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POWER CONVERTER II LAB

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

EXP NO NAME OF THE EXPERIMENT
SI MULATI ON
1 Buck Converter
2 Boost Converter
3 Buck Boost Converter
4 Sepic Converter
HARDWARE
5 PWM Controller Using SG3525
6 Driving a MOSFET with SG3525
7 Design and Implementation of Turn-Off Snubber
8 Design and Implementation of Turn-On Snubber
9 Design and Implementation of Buck Converter
10 Design and Implementation of Boost Converter
11 Design and Implementation of Buck-Boost
Converter









Experiment No: 1
Simulation of buck converter



AIM:

Design and simulate a Buck Converter and observe the output waveform for the given
specifications.
Frequency f = 20 KHz
Input voltage Vi = 28V
Duty cycle D = 0.1 to 0.5
L=2mH
C=100microF
R=100Ohm

THEORY:
A buck converter produces a lower average output voltage than the dc input voltage.

Output voltage Vo = Duty Ratio (D)*Input voltage Vi

Its main application is in regulated dc power supplies and dc motor speed control.




















SIMULATION DIAGRAM:











FORMULAE:
Output voltage Vo = Duty Ratio (D)*Input voltage V
Inductor Value L = Vo(1-D)/diL*Fs
Capacitor Value C = Vo(1-D)/8*(dVo/Vo)*L*Fs^2










WAVEFORMS:
Duty Ratio = 0.5

Output voltage:



Inductor current:








Inductor voltage:


Diode voltage:









Switch current:


Switch voltage:




RESULT:

Thus a buck converter is designed and simulated for the given specifications and the output
waveforms are observed.


Experiment No:2
Simulation of Boost Converter
AIM:

Design and simulate a boost converter and observe the output waveform for the given

specifications.

Frequency f = 25 KHz

Input voltage Vi = 20

Duty cycle D = 0.5

Inductor- 2mH.
Resistor-100
Capacitor-4.7F

THEORY:
A step-up converter produces a higher average output voltage than the dc input voltage. By
varying the duty ratio Ton/T, the output voltage Vo can be controlled.
Output voltage,VO = Vin / (1-D) = 50V
















SIMULATION DIAGRAM:




OUTPUT WAVEFORMS:

1)SWITCH VOLTAGE








2)SWITCH CURRENT


3)INDUCTOR CURRENT










4)CAPACITOR CURRENT



5)DIODE CURRENT



RESULT:
Boost converter is designed and simulated for the given specifications and the waveforms are
observed.






Experiment No:3
Simulation of Buck Boost Converter

AIM:
1) Observe voltage across diode, inductor and output voltage waveform
2) Average voltage wave across inductor in steady state
3) Inductor current waveform and output waveform
4) Tabulate the steady state input output voltage for various duty cycle
5) From tabulation find relation between duty cycle, input and output voltage
6) Tabulate steady state input output current for various duty cycle and find relation
between duty cycle input current and output current
THEORY:
The main application of a step-down/step-up or buck-boost converter is in regulated dc power
supplies, where a negative-polarity output may be desired with respect to the common terminal
of the input voltage, and the output voltage can be either higher or lower than the input voltage.
A buck-boost converter can be obtained by the cascade connection of the two basic
converters: the step -down and the step-up converter.
Vo/Vd = D/ (1-D)
This allows the output voltage to be higher or lower than the input voltage, based on the duty
ratio D.
The cascade connection of the step-down and the step-up converters can be combined into the
single buck-boost converter. When the switch is closed, the input provides energy to the inductor
and the diode is reverse biased. When the switch is open, the energy stored in the inductor is
transferred to the output. No energy is supplied by the input during this interval.








