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First Edition, 2007

ISBN 978 81 89940 56 0















All rights reserved.





















Published by:

Global Media
1819, Bhagirath Palace,
Chandni Chowk, Delhi-110 006
Email: globalmedia@dkpd.com
Table of Contents


1. Periodic Table
2. Alkali Metals
3. Atoms and Molecules
4. Water
5. Organic Molecules
6. Dictionary

General Periodic Table

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
H
1
Hydrogen

Li Be
2
Lithium Beryllium
Na Mg
3
Sodium Magnesium

A
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn
4
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd
5
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium
Cs Ba * Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg
6
Cesium Barium

Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury T
Fr Ra ** Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Uun Uuu Uub
7
Francium Radium

Unnilquadium Unnilpentium Unnilhexium Unnilseptium Unniloctium Unnilennium Ununnilium Unununium Ununbium

* La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb

Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dy
** Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk

Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Ca
Element Groups (Families)
Alkali Earth Alkaline Earth Transition Metals
Rare Earth Other Metals Metalloids
Non-Metals Halogens Noble Gases
Name wise Periodic Table


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
H He
1
1

2
Li Be B C N O F Ne
2
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
3
11 12

13 14 15 16 17 18
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
4
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
5
37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54
Cs Ba * Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
6
55 56 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86
Fr Ra ** Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Uun Uuu Uub
7
87 88 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112


* La Ce Pr Nd PmSm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71
** Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr
89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103
Element Groups (Families)
Alkali Earth
Alka
line
Eart
Tran
sition
Meta
h ls
Rare Earth
Othe
r
Met
als
Meta
lloids
Non-Metals
Halo
gens
Nobl
e
Gase
s

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1
0
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
1
6
17
1
8
H He
1

1.007
94

4.00
2602
Li
B
e
B C N O F Ne
2

6.941
9.01
218
2
10.8
11
12.0
107
14.0
0674
15.9
994
18.99
84032
20.1
797
Na
M
g
Al Si P S Cl Ar
3

22.98
9770
24.3
050

26.9
8153
8
28.0
855
30.9
7376
1
32.0
66
35.45
27
39.9
48
K
C
a
Sc Ti V Cr
M
n
F
e
Co
N
i
Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
4

39.09
83
40.0
78
44.9
5591
0
47.8
67
50.9
415
51.9
961
54.9
3804
9
55.
84
5
58.9
3320
0
58.
693
4
63.5
46
65.3
9
69.7
23
72.6
1
74.9
2160
78.9
6
79.90
4
83.8
0
Rb Sr Y Zr
N
b
M
o
Tc
R
u
Rh
P
d
Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
5

85.46
78
87.6
2
88.9
0585
91.2
24
92.9
063
8
95.9
4
(98)
10
1.0
7
102.
9055
0
106
.42
107.
8682
112.
411
114.
818
118.
710
121.
760
127.
60
126.9
0447
131.
29
Cs
B
a
* Hf Ta W Re
O
s
Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
6

132.9
0545
137.
327

178.
49
180.
947
9
183.
84
186.
207
19
0.2
3
192.
217
195
.07
8
196.
9665
5
200.
59
204.
3833
207.
2
208.
9803
8
(209) (210) (222)
Fr
R
a
** Rf
D
b
Sg Bh
H
s
Mt
U
u
n
Uu
u
Uu
b
7

(223)
(226
)

(261
)
(262
)
(263) (262)
(26
5)
(266)
(26
9)
(272) (277)


* La
C
e
Pr Nd
P
m
S
m
E
u
Gd Tb Dy Ho Er
T
m
Yb Lu

138.
905
5
140.
116
140.
9076
5
144.
24
(14
5)
150.
36
151
.96
4
157.
25
158.
9253
4
162.
50
164.
9303
2
167.
26
168.
9342
1
173.0
4
174.
967
**
A
c
T
h
Pa U
N
p
Pu
A
m
C
m
Bk Cf Es
F
m
M
d
No Lr


(227
)
232.
038
1
231.
0358
8
238.
0289
(23
7)
(244)
(24
3)
(247) (247) (251) (252) (257) (258) (259) (262)
Element Groups (Families)
Alkali Earth
Alka
line
Eart
h
Trans
ition
Metal
s
Rare Earth
Othe
r
Meta
ls
Metal
loids
Non-Metals
Halo
gens
Noble
Gases

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1
0
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
1
6
1
7
1
8
H He
1
1

2
Li Be B C N O F Ne
2
2,1 2,2 2,3 2,4 2,5 2,6 2,7 2,8
Na
M
g
Al Si P S Cl Ar
3
2,8,1 2,8,2

2,8,3 2,8,4 2,8,5 2,8,6 2,8,7 2,8,8
K Ca
S
c
Ti V Cr
M
n
Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
4
2,8,8
,1
2,8,8
,2
2,8,
9,2
2,8,1
0,2
2,8,1
1,2
2,8,1
3,1
2,8,1
3,2
2,8,1
4,2
2,8,1
5,2
2,8,1
6,2
2,8,1
8,1
2,8,1
8,2
2,8,1
8,3
2,8,1
8,4
2,8,1
8,5
2,8,1
8,6
2,8,1
8,7
2,8,1
8,8
Rb Sr Y Zr
N
b
M
o
Tc Ru Rh Pd
A
g
Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
5
2,8,1
8
8,1
2,8,1
8
8,2
2,8,
18
9,2
2,8,1
8
10,2
2,8,1
8
12,1
2,8,1
8
13,1
2,8,1
8
14,1
2,8,1
8
15,1
2,8,1
8
16,1
2,8,1
8
18,0
2,8,1
8
18,1
2,8,1
8
18,2
2,8,1
8
18,3
2,8,1
8
18,4
2,8,1
8
18,5
2,8,1
8
18,6
2,8,1
8
18,7
2,8,1
8
18,8
Cs Ba * Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt
A
u
H
g
Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
6
2,8,1
8
18,8,
1
2,8,1
8
18,8,
2

2,8,1
8
32,1
0,2
2,8,1
8
32,1
1,2
2,8,1
8
32,1
2,2
2,8,1
8
32,1
3,2
2,8,1
8
32,1
4,2
2,8,1
8
32,1
5,2
2,8,1
8
32,1
7,1
2,8,1
8
32,1
8,1
2,8,1
8
32,1
8,2
2,8,1
8
32,1
8,3
2,8,1
8
32,1
8,4
2,8,1
8
32,1
8,5
2,8,1
8
32,1
8,6
2,8,1
8
32,1
8,7
2,8,1
8
32,18
,8
Fr Ra
*
*
Rf
D
b
Sg Bh Hs Mt
U
un
U
uu
U
ub
7
2,8,1
8,32
18,8,
1
2,8,1
8,32
18,8,
2

2,8,1
8,32
32,1
0,2
2,8,1
8,32
32,1
1,2
2,8,1
8,32
32,1
2,2
2,8,1
8,32
32,1
3,2
2,8,1
8,32
32,1
4,2
2,8,1
8,32
32,1
5,2
2,8,1
8,32
32,1
7,1
2,8,1
8,32
32,1
8,1
2,8,1
8,32
32,1
8,2


* La Ce Pr
N
d
P
m
S
m
Eu
G
d
Tb
D
y
H
o
Er
T
m
Y
b
Lu

2,8,1
8
18,9,
2
2,8,1
8
20,8,
2
2,8,1
8
21,8,
2
2,8,1
8
22,8,
2
2,8,1
8
23,8,
2
2,8,1
8
24,8,
2
2,8,1
8
25,8,
2
2,8,1
8
25,9,
2
2,8,1
8
27,8,
2
2,8,1
8
28,8,
2
2,8,1
8
29,8,
2
2,8,1
8
30,8,
2
2,8,1
8
31,8,
2
2,8,1
8
32,8,
2
2,8,1
8
32,9,
2
*
*
Ac Th Pa U
N
p
Pu
A
m
C
m
Bk Cf Es
F
m
M
d
N
o
Lr


2,8,1
8,32
18,9,
2
2,8,1
8,32
18,1
0,2
2,8,1
8,32
20,9,
2
2,8,1
8,32
21,9,
2
2,8,1
8,32
23,8,
2
2,8,1
8,32
24,8,
2
2,8,1
8,32
25,8,
2
2,8,1
8,32
25,9,
2
2,8,1
8,32
26,9,
2
2,8,1
8,32
28,8,
2
2,8,1
8,32
29,8,
2
2,8,1
8,32
30,8,
2
2,8,1
8,32
31,8,
2
2,8,1
8,32
32,8,
2
2,8,1
8,32
32,9,
2
Element Groups (Families)
Alkali Earth
Alkali
ne
Earth
Transiti
on
Metals
Rare Earth
Other
Metals
Metallo
ids
Non-Metals
Haloge
ns
Noble
Gases

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
1
3
1
4
1
5
1
6
1
7
18
H He
1
0

2
Li
B
e
B C N O F Ne
2
4 5 6 6 7 8 10 10
N
a
M
g
Al Si P S Cl Ar
3
12 12

14 14 16 16 18 22
K
C
a
S
c
Ti V Cr
M
n
Fe
C
o
Ni Cu Zn
G
a
G
e
A
s
Se Br Kr
4
20 20 24 26 28 28 30 30 32 31 35 35 39 41 42 45 45 48
R
b
Sr Y
Z
r
N
b
M
o
Tc
R
u
R
h
Pd Ag Cd In
S
n
S
b
Te I Xe
5
48 50 50 51 52 54 55 57 58 60 61 64 66 69 71 76 74 77
C
s
B
a
*
H
f
T
a
W
R
e
O
s
Ir Pt Au Hg Tl
P
b
Bi Po At Rn
6
78 81

106 108 110 111 114 115 117 118 121 123 125 126 125 125 136
Fr
R
a
*
*
R
f
D
b
Sg
B
h
H
s
M
t
Uu
n
Uu
u
Uu
b
7
136 138

157 157 157 155 157 157 159 161 165


*
L
a
C
e
Pr
N
d
P
m
S
m
Eu Gd Tb
D
y
H
o
Er
T
m
Y
b
Lu

82 82 82 84 84 88 89 93 94 97 98 99 100 103 104
*
*
A
c
T
h
Pa U
N
p
P
u
A
m
C
m
Bk Cf Es
F
m
M
d
N
o
Lr


138 142 140 146 144 150 148 151 150 153 153 157 157 157 159
Element Groups (Families)
Alkali Earth
Alkali
ne
Earth
Transit
ion
Metals
Rare Earth
Other
Metals
Metallo
ids
Non-Metals
Haloge
ns
Noble
Gases

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1
0
11
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
1
6
1
7
18
H He
1
-
259.
14

-272
Li
B
e
B C N O F Ne
2
180.
54
127
8

2300
350
0
-
209.
9
-
218.
4
-
219.
62
-248.6
N
a
M
g
Al Si P S Cl Ar
3
97.8 650

660.
37
141
0
44.1
112.
8
-
100.
98
-189.3
K
C
a
S
c
T
i
V Cr
M
n
Fe
C
o
Ni Cu Zn
G
a
G
e
A
s
Se Br Kr
4
63.6
5
839
153
9
166
0
189
0
185
7
124
5
153
5
149
5
1453 1083
419.5
8
29.7
8
937.
4
817 217 -7.2 -157.2
R
b
Sr Y
Z
r
N
b
M
o
T
c
R
u
R
h
Pd Ag Cd In
S
n
S
b
T
e
I Xe
5
38.8
9
764
152
3
185
2
246
8
261
7
220
0
225
0
196
6
1552
961.9
3
320.9
156.
61
231.
9
630
449.
5
113.
5
-111.9
Cs
B
a
*
H
f
T
a
W
R
e
O
s
Ir Pt Au Hg Tl
P
b
Bi
P
o
At Rn
6
28.5 725

215
0
299
6
341
0
318
0
304
5
241
0
1772
1064.
43
-
38.87
303.
5
327.
5
271.
3
254 302 -71
Fr
R
a
*
*
R
f
D
b
S
g
B
h
H
s
M
t
Uu
n
Uu
u
Uu
b
7
27 700

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?


*
L
a
C
e
Pr
N
d
P
m
S
m
Eu Gd Tb
D
y
H
o
Er
T
m
Y
b
Lu

920 795 935
101
0
?
107
2
822 1311 1360 1412
147
0
152
2
154
5
824 1656
*
*
A
c
T
h
Pa U
N
p
P
u
A
m
C
m
Bk Cf Es
F
m
M
d
N
o
Lr


105
0
175
0
160
0
113
2
640
639.
5
994 1340 ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Element Groups (Families)
Alkali Earth
Alkali
ne
Earth
Transit
ion
Metals
Rare Earth
Other
Metals
Metallo
ids
Non-Metals
Haloge
ns
Noble
Gases

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1
0
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
1
6
1
7
18
H

He
H He
1 -
252.
87

-268.6
Li
B
e
B C N O F Ne
2
1347
297
0
255
0
482
7
-
195.
8
-183
-
188.
14
-246.1
N
a
M
g
Al Si P S Cl Ar
3
552.
9
110
7

246
7
235
5
280
444.
6
-34.6 -186
K
C
a
S
c
T
i
V Cr
M
n
Fe
C
o
Ni Cu Zn
G
a
G
e
A
s
Se Br Kr
4
774
148
4
283
2
328
7
338
0
267
2
196
2
275
0
287
0
2732 2567 907
240
3
283
0
613
684.
9
58.7
8
-153.4
R
b
Sr Y
Z
r
N
b
M
o
Tc
R
u
R
h
Pd Ag Cd In
S
n
S
b
Te I Xe
5
688
138
4
333
7
437
7
492
7
461
2
487
7
390
0
372
7
2927 2212 765
200
0
227
0
175
0
989.
8
184 -108.1
Cs
B
a
*
H
f
T
a
W
R
e
O
s
Ir Pt Au Hg Tl
P
b
Bi Po At Rn
6
678.
4
114
0

540
0
542
5
566
0
562
7
502
7
452
7
3827 2807
356.5
8
145
7
174
0
156
0
962 337 -61.8
Fr
R
a
*
*
R
f
D
b
Sg
B
h
H
s
M
t
Uu
n
Uu
u
Uu
b
7
677
173
7

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?


