview
Uttarakhand comprising of Garhwal and Kumaon regions is largely a mountainous state in northern India. It is
known for places of spiritual importance and beautiful landscape. Traditionally known as the Land of Gods,
the state houses many glaciers including Gangotri and Yamunotri fromwhere the rivers Ganga and Yamuna
originate. The Ganga River Systemis among the largest in the world. Originating in Garhwal Himalayas and
formed by the confluence of Bhagirathi andAlaknanda rivers, the Ganga travels about 2599 km through the
Himalaya and plains to finally join the Bay of Bengal. Uttarakhand offers excellent sporting opportunities like
river rafting, skiing and mountaineering.
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TripPlanNo. 3c: 4 Days 3 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure Delhi: Arrival Rishikesh is the spiritual towns of
Rishikesh by road
Day 2 Rishikesh - Nandprayag Gravel dominated > 80 m high aggradational Scenic confluence of Alaknanda and
terrace sections at Ratura and Gauchar
marking the response of high monsoonal
rains during 52-32 ka interglacial MIS 3
Day 3 Nandprayag Hardwar Terrace sections near Srinagar. Meandering The holy city of Hardwar offers a unique
Rampur
Day 4 Departure Hardwar
Arrival Delhi by road
mythological and religious importance.
Has sacred bathing ghats and river
bank temples
Bhaghirathi rivers at Devprayag
and straight incised morhology of spiritual experience. The evening prayer
Alaknanda River at the bank of the Ganga River is an event
to watch
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
Alluvial cut terrace (80 m high) of Alaknanda River
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Gita updesh - Kurukshetra
SynopticGeology
The NW-SE trending ridges of Delhi Supergroup in southern part and EW ranges of Siwalik belt in northern part constitute the
hardrock terrain covering 5 percent area of Haryana. The remaining 95 percent area is covered by loose to semi-consolidated
Quaternary sediments on gently slopping plains. The Quaternary sediments comprise a northerly thickening (> 400m thick)
column of alluvial, lacustrine and aeolian deposits calcretised at various levels. The aeolian deposits are common along the
western border as extension of Thar desert.
The sand dunes and sheets of stabilized and active nature are of aeolian origin at various phases. A number of disjointed
impressions of palaeodrainage are scattered all over the alluvial and aeolian plains. Among them, a segment of Vedic Sarswati
River near Fatehabad is the most prominent. Relicts of Harappan culture and civilization are also scattered
in northern and northwestern parts. The Quaternary deposits and archeological mounds of the state are
important archives of palaeohydrological, desertification processes. The excursion will show the
fluvio-aeolain transitions, Holocene limestone, sulphate bearing lake deposits and Harappanmounds.
along the
palaeochannels
palaeoclimatic conditions and
4. Haryana:
Holocene Climate and Harappan Civilization
Stabilised Sand dune, Fatehabad Aerial view of palaeochannel of Saraswati
Overview
Haryana is a small state in northern India spreading over 44,212 sq km area. About 65 percent of its
population is engaged in agriculture. All villages stand connected with metalled roads. There is a network of
44 Tourist Complexes in the state. Alarge part of the state witnesses a semi-arid climate and lies in the Indus
plains near the northeastern border of Thar desert. Haryana finds mention in the great epic of Mahabharata.
Kurukshetra is the place of the epic battle betweenthe Kauravas and the Pandavas.
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TripPlanNo. 4: 3 Days 2 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure Delhi Alluvialaeolian transition at Rohtak,
Arrival Hissar by road
Day 2 Hissar-Fatehabad- Cliff section of Ghagghar River, Gujri Mahal, Agricultural farms
Hissar by road
Day 3 Hissar- Delhi by road
Holocene carbonate lake deposits of Riwasa
and and sulphate lake deposit at Saherwa
Palaeochannel of Saraswati River(?),
Fatehabad
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
Section of Rakhigarhi cultural mound
A Harappan mound near Fatehabad Limestone bearing lake deposit, Riwasa
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Taj Mahal during night, Agra
SynopticQuaternaryGeology
Uttar Pradesh, located mainly in the Ganga plains, has a foreland with the Himalayas in its north. The Ganga, an axial river
originating in the Himalaya, is joined by several tributaries including Yamuna, Ramganga, Ghaghra and Gandak before draining
through Bihar and West Bengal into the Bay of Bengal.
Several kilometre thick column of sediments along the Ganga plains comprise mainly gravels in the north and sand-silt-clay in
the south. This field excursion along a part of the Ganga River is aimed to understand the geodiversity of this large river systemin
terms of morphology, processes and sedimentation patterns in the middle reaches. The focus will be on the study of fluvial
sedimentary packages of cliff sections in the southern Ganga plains that illustrate the response of this systemto late Quaternary
climate change.
5. Uttar Pradesh:
Geodiversity of Ganga Dispersal System
Imambara, Lucknow Chaukhandi Stupa
Overview
Uttar Pradesh covering 2,36,286 sq km area is known for its heritage, etiquette, culture and bounties of
nature. It is considered to be the land of ancient cities and also the seat of Buddhism. Some of the greatest
monuments dot the state. It is the most populated state of India accounting for 16.4 per cent of the countrys
total population. It is the second largest state-economy in India. Two sacred rivers Ganga and Yamuna flow
throughthe state and forma perennial source of water.
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TripPlanNo. 5 3 Days 2 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure Delhi
Arrival Kanpur
Day 2 Kanpur- Delhi by train Palaeobank cliff section near Narela and Red Fort, Kutub Minar, Lotus temple
Day 3 DelhiGarh Mukteswar- Cliff sections of palaeobank, terraces and Holy ghats of Ganga and temples
morphology of Ganga river near
Garh Mukteshwar
Cliff section of the Ganga River near Kanpur
by train (Bithur section)
Yamuna banks in Delhi
Delhi by road
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
Cliff section of the Ganga River near Kanpur (Bithur section)
22
Hawa Mahal, Jaipur
SynopticGeology
Rajasthan forms the north-western part of the Indian Shield and exposes a variety of rock sequences ranging in age from
Archaean to Quaternary. The cratonic nucleus in the western Indian Shield occupies large tracts in south and east Rajasthan
and is classified as Bhilwara Supergroup. It is bound on the west and southwest by Proterozoic mobile belt comprising
supracrustal sequences of Aravalli and Delhi Supergroups. An arcuate belt of low grade volcano-sedimentary rocks and
platformal sediments of the Vindhayan Group demarcate the eastern boundary of this craton.
Quaternary formations in Rajasthan state occur in the form of assorted sediments of aeolian, fluvial and lacustrine origin in the
Thar Desert in the western part. Rajasthan occupies leading position in the mineral map of India with almost one fifth of the total
working mines of the country. Ore deposits of metallic minerals for zinc, lead, copper and tungsten occur in Rajasthan besides
significant reserves of building stones, industrial minerals and semi precious gemstones.
Pb-Zn ore deposits occur in
di f f er ent hor i z ons i n
Rajasthan. The deposits of
Rampur a- Agucha and
Bethumbi-Dariba-Rajpura
belong to the Archaean to
Lower Proterozoic Bhilwara
Supergroup, those of Zawar
are associated with the
Lower Proterozoic Aravalli
Supergroup and Kayar-
Ghugra with the Lower to
Upper Proterozoic Delhi
Supergroup.
6. Rajasthan: Palaeoproterozoic
Lead-Zinc Sulfide Metallogenesis in
Aravalli-Delhi Orogenic Belt
Overview
Rajasthan is the largest state of India occupying nearly 11 percent of the total Indian territory. The
northwestern part of the state is occupied by the Thar Desert that covers almost 32 percent of the total area.
TheAravalli Hill Rangedivides the state into twounequal parts and forms a prominent physiographic feature.
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Geological map of Khetri Belt
TripPlanNo. 6a: Days 1 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
2
TripDescription
Day 1 Delhi-Khetri- Jaipur. See the copper mineralization in tightly folded Pink city Jaipur is well known for palaces,
forts and the artifacts of traditional
Rajasthani culture
Day 2 Departure Jaipur Arrival
New Delhi by air
by road Proterozoic metasediments and operating
underground copper mines. Visit would reflect
upon the surface signature of the ore body
while covering the nature, controls and origin
of mineralization
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
RelatedInformation
Khetri Copper belt, JhunjhunuDistrict
Khetri copper belt extends over a strike length of 80 km from
Singhania in the north to Raghunathgarh in the south. As many
as 45 deposits and prospects have been explored in and
around this belt
The mineralized zones are generally marked by gossan, old
workings, mine dumps and iron staining. The copper
mineralization,
is found in the metapelite and
metapsammite of the Proterozoic Delhi Supergroup.
Mineralization in the southern part of the belt is mostly along
shear and breccia zones.
manifested by disseminations of chalcopyrite,
pyrrhotite and pyrite,
24
TripPlanNo. 6b: 4 Days 3 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi Sambhar is a large inland saline lake The salt production in operation.
up in the surrounding hills of Aravalli sanctuary
with a circumference of about 100 km
Day 2 Ajmer to Bhilwara via
Day 3 Bhilwara to Agucha This open cast multimetal mine provides Udaipur is known as City of Lakes
opportunity to study rich stratabound ore
mineralization, its structural control and
effects of metamorphism
Day 4 Departure Udaipur
Arrival New Delhi
by air
nestled
Arrival Jaipur by air Range Bird
Jaipur-Ajmer via Pushkar Lake and nearby religious
Sambhar Lake places
Geophysical exploration led to the Bhilwara is an old tribal town having a
Kayar Zn-Pb prospect identification of this zinc-lead deposit that thriving textile industry now. It is a big
extends for over one kilometre and is hosted centre for mining of industrial minerals
predominantly by the metapelites of the and manufacturing of refractories
Proterozoic Delhi Supergroup
Zn-Pb deposit and
halt at Udaipur
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
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TripPlanNo. 6c: Days 3 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
4
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi
Arrival Udaipur by air
Udaipur-Zawar-
Udaipur
Day 2 Udaipur-Rajpura-
Dariba-Chittaurgarh-
Bhilwara
Day 3 Bhilwara-Rampura
Agucha-Ajmer
mineralization, its structural control and
effects of metamorphism
Day 4 Departure Ajmer Arrival
New Delhi by train/road
Ancient Pb-Zn mining and smelting activity Known as City of Lakes, the historic city
in the region where dolomite hosted ore from of Udaipur is famous for the aesthetic
the Proterozoic metasedimentary water bodies and the palaces
lithopackage is being mined
A prominent gossan over a sulphide rich The historic city of Chittaurgarh is famous
zinc-lead ore, the origin and the controls of for its fort, and other palaces
mineralization
This opencast multi-metal mine provides Bhilwara has a thriving textile
opportunity to study rich stratabound ore and mining industry
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
26
RelatedInformation
AguchaZinc-LeadDeposit, BhilwaraDistrict
The mineral deposit is located near Agucha (25 49N:74 44E) in Bhilwara district, and is being worked as an opencast mine.
Surface manifestation of this deposit is a weak gossan.
The Zn-Pb mineralization in Agucha occurs within high-grade metapelitic rocks that are associated with amphibolite and calc
silicate rocks. This deposit is stratabound and of SEDEX type. The mineralization consists of sphalerite, pyrite, pyrrhotite,
galena, and traces of chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite and sulphosalts. The ore is recrystallised and laminated owing to its proximity to
a ductile shear zone.
o o
o o o o
Bethumbi-Rajpura-DaribaLead-Zinc Belt, RajsamandDistrict
This N-S to NE-SW trend belt extends for about 17 km forming a sickle shaped structure with convexity towards west. Major
prospects occur between Surawas (25 05N:74 14E) in north to Dariba (24 57N:74 0746E) in south within a tight,
overturned synformthat truncates against a ENE-WSWfault at Surawas.