SIMULATION DIAGRAM:


WAVEFORMS:
1) Diode Voltage






Continuous
powergui
v
+
-
v
+
-
v
+
-
g m
D S
Mosfet
In Mean
Mean Value
0.0008271
-11.57
0.050
-57.86
-0.8422
-58.71
m
a
k
Diode
i
+
-
i
+
- i
+
-
20H
80F
5
24V
2) Inductor voltage


2) Output Voltage



4) Average inductor voltage






5) Inductor current



6) Output current


TABULATION:
Duty Cycle Steady state
Input Voltage
Steady state
Output
Voltage
Steady state
Input Current
Steady state
Output
Current
Steady state
Inductor
Current
75% 24 -56.8 50 -11.35 49.5
60% 24 -32.45 20 -6.487 19.5
50% 24 -22.13 12 -4.425 12
40% 24 -14.75 7.2 -2.951 7.2
20% 24 -5.131 2.5 -1.025 2.5


RESULT:
Waveforms for diode voltage, inductor voltage, output voltage, and average voltage across
inductor, inductor current and output current were obtained.
Relation between steady state input voltages, output voltage, input current, output current and
inductor current for various duty cycles were tabulated. The output voltage obtained has negative
polarity. When duty cycle is greater than 50% output stepped up. When duty cycle is lessthan
50% output voltage is stepped down. Input current and inductor current increase with increasing
duty cycle.

Experiment No:4
Simulation of Sepic Converter

AIM:

Design and simulate a SEPIC Converter and observe the output waveform for the given

specifications.

Frequency f = 100 KHz

Input voltage Vi = 9V

Duty cycle D = 0.4

THEORY:
A Single Ended Primary Inductance Converter (SEPIC) can produce an output voltage that is

either greater or less than the input with no polarity reversal.

Output voltage Vo =(Vi*D)/ (1-D)

.












SIMULATION DIAGRAM:

FORMULAE:
Output voltage Vo = (Vi*D)/(1-D)

Inductor Value L = (Vs*DTs)/il

Capacitor Value C = (DTs)/(R*(Vc/Vo)














OUTPUT WAVEFORMS:

Duty Ratio = 0.4

1)Pulses For Switches


2) Inductor Current IL1





3) Inductor Current IL2


4) Capacitor Current IC1








5) Capacitor Current IC2



RESULT:
SEPIC converter is designed and simulated for the given specifications and the output

waveforms are observed.













Experiment no:5
PWM controller Using SG3525
AIM:
To study pulse width modulation using IC SG3525
THEORY:
PWM is used in all sorts of power control and converter circuits. Some common examples
include motor control, DC-DC converters, DC-AC inverters and lamp dimmers. There are
numerous PWM controllers available that make the use and applications of PWM quite easy.
One of the most popular of such controllers is the versatile and ubiquitous SG3525 produced by
multiple manufactures ST microelectronics, Fairchild Semiconductors, On Semiconductors, to
name a few.
SG3525 is used extensively in DC-DC converters, DC-AC inverters, home UPS systems,
solar inverters, power supplies, battery chargers and numerous other applications.
WORKING PRINCIPLES:
(i)Inverting and Non-inverting Terminals:
Inverting and Non Inverting Input are the inputs to the on-board error amplifier. It acts as a
comparator that controls the increase or decrease of the duty cycle for the feedback that you
associate with Pulse Width Modulation (PWM). This functions either to increase or decrease the
duty cycle depending on the voltage levels on the Inverting or Non-inverting Inputs Pin1 & Pin2
respectively.
When voltage on the Inverting Input (pin 1) is greater than voltage on the Non-Inverting
Input (pin 2), duty cycle is decreased.
When voltage on the Non-Inverting Input (pin 2) is greater than voltage on the Inverting
Input (pin 1), duty cycle is increased.
(ii)Frequency:
The frequency of PWM is dependent on the timing capacitance and the timing resistance. The
timing capacitor (CT) is connected between pin 5 and ground. The timing resistor (RT) is
connected between pin 6 and ground. The resistance between pins 5 and 7 (RD) determines the
dead time (and also slightly affects the frequency).
The frequency is related to RT,CT and RD by the relationship:


With RT and RD in and CT in F,F is in Hz.
Typical values of RD 10 to 47.The range of values usable (as specified by the manufacturers
of SG3525) are 0 to 500.
RT must be within the range 2k to 150k.CT must be within the range 1nF (code 102)
to 0.2F (code 224).The oscillator frequency must be in the range 100Hz to 400kHz.There is a
flip-flop before the driver stage, due to which your output signals will have frequencies half that
of the oscillator frequency that is calculated using above mentioned formula. So, if you have a
50Hz inverter, you require drive signals of 50Hz. So the oscillator frequency must be 100Hz.
(iii)Duty cycle:
A capacitance connected between pin 8 and ground provides the soft-start functionality.
The larger the capacitance, the larger the soft-start time. This means that the time taken to go
from 0% duty cycle to desired duty cycle or maximum duty cycle is larger. So, the duty cycle
increases more slowly initially. Keep in mind that this only affects initial rate of increases of
duty cycle, i.e., the rate of increase of duty cycle after the SG3525 starts up.
Typical values of the soft-start capacitance lie within the range 1F to 22F depending
on the desired soft-start time.
(iv)Output Terminals:
Pins 11 and 14 are the drive outputs from which the drive signals are to be taken. They
are the outputs of the SG3525 internal driver stage and can be used to directly drive MOSFETs
and IGBTs. They have a continuous current rating of 100mA and a peak rating of 500mA.
When greater current or better drive is required, a further drive stage using discrete transistors
or a dedicated driver stage should be used. Similarly a driver stage should be used when driving
the device causing excessive power dissipation and heating of SG3525. When driving
MOSFETs in a bridge configuration, high-low gate drivers or gate-drive transformers must be
used as the SG3525 is designed only for low-side drive.
Pin 16 is the output from the voltage reference section. SG3525 contains an internal
voltage reference module rated at +5.1V that is trimmed to provide 1% accuracy. This
reference is often used to provide a reference voltage to the error amplifier for setting the
feedback reference voltage. It can be directly connected to one of the inputs or a voltage divider
can be used to further scale down the voltage.




(v)VCC Supply:
Pin 15 VCC the supply voltage to the SG3525 that makes it run. VCC must lie within
the range 8V to 35V. SG3525 has an under-voltage lockout circuit that prevents operation when
VCC is below 8V,thus preventing erroneous operation or malfunction.
(vi) Drive Stage:
Pin 13 is VC the supply voltage to the SG3525 driver stage. It is connected to the
collectors of the NPN transistors in the output totem-pole stage. Hence the VC. VC must lie
within therange 4.5V to 35V.The output drive voltage will be one transistor voltage drop below
VC.So when driving power MOSFETs,VC should be within the range 9V to 18V(as most
power MOSFETs require minimum 8V to be fully on and have a maximum VGS breakdown
voltage of 20V).For driving logic level MOSFETs,lower VC may be used.Care must be taken to
ensure that the maximum VGS breakdown voltage of the MOSFET is not crossed.Similarly
when the SG3525 outputs are fed to another driver or IGBT,VC must be selected
accordingly,keeping in mind the required voltage for the device being fed or driven.It is
common practice to tie VC to VCC when VCC is below 20V.
(vii)Ground:
Pin 12 is the Ground connection and should be connected to the circuit ground.It must share a
common ground with the device it drives.
(viii)Capacitor Discharge:
Pin 10 is shut down.When this pin is low,PWM is enabled.When this pin is high,the PWM latch
is immediately set this provides the fastest turn-off signal to the outputs.At the same time the
soft-start capacitor is discharged with a 150A current source.an alternative method of shutting
down the SG3525 is to pull either pin 8 or pin 9 low.However,this is not as quick as using the
shutdown pin.So,when quick shutdown is required, a high signal must be applied to pin 10.This
pin should not be left floating as it could pick up noise and cause problems.So,this pin is usually
held low with a pull-down resistor with s1 closed, shutdown and with s1 open no shutdown
occur.
(ix)Compensation:
Pin 9 is compensation.It may be used in conjunction with pin 1 to provide feedback
compensation.




PIN CONNECTIONS:

















BLOCK DIAGRAM

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:





PROCEDURE:
(i) Make the connection shown in circuit diagram and switch ON the power supply(+12V)
(ii) Vary the 10k pot.This varies voltage at pin2 and thereby duty cycle at output A and output B
vary.
(iii) Vary RD and observe the blanking time between output A and output B.(R=47ohm to
100ohm).
(iv) Open S1 switch and observe output A and output B.
(v) Close S1 switch and observe output A and output B.
(vi) Change frequency and repeat above mention.






















