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In computing, input/output or I/O (or informally, io or IO) is the communication

between an information processing system (such as a computer) and the outside world,
possibly a human or another information processing system. Inputs are the signals or
data received by the system, and outputs are the signals or data sent from it. The term
can also be used as part of an action; to "perform I/" is to perform an input or output
operation. I/ devices are used by a person (or other system) to communicate with a
computer. !or instance, a "eyboard or a mouse may be an input device for a computer,
while monitors and printers are considered output devices for a computer. #evices for
communication between computers, such as modems and networ" cards, typically serve
for both input and output.
$ote that the designation of a device as either input or output depends on the
perspective. %ouse and "eyboards ta"e as input physical movement that the human user
outputs and convert it into signals that a computer can understand. The output from
these devices is input for the computer. &imilarly, printers and monitors ta"e as input
signals that a computer outputs. They then convert these signals into representations that
human users can see or read. !or a human user the process of reading or seeing these
representations is receiving input. These interactions between computers and humans is
studied in a field called human'computer interaction.
In computer architecture, the combination of the ()* and main memory (i.e. memory
that the ()* can read and write to directly, with individual instructions) is considered
the brain of a computer, and from that point of view any transfer of information from or
to that combination, for e+ample to or from a dis" drive, is considered I/. The ()*
and its supporting circuitry may provide memory,mapped I/ that is used in low,level
computer programming, such as the implementation of device drivers, or may provide
access to I/ channels. -n I/ algorithm is one designed to e+ploit locality and perform
efficiently when data reside on secondary storage, such as a dis" drive.
Input Devices:
- ."eyboard. is a human interface device which is represented as a layout of buttons.
/ach button, or "ey, can be used to either input a linguistic character to a computer, or
to call upon a particular function of the computer. Traditional "eyboards use spring,
based buttons, though newer variations employ virtual "eys, or even pro0ected
Pointing devices
1eyboard devices are the most commonly used input devices today. - pointing device
is any human interface device that allows a user to input spatial data to a computer. In
the case of mice and touchpads, this is usually achieved by detecting movement across a
physical surface. -nalog devices, such as 2# mice, 0oystic"s, or pointing stic"s,
function by reporting their angle of deflection. %ovements of the pointing device are
echoed on the screen by movements of the pointer, creating a simple, intuitive way to
navigate a computer.s 3*I.
High-degree of freedom input devices
&ome devices allow many continuous degrees of freedom as input. These can be used as
pointing devices, but are generally used in ways that don.t involve pointing to a location
in space, such as the control of a camera angle while in 2# applications. These "inds of
devices are typically used in (-4/s, where input that registers 5#! is re6uired.
Composite devices
Input devices, such as buttons and 0oystic"s, can be combined on a single physical
device that could be thought of as a composite device. %any gaming devices have
controllers li"e this. Technically mice are composite devices, as they both trac"
movement and provide buttons for clic"ing, but composite devices are generally
considered to have more than two different forms of input.
3ame controller
3amepad (or 0oypad)
)addle (game controller)
7og dial/shuttle (or "nob)
8ii 9emote
Imaging and input devices
4ideo input devices are used to digiti:e images or video from the outside world into the
computer. The information can be stored in a multitude of formats depending on the
user.s re6uirement.
#igital camera
#igital camcorder
)ortable media player
%icrosoft 1inect &ensor
Image scanner
!ingerprint scanner
;arcode reader
2# scanner
<aser rangefinder
/ye ga:e trac"er

%edical Imaging
(omputed tomography
%agnetic resonance imaging
)ositron emission tomography
%edical ultrasonography
Audio input devices
In the fashion of video devices, audio devices are used to either capture or create sound.
In some cases, an audio output device can be used as an input device, in order to capture
produced sound.
%I#I "eyboard or other digital musical instrument
Storage input devices
In this device data can be stored.