Adiagnostic gossan is developed over a part of the ore deposit. The main Pb-Zn sulphide ore bearing horizons are confined to
mica schist, metachert, with lenses of dolomitic marble and carbonaceous schist overlying theArchaean basement. Sphalerite,
galena, chalcopyrite and pyrite formthe main sulphide ore minerals. It is considered to be a SEDEXtype of deposit.
Geological map of Agucha Belt
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Zawar Lead- Zinc Belt, Udaipur District
Zawar (2417N:7341E) lead-zinc belt is located about 40 km south of Udaipur city in the state of Rajasthan and extends for
about 20 km. The area around Zawar village was an important site for lead-zinc--silver mining in ancient India and continues to
be so even now.
The rock sequence exposed in the Zawar belongs to the Lower Proterozoic Aravalli Supergroup. It includes thickly bedded
polymictic conglomerate and grits; quartzite, greywacke, dolomite and its variants; phyllites and slates with minor interbands of
quartzite and dolomite. Presence of primary and well-preserved multi-deformational structures in the area makes it important for
understanding the controls of mineralization.
The Pb-Zn mineralization in Zawar area is stratabound and confined to dolomite and its variants. Sphalerite and galena are the
main ore minerals for zinc and lead and also produce subordinate cadmium and silver. Studies show that the Zn-Pb metals
present in the host dolomite and associated carbonaceous phyllite formed proto-ore that was later remobilized in dilational or
extensional fractures developed during deformation of the Zawar rocks. Dewatering of basinal fluids was probably responsible
for remobilization of ore and formation of Pb-Zndeposits.
Geological map of Zawar area
28
Jodhpur Fort
SynopticGeology
Volcanism initiated as basaltic eruption with occasional andesite or trachybasalts followed by voluminous outpouring of
peralkaline and peraluminous rhyolite, basalt, dacite and trachyte flows and terminated with the outburst of ash flow deposits.
The other rock types associated with rhyolite are trachyte, dacite, pithstone, welded tuff, lithic and crystal ash, ignimbrite,
obsidian, pyroclastic slates, agglomerate, volcanic breccia and volcanic conglomerate. Majority of the acid volcanics are high
potassic and feware calc-alkaline or lowpotassic in composition. Essentially eruptions were under terrestrial conditions through
fissures, shield volcanoes and central cones. The hot spot triggered volcanismin an extensional tectonic regime of continental
crust had initial basaltic magma generated at greater depth. This magma while migrating upwards supplied additional heat for
the partial melting of lower sialic crust resulting in the generation of felsic magma. The crustal extension has helped in the upward
advancement of the felsic magma.
6. Rajasthan:
Malani Volcanic Province Hot Spot
Triggered Felsic Volcanism

Geological map of Malani Volcnaic Province


Overview
The Neoproterozoic Malani bimodal volcanics constitute the largest suite of anorogenic acid volcanics in
India that has an aerial spread of over 3100 km2 in the state of Rajasthan. The 745 10 Ma old volcanism
succeeded the granitic activity of AbuPluton and ceased before the onset of Marwar sedimentation.
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TripPlanNo. 6d: Days 3 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
4
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi
Arrival Jodhpur by air
Jodhpur-Mandore-
Jodhpur
Day 2 Jodhpur-Kankani-
Kailana-Jodhpur
Porphyritic rhyolite overlain by
Neoproterozoic continental sediments of
trans Vindhyan rocks (Marwar Supergroup)
Day 3 Jodhpur-Korna-Mandli-
Jodhpur
joints
Day 4 Departure Jodhpur
Arrival New Delhi by air
Complete ignimbrite sequence represented Jodhpur fort and palaces
by layered tuff, welded tuff, lithic and vitric
tuff, ash beds and glass shards.
These are overlain by thin flows of rhyolite
Mesoproterozoic Delhi Supergroup
overlain by Malani Rhyolite and ash beds.
Central and fissure eruptions. Malani fossil
cone, agglomerate, perlitic tuff and columnar
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
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SynopticGeology
Quaternary deposits of variable thickness occur all through the Thar Desert. These sediments of aeolian, fluvial and lacustrine
nature formundulating plains between the hill ranges occupied by the hard rocks. The aeolian deposits formed over 200 ka ago
display various types of sand dunes with calcrete of pedogenic and non-pedogenic origins. Alluvial deposits are abundant in
northern part of the desert and along the ephemeral river courses in the western part. The lake sediments spanning the past 40
ka, consist of evaporite and silt-clay and occur as lenses in the abandoned and ephemeral lakes. Archaeological evidence of
human interaction with the desert is present at several places.
6. Rajasthan:
Thar Desert and its Evolution
Sambhar lake is Asias largest saline lake Sand dune field near Jaisalmer
Overview
Thar Desert in western India covers around 2,59,000 sq kmin the states of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Haryana and
Punjab. It is characterized by hot and dry climate, aeolian landforms, salt marshes and saline lakes. The
rainfall is meager and distributed erratically. The mean temperature varies between 24 - 26 C in summer to
4 -10 Cin winter. TheThar is one of the most populous and fertile deserts of the world. The main occupation
of the people is agriculture and animal husbandry. Acolorful culture prevails in the desert. The people have a
great passion for folk music, dance and poetry. Jaisalmer, Bikaner and Jodhpur are main cities located in the
heart of theThar Desert
o o
o o
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TripPlanNo. 6e : Days 3 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
4
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure Delhi. Arrival
Jodhpur by air
Mehrangarh Fort, Umed Place Museum
and
Day 2 Jodhpur-Jaisalmer Piedmont sections of aeolian and colluvial
units. Parabolic dunes. Fluvial gravels bed
in arid setting
Day 3 Jaisalmer-Kuldhara-
Jaisalmer
active dune field of Sam deposited around
14 ka
Day 4 Jaisalmer-Jodhpur by
Road. Jodhpur-Delhi
by air
Jodhpur, the Sun City, sits atop the red
sandstone of Cambrian age. Features
Balsamand Lake
Abandoned village Kuldhara on the bank of Traditional desert life style, stone carved
Sam- ephemeral river. Spectacular, unvegetated, forts and havelis. Sunset view at Sam
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
TripPlanNo. 6f: Days 2 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
3
TripDescription
Day 1 Delhi-Jaipur by road Visit to Asias largest saline lake Sambhar
Llake
Day 2 Jaipur-Pushkar Dune, fluvial and lacustrine sequences near
Budha Pushkar
Day 3 Jaipur-Chandwaji-New
Delhi by road
alluvial and aeolian deposits
Pink City Jaipur, palaces, observatory
Holy Pushkar Lake, palaces and other
places of tourist interest like forts in
Jaipur
Visit to 74-16 ka old dunes around Amarsar.
Chandwaji River sections for colluvial,
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
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Narayan Sarovar
SynopticGeology
The Kutch region comprising the Mainland, Coastal plains and the Rann areas, exposes Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary
sequences. It also exposes alkali effusive volcanic sequences in Anjar and Bhachau areas. The volcanic and associated
sedimentary rocks at Anjar showhigh concentration of REE.
The Mesozoic rocks occur as intertrappeans within the Deccan Traps at several places in Kutch peninsula. These
intertrappeans have yielded fossils of plants, bivalves and fish. The dinosaurian remains (egg clusters and bones) are also
reported fromAnjar and Fatehgarh.
The Tertiary rocks are mainly exposed all along the western, southern and southeastern parts of Kutch, extending fromLakhpat
in the west to as far as Wandh in the east. The oldest Tertiary rocks directly overlying the Deccan Traps belong to the
Palaeocene age. Lignite is associated with the Early Tertiary rocks. Eocene variegated clay, shale and limestone yield abundant
foraminifers.
7. Gujarat:
Stratigraphic Architecture of Rift to
Passive Margin Evolution in Kutch Basin
Dinosaur egg remains at Rahioli Vertically layered gabbro dyke intruding the coarse gabbro, Nirwandh plug
Overview
The geology of Gujarat demonstrates a classic sequence of marine Mesozoic-Tertiary sediments, the
eruptive Deccan Trap basalts along with the oldest Precambrian metamorphics and youngest Quaternary
sediments. The Deccan Volcanics and its intrusive variants, forming a major volcanic episode commencing
fromthe Cretaceous and terminating in the Eocene, separate the Mesozoic andTertiary rocks.
A younger intrusive phase, confined to the Mainland areas is represented by alkali basalt plugs, is often
associated with pyroclastics and alkali lava flows (basanite and peridotite). These also predate the main
DeccanTrap activity and some of these plugs contain mantle xenoliths of spinel lherzolite and dunite.
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The Oligocene is represented by the sandy limestone, coralline limestone, glauconitic clay, marl and siltstone whereas
the Oligocene to Lower Miocene has yielded a rich assemblage of mammalian and other vertebrate fossil fragments. The
Lower to Middle Miocene sediments comprise green siltstone, fossiliferous and gypseous marlite and are overlain by
Pliocene sandstone siltstone clay yielding avian egg shells.
TripPlanNo. 7a: 4 Days 3 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi.
Arrival Bhuj by air
Bhuj-Anjar
Day 2 Bhuj-Matanomadh-
Narayan Sarovar
lignite
Day 3 Bhuj-Nakhtrana Study of alkaline plugs of mainland Kutch Haji Pir (famous Dargah)
Day 4 Departure Bhuj Arrival
New Delhi by air
K-T boundary with special emphasis on ash Mandvi Beach in Gulf of Kutch and
bed containing iridium. Mandvi Palace
Study of dinosaur fossils at Anjar
Eocene to Cenozoic carbonate rocks Lakhpat Fort and Narayan Sarovar
including Nummulitic limestone. Eocene (westernmost point of India)
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
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Location of Surat in Gujarat
IndustryinNutshell
Surat (21.17N: 72.83E), a historical port on the west coast of India, is the second largest and one of the fastest growing cities of
Gujarat. Froma humble beginning, the diamond industry in Surat went on to become one of the largest centres of c & p of rough
diamonds (<5 cents >5 carats) in the world today. Varacha Road, a street in Surat is the main hub of diamond c &p industries.
The diamond producing countries send their rough diamonds after sorting according to size, shape, colour and quality for cutting
and polishing to India through the network like DTC with the Kimberly Process Certificate, certifying that they are from conflict-
free sources. Out of about 8,000 diamond cutting and polishing units in the country, employing between 800,000 to 1,000,000
workers, Surat alone has more than 3,000 diamond c &p units, that employ more than 400,000 workers.
The saying goes that eleven out of twelve diamonds set in jewellery in the world are cut &polished in India. Traditionally the 'hira
karigars' (diamond artisans) shape the rough diamonds using 'ghantis' (polishing wheels). Of late large factories have come up
using modern machinery.
7. Gujarat:
Surat Diamond Cutting and Polishing Hub
Diamond market in Surat The cut and polished diamonds
Overview
This visit will expose the participants to the methods of cutting and polishing (c & p) of diamonds, mainly the
small ones, by traditional and sophisticated processes. The methods include cutting, bruting (rough shape-
table, bottomand top), polishing, checking and assorting of diamonds.
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TripPlanNo. 7b: 2 Days 1 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi Visit to IDI, Surat Local sight seeing
Surat by air
Day 2 Visit to cutting and Visit to Diamond C & P units Local marketing
polishing units
Departure Surat
New Delhi by air
Arrival
Arrival
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
Boat Race City of Surat
36
Interbanded barite flourite, Pakhal Group.
SynopticGeology
The Precambrian crust of Central India with Bundelkhand Craton (BKC) in the north and Bastar Craton (BC) in the south was
accreted along a ENE-WSW trending Proterozoic Central Indian Tectonic Zone (CITZ), spread over the states of Madhya
Pradesh and Maharashtra.
Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) basement suite of 3.3Ga with abundant metasedimentary enclaves dated between
2.5-2.6 Ga constitute the prominent rock type of the Bastar craton reflecting a major interval of crustal accretion in this region.
The Bastar craton is divided into eastern and western parts with Dongargarh granite as the dividing line. It is also characterized
by development of major linear structural trends, which include the N-S trending Kotri, NW-SE trending Ghot-Chamorsi, NNW-
SSE trending Thanewasna - North Godavari and ENE-WSWtrending Gadchiroli lineaments. These lineaments have subjected
the craton to varying degrees of shearing and host the copper and barite mineralization of IOCGtype at Thanewasna.
8. Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra
Archaean Craton and Mineralization
:
Layered anorthosite -gabbro, Gondpipri The Archaean Amgaon Gneiss,Gondia
Overview
The Central Indian Shield is a mosaic of northern and southern crustal provinces separated by the Central
Indian Tectonic Zone (CITZ). Bastar craton with an Archaean nuclei is a part of the southern province. It is
bound by two mobile belts in the northwest and southeast besides Proterozoic rifts of the Mahanadi to the
northeast and the Godavari to the southwest. The Bastar craton is a major metallogenic province with
deposits of copper, iron and manganese.
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Autolithic limestone breccia of Pakhal Group at Gondpipri Iron oxide breccia at Thanewasna copper deposit
TripPlanNo. 8a: 4 Days 3 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi.
Arrival Nagpur by air.
Chandrapur-Wardha-
Warora-Chandrapur
Day 2 Chandrapur-Gondpipri-
Chandrapur
Cu mineralisation at Dubarpet, Heti Ni-PGE
prospect, Thanewasna IOCG-type copper
deposit
Day 3 Chandrapur-Nagpur Mul granite and barite mineralisation, Sight seeing at Nagpur
Proterozic Sakoli metasediments,
Pular-Parsori gold deposit in Sakoli
metavolcanics
Day 4 Departure Nagpur
Arrival New Delhi
air
Barite-flourite deposit at the contact of Mahatma Gandhi Ashram at Sewagram,
Gondwana Group and Proterozoic Pakhal Tiger Reserve, Chandrapur
Group in Dongargaon
Boundary fault between Archaean Basement Ancient Markanda temple
and Proterqzoic Pakhal cover sediments,
by
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
38
TripPlanNo. 8b: 3 Days 2 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi.
Arrival Jabalpur by air.
Jabalpur-Bedaghat-
Jabalpur
Day 2 Jabalpur-Malanjkhand Porphyry copper deposit Kanha Tiger Project
Day 3 Malanjkhand-Jabalpur
Departure Jabalpur
Arrival New Delhi by air
Bedaghat marble section along Narmada Water sports along the river
River, evidence of neotectonic activity
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
Narmada River veering through marble rocks, Jabalpur Malanjkhand copper mine
Related Information
Malanjkhand porphyry copper deposit (24909 Ma) is the largest single copper deposit known in the Peninsular India. Located
in the Balaghat district of Madhya Pradesh, it occurs close to a complex junction of the Sausar, Sakoli and the Kotri - Dongargarh
belts. Copper mineralization in this deposit is localized in the quartz reefs associated with the granite. The ore zone extends for
about 1.9 kmwith an average width of about 65 m.
Total resources of about 235 million tonnes of ore at 1.28 percent of copper are estimated for this deposit. The copper ore also
produces significant amount of molebdenum, gold and silver.Presently, ore is being exploited by open cast mining.
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SevagramAshram (last residence of Mahatma Gandhi)
SynopticGeology
The Sausar Mobile Belt, representing the southern belt of the CITZ in the central sector, comprises folded and metamorphosed
non-volcanic and Mn-rich sediments intermixed with reworked basement gneiss, migmatite and granulite. It occurs in tectonic
contact with the underlyingTirodi biotite gneiss.
The granulite facies rocks occur in two distinct belts flanking north and south of the Sausar Group of rocks. The peak P-T
conditions for the granulite facies metamorphismof the Sausar Belt are constrained at 8-10.5 kb and 850C. It was followed by
isothermal decompression to 6-4 kb at 750-850C, indicating denudation of 13-14 kmof crustal material.
On the basis of 950 Ma Ar/ Ar cooling age and 860-Ma K-Ar mineral isochron age fromtheTirodi biotite gneiss, the main phase
of Sausar orogeny is interpreted as the ~1000 Ma Grenvillian event.
40 39
8.
Sausar Mobile Belt of
Central Indian Tectonic Zone
Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra:
Tirodi biotite gneiss forming basement of Sausar metasediments
Overview
The CITZ is an ensemble of several low- to medium-grade supracrustal belts, gneisses, granitoids and a few
linear tracts of granulite belts. A number of crustal scale shear zones define the boundaries of the
supracrustal belts and discrete terrains. It is a ENEWSW trending, 500-km-long and 0.2 to 4-km-wide,
ductile shear zone characterized by the presence of mylonite and phyllite and minor cataclasite. Three
mobile belts with Mahakoshal in the north, Sausar in the south and Betul in the middle are its important
constituents. Polyphase tectonothermal events spanning fromPaleoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic are
recorded in the CITZ. A northward dipping subduction system leading to continent-continent collision is
proposed for its growthand assembly at ca. 1.5 Ga.
40
TripPlanNo. 8c: 4 Days 3 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi.
Arrival Nagpur by air
Day 2 Nagpur-Chikhaldara-
Betul
Day 3 Betul-Sausar- Sausar Group rocks and basement of Tirodi
gneiss, syn- sedimentary manganese
deposits, ultra-high-temperature granulite
Day 4 Departure Nagpur
Arrival New Delhi by air
CITZ, southern granulites of Bhandara, Mahatma Gandhi Ashram at Sewagram,
Proterozoic Sakoli metasediments Tiger Reserve, Chandrapur
Gavilgarh fault zone, neotectonic activity Chikhaldara hill station, Gavilgarh fort
Ramtek and Pench Tiger Projects
Mansar-Nagpur
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
Cuesta of Gavilgarh Fault Zone, Amaravati
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Maa Sharda Temple, Maihar
SynopticGeology
Microbiota appeared on earth before 3.8 Ga and ourished during the Proterozoic time. Along-standing problemin Precambrian
palaeobiology has been the rarity of calcifying cyanobacteria in comparison to their proliferation in the Cambrian. The microbial
life in Vindhyan sediments includes algal stromatolites in Semri and Bhander Groups, brachiopods, annelids and arthropod,
besides microfossils, plant and fungal remains.
Abundance of mat-related sedimentary structures in the siliciclastic rocks of the Vindhyan Group provides yet another
dimension to the understanding of the Proterozoic bio-sedimentology.
Spectacular development of the microbialite colonies, profusion of mat-induced structures and the sediment early life
interaction can be glimpsed through the excursion.
8.
Precambrian Palaeobiology
A Window to the Microbial Earth
Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra:

Munchuriophycus, Churhat Sandstone Microbial mat, Sirbu Shale


Overview
The Vindhyan Supergroup is 1 to 4 km thick and extends for about 160,000 km in a curvilinear basin
surrounding the Bundelkhand granite massif. It is limited by the Son-Narmada-Tapti lineament in the south,
the Great Boundary Fault in the west and the Ganga plains in the north. These rocks are unmetamorphosed,
very less deformed, subdivided into Semri, Kaimur, Rewa and Bhander Groups and represent shallow
marine environment in an intracratonic basin.
Vindhyan sedimentation commenced around 1400 Ma and continued till the end of the Proterozoic (~ 570
Ma). Vindhyan-equivalent strata is represented in Himalaya by Simla Slate, Hazara Slate and Haimanta
Group. The Vindhyan Basin is knownfor the resources of limestone, diamond and dimensional stone.
2
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TripPlanNo. 8d: 4 Days 3 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi
Arrival Khajuraho by air
Day 2 Khajuraho-Maihar-
Lilji Nala-Beta-Maihar
Day 3 Maihar-Churhat and
the area around Satna
Day 4 Departure Nagpur
Arrival New Delhi by air
Visit to the world heritage site of about 1000- World-famous Khajuraho Temples
year-old Khajuraho Temples
Exquisite signatures of microbial mat Maihar is a historical city. It finds an
influence on Precambrian siliciclastic system important place in Indian classical music
Profuse microbial mat features in Churhat
Sandstone and Koldaha Shale. Evidence of
oldest multicellular lifeform on earth
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
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View of Khajuraho Temple
SynopticGeology
Bundelkhand Craton is represented mainly by the Archaean cratonic mass of the Bundelkhand massif bordered by the arcuate
Proterozoic Vindhyan basin to the northwest and west and the Nagpur-Chhindwara-Bhander-Balaghat mobile belt towards the
south and east. The PDB, occupying the northern margin of the Vindhyan Basin in Panna and Chhatarpur districts of Madhya
Pradesh, is 150 kmin length. Primary source rocks occur at Majhgawan, Hinota and theAtri-cluster. Innumerable small shallow
conglomerate and gravel diamond mines exist.
The Majhgawan-Hinota lamproites are intruded into the Semri and Kaimur Groups of the Vindhyan Supergroup. The lowest
member of the Semri Group, rests directly over the basement rocks (Bundelkhand granite and the Bijawar Group). There is no
evidence of any major tectonic disturbance along the contact zone of the Vindhyans with the underlying Bijawars or the
Bundelkhand massif. The Vindhyan beds in general strike ENE-WSWand dip 5 to 10 to the south, although some of the lower
formations have dips up to 25. Some of the structures are attributed either to submergence of the basin or irregularity in the
initial topography of the basement .
8.
Panna Diamond Belt
A Historical Diamond Mining Centre
Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra:

Geological map of Majhgawan lamproite body Image of the Majhgawan lamproite body
Overview
The diamondiferous rock at Majhgawan (2438'30"N: 8002'E), near Panna, described as diamondiferous
green mud during early part of the 19 century, was discovered during the 13th centuryAD. Thus, Majhgawan
is the first-known primary source of diamonds in the world. The region is also known for extensive secondary
diamond-bearing gravel and conglomerate. The conglomerate and gravel have been exploited for diamond
since pre-historic times. The Majhgawan lamproite is too small to be considered as a source for the diamonds
found in the conglomerate and gravel, and thus the primary source(s) for these alluvial diamonds remain
elusive. The primary and secondary diamond deposits together constitute the PannaDiamond Belt (PDB).
th
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TripPlanNo. 8e: 4 Days 3 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi Majhgawan mine. Diamond Processing Unit
Arrival Khajuraho by air
Khajuraho-Majhgawan
Day 2 Khajuraho-Shahidan-
Hatupur section-
Khajuraho
Day 3 Khajuraho-Bunder
project-Khajuraho
Day 4 Departure Khajuraho
Arrival New Delhi by air
Visit to the world heritage site to
Khajuraho Temples
Extensive historical secondary diamond Visit to Panna Tiger Reserve
workings; diamond mines
Diamondiferous lamproites of Atri cluster
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
Regional map showing the Vindhyan basins
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Chaitya and Vihara types of caves, Ajanta
SynopticGeology
The Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP) is one of the largest continental flood basalt provinces of the world occupying an area of
over 5,00,000 sq. km. Popularly known as the Deccan Trap due to its step like appearance, the province derives its name froma
Sanskrit word Dakshin meaning south or southern and a Swedish word Trapp/ Trappa meaning stair. Deccan Traps occupy
nearly 75 percent of Maharashtra and also extend to the states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and
Jharkhand.
