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EXERCISES

Consider a central heating system with the


following features :
The boiler is thermostatically controlled and
supplies the radiator system in addition to a hot
water tank.
Pumps are used to supply hot water to either or
both the radiator and the tank according to the
desired sensors.
The whole system is controlled by a clock to
operate a certain time a day.
Boiler Temp.
sensor
Motorized
Pump
M
1
M
2
Boiler
Motorized
Pump
Radiator
System
Room
Timers
Hot water tank
Temp. sensor
Hot water
tank
The power circuit for the central heating
system is :
Stop
Run
Clock
Boiler sensor
Room sensor
Tank sensor
Power
O
u
t
p
u
t
s
Boiler
M
1
M
2
I
n
p
u
t
s
The ladder & IL program for the central heating
system using Mitsubishi PLC is :
Inputs :
X400 Clock
X401 Boiler sensor
X402 Room sensor
X403 Tank sensor
Outputs :
Y430 Boiler
Y431 Pump M
1
Y432 Pump M
2
X403
X402
X402
Y431
Y432
END
X400 X401
X403
Y430
Y430
Y430
Step Instruction
0 LD X402
1 OR X403
2 AND X400
3 AND X401
4 OUT Y430
5 LD Y430
6 AND X402
7 OUT Y431
8 LD Y430
9 AND X403
10 OUT Y432
11 END
The ladder & IL program for the central heating
system using Siemens PLC is :
Inputs :
I0.0 Clock
I0.1 Boiler sensor
I0.2 Room sensor
I0.3 Tank sensor
Outputs :
Q2.0 Boiler
Q2.1 Pump M
1
Q2.2 Pump M
2
I0.3
I0.2
I0.2
Q2.1
Q2.2
END
I0.0 I0.1
I0.3
Q2.0
Q2.0
Q2.0
Step Instruction
0 A I0.2
1 O I0.3
2 A I0.0
3 A I0.1
4 = Q2.0
5 A Q2.0
6 A I0.2
7 = Q2.1
8 A Q2.0
9 A I0.3
10 = Q2.2
11 END
Example (Timer Application)
Automatic mixing processes of liquids and other
compounds in the chemical and food industries are very
common.
The mixing station goal is to mix two liquids for a
specified time and then output the final product to a
storage tank.
The system consists of :
1. Two level sensors to monitor the flowing of the
liquids into the tank.
2. Three solenoid valves to control the flow of liquids.
3. A motor connected to an agitator to mix the liquids
into the tank.
Mixing
Station
LS
1
LS
2
Level Sensors
VA
1
VA
2
Input Valves
MS
1
Motor & Agitator
Mixing Tank
VA
3
Output to Storage Tank
The sequence of events for this automatic mixing process will
be as follows :
1. Open valve 1 until level 1 is reached for the first liquid .
2. Then close valve 1 .
3. Open valve 2 until level 2 is reached for the second
liquid .
4. Then close valve 2 .
5. Start the motor and agitate to mix the liquids into the
tank for a specified time .
6. Then stop the motor .
7. Open valve 3 up to a specified time to empty the mixed
product to a storage tank .
8. Then close valve 3 .
9. Repeat or end the mixing process as required .
The automatic mixing station will require the following
components using Mitsubishi PLC :
1. Inputs to the PLC :
Start push button X400
Stop push button X401
Level sensor LS
1
X402
Level sensor LS
2
X403
1. Outputs from the PLC :
Valve # 1 (VA
1
) Y430
Valve # 2 (VA
2
) Y431
Motor starter (MS
1
) Y432
Valve # 3 (VA
3
) Y433
Q2.2
I0.3
F0.2
F0.1
Q2.0
F0.1
F0.1
F0.1
F0.1
F0.1
I0.0
I0.1
F0.1
END
I0.2
I0.3 Q2.2 Q2.3
I0.2
I0.3 Q2.2 Q2.3
Q2.1
F0.2 I0.3
Q2.3
F0.3
F0.1
F0.2
F0.1
F0.3
F0.2
Q2.3
T0
KT1200
KT180
T1
Counter Application
Consider the following packing machine,
where it is required to pack 6 objects in a
box and then pack 12 objects in another
box in another path as shown :
6 in box
12 in box
Step Instruction
0 LD X400
1 OR C461
2 RST C460
3 K 6
4 LD X401
5 OUT C460
6 LD C460
7 OUT Y430
8 LD X400
9 OR C461
10 RST C461
11 K 12
12 LD X401
13 AND C460
14 OUT C461
15 LD C461
16 OUT Y431
17 END
Mitsubishi PLC program
C460
C461
X400
X401
Y430
RESET
C460
K 6
Out
C460
X400
X401
Y431
RESET
C461
K 12
Out
C461
C461
Exercise
A door system for trains is tested by opening
and closing the doors about 1000 times and on
every fifth closing of the doors, a pneumatic
cylinder out-strokes to simulate an obstruction.
The cylinder will remain in the obstruction
position while the doors attempt to close three
times.
After the third attempt, the cylinder in-strokes
to allow the doors to be fully closed.
Rails
Cylinder
Obstruction
Doors
The door testing system will require the following components
using Mitsubishi PLC :
1. Inputs to the PLC :
Start push button X400
Stop push button X401
Switch to open & close doors X402
Left hand door sensor X403
Right hand door sensor X404
2. Outputs from the PLC :
Left hand door Y430
Right hand door Y431
Cylinder Y432
Filling / Draining Control
Operation
Charge and discharge of a reservoir is a
common process in industry as well as a need
for mixing two or more substances using
automated valves.
Consider the charge and discharge system
displayed in figure, it is required to :
a) Operating the process in accordance to
the displayed operating panel.
b) Pressing (T1) on the operating panel, will
open valve (V1) to start filling up with
running the motor (M) until reaching (S1).
c) When completing filling up, valve (V1)
closes, motor stops and valve (V2) opens
to start emptying until reaching (S2) to
close (V2).
d) It is required that the reservoir has to be
filled up and emptied four times with the
same cycle before activating the End-
lamp.
Automation of Parking Garage
Consider a simple system that can control 100
cars at the maximum.
Each time a car enters, PLC automatically
adds it to a total sum of other cars found in
the garage.
Also, each car that comes out will
automatically be taken off.
When 100 cars park, a notifying signal that the
garage is full will turn on.
Otherwise a Vacancy signal should turn on.
SEQUENCE CONTROL PROCESS
Consider the motor movement control system
displayed in figure with the following features :
1. When the start button is pressed, the
motor will move from left to right.
2. When LS2 is on, the motor stops, delays for
5 sec. and then moves back to home.
3. When LS1 is on, motor cuts off signifying
that the sequence is completed
Motor Right
Motor Left
LS1
LS2
HOME
Start Stop
Product Packaging
Consider the packaging system shown in figure
with the following features :
1. By pushing START key a Flag1 is activated.
2. Resetting depends only on a STOP key).
3. When started, motor of a conveyor for
boxes is activated. The conveyor takes a
box up to the limit switch, and a motor
stops then.
4. Starting the product conveyor is activated
by a limit switch when a box is detected.
5. The presence of a box allows counter to
count 10 products.
6. On activating the conveyor with boxes, a
limit switch resets counter to be ready to
count 10 products again.
7. Operations repeat until STOP key is
pressed.