*
L
a
C
e
Pr
N
d
P
m
S
m
Eu Gd Tb
D
y
H
o
Er
T
m
Y
b
Lu

346
9
325
7
312
7
312
7
?
190
0
1597 3233 3041
256
2
272
0
251
0
172
7
1466 3315
*
*
A
c
T
h
Pa U
N
p
P
u
A
m
C
m
Bk Cf Es
F
m
M
d
N
o
Lr


320
0
479
0
?
381
8
390
2
323
5
2607 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Element Groups (Families)
Alkali Earth Alkaline Earth Transition Metals
Rare Earth Other Metals Metalloids
Non-Metals Halogens Noble Gases

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
H He
1
Hex

Hex
Li Be B C N O F Ne
2
Cub Hex Rhom Hex Hex Cub Cub Cub
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
3
Cub Hex

Cub Cub Mono Ortho Ortho Cub
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
4
Cub Cub Hex Hex Cub Cub Cub Cub Hex Cub Cub Hex Ortho Cub Rhom Hex Ortho Cub
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
5
Cub Cub Hex Hex Cub Cub Hex Hex Cub Cub Cub Hex Tet Tet Rhom Hex Ortho Cub
Cs Ba * Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
6
Cub Cub

Hex Cub Cub Hex Hex Cub Cub Cub Rhom Hex Cub Rhom Mono ? Cub
Fr Ra ** Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Uun Uuu Uub
7
Cub Cub

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?


* La Ce Pr Nd PmSm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu

Hex Cub Hex Hex Hex Rhom Cub Hex Hex Hex Hex Hex Hex Cub Hex
** Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr

Cub Cub Ortho Ortho Ortho Mono Hex ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Crystal Structure Abbreviations
Hex Hexagonal
Rhom Rhombohedral
Cub Cubic
Mono Monoclinic
Ortho Orthorhombic
Tet Tetragonal
? Unknown
Element Groups (Families)
Alkali Earth Alkaline Earth Transition Metals
Rare Earth Other Metals Metalloids
Non-Metals Halogens Noble Gases

Alkali Metals
The alkali metals, found in group 1 of the periodic table
(formerly known as group IA), are very reactive metals
that do not occur freely in nature. These metals have
only one electron in their outer shell. Therefore, they are
ready to lose that one electron in ionic bonding with
other elements. As with all metals, the alkali metals are
malleable, ductile, and are good conductors of heat and
electricity. The alkali metals are softer than most other
metals. Cesium and francium are the most reactive
elements in this group. Alkali metals can explode if they
are exposed to water.
The Alkali Metals are:
Lithium
Sodium
Potassium
Rubidium
Cesium
Francium

Basic Information

Name: Lithium
Symbol: Li
Atomic Number: 3
Atomic Mass: 6.941 amu
Melting Point: 180.54 C (453.69 K, 356.972 F)
Boiling Point: 1347.0 C (1620.15 K, 2456.6 F)
Number of Protons/Electrons: 3
Number of Neutrons: 4
Classification: Alkali Metal
Crystal Structure: Cubic
Density @ 293 K: 0.53 g/cm
3

Color: silvery

Atomic Structure


Number of Energy Levels: 2

First Energy Level: 2
Second Energy Level: 1

Isotopes
Isotope Half Life
Li-6 Stable
Li-7 Stable

Facts

Date of Discovery: 1817
Discoverer: J ohann Arfvedson
Name Origin: From the Greek word lithos (stone)
Uses: batteries, ceramics, lubricants
Obtained From: passing electric charge through melted lithium chloride,
spodumene
Name: Sodium
Symbol: Na
Atomic Number: 11
Atomic Mass: 22.98977 amu
Melting Point: 97.8 C (370.95 K, 208.04001 F)
Boiling Point: 552.9 C (826.05005 K, 1027.2201 F)
Number of Protons/Electrons: 11
Number of Neutrons: 12
Classification: Alkali Metal
Crystal Structure: Cubic
Density @ 293 K: 0.971 g/cm
3

Color: silvery

Atomic Structure


Number of Energy Levels: 3

First Energy Level: 2
Second Energy Level: 8
Third Energy Level: 1

Isotopes
Isotope Half Life
Na-22 2.6 years
Na-23 Stable
Na-24 14.96 hours

Facts

Date of Discovery: 1807
Discoverer: Sir Humphrey Davy
Name Origin: soda (Na
2
CO
3
)
Symbol Origin: From the Latin word natrium (sodium)
Uses: medicine, agriculture
Obtained From: table salts and other foods
Name: Potassium
Symbol: K
Atomic Number: 19
Atomic Mass: 39.0983 amu
Melting Point: 63.65 C (336.8 K, 146.57 F)
Boiling Point: 774.0 C (1047.15 K, 1425.2 F)
Number of Protons/Electrons: 19
Number of Neutrons: 20
Classification: Alkali Metal
Crystal Structure: Cubic
Density @ 293 K: 0.862 g/cm
3

Color: silvery

Atomic Structure


Number of Energy Levels: 4

First Energy Level: 2
Second Energy Level: 8
Third Energy Level: 8
Fourth Energy Level: 1

Isotopes
Isotope Half Life
K-39 Stable
K-40 1.28E9 years
K-41 Stable
K-42 12.4 hours
K-43 22.3 hours
Facts
Date of Discovery: 1807
Discoverer: Sir Humphrey Davy
Name Origin: potash
Symbol Origin: From the Latin word kalium
Uses: glass, soap
Obtained From: minerals (carnallite)
Name: Rubidium
Symbol: Rb
Atomic Number: 37
Atomic Mass: 85.4678 amu
Melting Point: 38.89 C (312.04 K, 102.002 F)
Boiling Point: 688.0 C (961.15 K, 1270.4 F)
Number of Protons/Electrons: 37
Number of Neutrons: 48
Classification: Alkali Metal
Crystal Structure: Cubic
Density @ 293 K: 1.532 g/cm
3

Color: silver
Atomic Structure


Number of Energy Levels: 5

First Energy Level: 2
Second Energy Level: 8
Third Energy Level: 18
Fourth Energy Level: 8
Fifth Energy Level: 1
Isotopes
Isotope Half Life
Rb-81 4.57 hours
Rb-82 2.25 minutes
Rb-83 86.2 days
Rb-84 32.9 days
Rb-85 Stable
Rb-86 18.65 days
Rb-87 4.8E10 years
Rb-88 17.7 minutes
Rb-89 15.44 minutes
Rb-90 2.6 minutes
Rb-90m 4.3 minutes
Facts
Date of Discovery: 1861
Discoverer: R. Bunsen
Name Origin: From the Latin word rubidus (red)
Uses: catalyst, photocells
Obtained From: lithium production
Name: Cesium
Symbol: Cs
Atomic Number: 55
Atomic Mass: 132.90546 amu
Melting Point: 28.5 C (301.65 K, 83.3 F)
Boiling Point: 678.4 C (951.55005 K, 1253.12 F)
Number of Protons/Electrons: 55
Number of Neutrons: 78
Classification: Alkali Metal
Crystal Structure: Cubic
Density @ 293 K: 1.873 g/cm
3

Color: silver
British Spelling: Caesium
IUPAC Spelling: Caesium

Atomic Structure


Number of Energy Levels: 6

First Energy Level: 2
Second Energy Level:
8
Third Energy Level:
18
Fourth Energy Level:
18
Fifth Energy Level: 8
Sixth Energy Level: 1
Isotopes
Isotope Half Life
Cs-126 1.6 minutes
Cs-129 1.3 days
Cs-131 9.7 days
Cs-132 6.4 days
Cs-133 Stable
Cs-134 2.1 years
Cs-
134m
2.9 hours
Cs-135
2300000.0
years
Cs-136 13.2 days
Cs-137 30.2 years
Cs-138 32.2 minutes
Cs-139 9.3 minutes
Facts

Date of Discovery: 1860
Discoverer: Fustov Kirchoff
Name Origin: From the Latin word caesius (sky blue)
Uses: remosves air traces in vacuum tubes
Obtained From: pollucite, lepidolite
ATOMS AND MOLECULES
Atoms
Most of the Universe consists of matter and energy. Energy is the capacity to
do work. Matter has mass and occupies space. All matter is composed of basic
elements that cannot be broken down to substances with different chemical or
physical properties. Elements are substances consisting of one type of atom, for
example Carbon atoms make up diamond, and also graphite. Pure (24K) gold is
composed of only one type of atom, gold atoms. Atoms are the smallest particle
into which an element can be divided. The ancient Greek philosophers
developed the concept of the atom, although they considered it the fundamental
particle that could not be broken down. Since the work of Enrico Fermi and his
colleagues, we now know that the atom is divisible, often releasing tremendous
energies as in nuclear explosions or (in a controlled fashion in) thermonuclear
power plants.
Subatomic particles were discovered during the 1800s. For our purposes we
will concentrate only on three of them. The proton is located in the center (or
nucleus) of an atom, each atom has at least one proton. Protons have a charge
of +1, and a mass of approximately 1 atomic mass unit (amu). Elements differ
from each other in the number of protons they have, e.g. Hydrogen has 1
proton; Helium has 2.
The neutron also is located in the atomic nucleus (except in Hydrogen). The
neutron has no charge, and a mass of slightly over 1 amu. Some scientists
propose the neutron is made up of a proton and electron-like particle.
The electron is a very small particle located outside the nucleus. Because they
move at speeds near the speed of light the precise location of electrons is hard
to pin down. Electrons occupy orbitals, or areas where they have a high
statistical probability of occurring. The charge on an electron is -1. Its mass is
negligible (approximately 1800 electrons are needed to equal the mass of one
proton).
The atomic number is the number of protons an atom has. It is characteristic
and unique for each element. The atomic mass (also referred to as the atomic
weight) is the number of protons and neutrons in an atom. Atoms of an element
that have differing numbers of neutrons (but a constant atomic number) are
termed isotopes. Isotopes can be used to determine the diet of ancient peoples
by determining proportions of isotopes in mummified or fossilized human
tissues. Biochemical pathways can be deciphered by using isotopic tracers. The
age of fossils and artifacts can be determined by using radioactive isotopes,
either directly on the fossil (if it is young enough) or on the rocks that surround
the fossil 9for older fossils like dinosaurs). Isotopes are also the source of
radiation used in medical diagnostic and treatment procedures.

Note that each of these isotopes of hydrogen has only one proton. Isotopes
differ from each other in the number of neutrons, not in the number of protons.
Some isotopes are radioisotopes, which spontaneously decay, releasing
radioactivity. Other isotopes are stable. Examples of radioisotopes are Carbon-
14 (symbol
14
C), and deuterium (also known as Hydrogen-2;
2
H). Stable
isotopes are
12
C and
1
H.

Carbon has three isotopes, of which carbon-12 and carbon-14 are the most well
known.

The Periodic Table of the Elements. Each Roman numeraled column on the
label (at least the ones ending in A) tells us how many electrons are in the outer
shell of the atom. Each numbered row on the table tells us how many electron
shells an atom has. Thus, Hydrogen, in column IA, row 1 has one electron in
one shell. Phosphorous in column VA, row 3 has 5 electrons in its outer shell,
and has three shells in total.
Electro
ns and energy
Electrons, because they move so fast (approximately at the speed of light),
seem to straddle the fence separating energy from matter. Because of this, we
think of electrons both as particles of matter (having mass is a property of
matter) and as units (or quanta) of energy. When subjected to energy, electrons
will acquire some of that energy.

Excitation of an electron by energy, causing the electron to "jump" to another
electron (energy) level known as the excited state.
An orbital is also an area of space in which an electron will be found 90% of
the time. Orbitals are of different shapes. Each orbital has a characteristic
energy state and a characteristic shape. The s orbital is spherical, and located
closest to the nucleus. Since each orbital can hold a maximum of two electrons,
atomic numbers above 2 must fill the other orbitals. The p
x
, p
y
, and p
z
orbitals
are dumbbell shaped, along the x, y, and z axes respectively. The major energy
levels (also known as shells) into which electrons fit, are (from the nucleus
outward) K, L, M, and N. Sometimes these are numbered, with electron
configurations being: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
1
, etc. This nomenclature tells us the 1st energy
level (shell) has 2 electrons in the s orbital, and 2nd energy level has 2 electrons
in its s orbital, plus one electron in its p orbital.

Geometry of orbitals. S-orbitals are spherical, p-orbitals are shaped like a
dumbbell
Chemical Bonding
During the nineteenth century, chemists arranged the then-known elements
according to chemical bonding, recognizing that one group (the furthermost
right column on the Periodic Table, referred to as the Inert Gases or Noble
Gases) tended to occur in elemental form (in other words, not in a molecule
with other elements). It was later determined that this group had outer electron
shells containing two (as in the case of Helium) or eight (Neon, Xenon, Radon,
Krypton, etc.) electrons.
As a general rule, for the atoms we are likely to encounter in biological
systems, atoms tend to gain or lose their outer electrons to achieve a Noble Gas
outer electron shell configuration of 2 or 8 electrons. The number of electrons
that are gained or lost is characteristic for each element, and ultimately
determines the number and types of chemical bonds atoms of that element can
form.


Atomic diagrams illustrating the filling of the outer electron shells.
Ionic bonds are formed when atoms become ions by gaining or losing
electrons. Chlorine is in a group of elements having seven electrons in their
outer shells. Members of this group tend to gain one electron, acquiring a
charge of -1. Sodium is in another group with elements having one electron in
their outer shells. Members of this group tend to lose that outer electron,
acquiring a charge of +1. Oppositely charged ions are attracted to each other,
thus Cl
-
(the symbolic representation of chlorine) and Na
+
(the symbol for
sodium, using the Greek word natrium) form an ionic bond, becoming the
molecule sodium chloride. Ionic bonds generally form between elements in
Group I (having one electron in their outer shell) and Group VIIa (having seven
electrons in their outer shell). Such bonds are relatively weak, and tend to
disassociate in water, producing solutions that have both Na and Cl ions.

Formation of a crystal of sodium chloride. Each positively charged sodium ion
is surropunded by six negatively charged chloride ions; likewise each
negatively charged chloride ion is surrounded by six positively charged sodium
ions. The overall effect is electrical neutrality.

Table Salt Crystal (SEM x625).
Covalent bonds form when atoms share electrons. Since electrons move very
fast they can be shared, effectively filling or emptying the outer shells of the
atoms involved in the bond. Such bonds are referred to as electron-sharing
bonds. An analogy can be made to child custody: the children are like
electrons, and tend to spend some time with one parent and the rest of their
time with the other parent. In a covalent bond, the electron clouds surrounding
the atomic nuclei overlap.