The lava pile has a maximumthickness of over 1.5 kmin the western parts of India that gets reduced to a fewtens of metres near
exposed margins. The DVP is largely made of basaltic lava flows with subordinate intrusive bodies and very low proportion of
pyroclastics. The lava flows are nearly horizontal over vast distances but assume measurable dips in the western parts near
Mumbai and in Satpura Ranges. The average thickness of the individual lava flows is around 20 mand they can be traced for few
to over hundred kilometres. Majority of the individual lava flows exhibit pahoehoe or a`a morphology. The rocks are mainly
tholeiitic basalt with minor picrite. The intratrappean fossils provide an Upper Cretaceous to Lower Eocene age whereas the
isotopic data limits the eruption from69 to 64 Ma with a peak around 65 Ma.
9. Maharashtra:
The Deccan Volcanic Province
Pentagonal and hexagonal geometry of
the cooling joints in aa flow at Ajanta
Western Ghats escarpment as seen from Mahabaleshwar
Overview
Maharashtra contributes to about 15 percent of the countrys industrial output. It is the third largest state and
Mumbai the largest city of the country is the State capital. It is bound by the Arabian Sea in the west. The
Sahyadri Range or the Western Ghats, extend parallel to the coast flanked by the Konkan plains on the west
and the Deccan plateau in the east. Major rivers like Godavari and Krishna descend from the Sahyadri and
drain into the Bay of Bengal forming enormous river basins.
The excursions are planned in the southwestern part of Maharashtra and originate from the cities of
Aurangabad and Pune. Aurangabad (19 53' 47"N: 75 23' 54"E) is a historic city and nowthe tourismcapital
of Maharashtra due to its vicinity to the famousAjanta and Ellora caves.
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TripPlanNo. 9a: 4 Days 3 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi
Arrival Aurangabad
by air
Day 2 Aurangabad - Lonar
crater-Aurangabad
Day 3 Aurangabad -
Contributions of geological studies in
preservation of ancient monuments
Day 4 Departure Aurangabad
Arrival New Delhi
by Air
Observe lava flows and meteorite impact The panoramic Lonar Lake occupying
crater for related structures the circular crater
The morphology of the Deccan Traps and the Ellora caves rank among the largest
Pitalkhora- internal features of the pahoehoe lava flows. monolithic structures in the world. These
Ellora caves- also feature in the list of World Heritage
Aurangabad sites
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
Panoramic view of Ajanta Caves
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RelatedInformation
The Lonar Crater
Lonar (1958N: 7631E) is located at a distance of about 125 kmnortheast of Aurangabad. The ~ 50,000-year-old Lonar crater
has an almost circular outline measuring 1830 m across and a depth of 150 m. The area around the crater is covered by the
basaltic flows of DVP and is capped by ejecta blanket, comprising angular fragments. The idea of Lonar
crater being volcanic in origin prevailed for quite some time till the theory of its being carved due to the impact of extra-terrestrial
body was proposed by La Fond and Dietz (1964) citing youthful morphology and presence of sub-surface breccia as evidence.
As the only known terrestrial impact crater in basalt, the Lonar crater therefore provides unique opportunities for comparison with
craters in lunar maria and lunar samples of shocked basalt.
It nowoccurs as a saline lake showing presence of methanogens of diverse origin.
are exposed on the hill slopes. The caves have
been excavated in the lower flow and consist of 18 units. Both the lava flows
several metres thick,
The Pitalkhora Caves are located about 90 km northwest of Aurangabad and mark the beginning of a glorious tradition of rock-
cut cave architecture in the Deccan Traps which lasted for over a thousand years, resulting in more than 1200 caves, with the
finest examples at Ajanta, Ellora and Elephanta. There are 14 caves at Pitalkhora dating back to 1st century B.C. Ten of these are
located on the right bank and four on the left bank of a steep narrowgorge carved out by theAruna River. The lava flowin which
the caves at Pitalkhora are excavated has pahoehoe morphology. At the base of cave no. 9, the pahoehoe flow lobes are
underlain by a green interflowhorizon (bole).
Ellora is located 29 kmnorthwest of Aurangabad and is well known for its monumental caves. The cave temples of Ellora are the
product of three religious faiths, each represented by elaborate carvings of
each faith. Cave no.16 carved out from~ 300000 cubic feet of rock and known
as 'Kailash', is the largest and the best of all Ellora excavations.
The Ellora caves are located at the foot of a N-S trending hill that rises to about
160 m above extensive plains of the Shivna River to the west. Two basaltic
compound pahoehoe flows
PitalkhoraCaves
ElloraCaves
A view of the monolithic Kailash Temple and the rock-cut face
exposing a stack of numerous pahoehoe flow lobes.
48
display many features typical of the inflated pahoehoe lava lobes. The natural processes of weathering, scarp retreat and biotic
interference have had a serious deleterious impact on the sculptures and paintings in the caves and their environment.
AjantaCaves
The rock-cut caves of Ajanta belong to the period between 2nd century BC to
the 6th century AD and are located about 104 km fromAurangabad. After the
decline of Buddhismin the region, these caves lay buried under a debris cover
in the jungle clad slopes till 1819, whenthey wererediscovered by chance.
The Ajanta Caves (30 in number) are excavated in a 76-m-high semicircular
escarpment carved out of compound pahoehoe lava flowby the Waghur River
that descends in a waterfall beyond the last cave. The area around Ajanta
Caves exposes three lava flows. The lower and upper lava flows are a`a in
nature whereas the middle flowhas pahoehoe morphology. The individual lava
lobes display various features such as reddened flow unit contacts, pipe
vesicles, crack infilling structure (inflation cleft) and ropy structure. Avariety of
cavity minerals including different species of zeolites can be seen in small vugs
or veins in the vesicular crust of many lobes.
A view of a rock-cut pillar in Kailash Temple Complex at
Ellora showing a stack of many pahoehoe lava lobes
Delicate carving in vesicular part of pahoehoe flow in cave 2, Ajanta Ajanta Caves
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Sinhgarh Fort
SynopticGeology
Pune area marks a transition in the style of eruptions from the dominantly compound pahoehoe lava flows in the lower parts to
largely simple lava flows in upper parts of the lava pile. The excursion passes through the Western Ghat crest zone and the
adjoining main Deccan Plateau cutting across the middle and upper parts (Poladpur, Ambenali, Mahabaleshwar Formations) of
the Western Deccan Province. Besides, there would be opportunities to sample the least contaminated part (Ambenali chemical
type) of the Deccan lava sequence as well as the red interflowhorizons that probably represent the pyroclastic component of the
Deccan Volcanic Province.
Highland laterite capping has also developed at many places over the Deccan lava. Koyna area, ca 120 km south of Pune,
regularly experiences Reservoir Induced Seismicity (M =6.3).
a
Max
9. Maharashtra: The Western Ghats
Vesicle cylinders in the pahoehoe flow, Pune Upper clinker in the a flow, Pune
Overview
Pune is the eighth largest metropolis in India and the cultural capital of Maharashtra. It is located due
southeast of Mumbai on the main Deccan Plateau. The landscape is characterized by a broad, flat-bottomed
valley that is boundedon its southern side by a nearly east-west trending Katraj Hill Range.
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TripPlanNo. 9b: 4 Days 3 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi.
Arrival Pune by air
Day 2 Pune - Panchgani -
Mahabaleshwar
the upper parts of the lava pile. Note changes
in the internal structure of different lava flows
near Mahabaleshwar
Day 3 Mahabaleshwar -
Koyna - Pune
Day 4 Departure Pune Arrival
New Delhi by air near Pune and in museums
Sinhagad Fort sitting atop a Deccan Trap Pune has many temples, museums and
section on a 1312-m-high hill scenic places in the vicinity
Observe typical features of inflated pahoehoe Panchgani and Mahabaleshwar are hill
lava lobes in the bottom part and a flows in stations with lush evergreen forests.
These offer an excellent panorama
of the Tableland. Scenic Venna lake
Highland laterite over Deccan basalt. Koyna Panorama of the Deccan Volcanic
Reservoir known for its seismicity Province and the picturesque Koyna
reservoir
Beautiful specimens of cavity-filling
minerals
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
Panchgani Tableland
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Map showing the Trans-Deccan Straits
SynopticGeology
The basaltic flows exposed in the quarries near Rajahmundry have been traditionally regarded as part of Main Deccan Volcanic
Province with lava flows travelling along river valleys or subterranean tunnels. Later this has been substantiated by
magnetostratigraphy and geochemical similarities between basaltic flows of Main Deccan Volcanic Province and those of
Rajahmundry.
9. Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh:
Cretaceous-Palaeocene Marine Sea-way
across Deccan Trap Province
Intertrappean section near Jhilmili village, Madhya.Pradesh Intertrappean section near Gowripatnam, Andhra Pradesh
Overview
The Deccan volcano-sedimentary sequences (intercalated with Deccan volcanic flows), informally
designated as intertrappean beds, are traditionally regarded as terrestrial lacustrine strata deposited on the
topographic lows during the quiescent periods of volcanism. However, introduction of bulk screen-washing
techniques in early eighties of last century resulted in the discovery of many new groups of vertebrates in
addition to gastropods, ostracods, and charophytes from these beds. Some of the Maastrichtian
intertrappean beds, such as Asifabad (A.P.), Nagpur, and the Lameta Formation of Pisdura, Dongargaon
(Nand-Dongargaon basin, Maharashtra), which lie along the Godavari graben on the eastern margin of
Deccan Volcanic Province yielded predominantly brackish water to marine fishes representing the bottom-
dwelling skates and rays. As marine pycnodontid fish remains and foraminifers are also known fromthe Early
Palaeocene intertrappean beds of Rajahmundry, it has been suggested that a marine sea-way named as
Trans-Deccan Straits existed across the Deccan Volcanic Province connecting the southeastern coast with
the western coast along the Godavari graben and Narmada lineament. Recently, this has been confirmed by
the discovery of planktonic foraminifers from the Early Palaeocene intertrappean beds of Jhilmili
(Chhindwaradistrict, M.P.) in central India.
52
Based on biostratigraphy of the intertrappean beds, radiometric dates of the basaltic flows and geochemical correlations with the
main volcanic province, the lower traps underlying the intertrappean beds have been correlated with C29r and the upper traps
with C29r/C29n reversal boundary. The eastern basaltic flows exposed at Asifabad, Nand-Dongargaon basin and Nagpur are
correlatable with Poladpur-Ambenali formations of Western Ghats on the basis of geochemical signatures.
Map showing the distribution of Deccan Traps in peninsular India and route map of field excursion
Location map of Deccan Trap and intertrappean beds near Rajahmundry
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TripPlanNo. 9c: 4 Days 3 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi. Papi Hills. Scenic Godavari
Arrival Rajahmundry
by air
Day 2 Rajahmundry -
Mancherial - Wardha the right bank of River Godavari near
Rajahmundry. The intertrappean beds of
Asifabad
Day 3 Wardha - Pisdura -
Dongargaon - Pavna -
Wardha
Day 4 Warda - Nagpur
Departure Nagpur.
Arrival New Delhi by air
Deccan intertrappean beds exposed on
Dinosaur coprolite, bone and egg nesting
sites
Takli intertrappean beds that produced Sight seeing in Orange City Nagpur
marine fish remains, GSI museum
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
TripPlanNo. 9d: 3 Days 2 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi.
Arrival Nagpur by air
Nagpur - Wardha -
Nagpur
Day 2 Nagpur - Chhindwara - Jhilmili intertrappean beds near Chhindwara
Nagpur
Day 3 Departure Nagpur Sight seeing in Nagpur city
Arrival New Delhi by air
Takli intertrappean beds that produced Sight seeing in Orange City Nagpur
marine fish remains. GSI museum
that yielded planktonic foraminifers
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
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Vertebraria remains within carbonaceous shale
SynopticGeology
The Gondwana sedimentation is considered to have initiated in India during the late Carboniferous after the Hercynian Orogeny
and is coincident with the clockwise rotation of the supercontinent. It began with glacio-marine and rift-related
sedimentation, transgress into coarse clastic-dominated proximal sequence. The coal-bearing formations in fault-controlled
sub-basins represent the post-glacial warm period during the Permian. Early Cretaceous termination of Gondwana
sedimentation is linked to the outpouring of the Rajmahal Group of lavas.