Basic computer components
Image scanner
)ointing device
o 3raphics tablet
o 7oystic"
o <ight pen
o %ouse
o )ointing stic"
o Touchpad
o Touchscreen
o Trac"ball
o &oftcam
9efreshable braille display
9efreshable braille display
ptical disc drive
o (#,98
o #4#=98
#is" pac"
!loppy dis"
%emory card
*&; flash drive
(entral processing unit (()*)
>## / &&# / &&>#
$etwor" interface controller
)ower supply
9andom,access memory (9-%)
&ound card
4ideo card
Data ports
!ire8ire (I/// ?2@A)
)arallel port
&erial port
audio 0ac"
Types of output
&ome types of output are te+t, graphics, tactile,
audio, and video. Te+t consists of
characters (letters, numbers, punctuation mar"s, or any other symbol re6uiring one byte
of computer storage space) that are used to create words, sentences, and paragraphs.
3raphics are digital representations of nonte+t information such as drawings, charts,
photographs, and animation (a series of still images in rapid se6uence that gives the
illusion of motion). Tactile output such as raised line drawings may be useful for some
individuals who are blind. -udio is music, speech, or any other sound. 4ideo consists of
images played bac" at speeds to provide the appearance of full motion.
Display devices
- display device is an output device that visually conveys te+t, graphics, and video
information. Information shown on a display device is called soft copy because the
information e+ists electronically and is displayed for a temporary period of time.
#isplay devices include (9T monitors, <(# monitors and displays, gas plasma
monitors, and televisions
-n audio signal is a representation of sound, typically as an electrical voltage. -udio
signals have fre6uencies in the audio fre6uency range of roughly DE to DE,EEE >: (the
limits of human hearing). -udio signals may be synthesi:ed directly, or may originate at
a transducer such as a microphone, musical instrument pic"up, phonograph cartridge, or
tape head. <oudspea"ers or headphones convert an electrical audio signal into sound.
#igital representations of audio signals e+ist in a variety of formats.
Printer (computing)
In computing, a printer is a peripheral which ma"es a representation of an electronic
document on physical media. Individual printers are designed to support local and
networ" users at the same time. &ome printers can print documents stored on memory
cards or from digital cameras and scanners.
(onsumer and some commercial printers are designed for low,volume, short,
turnaround print 0obs; re6uiring virtually no setup time to achieve a hard copy of a given
document. >owever, printers are generally slow devices (2E pages per minute is
considered fast, and many ine+pensive consumer printers are far slower than that), and
the cost per page is actually relatively high. >owever, this is offset by the on,demand
convenience and pro0ect management costs being more controllable compared to an out,
sourced solution. The printing press remains the machine of choice for high,volume,
professional publishing. >owever, as printers have improved in 6uality and
performance, many 0obs which used to be done on printing presses are now done by
print on demand or by users on local printers; see des"top publishing. <ocal printers are
also increasingly ta"ing over the process of photofinishing as digital photo printers
become commonplace.
The world.s first computer printer was a ?@th,century mechanically driven apparatus
invented by (harles ;abbage for his difference engine.
- virtual printer is a piece of computer software whose user interface and -)I
resembles that of a printer driver, but which is not connected with a physical computer
Speechgenerating device
Speechgenerating devices (S!Ds), also "nown as voice output communication aids,
are electronic augmentative and alternative communication (--() systems used to
supplement or replace speech or writing for individuals with severe speech
impairments, enabling them to verbally communicate their needs.
&3#s are important
for people who have limited means of interacting verbally, as they allow individuals to
become active participants in communication interactions.
&tephen >aw"ing, physicist and &3# user
- pro"ector or image pro"ector is an optical device that pro0ects an image (or moving
images) onto a surface, commonly a pro0ection screen.
%ost pro0ectors create an image by shining a light through a small transparent lens, but
some newer types of pro0ectors can pro0ect the image directly, by using lasers. - virtual
retinal display, or retinal pro0ector, is a pro0ector that pro0ects an image directly on the
retina instead of using an e+ternal pro0ection screen.
3raphical output displayed on a screen.
- digital image is a numeric representation of an image stored on a computer. They
don.t have any physical si:e until they are displayed on a screen or printed on paper.