Formation of a covalent bond between two Hydrogen atoims.
Carbon (C) is in Group IVa, meaning it has 4 electrons in its outer shell. Thus
to become a "happy atom", Carbon can either gain or lose four electrons. By
sharing the electrons with other atoms, Carbon can become a happy atom,.
alternately filling and emptying its outer shell.

Formation of covalent bonds in methane. Carbon needs to share four electrons,
in effect it has four slots. Each hydrogen provides an electron to each of these
slots. At the same time each hydrogen needs to fill one slot, which is done by
sharing an electron with the carbon.
The molecule methane (chemical formula CH
4
) has four covalent bonds, one
between Carbon and each of the four Hydrogens. Carbon contributes an
electron, and Hydrogen contributes an electron. The sharing of a single electron
pair is termed a single bond. When two pairs of electrons are shared, a double
bond results, as in carbon dioxide. Triple bonds are known, wherein three pairs
(six electrons total) are shared as in acetylene gas or nitrogen gas.

Ways of representing covalent bonds.
Sometimes electrons tend to spend more time with one atom than with another.
In such cases a polar covalent bond develops. Water (H
2
O) is an example.
Since the electrons spend so much time with the oxygen (oxygen having a
greater electronegativity, or electron affinity) that end of the molecule acquires
a slightly negative charge. Conversely, the loss of the electrons from the
hydrogen end leaves a slightly positive charge. The water molecule is thus
polar, having positive and negative sides.
Hydrogen bonds result from the weak electrical attraction between the positive
end of one molecule and the negative end of another. Individually these bonds
are very weak, although taken in a large enough quantity, the result is strong
enough to hold molecules together or in a three-dimensional shape.

Formation of a hydrogen bond between the hydrogen side of one water
molecule and the oxygen side of another water molecule.

The presence of polar areas in the amino acids that makeup a protein allows for
hydrogen bonds to form, giving the molecule a three-dimensional shape that is
often vital to that protein's proper functioning.
Chemical reactions and molecules
Molecule versus Mixture: Molecules are compounds with elements in definite,
fixed ratios. Those atoms are held together usually by one of the three bonds
discussed above. For example: water, glucose, ATP. Mixtures are compounds
with variable formulas/ratios of their components. For example: soil. Molecular
formulas are an expression in the simplest whole-number terms of the
composition of a substance. For example, the sugar glucose has 6 Carbons, 12
hydrogens, and 6 oxygens per repeating structural unit. The formula is written
C
6
H
12
O
6
.

Determination of molecular weights by addition of the weights of the atoms
that make up the molecule.
Chemical reactions occur in nature, and somse also can be performed in a
laboratory setting. Chemical Equations are linear representations of how these
reactions occur. Combination reactions occur when two separate reactants are
bonded together, e.g. A +B ----->AB. Disassociation reactions; occur when a
compound is broken into two products, e.g. AB ----->A +B.

Diagram of a chemical reaction: the combustion of propane with oxygen,
resulting in carbon dioxide, water, and energy (as heat and light). This chemical
reaction takes place in a camping stove as well as in certain welding torches.
Biological systems, while unique to each species, are based on the chemical
bonding properties of carbon. Major organic chemicals (those associated with
or formed by the actions of living things) usually include some ratios of the
following elements: C, H, N, O, P, S.
Learning Objectives
All forms of matter are composed of one or more elements. Be able to list the
major elements in living things.
Describe how protons, electrons, and neutrons are arranged into atoms and ions.
Define the terms atomic number and atomic mass and be able to describe their
sugnificance.
Atoms with the same atomic number but a different mass number are isotopes.
List the isotopes of hydrogen and of carbon.
Be able to describe radioisotopes and list three ways they are used in biology.
The union between the electron structures of atoms is known as the chemical
bond. Be able to list and describe the three types of chemical bonds found in
living things.
Be able to describe the distribution of electrons in the space around the nucleus of
an atom.
An atom tends to react with other atoms when its outermost shell is only partly
filled with electrons. Be able to discuss why this happens.
Be able to define the two types of ions and describe thow ionic bonds form
between positive and negative ions.
In a covalent bond, atoms share electrons. List several elements that tend to form
covalent bonds.
Distinguish between a nonpolar covalent bond and a polar covalent bond and give
an example of each.
Define hydrogen bond and describe conditions under which hydrogen bonds form
and cite one example.
Explain what is meant by the polarity of the water molecule, and how the polarity
of water molecules allows them to interact with one another.
WATER
Structure of Water
It can be quite correctly argued that life exists on Earth because of the abundant
liquid water. Other planets have water, but they either have it as a gas (Venus)
or ice (Mars). Recent studies of mars reveal the presence sometime in the past
of running fluid, possibly water. The chemical nature of water is thus one we
must examine as it permeates living systems: water is a universal solvent, and
can be too much of a good thing for some cells to deal with.

Water can exist in all three states of matter on Earth, while only in one state on
our two nearest neighboring planets.
Water is polar covalently bonded within the molecule. This unequal sharing of
the electrons results in a slightly positive and a slightly negative side of the
molecule. Other molecules, such as Ethane, are nonpolar, having neither a
positive nor a negative side.

The difference between a polar (water) and nonpolar (ethane) molecule is due
to the unequal sharing of electrons within the polar molecule. Nonpolar
molecules have electrons equally shared within their covalent bonds.
Consequently, water has a great interconnectivity of individual molecules,
which is caused by the individually weak hydrogen bonds that can be quite
strong when taken by the billions.

Formation of a hydrogen bond between the hydrogen side of one water
molecule and the oxygen side of another water molecule.
Water has been referred to as the universal solvent. Living things are composed
of atoms and molecules within aqueous solutions (solutions that have materials
dissolved in water). Solutions are uniform mixtures of the molecules of two or
more substances. The solvent is usually the substance present in the greatest
amount (and is usually also a liquid). The substances of lesser amounts are the
solutes.

Dissolution of an ionically bonded compound, sodium chloride, by water
molecules.
The solubility of many molecules is determined by their molecular structure.
You are familiar with the phrase "mixing like oil and water." The biochemical
basis for this phrase is that the organic macromolecules known as lipids (of
which fats are an important, although often troublesome, group) have areas that
lack polar covalent bonds. The polar covalently bonded water molecules act to
exclude nonpolar molecules, causing the fats to clump together. The structure
of many molecules can greatly influence their solubility. Sugars, such as
glucose, have many hydroxyl (OH) groups, which tend to increase the
solubility of the molecule.
Water tends to disassociate into H
+
and OH
-
ions. In this disassociation, the
oxygen retains the electrons and only one of the hydrogens, becoming a
negatively charged ion known as hydroxide. Pure water has the same number
(or concentration) of H
+
as OH
-
ions. Acidic solutions have more H
+
ions than
OH
-
ions. Basic solutions have the opposite. An acid causes an increase in the
numbers of H
+
ions and a base causes an increase in the numbers of OH
-
ions.

pH of some common items.
The pH scale is a logarithmic scale representing the concentration of H
+
ions in
a solution. Remember that as the H
+
concentration increases the OH
-

concentration decreases and vice versa . If we have a solution with one in every
ten molecules being H
+
, we refer to the concentration of H
+
ions as 1/10.
Remember from algebra that we can write a fraction as a negative exponent,
thus 1/10 becomes 10
-1
. Conversely 1/100 becomes 10
-2
, 1/1000 becomes 10
-3
,
etc. Logarithms are exponents to which a number (usually 10) has been raised.
For example log 10 (pronounced "the log of 10") =1 (since 10 may be written
as 10
1
). The log 1/10 (or 10
-1
) =-1. pH, a measure of the concentration of H
+

ions, is the negative log of the H
+
ion concentration. If the pH of water is 7,
then the concentration of H
+
ions is 10
-7
, or 1/10,000,000. In the case of strong
acids, such as hydrochloric acid (HCl), an acid secreted by the lining of your
stomach, [H
+
] (the concentration of H
+
ions, written in a chemical shorthand) is
10
-1
; therefore the pH is 1.
Organic molecules
Organic molecules are those that: 1) formed by the actions of living things;
and/or 2) have a carbon backbone. Methane (CH
4
) is an example of this. If we
remove the H from one of the methane units below, and begin linking them up,
while removing other H units, we begin to form an organic molecule. (NOTE:
Not all methane is organically derived, methane is a major component of the
atmosphere of J upiter, which we think is devoid of life). When two methanes
are combined, the resultant molecule is Ethane, which has a chemical formula
C
2
H
6
. Molecules made up of H and C are known as hydrocarbons.


Types of hydrocarbon compounds and their structure.
Scientists eventually realized that specific chemical properties were a result of
the presence of particular functional groups. Functional groups are clusters of
atoms with characteristic structure and functions. Polar molecules (with +/-
charges) are attracted to water molecules and are hydrophilic. Nonpolar
molecules are repelled by water and do not dissolve in water; are hydrophobic.
Hydrocarbon is hydrophobic except when it has an attached ionized functional
group such as carboxyl (acid) (COOH), then molecule is hydrophilic. Since
cells are 70-90% water, the degree to which organic molecules interact with
water affects their function. One of the most common groups is the -OH
(hydroxyl) group. Its presence will enable a molecule to be water soluble.
Isomers are molecules with identical molecular formulas but differ in
arrangement of their atoms (e.g., glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone).



Functional groups in organic molecules.
Carbon has four electrons in outer shell, and can bond with up to four other
atoms (usually H, O, N, or another C). Since carbon can make covalent bonds
with another carbon atom, carbon chains and rings that serve as the backbones
of organic molecules are possible.
Chemical bonds store energy. The C-C covalent bond has 83.1 Kcal
(kilocalories) per mole, while the C=C double covalent bond has 147
Kcal/mole. Energy is in two forms: kinetic, or energy in use/motion; and
potential, or energy at rest or in storage. Chemical bonds are potential energy,
until they are converted into another form of energy, kinetic energy (according
to the two laws of thermodynamics).
Each organic molecule group has small molecules (monomers) that are linked
to form a larger organic molecule (macromolecule). Monomers can be jouined
together to form polymers that are the large macromolecules made of three to
millions of monomer subunits.
Macromolecules are constructed by covalently bonding monomers by
condensation reactions where water is removed from functional groups on the
monomers. Cellular enzymes carry out condensation (and the reversal of the
reaction, hydrolysis of polymers). Condensation involves a dehydration
synthesis because a water is removed (dehydration) and a bond is made
(synthesis). When two monomers join, a hydroxyl (OH) group is removed from
one monomer and a hydrogen (H) is removed from the other. This produces the
water given off during a condensation reaction. Hydrolysis (hydration)
reactions break down polymers in reverse of condensation; a hydroxyl (OH)
group from water attaches to one monomer and hydrogen (H) attaches to the
other.
There are four classes of macromolecules (polysaccharides, triglycerides,
polypeptides, nucleic acids). These classes perform a variety of functions in
cells.
1. Carbohydrates have the general formula [CH
2
O]
n
where n is a number
between 3 and 6. Note the different CH
2
O units on the diagram below.
Carbohydrates function in short-term energy storage (such as sugar); as
intermediate-term energy storage (starch for plants and glycogen for animals);
and as structural components in cells (cellulose in the cell walls of plants and
many protists), and chitin in the exoskeleton of insects and other arthropods.
Sugars are structurally the simplest carbohydrates. They are the structural unit
which makes up the other types of carbohydrates. Monosaccharides are single
(mono=one) sugars. Important monosaccharides include ribose (C
5
H
10
O
5
),
glucose (C
6
H
12
O
6
), and fructose (same formula but different structure than
glucose).

The chain (left) and ring (center and right) method of representing
carbohydrates.
Classification of monosaccharides is done by the number of carbon atoms and
the types of functional groups. For example, glucose and fructose have the
same chemical formula, but different structure: glucose having an aldehyde
(internal hydroxyl shown as: -OH) and fructose having a keto group (internal
double-bond O, shown as: =O).

Models of glucose and fructose.
In aqueous solution, glucose tends to have two structures, and , with an
intermediate straight-chain form. The form and form differ in the location
of one -OH group. Glucose is a common hexose in plants. The products of
photosynthesis are assembled to make a glucose. Energy from sunlight is
converted into the C-C covalent bond energy. This energy is released in living
organisms in such a way that not enough heat is generated at once to incinerate
the organisms. One mole of glucose yields 673 Kcal of energy. (A calorie is the
amount of heat needed to raise one gram of water one degree C. A Kcal has
1000 times as much energy as a cal.)

D-Glucose in various views (stick and space-filling) from the web.
Disaccharides are formed when two monosaccharides are chemically bonded
together. Sucrose, a common plant disaccharide is composed of the
monosaccharides glucose and fructose. Lactose, milk sugar, is a disaccharide
composed of glucose and the monosaccharide galactose.


Formation of a disaccharide (top) by condensation and structure of two
common disaccharides.
Polysaccharides are large molecules composed of individual monosaccharide
units. A common plant polysaccharide is starch, which is made up of many
glucoses (in a polypeptide these are referred to as glucans). Two forms of
polysaccharide, amylose and amylopectin makeup what we commonly call
starch. The formation of the ester bond by condensation (the removal of water
from a molecule) allows the linking of monosaccharides into disaccharides and
polysaccharides. Glycogen is an animal storage product that accumulates in the
vertebrate liver.



Images of starch (top), glycogen (middle), and cellulose (bottom).
Cellulose is a polysaccharide found in plant cell walls. Cellulose forms the
fibrous part of the plant cell wall. In terms of human diets, cellulose is
indigestible, and thus forms an important, easily obtained part of dietary fiber.
As compared to starch and glycogen, which are each made up of mixtures of
and glucoses, cellulose (and the animal structural polysaccharide chitin) are
made up of only glucoses. The three-dimensional structure of the structural
polysaccharides is thus constrained into straight microfibrils by the uniform
nature of the glucoses, which resist the actions of enzymes (such as amylase)
that breakdown storage polysaccharides (such a starch).

Structure of cellulose as it occurs in a plant cell wall.

Cellulose Fibers from Print Paper (SEM x1,080).
2. Lipids are involved mainly with long-term energy storage. They are
generally insoluble in polar substances such as water. Secondary functions of
lipids are as structural components (as in the case of phospholipids that are the
major building block in cell membranes) and as "messengers" (hormones) that
play roles in communications within and between cells. Lipids are composed of
three fatty acids (usually) covalently bonded to a 3-carbon glycerol. The fatty
acids are composed of CH
2
units, and are hydrophobic/not water soluble.