The Damodar Valley belt exhibits a type section of the Lower Gondwana rocks. The Bokaro coalfield is one of the three major
coalfields in the Damodar Valley belt besides Raniganj and Jharia and is named after the Bokaro River that meanders through
this coalfield. Geographically, it is divided into West and East Bokaro coalfields.
The West Bokaro Coalfield spreads over an area of about 180 sq kmwith its northern margin characterized by a boundary fault.
Towards south and west, the Gondwana sediments overlie the Precambrian rocks of Chhotanagpur Gneissic Complex with a
profound unconformity. Talchir, Karharbari, Barakar, Barren Measures, Raniganj, Panchet and Supra Panchet Formations of the
Gondwana Supergroup, each manifesting its characteristic litho-assemblage and depositional environment, are exposed in the
area. A number of near-surface coal seams of non-coking and medium-coking variety are being mined from the coal-bearing
Barakar Formation. Some thin coal seams are present in the Raniganj Formation as well.
Gondwana
10. Jharkhand:
Basal Gondwana Glacio-Marine
Sedimentation in West Bokaro Coalfield
Lamproite dyke in Barren Measures, Chotha Nadi Step faults within Barren Measures along Chotha Nadi
Overview
The West Bokaro Coalfield (2344-235030N; 8524-8542E) is located in the Hazaribagh, Ramgarh and
Bokaro districts of Jharkhand State. Ranchi, the state capital is situated about 70 km towards south of this
area.
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TripPlanNo. 10: 4 Days 3 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi Johna Falls, Rock Gardens, Tagore Hill
Arrival Ranchi by Air
Day 2 Dudhi Nadi section Talchir rocks with glacial/marine imprints
resting over a Precambrian basement.
Features of glacial origin and sedimentary
structures
Day 3 Dumerbera area of West
Bokaro Coalfield and the pronounced unconformity between
them. Coal seams of Barakar
Day 4 Chotha Nadi section
Departure Ranchi
Arrival New Delhi
by air
Basement/Gondwana contact relationship Rajrappa Temple
Contact between coal-bearing Barakars and
overlying argillaceous Barren Measures.
Ultrabasic intrusive rocks
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
Normal fault observed within Raniganj Formation near Lugu hill
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SynopticGeology
The 2000-km-long foreland alluvial plain flanking the Himalaya displays a characteristic transverse drainage systemformed by
rivers originating in this mountain belt and flowing in southerly direction. Kosi and Teesta megafans are two huge sediment
bodies associated with this kind of drainage. Teesta megafan lies in the foothills of Darjeeling Himalaya between Mahananda
River in the west and Teesta River in the east with its apex coinciding with the emergence of the river. It covers an area of about
18,000 sq kmin India and Bangladesh. Besides these bounding rivers, many other streams flow across the megafan in a radial
pattern.
From north to south in the Sikkim - Darjeeling Himalaya, the Teesta River traverses through a gamut of lithounits belonging to
Gondwana Supergroup (comprising sandstone, carbonaceous shale and
coal), Siwalik Group (comprising alternating sequence of soft sandstone,
siltstone, claystone and pebble beds), Quaternary sediments of
Pleistocene age and unconsolidated gravel, sand-clay of Holocene.
The Main Central Thrust (MCT) crosses upper part of Teesta whereas the
Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) separating the Siwalik Group of rocks from
the overlying Gondwana Group and low-grade metamorphites of Daling-
Buxa Group (slaty quartzite and chloritic phyllite) crosses the lower part
within the mountainous reaches. The Teesta River follows the NW-SE
Teesta lineament in its lower reaches.
Some key sections in the Teesta megafan and few smaller coarse-grained
piedmont deposits occurring in the inter-megafan areas can be examined.
Dynamics of the transverse drainages and sedimentation fromthese rivers
can be gleaned fromselected exposures.
11. Sikkim: Transverse Drainages of
the Himalayan Foreland Basin Tectonic
Geomorphology of the Teesta Megafan

Sedimentary structures in Baikunthapur


Baikunthapur scarp section, Sevok Khola
Teesta River in mountainous terrain, near Rambi
Overview
Teesta is one of the main Himalayan rivers that flows across Sikkim and West Bengal in Indian Territory and
then joins the Brahmaputra River near Raniganj town in Bangladesh. Originating in the glaciers of northern
Sikkim, it is formed by the confluence of Lachen Chu and Lachung Chu at Chungthang (North Sikkim). After
its journey in the mountainous region through steep, narrow gorges and rapids, it debauches into the plains
near Sevok.
Teesta and Kosi Rivers formspectacular and large megafans in the Himalayan foreland basin.
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TripPlanNo. 11a: 4 Days 3 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi
Arrival Bagdogra by air
Departure Bagdogra
Arrival Siliguri/ Kalijhora,
by road
Day 2 Siliguri-Teesta River
(between Gajoldoba and
Domohani-Siliguri)
Teesta river around Manpong, Baikunthapur,
Shaugaon
Day 3 Siliguri-Darjeeling- Tea gardens of Darjeeling
Bagdogra
Day 4 Departure Bagdogra.
Arrival New Delhi by air
Study the rocks of Siwalik and Gondwana Teesta Dam Project, Coronation Bridge
Group and their thrust contact. Coalescing (built in 1930) and Sevokeswari Kali
fans across the Teesta megafan Temple
Scarp sections of terrace, channel Scenic confluence of Teesta and Chel
morphology, depositional processes in the rivers
megafan. Modern depositional pattern of
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
Lachung, Sikkim
58
Rumtek Monastery, Gangtok
SynopticGeology
Different geotectonic domains observed in the SikkimHimalaya include the mollase-type deposits of the Siwaliks (Mio-Pliocene)
forming the southernmost Sub-Himalaya. The Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) separates the Sub-Himalaya from the Lesser
Himalaya in the north. The Lesser Himalaya are represented by Gondwana rocks (Carboniferous- Permian), carbonate rocks
(Buxa Formation) and a thick metasedimentary sequence of dominantly pelites with subordinate psammite and wacke (Daling
Group). Further north, the overlying Higher Himalayan Crystalline sequence has experienced higher grade of
metamorphism and is separated from the Lesser Himalaya by the Main Central Thrust (MCT) that forms an extensive
deformation zone containing the inverted Barrovian sequence.
The Lesser Himalayan belt bounded between the MCT and MBT has experienced multiple phases of thrusting and duplex
formation. The Lesser Himalayan Duplex (LHD) has been recognized in Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya and consists of horses
involving Daling, Buxa and Gondwana rocks. The frontal part of the LHDis exposed in the Rangit Windowthrough the overlying
Ramgarh thrust sheet that consists of Proterozoic Daling Group of rocks.
The HHC sequence is overlain by a thick, fossiliferous pile of Tethyan sedimentary sequence (Cambrian to Eocene) separated
by the SouthTibetan Detachment System(STDS).
(HHC)
11. Sikkim:
Unusual Deformation Kinematics
Stromatolitic limestone, Tatapani Folded Gondwana Group rocks, Rangit Window
Overview
Sikkim Himalaya depicts various geotectonic domains and the thrust systems similar to the other sectors of
Himalaya. Understanding the deformation mechanisms and the origin of inverted metamorphic sequence as
depicted by the presence of higher grade rocks at progressively higher structural levels, are the few most
debated topics in Himalayan geology and may hold the key for better understanding of the tectono-
metamorphic evolution of the Himalayan thrust-fold belt.
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TripPlanNo. 11b: 4 Days 3 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi
Arrival Bagdogra by air
Bagdogra to Siliguri
by road
Day 2 Siliguri to Sebok -
Kalikhola Melli -
Jorthang
Day 3 Jorthang - Rishi -
Legship - Sikkip -
Namchi - Phong -
Namthang - Rongpo
Day 4 Rongpo - Rorathang -
Rongli - Aritarn -
Algara - Lava -
Gorubathan -Siliguri
Departure Siliguri
by road. Arrival
Bagdogra Bagdogra
to New Delhi by air
Along the salient in the western extremity of Tea gardens, Mahananda Wildlife
the Darjeeling Lesser Himalaya. The MBT Sanctuary
and the MCT. Sub-Himalayan to Higher
Himalayan sequences
Siliguri - Garidjua -
Dudhia Manjwa - Siliguri
Across the recess up to its middle. Salugara and Kalchakra monasteries.
The MBT and the Rangit Window. Teesta River barrage for bird watching
The Lesser Himalayan Duplex.from Jorthang Darjeeling and Gangtok are hill stations
to north of Rishi Horses of different thrust and picturesque places
sheets involved in duplex formation
Eastern boundary of the recess. The MCT
and the HHC sequence. Contact of
Renok - Gondwana Group and the Quaternary
sediments. The Main Frontal thrust
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
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SynopticGeology
Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB) stretches parallel to the eastern coastline of
India for over 1000 km skirting the three major cratonic blocks of Bastar,
Singhbhum and Dharwar. The regional strike of EGMB is NE-SW and major
ductile shear zones parallel to the strike mark its boundaries. It also figures
prominently in the reconstruction of the pre-drift configuration of East Gondwana.
Constituted dominantly by high grade para- and ortho-gneisses with intrusive
massif anorthosite and felspathoidal alkaline plutons, this belt is subdivided
longitudinally on the basis of lithological association into four zones. The northern
part of the EGMB is shown to have a distinctly different thermo-tectonic history
from the southern part leading to its division into a Northern and a Southern
EGMB, separated by the Godavari Rift.
The rocks of EGMB experienced two phases of granulite facies metamorphism
and a third amphibolite facies event. The first metamorphic episode (M ) of
Archaean age was at ultra-high temperature. Thermal reworking during a
subsequent metamorphic event (M2) at ~960 to 1000 Ma led to near isothermal
decompression down to 5-6 k bar. The third metamorphism(M ) is interpreted as
a Pan-African amphibolite facies event with a peak of 600 Cat 5 k bar.
1
3
o
12. Odisha:
From the Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt to Craton
Rugged outcrops of Chilka lake anothosite
Buddha sculpted in khondalite, Ratnagiri museum
Overview
Odisha state is located along the east coast of India. It is a mineral rich state with large resources of bauxite,
iron ore, coal and chromite. It has a large forest cover and many wild life sanctuaries and has earned a name
for sand sculpting and handicrafts. Known as the largest wintering ground for the migratory birds in India,
Chilka is the worlds second largest brackish water coastal lake located in the state. The capital city of
Bhubaneshwar is known for its temples. The world famous Lord Jagannath temple at Puri is located about 60
kmsouth of Bhubaneshwar.
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TripPlanNo. 12a: 4 Days 3 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi.
Arrival Bhubaneshwar
by air. Bhubaneshwar-
Lalitgiri-Chandikhole-
Sukinda
Day 2 Sukinda-Duburi-
Tomka-Daitari- Working iron ore mine in BIF, Sukinda
ultramafic complex accounting for major
chromite production in India
Day 3 Angul-Bhubaneshwar High grade gneisses, quartz-garnet-
orthopyroxene-sillimanite
evidences of Archaean
facies metamorphic
Gondwana sediments
Day 4 Departure
Bhubaneshwar Arrival
New Delhi by air
to New Delhi by air
Khondalite Charnockite assemblage. Udayagiri,Ratnagiri, Lalitgiri hills
Terrane boundary shear zone, ultramylonite- preserve the ruins of the Buddhist
pseudotachylite complex that once flourished in coastal
Odisha
Oldest (3.51 Ga) greenstone sequence.