Experiment No:6

Driving a Mosfet With SG3525



AIM

To drive a MOSFET with IC SG3525 and observe

(i) the effect of RC protection in drain to source voltage

(ii) miller effect in gate to source voltage

COMPONENTS REQUIRED

PWM-IC SG3525

MOSFET IRF540

DIODE-IRF 540, Zener Diode

Resistor 100 , 157,10

Wire wound resistor -10, 10W

Capacitor -1F, 63V

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM



























THEORY WITH DESIGN:

The Power MOSFET:
Unlike the Bipolar Junction Transistor ( BJT),the MOSET belongs to the unipolar device
family, since it uses only the majority carriers in conduction.The development of the metal oxide
semiconductor technology for microelectronic circuits opened the way for developing the power
metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) device in 1975.
MOSFET Regions of Operation:
Most of the MOSFET devices use in power electronics applications are of the n-
channel,enhancement type. For the MOSFET to carry drain current, a channel between the drain
and the source must be created. This occurs when the gate- to-source voltage exceeds the device
threshold voltage, V
Th.
. For V
GS >
V
Th
,the device can either be in triode region, which is also
called as constant resistance region ,or in the saturation region, depending on the value of V
DS
.
For V
GS <
V
Th
, the device turns off,with the drain current almost equals zero. Under both regions
of operation, the gate current is almost zero.

Fig:MOSFET region of operation
MOSFET Switching characteristics:
Since the MOSFET is a majority carrier transport device, it is inherently capable of a high
frequency operation . But still the mosfet has two limitations:
1.High input gate capacitances.
2.Transcient/delay to carrier transport through the drift region.
As stated earlier the input capacitance consists of two components the gate-to-source and
gate-to-drain capacitances.The input capacitances can be expressed in terms of the device
junction capacitances by applying Miller theorem to Fig.4.15a. using Miller theorem, the total
input capacitance,C
in
, seen between the gate-to-source is given by,
C
in
= C
gs
+ (1+g
m
R
L
)C
gd
The frequency response of the MOSFET circuit is limited by the charging and discharging
times of C
in
. Miller effect is inherent in any feedback transistor circuit with resistive load that
exhibits a feedback capacitance from the input and output.The output capacitance between the
drain-to- source resistance.The output capacitance between the drain-to-source,C
ds
does not
affect the turn-on and turn-off MOSFET switching the characteristics.Figure shows how C
gd
and
C
gs
vary under increased drain-source, v
ds
, voltage.






Experiment No:7
Design and Implementation of Turn-Off Snubber

AIM:
To design and implement of turn off snubber for MOSFET device

COMPONENTS REQUIRED:
1. PWM-IC SG3525
2. MOSFET IRF540
3. DIODE
4. Resistors -100 or 200
5. Wire wound resistor -100
6. Capacitors -1 F,10 F,2200pF












CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:



THEORY:
Snubber circuits reduce power losses in a transistor during switching (although not necessarily
total switching losses) and protect the device from the switching stresses of high voltages and
currents. A large part of the power loss in a transistor occurs during switching. Figure 3-a shows
a model for a converter that has a large inductive load which can be approximated as a current
source IL. The analysis of switching transitions for this circuit relies on Kirchhoffs laws: the
load current must divide between the transistor and the diode; and the source voltage must divide
between the transistor and the load. In the transistor on state, the diode is off and the transistor
carries the load current. As the transistor turns off, the diode remains reverse-biased until the