Saturated (top and middle) and unsaturated (bottom) fatty acids. The term
staurated refers to the "saturation" of the molecule by hydrogen atoms. The
presence of a double C=C covalent bond reduces the number of hydrogens that
can bond to the carbon chain, hence the application of therm "unsaturated".
Fatty acids can be saturated (meaning they have as many hydrogens bonded to
their carbons as possible) or unsaturated (with one or more double bonds
connecting their carbons, hence fewer hydrogens). A fat is solid at room
temperature, while an oil is a liquid under the same conditions. The fatty acids
in oils are mostly unsaturated, while those in fats are mostly saturated.
Fats and oils function for in energy storage. Animals convert excess sugars
(beyond their glycogen storage capacities) into fats. Most plants store excess
sugars as starch, although some seeds and fruits have energy stored as oils (e.g.
corn oil, peanut oil, palm oil, canola oil, and sunflower oil). Fats yield 9.3
Kcal/gm, while carbohydrates yield 3.79 Kcal/gm. Fats store six times as much
energy as glycogen.
Diets are attempts to reduce the amount of fats present in specialized cells
known as adipose cells that accumulate in certain areas of the human body. By
restricting the intakes of carbohydrates and fats, the body is forced to draw on
its own stores to makeup the energy debt. The body responds to this by
lowering its metabolic rate, often resulting in a drop of "energy level."
Successful diets usually involve three things: decreasing the amounts of
carbohydrates and fats; exercise; and behavior modification.
Another use of fats is as insulators and cushions. The human body naturally
accumulates some fats in the "posterior" area. Subdermal ("under the skin") fat
plays a role in insulation.
Phospholipids and glycolipids are important structural components of cell
membranes. Phospholipids are modified so that a phosphate group (PO
4
-
) is
added to one of the fatty acids. The addition of this group makes a polar "head"
and two nonpolar "tails". Waxes are an important structural component for
many organisms, such as the cuticle, a waxy layer covering the leaves and
stems of many land plants; and protective coverings on skin and fur of animals.

Structure of a phospholipid, space-filling model (left) and chain model (right).
Cholesterol and steroids: Most mention of these two in the news is usually
negative. Cholesterol has many biological uses, such as its occurrence in the
cell membranes, and its role in forming the sheath of some neurons. Excess
cholesterol in the blood has been linked to atherosclerosis, hardening of the
arteries. Recent studies suggest a link between arterial plaque deposits of
cholesterol, antibodies to the pneumonia-causing form of Chlamydia, and heart
attacks. The plaque increases blood pressure, much the way blockages in
plumbing cause burst pipes in old houses.

Structure of four steroids.
3. Proteins are very important in biological systems as control and structural
elements. Control functions of proteins are carried out by enzymes and
proteinaceous hormones. Enzymes are chemicals that act as organic catalysts (a
catalyst is a chemical that promotes but is not changed by a chemical reaction).
Click here for an illustrated page about enzymes. Structural proteins function in
the cell membrane, muscle tissue, etc.
The building block of any protein is the amino acid, which has an amino end
(NH
2
) and a carboxyl end (COOH). The R indicates the variable component
(R-group) of each amino acid. Alanine and Valine, for example, are both
nonpolar amino acids, but they differ, as do all amino acids, by the composition
of their R-groups. All living things (and even viruses) use various combinations
of the same twenty amino acids. A very powerful bit of evidence for the
phylogenetic connection of all living things.

Structure of an amino acid.






Structures in the R-groups of the twenty amino acids found in all living things.
Amino acids are linked together by joining the amino end of one molecule to
the carboxyl end of another. Removal of water allows formation of a type of
covalent bond known as a peptide bond.

Formation of a peptide bond between two amino acids by the condensation
(dehydration) of the amino end of one amino acid and the acid end of the other
amino acid.
Amino acids are linked together into a polypeptide, the primary structure in the
organization of proteins. The primary structure of a protein is the sequence of
amino acids, which is directly related to the sequence of information in the
RNA molecule, which in turn is a copy of the information in the DNA
molecule. Changes in the primary structure can alter the proper functioning of
the protein. Protein function is usually tied to their three-dimensional structure.
The primary structure is the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide.


Structure of a protein: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary levels of
structure.
The secondary structure is the tendency of the polypeptide to coil or pleat due
to H-bonding between R-groups. The tertiary structure is controlled by bonding
(or in some cases repulsion) between R-groups. Many proteins, such as
hemoglobin, are formed from one or more polypeptides. Such structure is
termed quaternary structure. Structural proteins, such as collagen, have regular
repeated primary structures. Like the structural carbohydrates, the components
determine the final shape and ultimately function. Collagens have a variety of
functions in living things, such as the tendons, hide, and corneas of a cow.
Keratin is another structural protein. It is found in fingernails, feathers, hair,
and rhinoceros horns. Microtubules, important in cell division and structures of
flagella and cilia (among other things), are composed of globular structural
proteins.

4. Nucleic acids are polymers composed of monomer units known as
nucleotides. There are a very few different types of nucleotides. The main
functions of nucleotides are information storage (DNA), protein synthesis
(RNA), and energy transfers (ATP and NAD). Nucleotides consist of a sugar, a
nitrogenous base, and a phosphate. The sugars are either ribose or deoxyribose.
They differ by the lack of one oxygen in deoxyribose. Both are pentoses
usually in a ring form. There are five nitrogenous bases. Purines (Adenine and
Guanine) are double-ring structures, while pyrimidines (Cytosine, Thymine and
Uracil) are single-ringed.

Structure of two types of nucleotide.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (better known as DNA) is the physical carrier of
inheritance for 99% of living organisms. The bases in DNA are C, G, A and T.
We will learn more about the DNA structure and function later in the course
(click here for a quick look [actually take all the time you want!] ;)). DNA
functions in information storage. The English alphabet has 26 letters and over
50,000 words. DNA has 4 letters (C, G, A, and T) and 20 words (the 20 amino
acids) that can make an infinite variety of sentences (polypeptides).

Structure of a segment of a DNA double helix.
Changes in information can alter the meaning of a sentence.
For example take the sentence: I saw Elvis. This implies certain knowledge
(that I've been out in the sun too long without a hat, etc.).
If we alter the sentence by inverting the middle word, we get: I was Elvis
(thank you, thank you very much). Now we have greatly altered the
information.
A third alteration will change the meaning: I was Levis. Clearly the original
sentence's meaning is now greatly changed.
Changes in DNA information will be translated into changes in the primary
structure of a polypeptide, and from there to the secondary and tertiary
structures. A mutation is any change in the DNA base sequence. Most
mutations are harmful, few are neutral, and a very few are beneficial and
contribute the organism's reproductive success. Mutations are the wellspring of
variation, variation is central to Darwin and Wallace's theory of evolution by
natural selection.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) was discovered after DNA. DNA, with exceptions in
chloroplasts and mitochondria, is restricted to the nucleus (in eukaryotes, the
nucleoid region in prokaryotes). RNA occurs in the nucleus as well as in the
cytoplasm (also remember that it occurs as part of the ribosomes that line the
rough endoplasmic reticulum). There are three types of RNA:
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is the blueprint for construction of a protein.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the construction site where the protein is made.
Transfer RNA (tRNA) is the truck delivering the proper amino acid to the site
at the right time.
Details of RNA and its role in protein synthesis are available by clicking here.