Angul
Aluminium smelter at Angul.
cordierite- Sight seeing at Bhubaneshwar.
gneisses preserving Handicrafts and feligree work of Odisha
(~3 Ga) granulite
event and cover
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
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TripPlanNo. 12b: 4 Days 3 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi.
Arrival Bhubaneshwar
by air. Bhubaneshwar-
Balugaon-Chilka
Day 2 Chilka-Rambha-Puri Khondalite Charnockite - Calc silicate
association. Partial melting product leptynite Jagannath temple.
Day 3 Puri-Konark-
Bhubaneshwar beaches nearby. Sight seeing at
Bhubaneshwar
Day 4 Departure
Bhubaneshwar. Arrival
New Delhi by air
Incipient charnockitisation, massif Chilka is a large brackish water coastal
anorthosite and its variants lake attracting migratory birds
Puri is famous for the beach and the Lord
Picturesque Konark temple and the
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
Rock sculpturing in Sun Temple, Konark View of Lord Jagannath Temple, Puri
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Flat topped bauxite capping
SynopticGeology
The East Coast Bauxite deposits are located in the east-central part of the Eastern Ghat and have formed by intense weathering
of the Precambrian high grade metamorphic rocks. The bauxite deposits are blanket type and formcapping with areal spread up
to 15 sq kmand thickness upto 54 m. In general, these are lateritic bauxite with lowsilica, titaniumand high iron.
The bauxite deposits occur generally on the gentle to moderately sloping plateaux made up of khondalite (quartz-feldspar-
garnet-sillimanite-graphite bearing gneiss). Hills with bauxite duricrust are devoid of vegetation.
These bauxite deposits are gibbsitic in nature and are formed by a gradual alteration of the khondalite to completely kaolinitised
rock or lithomarge and the bauxitic duricrust.
The bauxite deposits of Odisha sector are classified into the Northern, Central and Southern groups. Pachpatmali deposit forms
a part of the Central group and is being exploited since 1985 through a open cast mine of 4.8 tpa capacity.
on the top
12. Odisha: East Coast Bauxite
Province Transformation of High Grade
Metamorphic Rocks to Bauxite

Profusely Kaolinitised Khondalite The bedrock Khondalite


Overview
The East Coast Bauxite Province stretching over to the states of Andhra Pradesh and Odisha constitutes
1650 million tonnes of ore. The bauxite bodies occur scattered over a length of 400 kmand a width of 30 kmin
an alignment conforming to the NE-SWtrend of the Eastern Ghat. Odisha contributes about 60 percent of the
total bauxite production of the country fromthese deposits.
64
Alumina refinery, Damanjodi, Odisha
TripPlanNo. 12c: 3 Days 2 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi.
Arrival Vishakhapatnam
by air. Vishakhapatnam
-Damanjodi by road
Day 2 Pachpatmali Bauxite
Mine-Damanjodi
alumina refinery
Day 3 Departure
Vishakhapatnam. Arrival
New Delhi by air
In situ transformation of high grade
metapelitic rocks to bauxite. Flat topped
bauxite caps. Visit to alumina refinery
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
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RelatedInformation
Pachpatmali is the single largest bauxite deposit in India with a total resource of about 310 million tonnes. The deposit extends in
length for 16 kmand attains a maximumwidth of 2 km. The plateau has elevation of 1180 - 1355 m. The deposit is nearly flat and
blanket type forming over khondalite. Ore on an average contains about 45% alumina and about 25% silica. And is gibbsitic in
nature.
A view of the Pachpatmali Hill
66
Pipe-2 kimberlite, Wajrakarur Kimberlite Field
SynopticGeology
The southern Indian peninsular shield comprises the Dharwar craton in the north and the Southern Granulite Terrane in the
south. The Dharwar craton is a typical Archaean granite-greenstone terrane with a gneissic basement of tonalite-trondhjemite-
granodiorite (TTG) composition. It is divided into Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC) and Western Dharwar Craton (WDC).
Kimberlites discovered in southern India till now are restricted to the EDC and are distributed in four fields including Wajrakarur
Kimberlite Field (WKF). In addition, there are twolamproite fields in the EDC.
The Wajrakarur Kimberlite Field measures ~120 kmx 60 kmand is located close to the western margin of the Cuddapah Basin.
The area exposes the metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary sequence of the Ramagiri- Penakacherla schist belt surrounded
by gneisses (Peninsular Gneissic Complex), which are intruded by late to post-kinematic granitoids (Closepet Granite and its
equivalents). Quartzo-feldspathic veins and pegmatites intrude these granites and schist belt units. Predominantly NW-SE and
ENE-WSWtrending dolerite, gabbro and lamprophyre dykes constitute younger mafic intrusive bodies. The dominant control for
kimberlite emplacement in this field is provided by the intersection of the major lineament trending ENE-WSWwith the other one
trending NW-SE.
13. Andhra Pradesh:
Wajrakarur Kimberlite Field,
Eastern Dharwar Craton
Mantle xenoliths from kimberlites of Wajrakarur Kimberlite Field
Overview
Over 100 kimberlite intrusions are known in the Dharwar craton spread over the states of Andhra Pradesh
and Karnataka. This area witnessed intense diamond mining activity during 13th-18th centuries AD.
Considered as the land of first diamond finds in the world, both primary and secondary type deposits are
found here. The Krishna Valley fromthis part of India is known to have produced some of the most celebrated
diamonds including the Koh-i-Noor, the Great Moghul and the Orloff.
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Serpentinised olivine macrocryst in Chigicherla kimberlite, Wajrakarur Kimberlite Field.
TripPlanNo. 13: 4 Days 3 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: Bengaluru
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi. Famous gardens of Bengaluru
Arrival Bengaluru by air
Day 2 Bengaluru-Lepakshi- Chigicherla Kimberlite (pipes 1, 4 & 5)
Chigicherla- Anantapur
Day 3 Anantapur-Kalyandurg-
Muligiripalle- Lattavaram
- Wajrakarur-Bengaluru
Temple architecture (14th-16th Century
AD) at Lepakshi
Examination of Kimberlite pipe KL 2 at Kimberlite park and museum at
Kalyandurg, Pipe-5 at Muligiripalle Wajrakarur
and Pipes-3 & 4 at Lattavaram
Day 4 Departure Bengaluru for
respective destinations
or New Delhi by air
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
68
SynopticGeology
The Dharwar craton of southern India exposes a wide segment of continental crust with a geological record since Early to Late
Archaean. The three major components of the craton as described above are distributed into Western and Eastern Dharwar
Craton. The two cratonic blocks with contrasting crustal accretionary histories and variably thickened crustal segments are
juxtaposed along a regional lineament.
The crustal growth in the Dharwar Craton and in the granulite terrain extending upto PCSZ was accomplished during the period
from3400 Ma to 2500 Ma with significant accretion during LateArchaean. The granulite facies metamorphismin these domains
is dated ~2600 Ma and the preservation of such biotite (Rb-Sr) ages in these rocks indicates that the craton has remained stable
since 2500 Ma.
The craton also hosts gold, iron, manganese, chromium, PGE and copper deposits. Uniformitarian models invoking lateral
accretion of juvenile crust in the arc environment or non-uniformitarian subduction models involving plume or combine plume-
arc settings are proposed for the present configuration of the craton.
14. Karnataka:
Archean Granite-Greenstone Terrane, Dharwar Craton
Royal Palace at Mysore
Spinifix-textured komatiites Pillowed metabasalts at Maradihalli
Overview
The Dharwar craton is made up of Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite(TTG) gneisses (Peninsular
Gneisses) with linear schist belts represented by thick volcano-sedimentary sequences (Dharwar
greenstones) and the younger post-kinematic granodiorite / granite plutons. The above litho-assemblages
showgreenschist to middle amphibolite facies metamorphismand extend upto the Fermor Line. The terrain
south of the Fermor Line is dominated with granulite facies rocks including charnockite, pyroxene granulite,
banded magnetite quartzite association upto Palghat-Cauvery shear zone (PCSZ), and show retrogression
to epidote-amphibolite facies in structurally weak zones marked by shears.
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TripPlan14a: 4 Days 3 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: Bengaluru
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi.
Arrival Bengaluru by air plutonic dykes, magma mixing, mingling and
related features. Kolar Schist Belt
Day 2 Mysore-Sargur-Mysore Ancient supracrustals (>3.0 Ga) and younger
granite pluton (~800Ma) Brindavan Gardens.
Day 3 Mysore-Bellur-Hassan Study of spinifex-textured komatiites, pillowed
basalts, chromite mines and basement-cover
relationships (greenstone-gneiss-granite
contact zones)
Day 4 Departure Hassan. Bengaluru sightseeing
Arrival Bengaluru.
Departure for respective
destinations or New
Delhi by air
Granite-gneiss quarries to observe syn- Visit to Kolar Gold Mines
Bengaluru-Kolar -
Bengaluru
Mysore sightseeing including the famous
Visit to Gomateshwara Temple at
Sravanabelagola and to Belur and
Halebid Temples
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
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TripPlan14b: 4 Days 3 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: Bengaluru
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi. Sight seeing at Bengaluru
Arrival Bengaluru by
air. Bengaluru-Hassan
Day 2 Hassan-Gorur and
Hassan-Belur Dharwar Craton dated at 3360 Ma.Sargur
metasediments
Day 3 Chikmagalur-Mulaingiri Kartikere Conglomerate that forms base of
the Bababudan Group. Thick pile of
amygdular mafic lava flows and Banded Iron
Formation
Day 4 Chitradurga-Sira -
Bengaluru. Departure
for respective
destinations or New
Delhi by air
The oldest TTG-Peninsular gneiss suite of Gometeshwara temple, Sravanabelagola.
Belur and Halebid temples
Scenic spots of Mulaingiri Hills
Ingaldhalu Copper Mines. Chitradurga
Volcanics and associated sediments
including pillowed metabasalts at Maradihalli.
Study of gold bearing BIF of Ajjanhalli
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
Feet of 17.38 m high Gomateshwara statue at Sravanabelagola
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Stone carving in Badami caves
SynopticGeology
The Proterozoic intracratonic Kaladgi Basin extends in an east-west tract over the northern part of theArchaean Dharwar craton,
southern India. It exposes about 5 km thick sedimentary pile and is spread over an area of 8300 km . It is divided into a lower,
deformed Bagalkot Group and an upper, flat-lying Badami Group. The basin consists of three quartzite shale carbonate cycles.
Well-preserved geological features illustrating typical Proterozoic sedimentation and basin tectonics including basin margin fan
deposits, syntectonic brecciation, seismite, stromatolite and penecontemporaneous deformation structures, the dome and
basin pattern of deformation in the lower Bagalkot Group, major unconformities
bounding the sequences and basinal scale faults can be seen in a typical
intracratonic basin setting.
The limestone resources in both the Kaladgi and Bhima Basins and the recent
discoveries of radioactive minerals provide an extra dimension for the study.
Presence of late Precambrian biota in these basins has opened up a new vista for
further research on the Cambrian explosion of biotic life.
2
14. Karnataka: The Proterozoic Kaladgi
Bhima Basin: Sedimentation, Tectonics
and Uranium Mineralization

Stone carving in Badami caves


Overview
Two major basins (Cuddapah and Vindhyan) and five smaller basins (Chattisgarh, Pranhita-Godavari,
lndravati, Bhima and Kaladgi) constitute the Purana basins and represent a unique feature of the Proterozoic
geology of the Peninsular Indian Shield. Initiated during Late Palaeoproterozoic and continued episodically
as active depocentres till the end of the Neoproterozoic times, each of these basins is unique with
characteristic tectono-stratigraphy. Their gross features, including the recurrent orthoquartzite-carbonate-
shale association, paucity of igneous rocks, lack of pervasive metamorphism and structural configuration
suggests that these seven Proterozoic basins are analogous to the present day "Atlantic-type" passive
continental margin systems, which develop under extensional tectonic regimes on the trailing edges of
continental blocks. However, the crystalline continental crustal rocks flooring these basins as basement and
also their provenance, is what makes these seven supracrustal basins different from the typical passive
continental margin systems. Besides their significance in unraveling the Proterozoic supracrustal history of
the Indian Peninsular Shield, these basins contain economic mineral deposits.