transistor voltage vQ increases to the source voltage Vs and the load voltage vL decreases to
zero.
After the transistor voltage reaches Vs, the diode current increases to IL while the transistor
current decreases to zero. As a result, there is a point during turnoff when the transistor voltage
and current are high simultaneously (Fig.3-1 b), resulting in a triangularly shaped instantaneous
power waveform pQe(t), as in Fig.3-1c.
In the transistor off state, the diode carries the entire load current. During turn-on, the transistor
voltage cannot fall below Vs until the diode turns off, which is when the transistor carries the
entire load current and the diode current is zero. Again, there is a point when the transistor
voltage and current are high simultaneously.
A snubber circuit alters the transistor voltage and current waveforms to an advantage. A typical
snubber circuit is shown in Fig. 3-2a. The snubber provides another path for load current during
turnoff. As the transistor is turning off and the voltage across it is increasing, the snubber diode
Ds becomes forward biased and the capacitor begins to charge. The rate of change of transistor
voltage is reduced by the capacitor, delaying its voltage transition from low to high. The
capacitor charges to the final off-state voltage across the transistor and remains charged while the
transistor is off. When the transistor turns on, the capacitor discharges through the snubber
resistor and transistor.



The size of the snubber capacitor determines the rate of voltage rise across the switch at turnoff.
The transistor carries the load current prior to turnoff, and during turnoff the transistor current
decreases approximately linearly until it reaches zero. The load diode remains off until the
capacitor voltage reaches Vs. The snubber capacitor carries the remainder of the load current
until the load diode turns on. The transistor and snubber-capacitor currents during turnoff are
expressed as

where tx is the time at which the capacitor voltage reaches its final value, which is determined by
the source voltage of the circuit. The capacitor (and transistor) voltage is shown for different
values of C in Fig.3-2 b to d. A small snubber capacitor results in the voltage reaching Vs before
the transistor current reaches zero, whereas larger capacitance results in longer times for the
voltage to reach Vs. The energy absorbed by the transistor (the area under the instantaneous

If the switch current reaches zero before the capacitor fully charges, the capacitor voltage is
determined from the first part of the above equation. Letting vc(tf) Vf ,

Solving for C

whereVf is the desired capacitor voltage when the transistor current reaches zero. The capacitor
is sometimes selected such that the switch voltage reaches the final value at the same time that
the current reaches zero, in which case

where Vs is the final voltage across the switch while it is open. Note that the final voltage across
the transistor may be different from the dc supply voltage in some topologies. The forward and
flyback converters for example, have off-state switch voltages of twice the dc input. The power
absorbed by the transistor is reduced by the snubber circuit. The power absorbed by the
transistorbefore the snubber is added is determined from the waveform of Fig. 3-1c. Turnoff
power losses
are determined from

The integral is evaluated by determining the area under the triangle for turnoff, resulting in an
expression for turnoff power loss without a snubber

wherets tf is the turnoff switching time and f 1/T is the switching frequency. Power absorbed
by the transistor during turnoff after the snubber is added is determined from

The above equation is valid for the case when tf tx, as in Fig. 3-2 c or d. The resistor is chosen
such that the capacitor is discharged before the next time the transistor turns off. A time interval
of three to five time constants is necessary for capacitor discharge. Assuming five time constants
for complete discharge, the on time for the transistor is

The capacitor discharges through the resistor and the transistor when the transistor turns on. The
energy stored in the capacitor is

This energy is transferred mostly to the resistor during the on time of the transistor. The power
absorbed by the resistor is energy divided by time, with time equal to the switching period:


where f is the switching frequency.
Power dissipation in the snubber resistor is proportional to the size of the snubber capacitor. A
large capacitor reduces the power loss in the transistor, but at the expense of power loss in the
snubber resistor. Note that the power in the snubber resistor is independent of its value. The
resistor value determines the discharge rate of the capacitor when the transistor turns on.
The power absorbed by the transistor is lowest for large capacitance, but the power absorbed by
the snubber resistor is largest for this case. The total power for transistor turnoff is the sum of the
transistor and snubber powers. Figure 3-3,shows the relationship among transistor, snubber, and
total losses. The use of the snubber can reduce the total switching losses, but perhaps more
importantly, the snubber reduces the power loss in the transistor and reduces the cooling
requirements for the device. The transistor is more prone to failure and is harder to cool than the
resistor, so the snubber makes the design more reliable.