Structure a RNA molecule.
Learning Objectives
Dissolved substances are called solutes; a fluid in which one or more substances
can dissolve is called a solvent. Describe several solutions that you use everyday
in terms of what is the solvent and what is the solute.
Define acid and base and be able to cite an example of each.
The concentration of free hydrogen ions in solutions is measured by the pH scale..
Nearly all large biological molecules have theor organization influenced by
interactions with water. Describe this interaction as it exists with carbohydrate
molecules.
Be able to list the three most abundant elements in living things.
Each carbon atom can form as many as four covalent bonds with other carbon
atoms as well as with other elements. Be able to explain why this is so.
Be able to list the four main groups of organic molecules and their functions in
living things.
Enzymes are a special class of proteins that speed up chemical reactions in cells.
What about the structure of proteins allows for the reaction specificity that occurs
with most enzymes.
Condensation reactions result in the formation of covalent bonds between small
molecules to form larger organic molecules. Be able to describe a condensation
reaction in words.
Be able to describe what occurs during a hydrolysis reaction.
Be able to define carbohydrates and list their functions.
The simplest carbohydrates are sugar monomers, the monosaccharides. Be able to
give examples and their functions.
A polysaccharide is a straight or branched chain of hundreds or thousands of
sugar monomers, of the same or different kinds. Be able to give common
examples and their functions.
Be able to define lipids and to list their functions.
Distinguish betwen a saturated fat and an unsaturated fat. Why is such a
distinction a life and death matter for many people?
A phospholipid has two fatty acid tails attached to a glycerol backbone. What is
the importance of these molecules.
Define steroids and describe their chemical structure. Be able to discuss the
importance of the steroids known as cholesterol and hormones.
Be able to describe proteins and cite their general functions.
Be prepared to make a sketch and name the three parts of every amino acid.
o Describe the complex structure of a protein through its primary,
secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure. How does this relate to the
three-dimensional structure of proteins?
Describe the three parts of every nucleotide..
Chemistry Dictionary
Absolute Entropy (of a substance)
The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered
crystalline form at 0 K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.
Absolute Zero
The zero point on the absolute temperature scale; -273.15C or 0 K; theoretically,
the temperature at which molecular motion ceases.
Absorption Spectrum
Spectrum associated with absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or
other species) resulting from transitions from lower to higher energy states.
Accuracy
How closely a measured value agrees with the correct value.
Acid
A substance that produces H+(aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong acids ionize
completely or almost completely in dilute aqueous solution. Weak acids ionize
only slightly.
Acid Anhydride
The oxide of a nonmetal that reacts with water to form an acid.
Acid Anhydride
Compound produced by dehydration of a carbonic acid; general formula is R--C--
O--C--R
Acidic Salt
A salt containing an ionizable hydrogen atom; does not necessarily produce acidic
solutions.
Activation Energy
Amount of energy that must be absorbed by reactants in their ground states to
reach the transition state so that a reaction can occur.
Active Metal
Metal with low ionization energy that loses electrons readily to form cations.
Activity (of a component of ideal mixture)
A dimensionless quantity whose magnitude is: equal to molar concentration in an
ideal solution; equal to partial pressure in an ideal gas mixture; and defined as 1
for pure solids or liquids.
Activity Series
A listing of metals (and hydrogen) in order of decreasing activity
Actual Yield
Amount of a specified pure product actually obtained from a given reaction.
Compare with Theoretical Yield.
Actinides
Elements 90 to 103 (after actinium)
Acyl Group
Compound derived from a carbonic acid by replacing the --OH group with a
halogen (X), usually --Cl; general formula is O R--C--X
Addition Reaction
A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms are added to a molecule, one
on each side of a double or triple bond
Adhesive Forces
Forces of attraction between a liquid and another surface.
Adsorption
Adhesion of a species onto the surfaces of particles
Alcohol
Hydrocarbon derivative containing an --OH group attached to a carbon atom not
in an aromatic ring.
Aldehyde
Compound in which an alkyl or aryl group and a hydrogen atom are attached to a
carbonyl group and a hydrogen atom are attached to a carbonyl group; general
formula, O-R-C-H
Alkali Metals
Metals of Group IA (Na, K, Rb).
Alkaline Battery
A dry cell in which the electrolyte contains KOH.
Alkaline Earth Metals
Group IIA metals
Alkenes (Olefins)
Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds.
Alkyl Group
A group of atoms derived from an alkane by the removal of one hydrogen atom.
Alkylbenzene
A compound containing an alkyl group bonded to a benzene ring.
Alkynes
Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds.
Allotropes
Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.
Allotropic Modifications (Allotropes)
Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.
Alloying
Mixing of metal with other substances (usually other metals) to modify its
properties.
Alpha Particle
A helium nucleus.
Alpha (a) Particle
Helium ion with 2+charge; an assembly of two protons and two neutrons.
Alums
Hydrated sulfates of the general formula M+M3+(SO4)2.12H2).
Amide
Compound containing the O-C-N group.
Compound that can be considered a derivative of ammonia in which one or more
hydrogens are replaced by a alkyl or aryl groups.
Amine
Derivatives of ammonia in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been
replaced by organic groups.
Amine Complexes
Complex species that contain ammonia molecules bonded to metal ions.
Amino Acid
Compound containing both an amino and a carboxylic acid group.The --NH2
group.
:Amino Acids
Amorphous Solid
A noncrystalline solid with no well-defined ordered structure.
Ampere
Unit of electrical current; one ampere equals one coulomb per second.
Amphiprotism
Ability of a substance to exhibit amphiprotism by accepting donated protons.
Amphoterism
The ability to react with both acids and bases.
Ability of substance to act as either an acid or a base.
Anion
A negative ion; an atom or goup of atoms that has gained one or more electrons.
Anode
In a cathode ray tube, the positive electrode.
Electrode at which oxidation occurs.
Antibonding Orbital
A molecular orbital higher in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it
is derived; lends instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons;
denoted with a star (*) superscript or symbol.
Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Benzene and its derivatives.
Artificial Transmutation
An artificially induced nuclear reaction caused by the bombardment of a nucleus
with subatomic particiles or small nucei.
Aryl Group
Group of atoms remaining after a hydrogen atom is removed from the aromatic
system.
Associated Ions
Short-lived species formed by the collision of dissolved ions of opposite charges.
Atmosphere
A unit of pressure; the pressure that will support a column of mercury 760 mm
high at 0 C.
Atom
The smallest particle of an element
Atomic Mass Unit (amu)
One twelfth of a mass of an atom of the carbon-12 isotope; a unit used for stating
atomic and formula weights; also called dalton.
Atomic Number
Integral number of protons in the nucleus; defines the identity of element.
Atomic Orbital
Region or volume in space in which the probability of finding electrons is highest.
Atomic Radius
Radius of an atom.
Atomic Weight
Weighted average of the masses of the constituent isotopes of an element; The
relative masses of atoms of different elements.
Aufbau ('building up') Principle
Describes the order in which electrons fill orbitals in atoms.
Autoionization
An ionization reaction between identical molecules.
Avogadro's Law
At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain the
same number of molecules.
Avogadro's Number
The number (6.022x10^23) of atoms, molecules or particles found in exactly 1
mole of substance.
Background Radiation
Ratiation extraneous to an experiment. Usually the low-level natural radiation
form cosmic rays and trace radioactive substances present in our environment.
Band
A series of very closely spaced, nearly continuous molecular orbitals that belong
to the crystal as a whole.
Band of Stability
Band containing nonradioactive nuclides in a plot of number of neutrons versus
atomic number.
Band Theory of Metals
Theory that accounts for the bonding and properties of metallic solids.
Barometer
A device for measuring pressure.
Base
A substance that produces OH (aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong soluable
bases are soluble in water and are completely dissociated. Weak bases ionize only
slightly.
Basic Anhydride
The oxide of a metal that reacts with water to form a base.
Basic Salt
A salt containing an ionizable OH group.
Beta Particle
Electron emitted from the nucleus when a neuton decays to a proton and an
electron.
Biodegradability
The ability of a substance to be broken down into simpler substances by bacteria.
Binary Acid
A binary compound in which H is bonded to one or more of the more
electronegative nonmetals.
Binary Compound
A compound consisting of two elements; may be ionic or covalent.
Binding Energy (nuclear binding energy)
The energy equivalent (E =mc^2) of the mass deficiency of an atom.
where: E =is the energy in joules, m is the mass in kilograms, and c is the speed
of light in m/s^2
Boiling Point
The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the applied
pressure; also the condensation point
Boiling Point Elevation
The increase in the boiling point of a solvent caused by the dissolution of a
nonvolatile solute.
Bomb Calorimeter
A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings at
constant volume.
Analytical Chemistry
Bond Energy
The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of bonds of a given kind (in
gas phase).
The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of bonds in a substance,
dissociating the sustance in the gaseous state into atoms of its elements in the
gaseous state.
Bond Order
Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of
electrons in antibonding orbitals.
Bonding Orbital
A molecular orbit lower in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is
derived; lends stability to a molecule or ion when populated with electron
Bonding Pair
Pair of electrons involved in a covalent bond.
Boron Hydrides
Binary compounds of boron and hydrogen.
Born-Haber Cycle
A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when
summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their
standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the
accompanying enthalpy changes.)
Boyle's Law
At constant temperature the volume occupied by a definite mass of a gas is
inversely proportional to the applied pressure.
Breeder Reactor
A nuclear reactor that produces more fissionable nuclear fuel than it consumes.
Bronsted-Lowry Acid
A proton donor.
Bronsted-Lowry Base
A proton acceptor
Buffer Solution
Solution that resists change in pH; contains either a weak acid and a soluble ionic
salt of the acid or a weak base and a soluble ionic salt of the base.
Buret
A piece of volumetric glassware, usually graduated in 0.1-mL intervals, that is
used to deliver solutions to be used in titrations in a quantitative (dropwise)
manner.
Calorie
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water from
14.5C to 15.5C. 1 calorie =4.184 joules.
Calorimeter
A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings.
Analytical Chemistry
Canal Ray
Stream of positively charged particles (cations) that moves toward the negative
electrode in cathode ray tubes; observed to pass through canals in the negative
electrode.
Capillary
A tube having a very small inside diameter.
Capillary Action
The drawing of a liquid up the inside of a small-bore tube when adhesive forces
exceed cohesive forces, or the depression of the surface of the liquid when
cohesive forces exceed the adhesive forces.
Carbanion
An organic ion carrying a negative charge on a carbon atom.
Carbonium ion
An orgainic ion carrying a positive charge on a carbon atom.
Carcinogen
A substance capable of causing or producing cancer in mammals.
Catalyst
A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being consumed itself in
the reaction.
A substance that alters (usually increases) the rate at which a reaction occurs.
Catenation
Bonding of atoms of the same element into chains or rings.
The bonding together of atoms of the same element to form chains.
The ability of an element to bond to itself.
Cathode
Electrode at which reduction occurs
In a cathode ray tube, the negative electrode.
Cathodic Protection
Protection of a metal (making ir a cathode) against corrosion by attaching it to a
sacrifical anode of a more easily oxidized metal.
Cathode Ray Tube
Closed glass tube containing a gas under low pressure, with electrodes near the
ends and a luminescent screen at the end near the positive electrode; produces
cathode rays when high voltage is applied.
Cation
A positive ion; an atom or group of atoms that has lost one or more electrons.
Cell Potential
Potential difference, Ecell, between oxidation and reduction half-cells under
nonstandard conditions.
Central Atom
An atom in a molecule or polyatomic ion that is bonded to more than one other
atom.
Chain Reaction
A reaction that, once initiated, sustains itself and expands.
This is a reaction in which reactive species, such as radicals, are produced in more
than one step. These reactive species, radicals, propagate the chain reaction.
Chain Termination Step
The combination of two radicals, which removes the reactive species that
propagate the change reaction.
Charle's Law
At constant pressure the volume occupied by a definite mass of gas is directly
proportional to its absolute temperature.
Chemical Bonds
The attractive forces that hold atoms together in elements or compounds.
Chemical Change
A change in which one or more new substances are formed.
Chemical Equation
Description of a chemical reaction by placing the formulas of the reactants on the
left and the formulas of products on the right of an arrow.
Chemical Equilibrium
A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are
equal; there is no net change in concentrations of reactants or products while a
system is at equilibrium.
Chemical Hygiene Officer (CHO)
A person or employee who is qualified by training or experience to provide
technical guidance in the development and implementations of the provisions of a
Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP)
Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP)
A written program developed and implemented by an employer designating
proceedures, equipment, personal protective equipment, and work practices that
are capable of protecting employees from the health hazards presented by
hazardous chemicals usid in that particular workplace.
Chemical Kinetics
The study of rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions and of the factors on
which they depend.
Chemical Periodicity
The variations in properties of elements with their position in the periodic table
Cis-
The prefix used to indicate that groups are located on the same side of a bon about
which rotation is restricted.
Cis-Trans Isomerism
A type of geometrical isomerism related to the angles between like ligands.
Clay
A class of silicate and aluminosilicate minerals with sheet-like structures that
have enormous surface areas that can absorb large amounts of water.
Cloud Chamber
A device for observing the paths of speeding particiles as vapor molecules
condense on them to form foglike tracks.
Coefficient of expansion
The ratio of the change in length or volumen of a body to the original lengthor
volume for a unit change in temperature.
Cohesive Forces
All the forces of attraction among particles of a liquid.
Coke
An impure form of carbon obtained by destructive distillation of coal or
petroleum.
Colligative Properties
Physical properties of solutions that depend upon the number but not the kind of
solute particles present.
Collision Theory
Theory of reaction rates that states that effective collisions between reactant
molecules must occur in order for the reaction to occur.
Colloid
A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles do not settle out.
Combination Reaction
Reaction in which two substances ( elements or compounds ) combine to form
one compound.
Reaction of a substance with oxygen in a highly exothermic reaction, usually with
a visible flame.
Combustible
Classification of liquid substances that will burn on the basis of flash points. A
combustible liquid means any liquid having a flash point at or above 37.8C
(100F) but below 93.3C (200F), except any mixture having components with
flash points of 93.3C (200F) or higher, the total of which makes up 99 percent
or more of the total volume of the mixture.
Common Ion Effect
Suppression of ionization of a weak electrolyte by the presence in the same
solution of a strong electrolyte containing one of the same ions as the weak
electrolyte.
Complex Ions
Ions resulting from the formation of coordinate covalent bonds between simple
ions and other ions or molecules.
Composition Stoichiometry
Descibes the quantitative (mass) relationships among elements in compounds.
Compound
A substance of two or more elements in fixed proportions. Compounds can be
decomposed into their constituent elements.
Compounds
Compressed Gas
A gas or mixture of gases having, in a container an absolute pressure exceeding
40 psi at 21.1C (70F)
A gass or mixture having in a container, an absolute pressure exceeding 104 psi at
54.4C (130F) regardless of the pressure at (21.1C (70F)
A liquid having a vapour pressure exceeding 40 psi at 37.8C (70F) as
determined by ASTM D-323-72.
Concentration
Amount of solute per unit volume or mass of solvent or of solution.
Condensation
Liquefaction of vapor.
Condensed Phases
The liquid and solid phases; phases in which particles interact strongly.
Condensed States
The solid and liquid states.
Conduction Band
A partially filled band or a band of vacant energy levels just higher in energy than
a filled band; a band within which, or into which, electrons must be promoted to
allow electrical conduction to occur in a solid.
Conjugate Acid-base Pair
In Bronsted-Lowry terminology, a reactant and product that differ by a proton,
H+.
Conformations
Structures of a compound that differ by the extent of rotation about a single bond.
Continuous Spectrum
Spectrum that contains all wave-lengths in a specified region of the
electromagnetic spectrum.
Control Rods
Rods of materials such as cadmium or boron steel that act as neutron obsorbers
(not merely moderaters) used in nuclear reactors to control neutron fluxes and
therfore rates of fission.
Conjugated Double Bonds
Double bonds that are separated from each other by one single bond -C=C-C=C-.
Contact Process
Industrial process by which sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid are produced from
sulfur dioxide.
Coordinate Covalent Bond
Covalent bond in which both shared electrons are furnished by the same species;
bond between a Lewis acid and Lewis base.
Coordinate Covalent Bond
A covalent bond in which both shared electrons are donated by the same atom; a
bond between a Lewis base and a Lewis acid.
Coordination Compound or Complex
A compound containing coordinate covalent bonds.
Coordination Isomers
Isomers involving exchanges of ligands between complex cation and complex
anion of the same compound.
Coordination Number
In describing crystals, the number of nearest neighbours of an atom or ion.
The number of donor atoms coordinated to a metal.
Coordination Sphere
The metal ion and its coordinating ligands but not any uncoordinated counter-
ions.
Corrosion
Oxidation of metals in the presence of air and moisture.
Corrosion
Coulomb
Unit of electrical charge.
Coulometry
The quantitative application of Faraday's Law to the analysis of materials. The
current and time are the usual variables measured.
Covalent Bond
Chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electron pairs between two
atoms.
Covalent Compounds
Compounds containing predominantly covalent bonds.
Critical Mass
The minimum mass of a particular fissionable nuclide in a given volume required
to sustain a nuclear chain reaction.
Critical Point
The combination of critical temperature and critical pressure of a substance.
Critical Pressure
The pressure required to liquefy a gas (vapor) at its critical temperature.
Critical Temperature
The temperature above which a gas cannot be liquefied; the temperature above
which a substance cannot exhibit distinct gas and liquid phases.
Crystal Field Stabilization Energy
A measure of the net energy of stabilization gained by a metal ion's nonbonding d
electrons as a result of complex formation.
Crystallography
Crystal Field Theory
Theory of bonding in transition metal complexes in which ligands and metal ions
are treated as point charges; a purely ionic model; ligand point charges represent
the crystal (electrical) field perturbing the metal?s d orbitals containing
nonbonding electrons.
Crystal Lattice
A pattern of arrangement of particles in a crystal.
Crystallography
Crystal Lattice Energy
Amount of energy that holds a crystal together; the energy change when a mole of
solid is formed from its constituent molecules or ions (for ionic compounds) in
their gaseous state.
The energy charge when one mole of formula units of a crystalline solid is formed
from its ions, atoms, or molecules in the gas phase; always negative.
Crystallography
Crystalline Solid
A solid characterized by a regular, ordered arrangement of particles.
Crystallography
Curie (Ci)
The basic unit used to describe the intensity of radioactivity in a sample of
material. One curie equals 37 billion disintegrations per second or approximately
the amount of radioactivty given off by 1 gram of radium.
Cyclotron
A device for accelerating charged particles along a spiral path.
Daughter Nuclide
Nuclide that is produced in a nuclear decay.
Debye
The unit used to express dipole moments.
Degenerate
Of the same energy.
Delocalization
Of electrons; refers to bonding electrons that are distributed among more than two
atoms that are bonded together; occurs in species that exhibit resonance.
The formation of a set of molecular orbitals that extend over more than two
atoms; important in species that valence bond theory describes in terms of
resonance.
Denaturation
A process pertaining to a change in structure of a protein form regular to irregular
arrangement of the polypeptide chains.
Denatured
A commercial term used to describe ethanol that has been rendered unfit for
human consumption because of the addition of harmful ingredients to make it
sales tax-expempt.
Density
Mass per unit Volume: D=MV
Deposition
The direct solidification of a vapor by cooling; the reverse of sublimation.
Derivative
A compound that can be imagined to arise from a partent compound by
replacement of one atom with another atom or group of atoms. Used extensively
in orgainic chemistry to assist in identifying compounds.
Dermal toxicity
Adverse health effects resulting from skin exposure ot a substance.
Designated area
An area that may be used for work with carcinogens, reproductive toxins, or
substances that have a high degree of acute toxicity. A designated area may be the
entire laboratory, an area of a laboratory, or a device such as a loboratory hood.
Detergent
A soap-like emulsifer that contains a sulfate, SO
3
or a phosphate group instead of
a carboxylate group.
Deuterium
An isotope of hydrogen whose atoms are twice as massive as ordinary
hydrogen;deuterion atoms contain both a proton and a neutron in the nucleus.
Dextrorotatory
Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the plane of plane polarized
light clockwise; also called dextro.
Diagonal Similarities
Refers to chemical similarities in the Periodic Table of elements of Period 2 to
elements of Period 3 one group to the right; especially evident toward the left of
the periodic table.
Diamagnetism
Weak repulsion by a magnetic field.
Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
A technique for measuring the temperature, direction, and magnitude of thermal
transitions in a sample material by heating/cooling and comparing the amount of
energy required to maintain its rate of temperature increase or decrease with an
inert reference material under similar conditions.
Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA)
A technique for observing the temperature, direction, and magnitude of thermally
induced transitions in a material by heating/cooling a sample and comparing its
temperature with that of an inert reference material under similar conditions.
Differential Thermometer
A thermometer used for accurate measurement of very small changes in
temperature.
Dilution
Process of reducing the concentration of a solute in solution, usually simply by
mixing with more solvent.
Dimer
Molecule formed by combination of two smaller (identical) molecules.
Dipole
Refers to the separation of charge between two covalently bonded atoms
Dipole-dipole Interactions
Attractive interactions between polar molecules, that is, between molecules with
permanent dipoles.
Dipole Moment
The product of the distance separating opposite charges of equal magnitude of the
charge; a measure of the polarity of a bond or molecule; a measured dipole
moment refers to the dipole moment of an entire molecule.
Dispersing Medium
The solvent-like phase in a colloid.
Dispersed Phase
The solute-like species in a colloid.
Displacement Reactions
Reactions in which one element displaces another from a compound.
Disproportionation Reactions
Redox reactions in which the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent are the same
species.
Dissociation
In aqueous solution, the process in which a solid ionic compound separates into
its ions.
Dissociation Constant
Equilibrium constant that applies to the dissociation of a comples ion into a
simple ion and coordinating species (ligands).
Distilland
The material in a distillation apparatus that is to be distilled.
Distillate
The material in a distillation apparatus that is collected in the receiver.
Distillation
The separation of a liquid mixture into its components on the basis of differences
in boiling points.
The process in which components of a mixture are separated by boiling away the
more volitile liquid.
Domain
A cluster of atoms in a ferromagnetic substance, all of which align in the same
direction in the presence of an external magnetic field.
Donor Atom
A ligand atom whose electrons are shared with a Lewis acid.
D-Orbitals
Beginning in the third energy level, aset of five degenerate orbitals per energy
level, higher in energy than s and p orbitals of the same energy level.
Dosimeter
A small, calibrated electroscope worn by laboratory personnel and designated to
detect and measure incident ionizing radiation or chemical exposure.
Double Bond
Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of four electrons (two pairs) between
two atoms.
Double Salt
Solid consisting of two co-crystallized salts.
Doublet
Two peaks or bands of about equal intensity appearing close together on a
spectrogram.
Downs Cell
Electrolytic cell for the commercial electrolysis of molten sodium chloride.
DP number
The degree of polymerization; the average number of monomer units per polymer
unit.
Dry Cells
Ordinary batteries (voltaic cells) for flashlights. radios, and so on; many are
Leclanche cells.
D -Transition elements (metals)
B Group elements except IIB in the periodic table; sometimes called simply
transition elements EX. Fe, Ni, Cu, Ti .