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TripPlan14c: 4 Days 3 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: Bengaluru
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi. Travel to Bagalkote by night train Sightseeing at Bengaluru
Arrival Bengaluru by air
Departure Bengaluru for
Bagalkote
Day 2 Arrival Bagalkote.
Bagalkote-Badami Gaddankeri limestone mines
Day 3 Badami - different Type
sections Cholachaguda, Mahakut, B.N.Jalihal,
Konkankoppa, Niralkere Railway cutting.
Travel to Bengaluru by night train
Day 4 Departure Bengaluru for
respective destinations
or New Delhi by air
Type sections of Bagalkot Group in Sightseeing around Bagalkote
Study of type sections at Chiknasbi- Badami caves I Natural Arch National
Monuments and Heritage sites
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Geological map of Badami-Gulbarga area (Raghunandan and Vidyadharan, 1993) Explanation of numbers in index: I
1. Deccan Trap; 2. Kaladgi Supergroup; 3. Badami Group; 4. Closepet and related granites; 5. Chitradurga Group
and equivalent; 6. Bababudan Group and equivalent; 7. Early Archean Granitoids; 8. Hutti Group; 9. Sargur Group,
and 10. Peninsular Gneisses.
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TripPlan14d: 4 Days 3 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: Hyderabad
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi. Sightseeing at Hyderabad
Arrival Hyderabad.
Departure Hyderabad
Arrival Gulbarga by
road
Day 2 Almatti - Muddebihal
and Talikota - Hunasgi
Shahapura Muddebihal, Tirth - Talikota, Ukinal
Day 3 Shahapura - Gogi - Gogi Uranium Deposit. Shahapur Cement Visit to World Heritage sites at Gulbarga
Gulburga - Hyderabad
Day 4 Departure Hyderabad for
respective destinations
or New Delhi by air
Study of type sections at Almati Railway Visit Almatti Dam site
- cutting, Almatti - Muddebihal Traverse,
Plant
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
74
SynopticGeology
The Dharwar Craton in southern India exposes a wide segment of continental crust with a geological record since Early
Archaean (3.6 Ga) to Late Archaean (2.5 Ga). Three major components in the craton are, (i) extensive tonalite-trondjhemite-
granodiorite (TTG) suites, granite-gneiss associations (Peninsular Gneisses); (ii) thick volcanic-sedimentary basins
(greenstone belts), and (iii) voluminous younger granitoids. These three components are distributed in two major cratonic blocks
named as the Western Dharwar Craton (WDC) and Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC). The two cratonic blocks with contrasting
crustal accretionary histories are juxtaposed along a regional lineament. Significant gold mineralization in the Dharwar Craton is
associated with a major event of accretion of volcano-sedimentary basins. The auriferous schist belts of Kolar, Hutti, Ramagiri,
Jonnagiri, Gadwal, Raichur, Kushtagi-Hungund and Sandur formpart of the EDC.
Gold mineralization in the Dharwar greenstone belts is structurally controlled, epigenetic, orogenic or lode gold style, most
commonly associated with quartz carbonate veining and sulphidation of high-strain-zones or certain lithounits such as Banded
Iron Formation (BIF) or carbonaceous phyllite. Gold mineralization in the Drarwar Craton is placed at ~2500 Ma and is relatable
to the timing of emplacement of voluminous granitoids in the EDC.
14. Karnataka:
Selected Gold Prospects
Stone Chariot at Humpi, Karnataka
Banded Iron Formation (BIF) with carbonate layers
and tensional gash veins of quartz, Chitradurga
Massive carbonate associated with BIF
showing quartz veins of variable dimensions, Chitradurga
Overview
Over 100 occurrences, prospects and deposits of gold are distributed in the Neoarchaean greenstone belts
of Dharwar Craton in states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Amongst them,
there are about 25 deposits with a total gold endowment (gold produced if any plus existing drilled resources)
in the range of 0.5 to 1 tonne, about 20 deposits in the range of 1 to 6 tonnes of gold and only two major
deposits, Kolar and Hutti, with a total endowment in excess of 100 tonnes. The Kolar Gold Field has produced
about 800 tonnes of gold in its mining history.
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TripPlan14e: 4 Days 3 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: Bengaluru
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi.
Arrival Bengaluru by air
Bengaluru - Kolar-
Bengaluru
Day 2 Bengaluru - Bellara -
Chitradurga areas of Chitradurga schist belt
Day 3 Chitradurga-Ganajuru- Gold mineralization at different locations in World Heritage Centre at Humpi
Gadag - Bengaluru
Day 4 Departure Bengaluru.
Arrival New Delhi or to
respective destinations
by air
Granite-gneiss quarries to study syn-plutonic Sight seeing at Bengaluru
dykes, magma mixing and mingling and
related features. The Kolar Schist Belt
Sulphide hosted gold mineralization in Chitradurga Fort
different
Gadag Schist Belt
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
Native gold in arsenopyrite, Kolar Schist Belt Occluded grains of native gold
in arsenopyrite, Nundydroog Mine, Kolar Schist Belt
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TripPlan14f: 4 Days 3 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: Bengaluru
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi. Chitradurga Fort
Arrival Bengaluru
Bengaluru -
Chitradurga
Day 2 Chitradurga -
Penchcherla - Jonnagiri -
Hutti.
Hirenagnur Jonnagiri prospects
Day 3 Hutti - Study of gold mineralization in Gadag
schist belt
Day 4 Departure to respective
respective destinations
by air
Sulphide hosted gold mineralization in
different areas of Chitradurga schist belt
by air.
Bellara -
With metabasalt hosted gold deposit, Hutti is
the only gold producing mine in India. Gold
mineralization at Uti, Hira-Buddini and
Gadag - Bengaluru
Sight seeing at Bengaluru
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
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Geological Map of Southern Peninsular Shield
SynopticGeology
Region located to the south of orthopyroxene isograd and indicative of granulite facies metamorphismis generally known as the
Southern Indian GranuliteTerrain. It has two components - a Northern GranuliteTerrain (NGT), forming the root zone of Dharwar
Craton and Southern Granulite Terrain (SGT), occurring as a Proterozoic mobile belt. Three prominent ductile shear zones of
cratonic extent dissect the SGT. These are Moyar Bhavani - Attur shear zone (MBASZ) in the north, Palghat-Cauvery shear
zone (PCSZ) in the middle and Achankovil shear zone (AKSZ) in the south. The PCSZ marks a major terrain boundary that
separates theArchaean Dharwar Cratonin the north fromthe Pandyan mobile belt in the south.
The Nd-model ages for the granulites exposed in this mobile belt are in the range of 2.7 to 1.3 Ga indicating that major part of the
crust south of PCSZ was formed during Palaeoproterozoic. The Pandyan Mobile Belt is divisible into a northern Madurai and the
southern Trivandrum Blocks with the AKSZ demarcating the boundary. The Madurai Block comprises dominantly of
metasedimentary swathes (quartzite-pelite-carbonate assemblage) occurring as interbands within the charnockite and
retrograded gneisses.
Trivandrum Block, lying south of the AKSZ, constitutes the southernmost segment of this granulite belt. It is characterized by
extensive Khondalite suite represented by garnet-sillimanite-graphite-cordierite bearing para-gneisses, calc-silicate rock and
quartzite. The Nagercoil charnockite massif occurring at the southern part of this block is considered to represent a C-type
magma emplaced during Neoproterozoic.
15. Tamil Nadu and Kerala:
From the Root of an Archaean Craton to a
Pan-African Granulite Terrane
Alternating sequence of pink marble and
garnet-biotite gneiss in Satyamangalam Group
Calc granulite, Madukkarai
Overview
The Southern Indian Peninsular Shield (SIPS) exposes Precambrian crust showing complex structural and
metamorphic history. Fermor (1936) divided the SIPS into a charnockite terrain in the south and east and a
non-charnockite terrain in the north. The boundary between these two terrains, known as 'Fermor Line', was
considered to represent a fundamental litho-tectonic boundary. Subsequent studies along the Fermor Line
revealed that the charnockite suite occurring south of the Fermor Line had formed by regional granulite facies
metamorphism of a variety of precursor lithounits (TTG gneisses and the associated supracrustal rocks),
which commonly occur in the north.
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TripPlan15a: 5 Days 4 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi Sight seeing at Bengaluru
Arrival Bengaluru by air
Bengaluru - Kabbaldurga (incipient charnockitization)
Day 2 Bengaluru - Kishengiri - Peninsular Gneiss, contact between granulite
and amphibolite gneiss. Sittampundi layered
anorthosite
Day 3 Salem - Bhavani -
Mettupalayam Satyamangalam Group, enderbitic
Bhavani ultramafic-gabbro-
layered complex
Day 4 Mettupalayam -
Chennimalai Devattur
Oddanchattram
Puduchchattiram
Kodaikanal
Day 5 Kodaikanal - Madurai
by road. Madurai -
New Delhi by air
Kabbaldurga quarry that shows transition of
2.6-Ga granite gneiss into the charnockite
Salem
Bhavani gneiss, ancient supracrustal rocks
of
granulite,
anorthosite
Charnockite and gneiss exhibiting Kodaikanal, the pilgrim town of Palani
extensional shear band structure, the
Oddanchattram Anorthosite body
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
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TripPlan15b: 4 Days 3 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: Thiruvananthapuram
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi.
Arrival
Thiruvananthapuram
by air. Departure
Thiruvananthapuram.
Arrival Rajapalaiyam
by road
Day 2 Rajapalaiyam -
Ambasamudram -
Kottavattam -
Potancode -
Thiruvananthapuram Achankovil shear zone. Incipient
charnockitization
Day 3 Thiruvananthapuram -
Malyankil -
Thiruvananthapuram Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB). At Malyankil,
various lithounits of the KKB including types
of granulite and patchy charnockite
Day 4 Departure
Thiruvananthapuram
for respective
destinations or New
Delhi by air
Sheared gneissic granite, flanked by granitic
cordierite gneiss, bands of calc-silicate rocks
and marble. Pelitic gneiss showing
dehydration melting. Deformation near
Quarry faces to study gneiss-charnockite- Sight seeing at Thiruvananthapuram
mafic granulite complex relationships in the and neighbouring region
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
80
Parallel laminated tuff, the product of
ash-surge deposit of prehistoric eruption
SynopticGeology
TheAndaman-Nicobar Islands forma part of the arcuate island-arc chain extending fromMyanmar to Indonesia. An active zone
of subduction along the Andaman-Java trench lies to the west of the Andaman-Nicobar Islands. Underthrusting of the Indian
oceanic plate below the Eurasian Plate along this subduction zone since Cretaceous has resulted in the formation of an
accretionary prismand a high forearc-outerarc ridge known as theAndaman-Nicobar ridge.
The Outerarc is represented by tectonic slices of Cretaceous ophiolite and Eocene sediments (Mithakhari Group) in small
isolated basins constituting accretionary prism. Forearc products include siliciclastic Oligocene turbidite (Andaman Flysch
Group) and Mio-Pliocene carbonate turbidite (Archipelago Group). Inner arc volcanics are well marked in Quaternary volcanism
of Barrenand NarcondumIslands that are located about 100 kmnortheast and north of Port Blair.