DESIGN:
Switching frequency, f =10kHz
Let,
turn-off time, Tf = 50ns
diode current , ID=3A
Now, Capacitor, =
IDTs
2

Take Ton(min) of MOSFET =3s (from data sheet)
Ton = 5RC = 20s
R= 50
C=2500pF
R and C values are for diode snubber

PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram
2. The pulses which are obtained from PWM Controller using ICSG3525 are given to gate
of MOSFET.
3. The ground of PWM controller circuit is given to the source of MOSFET.
4. Drive the MOSFET using 30V DC supply across drain and source.
5. Observe the voltage across drain and source of MOSFET i.e, Vds.
6. Repeat the same without using snubber circuit.

OBSERVATIONS:
VDS (spike magnitude) =
VDS =
























Experiment No: 8
Design and Implementation of Turn-On Snubber

AIM:

To design and implementation of turn on snubber for MOSFET device

COMPONENTS REQUIRED:

1. PWM-IC SG3525
2. MOSFET IRF540
3. DIODE
4. RESISTORS 2
5. WIRE WOUND RESISTOR -100,10W
6. CAPACITOR -10mF,1Mf
7. INDUCTOR-1mH

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:


THEORY:

A turn-on snubber is used to reduce voltage across the BJT while the current builds up. The
reduction in the voltage across the transistor during turn on is due to the voltage drop across the
snubber inductance LS. When the transistor turn off, the energy stored in the snubber inductance,
will be dissipated in the snubber resistance RS.


Turn-on Snubber Circuit

Circuit topology




Circuit reduces Vsw as switch Sw turns on. Voltage drop provides the voltage reduction.





Turn-on Snubber Operating Waveforms

Small values of snubber inductance (Ls< Ls1)
LS1=Vdtri/Io
Irr reduced when Ls> Ls1 because Irr proportional to disw/dt




Large values of snubber inductance (Ls> Ls1)





Irr reduced when Ls> Ls1 because Irr proportional to disw/dt






Turn On Snubber Recovery at Switch Turn-off


Assume switch current fall time t
ri
= 0
Inductor current must discharge thru DLs- RLs series segment



Switch waveforms at turn-off with turn-on snubber in circuit.
Over voltage smaller if tfi smaller.
Time of 2.3 Ls/RLs required for inductor current to decay to 0.1 Io
Off-time of switch must be > 2.3 Ls/RLs

Turn-on Snubber Design Trade-offs


Selection of inductor Ls
Larger Ls decreases energy dissipation in switch at turn-on
Ls> Ls1 Wsw = 0
Larger Ls increases energy dissipation in RLs
Ls> Ls1 reduces magnitude of reverse recovery current Irr
Inductor must carry current Io when switch is on makes inductor expensive and hence
turn-on snubber seldom used
Selection of resistor RLs
Smaller values of RLs reduce switch overvoltage Io RLs at turn-off
Limiting overvoltage to 0.1Vd yields RLs = 0.1 Vd/Io
Larger values of RLs shortens minimum switch off-time of 2.3 Ls/RLs

DESIGN:

When MOSFET turns on capacitor discharges current,

i
c
(peak) < 0.2 I
d
,

Let i
d
= 3A, V
d
= 30 V

T
f
= 50 * 10
-6
S

R < 30 / (0.2 * 0.3) = 50

Selecting 100 or 200 resistor

C = i
d
* T
f
/ 2V
d
= 3 * 50 * 10
-9
/ (2 * 50) = 2500 pf

So selecting C = 2000 pf

PROCEDURE:

1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram
2. The pulses which are obtained from PWM Controller using ICSG3525 are given to gate
of MOSFET.
3. The ground of PWM controller circuit is given to the source of MOSFET.
4. Drive the MOSFET using 30V DC supply across drain and source.
5. Observe the voltage across drain and source of MOSFET i.e, Vds.
6. Repeat the same without using snubber circuit.


OBSERVATIONS:
VDS (spike magnitude) =
VDS =


Experiment No: 9
Design and Implementation of Buck Converter

AIM:
Design and implementation of Buck converter

COMPONENTS REQUIRED:
PWM-IC SG3525
MOSFET
Diode - FRD IN5408
Inductor - 2mH
Wire wound resistor -10, 25W
Capacitor - 47uH , 0.1uH
Power supply - 0-30V








CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:



THEORY:

A step down converter produces a lower average output voltage than the dc input voltage. By
varying the duty ratio Ton/T, the output voltage Vo can be controlled.