Dumas Method
A method used to determine the molecular weights of volatile liquids.
Dynamic Equilibrium
An equilibrium in which processes occur continuously, with no net change.
When two (or more) processes occur at the same rate so that no net change
occurs.
Effective Collisons
Collision between molecules resulting in a reaction; one in which the molecules
collide with proper relative orientations and sufficient energy to react.
Effective Molality
The sum of the molalities of all solute particles in a solution.
Effective Nuclear Charge
The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom; the actual
nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx
2
-y
2
and dz
2
orbitals; those d orbitals within a set with lobes
directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.
Electrical Conductivity
Ability to conduct electricity.
Electrochemistry
Study of chemical changes produced by electrical current and the production of
electricity by chemical reactions.
Electrodes
Surfaces upon which oxidation and reduction half-reactions; occur in
electrochemical cells.
Electrode Potentials
Potentials, E, of half-reactions as reductions versus the standard hydrogen
electrode.
Electrolysis
Process that occurs in electrolytic cells.
Electrolyte
A substance whose aqueous solutions conduct electricity.
Electrolytic Cells
Electrochemical cells in which electrical energy causes nospontaneous redox
reactions to occur.
An electrochemical cell in which chemical reactions are forced to occur by the
application of an outside source of electrical energy.
Electrolytic Conduction
Conduction of electrical current by ions through a solution or pure liquid.
Electromagnetic Radiation
Energy that is propagated by means of electric and magnetic fields that oscillate
in directions perpendicular to the direction of travel of the energy.
Electromotive Series
The relative order of tendencies for elements and their simple ions to act as
oxidizing or reducing agents; also called the activity series.
Electron
A subatomic particle having a mass of 0.00054858 amu and a charge of 1-.
Electron Affinity
The amount of energy absorbed in the process in which an electron is added to a
neutral isolated gaseous atom to form a gaseous ion with a 1- charge; has a
negative value if energy is released.
Electron Configuration
Specific distribution of electrons in atomic orbitals of atoms or ions.
Electron Deficient Compounds
Compounds that contain at least one atom (other than H) that shares fewer than
eight electrons
Electronic Transition
The transfer of an electron from one energy level to another.
Electronegativity
A measure of the relative tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself when
chemically combined with another atom.
Electronic Geometry
The geometric arrangement of orbitals containing the shared and unshared
electron pairs surrounding the central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.
Electrophile
Positively charged or electron-deficient.
Electrophoresis
A technique for separation of ions by rate and direction of migration in an electric
field.
Electroplating
Plating a metal onto a (cathodic) surface by electrolysis.
Element
A substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical
means.
Eluant or eluent
The solvent used in the process of elution, as in liquid chromatography.
Eluate
Solvent (or mobile phase) which passes through a chromatographic column and
removes the sample components from the stationary phase.
Emission Spectrum
Spectrum associated with emission of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or
other species) resulting from electronic transitions from higher to lower energy
states.
Emulsifying Agent
A sustance that coats the particles of the dispersed phase and prevents coagulation
of colloidal particles; an emulsifier.
Emulsion
Colloidal suspension of a liquid in a liquid.
Enantiomer
One of the two mirror-image forms of an optically active molecule.
Endothermic
Describes processes that absorb heat energy.
Endothermicity
The absorption of heat by a system as the process occurs.
End Point
The point at which an indicator changes colour and a titration is stopped.
Energy
The capacity to do work or transfer heat.
Enthalpy
The heat content of a specific amount of substance; defined as E=PV.
Entropy
A thermodynamic state or property that measures the degree of disorder or
randomness of a system.
Enzyme
A protein that acts as a catalyst in biological systems.
Equation of State
An equation that describes the behavior of matter in a given state; the van der
Waals equation describes the behavior of the gaseous state.
Equilibrium or Chemical Equilibrium
A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are
equal; the state of a system when neither forward or reverse reaction is
thermodynamically favored.
Equilibrium Constant
A quantity that characterizes the position of equilibrium for a reversible reaction;
its magnitude is equal to the mass action expression at equilibrium. K varies with
temperature.
Equivalence Point
The point at which chemically equivalent amounts of reactants have reacted.
Equivalent Weight
An oxidizing or reducing agent, who's mass gains (oxidizing agents) or loses
(reducing agents) 6.022 x 10
23
electrons in a redox reaction.
The mass of an acid or base that furnishes or reacts with 6.022 x 10
23
H
3
O+or
OH- ions.
Essential Oil
A plant extract that has a distinctive odour or flavour.
Ester
A Compound of the general formula R-C-O-R1 where R and R1 may be the same
or different, and may be either aliphatic or aromatic.
Ether
Compound in which an oxygen atom is bonded to two alkyl or two aryl groups, or
one alkyl and one aryl group.
Eutrophication
The undesirable overgrowth of vegetation caused by high concentrates of plant
nutrients in bodies of water.
Evaporization
Vaporization of a liquid below its boiling point.
Evaporation Rate
The rate at which a particular substance will vapourize (evaporate) when
compared to the rate of a known substance such as ethyl ether. This term is
especially useful for health and fire-hazard considerations.
Excited State
Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.
Exothermic
Describes processes that release heat energy.
Exothermicity
The release of heat by a system as a process occurs.
Explosive
A chemical or compound that causes a sudden, almost instantaneous release or
pressure, gas, heat and light when subjected to sudden shock, pressure, high
temperature or applied potential.
Explosive limits
The range of concentrations over which a flammable vapour mixed with proper
ratios of air will ignite or explode if a source of ignitions is provided.
Extensive Property
A property that depends upon the amount of material in a sample.
Extrapolate
To estimate the value of a result outside the range of a series of known values.
Technique used in standard additions calibration procedure.
Faraday
One faraday of electricity corresponds to the charge on 6.022 x 10
23
electrons, or
96,487 coulombs.
Faraday's Law of Electrolysis
One equivalent weight of a substance is produced at each electrode during the
passage of 96,487 coulombs of charge through an electrolytic cell.
Fast Neutron
A neutron ejected at high kinetic energy in a nuclear reaction.
Fat
Solid triester of glycerol and (mostly) saturated fatty acids.
Fatty Acids
An aliphatic acid; many can obtained from animal fats.
Ferromagnetism
The ability of a substance to become permanently magnetized by exposure to an
external magnetic field.
Film badge
A small patch of photographic film worn on clothing to detect and measure
accumulated incident ionizing radiation.
Flammable
A liquid as defined by NFPD and DOT as having a flash point below 37.8C
(100F).
Flash Point
The temperature at which a liquid will yield enough flamable vapour to ignite.
There are various recognized industrial testing methods; therefore the method
used must be stated.
Fluorescence
Absorption of high energy radiation by a substance and subsequent emission of
visible light.
Fossil Fuels
Substances consisting largely of hydrocarbons, derived from decay of organic
materials under geological conditions of high pressure and temperature
(metamorphism) include coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat and oil shale.
Fuel Chemistry
Frasch Process
Method by which elemental sulfur is mined or extracted. Sulfur is melted with
superheated water (at 170C under high pressure) and forced to the surface of the
earth as a slurry.
First Law of Thermodynamics
The total amount of energy in the universe is constant (also known as the Law of
Conservation of Energy) energy is neither created nor destroyed in ordinary
chemical reactions and physical changes.
Thermochemistry
Flotation
Method by which hydrophobic (water-repelling) particles of an ore are separated
from hydrophilic (water-attracting) particles of a metallurgical pretreatment
process.
Fluids
Substances that flow freely; gases and liquids.
Flotation
Flux
A substance added to react with the charge, or a product of its reduction, in
metallurgy; usually added to lower a melting point.
Foam
Colloidal suspension of a gas in a liquid.
Forbidden Zone
A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron
energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth
energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy
than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.
Formal Charge
A method of counting electrons in a covalently bonded molecule or ion; counts
bonding electrons as though they were equally shared between the two atoms.
Formula
Combination of symbols that indicates the chemical composition of a substance.
Formula Unit
The smallest repeating unit of a substance. The molecule for nonionic substances
Formula Weight
The mass of one formula unit of a substance in atomic mass units.
Fractional Distillation
The process in which a fractioning column is used in distillation apparatus to
separate components of a liquid mixture that have different boiling points.
Fractional Precipitation
Removal of some ions from solution by precipitation while leaving other ions
with similar properties in solution.
Free Energy, Gibbs Free Energy
The thermodynamic state function of a system that indicates the amount of energy
available for the system to do useful work at constant T and P.
Free Energy Change
The indicator of spontaneity of a process at constnt T and P. If delta-G is
negative, the process is spontaneous.
Free Radical
A highly reactive chemical species carrying no charge and having a single
unpaired electron in an orbital.
Freezing Point Depression
The decrease in the freezing point of a solvent caused by the presence of a solute.
Frequency
The number of repeating corresponding points on a wave that pass a given
observation point per unit time.
Fuel Cells
Voltaic cells in which the reactants (usually gases) are supplied continuously.
A voltaic cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidizing agent
directly into electriacl energy on a continuous basis.
Functional Group
A group of atoms that represents a potential reaction site in an organic compound.
Gamma Ray
High energy electromagnetic radiation.
A highly penetrating type of nuclear radiation similar to x-ray radiation, except
that it comes from within the nucleus of an atom and has a higher energy.
Energywise, very similar to cosmic ray except that cosmic rays originate from
outer space.
Galvanizing
Placing a thin layer of zinc on a ferrous material to protect the underlying surface
from corrosion.
Gangue
Sand, rock, and other impurities surrounding the mineral of interest in an ore.
Geiger counter
A gas filled tube which discharges electriaclly when ionizing radiation passes
through it.
Gel
Colloidal suspension of a solid dispersed in a liquid; a semirigid solid.
Gem-dimethyl group
Two methyl groups of the same carbon atom.
Geometrical Isomers
Compounds with different arrangements of groups on either side of a bond with
restricted rotation, such as a double bond or a single bond in a ring; for example
cis-trans isomers of certain alkenes.
Stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other; also known as position
isomers.
Graham's Law
The rates of effusion of gases are inversely proportional to the square roots of
their molecular weights or densities.
Greenhouse Effect
Trapping of heat at the surface of the earth by carbon dioxide and water vapour in
the atmosphere.
Ground State
The lowest energy state or most stable state of an atom, molecule or ion.
Group
A vertical column in the periodic table; also called a family.
Haber Process
A process for the catalyzed industrial production of ammonia from N
2
and H
2
at
high temperature and pressure.
Half-Cell
Compartment in which the oxidation or reduction half-reaction occurs in a voltaic
cell.
Half-Life
The time required for half of a reactant to be converted into product(s).
The time required for half of a given sample to undergo radioactive decay.
Half-Reaction
Either the oxidation part or the reduction part of a redox reaction.
Halogens
Group VIIA elements: F, Cl, Br, I
Hard Water
Water containing Fe
3+
, Ca
2+
, and Mg
2+
ions, which forms precipates with soap.
Heat
A form of energy that flows between two samples of matter because of their
differences in temperature.
Heat Capacity
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a body (of any mass) one
degree Celsius.
Heat of Condensation
The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a vapor at it's
condensation point to condense the vapour with no change in temperature.
Heat of Crystallization
The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a liquid at its freezing
point to freeze it with no change in temperature.
Heat of Fusion
The amount of heat required to melt one gram of solid at its melting point with no
change in temperature. Usually expressed in J /g. The molar heat of fusion is the
amount of heat required to melt one mole of a solid at its melting point with no
change in temperature and is usually expressed in kJ /mol.
Heat of Solution
The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of solution that contains one mole
of solute; the value is positive if heat is absorbed (endothermic) and negative if
heat is released (exothermic).
Heat of Vaporization
The amount of heat required to vaporize one gram of a liquid at its boiling point
with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J /g. The molar heat of
vaporization is the amount of heat required to vaporize one mole of liquid at its
boiling point with no change in temperature and usually expressed ion kJ /mol.
Heavy Water
Water containing deuterium, a heavy isotope of hydrogen.
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
It is impossible to determine accurately both the momentum and position of an
electron simultaneously.
Henry's Law
The pressure of the gas above a solution is proportional to the concentration of the
gas in the solution.
Hess' Law of Heat Summation
The enthalpy change for a reaction is the same whether it occurs in one step or a
series of steps.
Heterocyclic Amine
Amine in which the nitrogen is part of a ring.
Heterocyclic Chemistry
Heterogeneous Catalyst
A catalyst that exists in a different phase (solid, liquid or gas) from the reactants;
a contact catalyst.
Heterogeneous Equilibria
Equilibria involving species in more than one phase.
Heterogeneous Mixture
A mixture that does not have uniform composition and properties throughout.
Heteronuclear
Consisting of different elements.
High Spin Complex
Crystal field designation for an outer orbital complex; all t2g and eg orbitals are
singly occupied before any pairing occurs.
Homogeneous Catalyst
A catalyst that exists in the same phase (solid, liquid or gas) as the reactants.
Catalysis
Homogeneous Equilibria
Equilibria involving only one species in a single phase. For example, all gases, all
liquids or all solids.
Homogeneous Mixture
A mixture which has uniform composition and properties throughout.
Homologous Series
A series of compounds in which each member differs from the next by a specific
number and kind of atoms.
Homonuclear
Consisting of only one element.
Hund's Rule
All orbitals of a given sublevel must be occupied by single electrons before
pairing begins (see Aufbau Principle)
Hybridization
Mixing a set of atomic orbitals to form a new set of atomic orbitals with the same
total electron capacity and with properties and energies intermediate between
those of the original unhybridized orbitals.
Hydrate
A solid compound that contains a definite percentage of bound water.
Hydrate Isomers
Isomers of crystalline complexes that differ in whether water is present inside or
outside the coordination sphere
Hydration
Reaction of a substance with water.
Hydration Energy
The energy change accompanying the hydration of a mole of gase and ions.
Hydride
A binary compound of hydrogen.
Hydrocarbons
Compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen.
Hydrogen Bond
A fairly strong dipole-dipole interaction (but still considerably weaker than the
covalent or ionic bonds) between molecules containing hydrogen directly bonded
to a small, highly electronegative atom, such as N, O, or F.
Hydrogenation
The reaction in which hydrogen adds across a double or triple bond.
Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell
Fuel cell in which hydrogen is the fuel (reducing agent) and oxygen is the
oxidizing agent.
Hydrolysis
The reaction of a substance with water or its ions.
Hydrolysis Constant
An equilibrium constant for a hydrolysis reaction.
Hydrometer
A device used to measure the densities of liquids and solutions.
Hydrophilic Colloids
Colloidal particles that repel water molecules.
Inner Orbital Complex
Valence bond designation for a complex in which the metal ion utilizes d orbitals
for one shell inside the outermost occupied shell in its hybridization.
Isomers
Different substances that have the same formula.
Ionization Isomers
Isomers that result from the interchange of ions inside and outside the
coordination sphere.
Inert s-pair Effect
Characteristic of the post-transition minerals; tendency of the outermost s
electrons to remain nonionized or un shared in compounds.
Insoluble Compound
A very slightly soluble compound.
Indicators
For acid-base titrations, organic compounds that exhibit different colors in
solutions of different acidities; used to determine the point at which reaction
between two solutes is complete.
Ionization Constant
Equilibrium constant for the ionization of a weak electrolyte.
Ion Product for Water
Equilibrium constant for the ionization of water, Kw =[H
3
O
+
][OH
-
] =1.00 x 10-
14 at 25 C.
Inhibitory Catalyst
An inhibitor, a catalyst that decreases the rate of reaction.
Integrated Rate Equation
An equation giving the concentration of a reactant remaining after a specified
time; has different mathematical form for different orders of reactants.
Ioniztion
The breaking up of a compound into separate ions.
Ideal Solution
A solution that obeys Raoult's Law exactly.
Insulator
Poor electric and heat conductor.
Intermolecular Forces
Forces between individual particles (atoms, molecules, ions) of a substance.
Isomorphous
Refers to crystals having the same atomic arrangement.