Barren is the only active volcano in the Indian subcontinent and along with dormant Narcondam volcano it is the product of an
oblique subduction between India and SE Asian plate in the Burma-Java subduction complex. About sixty potentially active
volcanoes including BarrenVolcano lie along this SEAsian volcanic rim.
16. The Andaman-Nicobar Islands:
Anatomy of an Accretionary Prism
Chiriatapu
Sandstone, siltstone and shale bearing Andaman Flysch sequence
Overview
The Andaman-Nicobar Islands (area 8249 km ) constitute the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent
and are designated as a Union Territory of India with Port Blair city as capital. Constituted by a group of 572
islands in the Bay of Bengal, only 38 of these are inhabited. These islands possess a unique tropical
rainforest cover hosting a plethora of wildlife including several endemic varieties. Known for the picturesque
beaches and shell wealth, theAndaman-Nicobar Islands also house the most spectacular butterfly species in
the world. On 26th December 2004, these islands were struck with a devastating tsunami caused by a major
earthquake in the Indian Ocean.
2
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TripPlanNo. 16: 5 Days 4 Nights
Starts: NewDelhi
Finishes: NewDelhi
TripDescription
Day 1 Departure New Delhi.
Arrival Port Blair via
Kolkata
Day 2 Port Blair-Corbyns
Cove-Kodiaghat-
Port Blair ultramafic cumulate sequence of the ophiolite
suite
Day 3 Port Blair-Chiriatapu-
Munda Pahar - Port
Departure for
y ship the Munda Pahar provide a fabulous view
of isolated islands, submerged corals and
the breath-taking sunset. Sea voyage
Day 4 Barren Island - Port Visit to Barren Island. Observe the volcanic Sea voyage
Blair
Museums and shopping places with
ethnic products
Observe the pillow basalt, andesitic lava, Corbyns Cove has one of the most
plagiogranite-diorite suite of rocks and the picturesque sea-beaches
Examine the ocean pelagic sediments (OPS) Chiriatapu is located at the southern tip
and pyroclastic andesite of South Andaman. The lush green
Blair. mangroves, forest cover with birds and
Barren Island b
sequence
Day 5 Departure Port Blair.
Arrival New Delhi
Section Highlights Tourism Offered
82
RelatedInformation
The Andaman ophiolite occurs in the outer-arc of the active Andaman-Java subduction zone, and a dismembered ophiolite
sequence (mantle-cumulates-lavas) is preserved in different thrust slices. Cretaceous-Paleocene radiolarian chert interlayered
with pillowbasalt provide an upper age limit of theAndaman ophiolite. TheAndaman Flysch Group, occurring in faulted contact
with the ophiolite, represents a thick pile (~3 km ) of turbidite sediments of Upper Eocene to Oligocene age. The Miocene-
Pliocene Archipelago Group, which is not in direct contact with any of the ophiolite slices, consists of subaqueous pyroclastic
rocks and siliciclastic turbidites in the lower part and carbonate turbidites in the upper part.
The Andaman ophiolite consists of a plutonic complex, a volcanic sequence and pelagic sedimentary rocks. Continuous
ophiolite sections are rare due to a thick weathering profile, tropical forest cover and pervasive E-Wand N-S fault systems. The
lower part (80%of the total ophiolite outcrop) comprises foliated and highly serpentinised peridotite. The upper part consists of a
layered sequence of ultramafic-mafic rocks, an intrusive section of homogenous gabbro-plagiogranite-diorite-dolerite and an
extrusive section of boninite and tholeiitic basalt lavas. The layered ultramafic-mafic rocks have limited exposures in South
Andaman and Rutland Island. The boundary between the residual peridotite (tectonite represented by serpentinised lherzolite
and harzburgite, which locally contain 2 cmto 4 mlong sub-concordant lenses and pods of serpentinised dunite) and the layered
sequence is generally poorly defined, except a sharp contact in the Kodiaghat road section of SouthAndaman.
Geological map of Barren Island Barren Island is still active in the form
of mild explosive (Strombolian) type.
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SynopticGeology
The geological evolution of Bangladesh is related to the uplift of the Himalaya and building of deltaic landmass by major river
systems. The geology of Bangladesh broadly comprises two major units, the Precambrian platform in the northwest and
geosynclinal basin in the southeast. The third unit is a narrow northeast-southwest trending zone called the Hinge Zone, which
separates the above two units. The stable Precambrian platform has a moderate thickness of sedimentary rocks above a
Precambrian igneous and metamorphic basement.
The Bengal delta is one of the larger deltas in the world, characterized by rapid
subsidence and filling of a basin. Thick deltaic sediments were deposited as a
megadelta that progressed towards the south. The geosynclinal basin in the
southeast is characterized by ~ 20 km of clastic sedimentary rocks, (sandstone
and shale) of Tertiary age. Only the eastern part of Bangladesh has been uplifted
into hilly landform that merges into the frontal belt of the Indo-Burman ranges to
the east.
Excursions in Co-Host Countries
17 Bangladesh
Geological map of Bangladesh
TripPlanNo. 17 a
The Sundarbans
In the southwestern part of Bangladesh lies the Sundarbans, the home of the mighty Royal Bengal Tiger. Along the coastal parts
of Ganges Delta it is a cluster of islands with an approximate area of 3600 sq km forming the largest block of littoral forests
decorated with diversified assemblage of flora and fauna. This mangrove forest is shared between the two neighbouring
countries, viz. Bangladesh (62%) and India (38%). The physiography is dominated by deltaic formations include innumerable
drainage lines associated with surficial and sub-aqueous levees, splays and tidal flats. There are also marginal marshes above
mean tide level, tidal sandbars and proto-delta clays and silt sediments. Land elevation of the Sundarbans ranges from0.9mto
2.11mabove mean sea level. Geological exploration reveals that the Sundarbans has been evolved through natural deposition
of upstreamsediments accompanied by intertidal segregation during Late Quaternary Period.
84
TripPlanNo. 17 b
St. Martin'sIsland
It is an isolated small offshore island about 9 km south from the tip of the Cox's Bazar-Teknaf
peninsula at the mouth of the Naf River. It is the only coral island in Bangladesh, aligned in NNWto
SSE direction. It is almost flat and about 3.6 m above the mean sea level. There are three islets
joined together at low tide by sandy necks to form a solitary island. The northern and central islets
are known as Jinjira and Dakshinpara respectively, separated by a narrowwaist. The southernmost
islet, Cheradia Island, becomes separated during high tide from the central islet. The oldest rock
exposed in St. Martin's Island is a gently dipping shale formation with interbeds of calcareous sandstone and conglomerate of
Upper to Middle Miocene. The shale is overlain unconformably by horizontal shelly and coralline limestone probably of
Pleistocene age.
TripPlanNo. 17 c
Cox'sBazar-Teknaf Coast
The Cox's Bazar-Teknaf coastal plain is a uniformand nearly leveled tidal plain backed by
steep cliffs of dissected Tertiary hills with an average elevation of 150 m. This area is very
attractive for its geomorphic setting, diversified ethnic groups with colourful cultures and
challenging occupations. The worlds longest unbroken sandy sea beach, about 125 km
long with a gentle slope, it stretches all through this coast. Width of the beach
varies slightly from place to place. Besides these attractive
features, numerous paleo-beaches, tidal deposits, lagoonal deposits along with
piedmont deposits enriched the beauty of this coastal plain. The present coastal features
are the result of interactive marine processes since Mid-Holocene transgression in the Bengal Basin.
is about
152m at Cox's Bazar and
TripPlanNo. 17 d
Dauki Fault
The Bengal Basin is bordered on the north by the Precambrian Shillong Plateau, criss-
crossed by fractures resulting fromextensive compressional forces, mainly in N-Sand E-
W directions as a result of collision of the Indian plate with the Eurasian and Burmese
plates respectively. This type of plate tectonism has given rise to the well-known E-W
trending Dauki Fault, stretching along the common boundary of Bangladesh and
Meghalaya (India). Seismicity of the Shillong Plateau is quite scattered all over the area. The sharp linear topographic feature
often mapped as the Dauki Fault, which is virtually a contact between competent Eocene limestone and much less competent
younger clastic units. Historical records prove that this fault zone was the source of many well-known earthquakes, e.g., the
Great Indian Earthquake of 1897.
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SynopticGeology
The Nepal Himalaya has distinct thrust bound lithotectonic units includingTarai - the Piedmont plains (~600 mthick), Quaternary
alluviumunderlain by Mid to Late Tertiary Siwalik sediments is tectonically overlain by the Lesser Himalaya (LH) along the Main
Boundary Thrust (MBT). LH is overlain by low to medium grade metamorphites of Lesser Himalayan crystallines. The terrain is
highly deformed with well developed fold-thrust systems. LH is overlain by the high-grade (Ky-grade) metamorphites of Higher
Himalayan Crystallines (HHC) along the Main Central Thrust (MCT). HHC is a ~10 km thick succession of the crystalline rocks
between the MCTand Tethys Himalaya and comprises kyanite- to sillimanite-grade inverted metamorphosed gneisses intruded
by High Himalayan leucogranites. HHCis tectonically separated fromthe Tethyan sediments by the South Tibetan Detachment
System(STDS).
18 Nepal
TripPlanNo. 18 a
Kathmandu-Sabrubensi-Langtang
This excursion will cover the Lesser and the Greater Himalayan terrains across the MCT.
This excursion is in central Nepal.
TripPlanNo. 18 b
Kathmandu-Kodai-Kathmandu
The excursion is by bus in central Nepal and will cover the Lesser and the Greater
Himalayan terrains along the Kathmandu-Lhasa road.
Geological map of Nepal
86
SynopticGeology
Sri Lanka is a Precambrian craton that comprises two billion year old metamorphic rocks. The high-grade rocks of Sri Lanka can
be divided into three crustal units, viz., the Highland Complex (HC), the Wanni Complex (WC), and the Vijayan Complex (VC).
Recent age and isotopic data suggest that the high-grade basement rocks of Sri Lanka are more closely associated with the
southeastern part of Madagascar than with theArchaean granulites of southern and eastern parts of India.
The island contains relatively limited sedimentary strata surrounding its ancient hills. Aside from recent deposits along river
valleys, only two small belts of Jurassic (140 to 190 Ma old) sediment occur in Puttalam district, while a more extensive belt of
Miocene limestone is found along the northwest coast, overlain in many areas by Pleistocene deposits. The coastal region of Sri
Lanka has extensive deposits of Teri sands.
19 Sri Lanka
TripPlanNo. 19 a
Batticaloa Kandy
The traverse would go across the high grade terrane of Sri Lanka and familiarize the participants with the rocks of the Highland
Complex, the Wanni Complex and the Vijayan Complex.
TripPlanNo. 19 b
Colombo - Ratnapura- Galle
Another excursion in high grade metamorphic region of Sri Lanka.
Geological map of Sri Lanka
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Note
88
Note
Exfoliated Deccan Trap Basalt,
Ratnagiri, Maharashtra
Boudinaged and detached quartz veins in high
grade rocks of Almora Nappe, Gairsain, Garhwal
Trachyte
with
long
plagioclase
laths, Tsoltak, Ladakh
Clay mottles formed due to extreme weathering of
Deccan Trap basalt, Vijaydurg, Maharashtra
Coquinoidal limestone of Subathu Group,
Dharampur, Himachal Pradesh.
Director General,
Geological Survey of India,
27, Jawaharlal Nehru Road,
Kolkata-700016 (India)
Ph: +91 33 22861661/76
E-mail: dg@gsi.gov.in
http://www.portal.gsi.gov.in
2012
View
of snow
clad
peaks of Ladakh
batholith
from
Khardungla, Ladakh
Sculptured sandstone of Middle Siwalik Group,
Panchkula, Haryana
View
of the
Tehri reservoir area, Tehri, Uttarakhand
Sand
dunes
near Hunder, Nubra
Valley, Ladakh