DESIGN:
Switching frequency, f =25kHz
Let,
input voltage, Vin = 20V
duty ratio, D = 0.3
load resistor, R = 10
Now, V
O
= Vin * D = 6V
inductor voltage, V
L
= V
S
-V
O
= Ldi/dt
I
O
= V
O
/R = 0.6A
takei
L
= 10% of I
O,
i
L
= 0.06A
i
L
/DT= (Vin V
O
)/L
L = 2.8mH, (assumed L= 2mH)
Assume voltage ripple, V
O
/V
O
= 1%
V
O
/V
O
= (1-D)/8LCf
2

C = 50f, (assumed C = 47 f)
Snubber design
C = I
L
t
f
/2V
C = 0.00075 f, assumed C = 0.001f
5RC = 3 s
R = 600


















Experiment No: 10
Design and Implementation of Boost Converter



AIM:
Design and implementation of boost converter.

COMPONENTS REQUIRED:
PWM: IC SG3525.
MOSFET.
Diode- FRD IN5408.
Inductor- 2mH.
Wirewound Resistor-10,25W.
Capacitor-47H,0.1H.
Power Supply: 0-30V.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

THEORY:
A step-up converter produces a higher average output voltage than the dc input voltage. By
varying the duty ratio Ton/T, the output voltage Vo can be controlled.
DESIGN:
Switching frequency, f =25kHz

Let,
Input voltage, Vin = 20V
Duty ratio, D = 0.6
Load resistor, R = 100

Now, VO = Vin / (1-D) = 50V
Inductor voltage, VL = VS-V= Ldi/dt
IO= V/R = 0.6A

Take iOL = 10% of IO,
i= 0.06A
iL/(DT) = (Vin VOL )/L
L = 2.8mH, (assumed L= 2mH)

Assume voltage ripple, VO /V= 1%* (VO/VO) = D/(R*C*f)

C = 50f, (assumed C = 47 f)
Snubber design
C = ILtfO /2V
C = 0.00075 f, assumed C = 0.001f
5RC = 3 s
R = 600














Experiment No: 11
Design and Implementation of Buck Boost Converter


AIM:
To design and implement a Buck-boost converter and to observe the output voltage, inductor
current, switch voltage.
COMPONENTS REQUIRED:
PWM-IC SG3525
MOSFET
Diode - FRD IN5408 (3 Nos.)
Inductor 1mH
Wire wound resistor 22/47, 25W
Resistors-22 ,470
Capacitor 4.7uF , 2000pF
Power supply - 0-30V
PNP Transistor- BC177










CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Fig 1: Circuit for generation of gate pulses


Fig 2: Circuit for Buck-Boost Converter

THEORY:
The output voltage of the buck-boost converter can be either higher or lower than the
input voltage, depending on the duty ratio of the switch. If D>0.5, the output voltage is larger
than the input; and if D<0.5, the output is smaller than the input. Therefore, this circuit combines
the capabilities of the buck and boost converters.
The source is never connected directly to the load in the buck-boost converter. Energy is
stored in the inductor when the switch is closed and transferred to the load when the switch is
open. Hence, the buck-boost converter is also referred to as an indirect converter. Polarity
reversal on the output may be a disadvantage in some applications.
The output voltage is given by: V0= -VS(D/1-D)
DESIGN:
Switching frequency, f =25kHz
Let,
input voltage, VS = 24V
duty ratio, D = 0.3
load resistor, R = 22
Inductor , L = 1mH

Now, V0= -VS(D/1-D) = 10.3V
Inductor voltage, VL = VS = Ldi/dt
I0 = V0/R = 0.468 A
IL = VSD/R(1-D)2 =0.66 A
iL = VSDT/L ;iL = 0.288 A
Assume voltage ripple, V0/V0 = 1%
V0/V0 =D/RCf
C = 5.4 f , (assumed C = 4.7 f)