Ideal Gas
A hypothetical gas that obeys exactly all postulates of the kinetic-molecular
theory.
Ideal Gas Law
The product of pressure and the volume of an ideal gas is directly proportional to
the number of moles of the gas and the absolute temperature.
Ionization
In aqueous solution, the process in which a molecular compound reacts with
water and forms ions.
Ionic Bonding
Chemical bonding resulting from the transfer of one or more electrons from one
atom or a group of atoms to another.
Ionic Compunds
Compounds containing predominantly ionic bonding.
Ionic Geometry
The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) about the central atom of a
polyatomic ion.
Isoelectric
Having the same electronic configurations
Ionization Energy
The minimum amount of energy required to remove the most loosely held
electron of an isolated gaseous atom or ion.
Isotopes
Two or more forms of atoms of the same element with different masses; atoms
containing the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
Ion
An atom or a group of atoms that carries an electric charge.
J oule
A unit of energy in the SI system. One joule is 1 kg. m2/s2 which is also 0.2390
calorie
K Capture
Absorption of a K shell (n=1) electron by a proton as it is converted to a neutron.
Ketone
Compound in which a carbonyl group is bound to two alkyl or two aryl groups, or
to one alkyl and one aryl group.
Kinetic Energy
Energy that matter processes by virtue of its motion.
Kinetic-molecular Theory
A theory, that attempts to explain macroscopic observations on gases in
microscopic observations on gases in microscopic observations on gases in
microscopic or molecular terms.
Lanthanides
Elements 58 to 71 (after lanthanum)
Lanthanide Contraction
A decrease in the radii of the elements following the lanthanides compared to
what would be expected if there were no f-transition metals.
Law of Combining Volumes (Gay-Lussac's Law)
At constant temperature and pressure, the volumes of reacting gases ( and any
gaseous products) can be expressed as ratios of small whole numbers;
Law of Conservation of Energy
Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it may be changed from one form to
another.
Law of Conservation of Matter
There is no detectable change in the quantity of matter during an ordinary
chemical reaction.
Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy
The total amount of matter and energy available in the universe is fixed.
Law of Definite Proportions (Law of Constant Composition)
Different samples of a pure compound always contain the same elements in the
same proportions by mass.
Law of Partial Pressures (Dalton's Law)
The total pressure exerted by a mixature of gases is the sum of the partial
pressures of the individual gases.
Lead Storage Battery
Secondary voltaic cell used in most automobiles.
Leclanche Cell
A common type of dry cell.
Le Chatelier's Principle
States that a system at equilibrium, or striving to attain equilibrium, responds in
such a way as to counteract any stress placed upon it.
If a stress (change of conditions) is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system
shifts in the direction that reduces stress.
Leveling Effect
Effect by which all acids stronger than the acid that is characteristic of the solvent
react with solvent to produce that acid; similar statement applies to bases. The
strongest acid (base) that can exist in a given solvent is the acid (base)
characteristic of the solvent.
Levorotatory
Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the plane of plane polarized
light counterclockwise; also called levo.
Lewis Acid
Any species that can accept a share in an electron pair.
Lewis Base
Any species that can make available a share in an electron pair.
Lewis Dot Formula (Electron Dot Formula)
Representation of a molecule, ion or formula unit by showing atomic symbols and
only outer shell electrons
Ligand
A Lewis base in a coordination compound.
Limiting Reactant
Substance that stoichiometrically limits the amount of product(s) that can be
formed.
Linear Accelerator
A device used for accelerating charged particles along a straight line path.
Line Spectrum
An atomic emission or absorption spectrum.
Linkage Isomers
Isomers in which a particular ligand bonds to a metal ion through different donor
atoms.
Liquid Aerosol
Colloidal suspension of liquid in gas.
London Forces
Very weak and very short-range attractive forces between short-lived temporary
(induced) dipoles; also called dispersion Forces.
Lone Pair
Pair of electrons residing on one atom and not shared by other atoms; unshared
pair.
Low Spin Complex
Crystal field designation for an inner orbital complex; contains electrons paired
t2g orbitals before eg orbitals are occupied in octahedral complexes.
Magnetic Quantum Number (mc)
Quantum mechanical solution to a wave equation that designates the particular
orbital within a given set (s, p, d, f ) in which a electron resides.
Manometer
A two-armed barometer.
Mass
A measure of the amount of matter in an object. Mass is usually measured in
grams or kilograms.
Mass Action Expression
For a reversible reaction, aA +bB cC +dD the product of the concentrations of
the products (species on the right), each raised to the power that corresponds to its
coefficient in the balanced chemical equation, divided by the product of the
concentrations of reactants (species on the left), each raised to the power that
corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation. At equilibrium
the mass action expression is equal to K; at other times it is Q.[C]c[D]d [A]a[B]b
=Q, or at equilibrium K
Mass Deficiency
The amount of matter that would be converted into energy if an atom were formed
from constituent particles.
Mass Number
The sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in an atom; an integer.
Mass Spectrometer
An instrument that measures the charge-to-mass ratio of charged particles.
Matter
Anything that has mass and occupies space.
Mechanism
The sequence of steps by which reactants are converted into products.
Melting Point
The temperature at which liquid and solid coexist in equilibrium; also the freezing
point.
Meniscus
The shape assumed by the surface of a liquid in a cylindrical container.
Metal
An element below and to the left of the stepwise division (metalloids) in the upper right
corner of the periodic table; about 80% of the known elements are metals.
Metallic Bonding
Bonding within metals due to the electrical attraction of positively charges metal
ions for mobile electrons that belong to the crystal as a whole.
Metallic Conduction
Conduction of electrical current through a metal or along a metallic surface.
Metalloids
Elements with properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals: B, Al, Si,
Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, and At.
Metallurgy
Refers to the overall processes by which metals are extracted from ores.
Metathesis Reactions
Reactions in which two compounds react to form two new compounds, with no
changes in oxidation number. Reactions in which the ions of two compounds
exchange partners.
Method of Initial Rates
Method of determining the rate-law expression by carrying out a reaction with
different initial concentrations and analyzing the resultant changes in initial rates.
Miscibility
The ability of one liquid to mix with (dissolve in) another liquid.
Mixture
A sample of matter composed of two or more substances, each of which retains its
identity and properties.
Moderator
A substance such as hydrogen, deuterium, oxygen or paraffin capable of slowing
fast nuetrons upon collision.
Molality
Concentration expressed as number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Molarity
Number of moles of solute per litre of solution.
Molar Solubility
Number of moles of a solute that dissolve to produce a litre of saturated solution.
Molecular Equation
Equation for a chemical reaction in which all formulas are written as if all
substances existed as molecules; only complete formulas are used.
Molecular Formula
Formula that indicates the actual number of atoms present in a molecule of a
molecular substance.
Molecular Geometry
The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) around a central atom of a
molecule or polyatomic ion.
Molecular Orbital
An orbit resulting from overlap and mixing of atomic orbitals on different atoms.
An MO belongs to the molecule as a whole.
Molecular Orbital Theory
A theory of chemical bonding based upon the postulated existence of molecular
orbitals.
Molecular Weight
The mass of one molecule of a nonionic substance in atomic mass units.
Molecule
The smallest particle of an element or compound capable of a stable, independent
existence.
Mole Fraction
The number of moles of a component of a mixture divided by the total number of
moles in the mixture.
Monoprotic Acid
Acid that can form only one hydronium ion per molecule; may be strong or weak.
Acid that contains one ionizable hydrogen atom per formula unit.
Mother Nuclide
Nuclide that undergoes nuclear decay.
Native State
Refers to the occurrence of an element in an uncombined or free state in nature.
Natural Radioactivity
Spontaneous decomposition of an atom.
Nernst Equation
Corrects standard electrode potentials for nonstandard conditions.
Net Ionic Equation
Equation that results from canceling spectator ions and eliminating brackets from
a total ionic equation.
Neutralization
The reaction of an acid with a base to form a salt and water. Usually, the reaction
of hydrogen ions with hydrogen ions to form water molecules.
Neutron
A neutral subatomic particle having a mass of 1.0087 amu.
Nickel-cadmium cell (Nicad battery)
A dry cell in which the anode is Cd, the cathode is NiO2, and the electrolyte is
basic.
Nitrogenases
A class of enzymes found in bacteria within root nodules in some plants, which
catalyze reactions by which N2 molecules from the air are converted to ammonia.
Nitrogen Cycle
The complex series of reactions by which nitrogen is slowly but continually
recycled in the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere.
Noble Gases (Rare Gases)
Elements of the periodic Group 0; also called rare gases; formerly called inert
gases, He,Ne,Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn.
Nodal Plane
A region in which the probability of finding an electron is zero.
Nonbonding Orbital
A molecular orbital derived only from an atomic orbital of one atom; lends
neither stability nor instability to a molecule or ion when populated with
electrons.
Nonelectrolyte
A substance whose aqueous solutions do not conduct electricity.
Nonpolar Bond
Covalent bond in which electron density is symmetrically distributed
Nuclear Binding Energy
Energy equivalent of the mass deficiency; energy released in the formation of an
atom from the subatomic particles.
Nuclear Fission
The process in which a heavy nucleus splits into nuclei of intermediate masses
and one or more protons are emitted.
Nuclear Reaction
Involves a change in the composition of a nucleus and can evolve or absorb an
extraordinarily large amount of energy
Nuclear Reactor
A system in which controlled nuclear fisson reactions generate heat energy on a
large scale, which is subsequently converted into electrical energy.
Nucleons
Particles comprising the nucleus; protons and neutrons.
Nucleus
The very small, very dense, positively charged center of an atom containing
protons and neutrons, as well as other subatomic particles.
Nuclides
Refers to different atomic forms of all elements in contrast to ?isotopes?, which
refer only to different atomic forms of a single element.
Nuclide Symbol
Symbol for an atom A/Z E, in which E is the symbol of an element, Z is its atomic
number, and A is its mass number.
Octahedral
A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the
center and six atoms at the corners of a octahedron.
Octane Number
A number that indicates how smoothly a gasoline burns.
Octet Rule
Many representative elements attain at least a share of eight electrons in their
valence shells when they form molecular or ionic compounds; there are some
limitations.
Oil
Liquid triester of glycerol and unsaturated fatty acids.
Open Sextet
Refers to species that have only six electrons in the highest energy level of the
central element (many Lewis acids).
Optical Activity
The rotation of plane polarized light by one of a pair of optical isomers.
Optical Isomers
Stereoisomers that differ only by being nonsuperimposable mirror images of each
other, like right and left hands, also called enantiomers.
Ore
A natural deposit containing a mineral of an element to be extracted.
Organic Chemistry
The chemistry of substances that contain carbon-hydrogen bonds.
Osmosis
The process by which solvent molecules pass through a semipermable membrane
from a dilute solution into a more concentrated solution.
Osmotic Pressure
The hydrostatic pressure produced on the surface of a semipermable membrane
by osmosis.
Ostwald Process
A process for the industrial production of nitrogen oxide and nitric acid from
ammonia and oxygen.
Outer Orbital Complex
Valence bond designation for a complex in which the metal ion utilizes d orbitals
in the outermost (occupied) shell in hybridization.
Overlap
The interaction of orbitals on different atoms in the same region of space.
Oxidation
An algebraic increase in the oxidation number; may correspond to a loss of
electrons.
Oxidation Numbers
Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and
balancing equations; for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the
ion; more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also
called Oxidation states).
Oxidation-reduction Reactions
Reactions in which oxidation and reduction occur; also called redox reactions.
Oxide
A binary compound of oxygen.
Oxidizing Agent
The substance that oxidizes another substance and is reduced.
Pairing
A favourable interaction of two electrons with opposite m , values in the same
orbital.
Pairing Energy
Energy required to pair two electrons in the same orbital.
Paramagnetism
Attraction toward a magnetic field, stronger than diamagnetism, but still weak
compared to ferromagnetism.
Partial Pressure
The pressure exerted by one gas in a mixture of gases.
Particulate Matter
Fine divided solid particles suspended in polluted air.
Pauli Exclusion Principle
No two electrons in the same atom may have identical sets of four quantum
numbers.
Percentage Ionization
The percentage of the weak electrolyte that ionizes in a solution of given
concentration.
Percent by Mass
100% times the actual yield divided by theoretical yield.
Percent Composition
The mass percent of each element in a compound.
Percent Purity
The percent of a specified compound or element in an impure sample.
Period
The elements in a horizontal row of the periodic table.
Periodicity
Regular periodic variations of properties of elements with atomic number (and
position in the periodic table).
Periodic Law
The properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers.
Periodic Table
An arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic numbers that also
emphasizes periodicity.
Peroxide
A compound containing oxygen in the -1 oxidation state. Metal peroxides contain
the peroxide ion, O
22
-

pH
Negative logarithm of the concentration (mol/L) of the H
3
O
+
[H
+
] ion; scale is
commonly used over a range 0 to 14.
Phase Diagram
Diagram that shows equilibrium temperature-pressure relationships for different
phases of a substance.
Phenol
Hydrocarbon derivative containing an [OH] group bound to an aromatic raing.
Photochemical Oxidants
Photochemically produced oxidizing agents capable of causing damage to plants
and animals.
Photochemical Smog
A brownish smog occurring in urban areas receiving large amounts of sunlight;
caused by photochemical (light-induced) reactions among nitrogen oxides,
hydrocarbons and other components of polluted air that produce photochemical
oxidants.
Photoelectric Effect
Emission of an electron from the surface of a metal caused by impinging
electromagnetic radiation of certain minimum energy; current increases with
increasing intensity of radiation.
Photon
A packet of light or electromagnetic radiation; also called quantum of light
Physical Change
A change in which a substance changes from one physical state to another but no
substances with different composition are formed. Example Gas to Liquid - Solid.
Plasma
A physical state of matter which exists at extremely high temperatures in which
all molecules are dissociated and most atoms are ionized.
Polar Bond
Covalent bond in which there is an unsymmetrical distribution of electron density.
Polarimeter
A device used to measure optical activity.
Polarization
The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing
further reaction.
Polydentate
Refers to ligands with more than one donor atom.
Polyene
A compound that contains more than one double bond per molecule.
Polymerization
The combination of many small molecules to form large molecules.
Polymer
A large molecule consisting of chains or rings of linked monomer units, usually
characterized by high melting and boiling points.
Polymorphous
Refers to substances that crystallize in more than one crystalline arrangement.
Polyprotic Acid
An Acid that can form two or more hydronium ions per molecule; often a least
one step of ionization is weak.
Positron
A Nuclear particle with the mass of an electron but opposite charge.
Potential Energy
Energy that matter possesses by virtue of its position, condition or composition.
Precipitate
An insoluble solid formed by mixing in solution the constituent ions of a slightly
soluble solution.
Primary Standard
A substance of a known high degree of purity that undergoes one invariable
reaction with the other reactant of interest.
Primary Voltaic Cells
Voltaic cells that cannot be recharged; no further chemical reaction is possible
once the reactants are consumed.
Proton
A subatomic particle having a mass of 1.0073 amu and a charge of +1, found in
thew nuclei of atoms.
PseudobinaryIonic Compounds
Compounds that contain more than two elements but are named like binary
compounds.
Quantum Mechanics
Mathematical method of treating particles on the basis of quantum theory, which
assumes that energy (of small particles) is not infinitely divisible.
Quantum Numbers
Numbers that describe the energies of electrons in atoms; derived from quantum
mechanical treatment.
Radiation
High energy particles or rays emitted during the nuclear decay processes.
Radical
An atom or group of atoms that contains one or more unpaired electrons (usually
very reactive species)
Radioactive Dating
Method of dating ancient objects by determining the ratio of amounts of mother
and daughter nuclides present in an object and relating the ratio to the object?s
age via half-life calculations.
Radioactive Tracer
A small amount of radioisotope replacing a nonradioactive isotope of the element
in a compound whose path (for example, in the body) or whose decomposition
products are to be monitored by detection of radioctivity; also called a radioactive
label.
Radioactivity
The spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei.
Raoult's Law
The vapor pressure of a solvent in an ideal solution decreases as its mole fraction
decreases.
Rate-determining Step
The slowest step in a mechanism; the step that determines the overall rate of
reaction.
Rate-law Expression
Equation relating the rate of a reaction to the concentrations of the reactants and
the specific rate of the constant.
Rate of Reaction
Change in the concentration of a reactant or product per unit time.
Reactants
Substances consumed in a chemical reaction.
Reaction Quotient
The mass action expression under any set of conditions (not necessarily
equlibrium); its magnitude relative to K determines the direction in which the
reaction must occur to establish equilibrium.
Reaction Ratio
The relative amounts of reactants and products involved in a reaction; maybe the
ratio of moles. millimoles, or masses.
Reaction Stoichiometry
Description of the quantitative relationships among substances as they participate
in chemical reactions.
Reducing Agent
The substance that reduces another substance and is oxidized.
Resonance
The concept in which two or more equivalent dot formulas for the same
arrangement of atoms (resonance structures) are necessary to describe the bonding
in a molecule or ion.
Reverse Osmosis
Forcing solvent molecules to flow through a semipermable membrane from a
concentated solution into a dilute solution by the application of greater hydrostatic
pressure on concentrated side than the osmotic pressure opposing it.
Reversible Reaction
Reactions that do not go to completion and occur in both the forward and reverse
direction.
Salt Bridge
A U-shaped tube containing electrolyte, which connects two half-cells of a voltaic
cell.
Saponification
Hydrolysis of esters in the presence of strong soluable bases.
Saturated Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds. They are also called alkanes or
paraffin hydrocarbons.
Saturated Solution
Solution in which no more solute will dissolve.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
The universe tends toward a state of greater diorder in spontaneous processes.
Secondary Standard
a solution that has been titrated against a primary standard. A standard solution is
a secondary standard.
Secondary Voltaic Cells
Voltaic cells that can be recharged; original reactanats can be regenerated be
reversing the direction of the current flow.
Semiconductor
A substance that does not conduct electricity at low temperatures but does so at
higher temperatures.
Semipermable Membrane
A thin partition between two solutions through which certain molecules can pass
but others cannot.
Shielding Effect
Electrons in filled sets of s , p orbitals between the nucleus and outer shell
electrons shield the outer shell electrons somewhat from the effect of protons in
the nucleus; also called screening effect.
Sigma Bonds
Bonds resulting from the head-on overlap of atomic orbitals, in which the region
of electron sharing is along and (cylindrically) symmetrical to the imaginary line
connecting the bonded atoms.
Sigma Orbital
Molecular orbital resulting from head-on overlap of two atomic orbitals.
Silicones
Polymeric organosilicon compounds; contain individual or cross-linked Si-O
chains or rings in which some oxygens of SiO4 tetrahedra are replaced by other
groups.
Single Bond
Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of two electrons (one pair) between two
atoms.
Solubility Product Constant
Equilibrium constant that applies to the dissolution of a slightly soluble
compound.
Solubility Product Principle
The solubility product constant expression for a slightly soluble compound is the
product of the concentrations of the constituent ions, each raised to the power that
corresponds to the number of ions in one formula unit.
Solute
The dispersed (dissolved) phase of a solution.
Solution
Homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.
Solvation
The process by which solvent molecules surround and interact with solute ions or
molecules.
Solvent
The dispersing medium of a solution.
Solvolysis
The reaction of a substance with the solvent in which it is dissolved.
S Orbital
A spherically symmetrical atomic orbital; one per energy level.
Specific Gravity
The ratio of the density of a substance to the density of water.
Specific Heat
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance
one degree Celsius.
Specific Rate Constant
An experimentally determined (proportionality) constant, which is different for
different reactions and which changes only with temperature; k in the rate-law
expression: Rate =k [A] x [B]v.
Spectator Ions
Ions in a solution that do not participate in a chemical reaction.
Spectral Line
Any of a number of lines corresponding to definite wavelengths of an atomic
emission or absorption spectrum; represents the energy difference between two
energy levels.
Spectrochemical Series
Arrangement of ligands in order of increasing ligand field strength.
Spectrum
Display of component wavelengths (colours) of electromagnetic radiation.
Square Planar
A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the
center and four atoms at the corners of a square.
Square Planar Complex
Complex in which the metal is in the center of a square plane, with ligand donor
atoms at each of the four corners
Standard Electrodes
Half-cells in which the oxidized and reduced forms of a species are present at unit
activity; 1.0M solutions of dissolved ions, 1.0atm partial pressure of gases, and
pure solids and liquids.
Standard Electrode Potential
By convention , potential, Eo, of a half-reaction as a reduction relative to the
standard hydrogen electrode when all species are present at unit activity.
Standard Entropy
The absolute entropy of a substance in its standard state at 298 K.
Standard Molar Enthalphy of Formation
The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of one mole of a substance in a
specified state from its elements in their standard states.
Standard Molar Volume
The volume occupied by one mole of an ideal gas under standard conditions;
22.4liters.
Standard Reaction
A reaction in which the numbers of moles of reactants shown in the balanced
equation, all in their standard states, are completely converted to the numbers of
moles of products shown in the balanced equation, also sall at their standard state.
Stereoisomers
Isomers that differ only in the way that atoms are oriented in space; consist of
geometrical and optical isomers.
Stoichiometry
Description of the quantitative relationships among elements and compounds as
they undergo chemical changes.
Strong Electrolyte
A substance that conducts electricity well in a dilute aqueous solution.
Strong Field Ligand
Ligand that exerts a strong crystal or ligand electrical field and generally forms
low spin complexes with metal ions when possible.
Structural Isomers
Compounds that contain the same number of the same kinds of atoms in different
geometric arrangements.
Sublimation
The direct vaporization of a sold by heating without passing through the liquid
state.
Substance
Any kind of matter all specimens of which have the same chemical composition
and physical properties.
Substitution Reaction
A reaction in which an atom or a group of atoms is replaced by another atom or
group of atoms.
Supercooled Liquids
Liquids that, when cooled, apparently solidify but actually continue to flow very
slowly under the influence of gravity.
Supercritical Fluid
A substance at temperature above its critical temperature.
Supersaturated Solution
A solution that contains a higher than saturation concentration of solute; slight
disturbance or seeding causes crystallization of excess solute.
Suspension
A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles settle out of solvent-like
phase some time after their introduction.
Temperature
A measure of the intensity of heat, i.e. the hotness or coldness of a sample. or
object.
Ternary Acid
A ternary compound containing H, O, and another element, often a nonmetal.
Ternary Compound
A compound consisting of three elements; may be ionic or covalent.
Tetrahedral
A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in
center and four atoms at the corners of a tetrahedron.
Theoretical Yield
Maximum amount of a specified product that could be obtained from specified
amounts of reactants, assuming complete consumption of limiting reactant
according to only one reaction and complete recovery of product. (Compare with
Actual Yield)
Thermal Cracking
Decomposition by heating a substance in the presence of a catalyst and in the
absence of air.
Thermodynamics
The study of the energy transfers accompanying physical and chemical processes.
Thermonuclear Energy
Energy from nuclear fusion reactions.
Third Law of Thermodynamics
The entropy of a hypothetical pure, perfect, crystalline sustance at absolute zero
temperature is zero.
Titration
A Procedure in which one solution is added to another solution until the chemical
reaction between the two solutes is complete; the concentration of one solution is
known and that of the other is unknown.
Total Ionic Equation
Equation for a chemical reaction written to show the predominant form of all
species in aqueous solution or in contact with water.
Transition State Theory
Theory of reaction rates that states that reactants pass through high-energy
transition states before forming products.
Tyndall Effect
The scattering of light by colloidal particles.
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons that contain double or triple carbon-carbon bonds
Valence Bond Theory
Assumes that covalent bonds are formed when atomic orbitals on different atoms
overlap and the electrons are shared.
Valence Electrons
Outermost electrons of atoms; usually those involved in bonding.
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory
Assumes that electron pairs are arranged around the central element of a molecule
or polyatomic ion so that there is maximum separation (and minimum repulsion)
among regions of high electron density.
van der Waals' Equation
An equation of state that extends the ideal gas law to real gases by inclusion of
two empirically determined parameters, which are different for different gases.
Vapor
A gas formed by boiling or evaporating a liquid.
Vapor Pressure
The particle pressure of a vapor at the surface of its parent liquid.
Voltage
Potential difference between two electrodes; a measure of the chemical potential
for a redox reaction to occur.
Voltaic Cells
Electrochemical cells in which spontaneous chemical reactions produce
electricity; also called galvanic cells.
Water Equivalent
The amount of water that would absorb the same amount of heat as the
calorimeter per degree temperature increase.
Weak Electrolyte
A substance that conducts electricity poorly in a dilute aqueous solution.
Weak Field Ligand
A Ligand that exerts a weak crystal or ligand field and ge- nerally forms high spin
complexes with metals.
Zone Refining
A method of purifying a bar of metal by passing it through an induction heater;
this causes impurties to move along a melted portion.