*ntil that point, they are 0ust a collection of numbers on the computer.s hard drive that
describe the individual elements of a picture and how they are arranged.
computers come with built,in graphics capability. thers need a device, called a
graphics card or graphics adapter board, that has to be added.
*nless a computer has
graphics capability built into the motherboard, that translation ta"es place on the
graphics card.
#epending on whether the image resolution is fi+ed, it may be of vector
or raster type. 8ithout 6ualifications, the term "digital image" usually refers to raster
images also called bitmap images. 9aster images that are composed of pi+els and is
suited for photo,realistic images. 4ector images which are composed of lines and co,
ordinates rather than dots and is more suited to line art, graphs or fonts.
To ma"e a 2,
# image, the graphics card first creates a wire frame out of straight lines. Then, it
rasteri:es the image (fills in the remaining pi+els). It also adds lighting, te+ture and
#ideo card
$avaratnas $auratan (&ans"rit dvigu nava-ratna- or "nine gems") was a term applied
to a group of nine e+traordinary people in an emperor.s court in India. &ome well,
"nown groups are in the Raaj Sabha (court) of 1ing 7ana"a, /mperor 4i"ramaditya and
in /mperor -"bar.s "darbar".
The %ughal ruler -"bar, despite his illiteracy, was a great lover of the artists and
intellectuals. >is passion for "nowledge and interest in learning from great minds led
him to attract men of genius to his court, "nown as the nine courtiers o% &mperor
'(bar or $avratnasH
'bu)l*a+l ibn ,ubara(
&hai"h 'bu al*a+al ibn ,ubara( ()ersianH IJKLM NOM) also "nown as 'bu)l*a+l,
'bu)l *adl and 'bu)l*adl )'llami (?FF? ' -ugust ?D, ?5ED) was the vi:ier of the
great %ughal emperor -"bar, and author of the Akbarnama, the official history of
-"bar.s reign in three volumes, (the third volume is "nown as the Ain-i-Akbari) and a
)ersian translation of the ;ible.
>e was also one of the $ine 7ewels (>indiH
$avaratnas) of -"barPs royal court and the brother of !ai:i, the poet laureate of emperor
-bu.l,!a:l presenting Akbarnama to -"bar, %ughal miniature
'bdul Rahim -hanI-hana
-han+ada ,ir+a -han -bdul 9ahim 1han,e,1hana (./ December .001 2 .131)
(4indiH ,,, 5rduH 67897: ;<=>?@ABC), also "nown as 9ahim
(, ;<=D) was a poet who lived during the rule of ,ughal emperor '(bar. >e
was one of the nine important ministers (deEan) in his court, also "nown as the
$avaratnas. 9ahim is "nown for his 4indi couplets and his boo"s on astrologF.

The village of 1han"hana, which is named after him, is located in the $aEanshahr
district of the state of Pun"abI India.
-part from writing various dohas, 9ahim translated ;abar.s memoirs, Baburnama from
(hagatai language to )ersian language, which was completed in -> @@Q (?FQ@'@E).
>is command of &ans"rit was very good.
>e wrote two boo"s on astrology, Kheta
Kautukama and Dwawishd Yogavali.
Roung -bdul 9ahim 1han,I,1hana being received by -"bar
;irbal (I)-H Bbi rbSlC ; born %ahesh #as; ?FDQ'?FQ5) or more accurately 9a0ah ;irbar,
was a >indu advisor in the court of the %ughal emperor -"bar during his rule in India
and is mostly remembered in fol" tales, which focus on his wit. >e belonged to the
;rahmin class and was appointed by the /mperor as a poet and singer around ?FF5'
?F5D, later formed a close association with him, becoming an important advisor and
soon being sent on military e+peditions despite having no previous bac"ground. In
?FQ5, the /mperor sent an army led by ;irbal to crush an unrest in the north,west
Indian subcontinent, which failed tragically when he was "illed along with many troops
in an ambush by the rebel tribe. This was one of biggest military setbac"s during his
reign and ;irbal.s death is said to have caused much grief to the /mperor.
$ear the end of -"bar.s reign, local fol" tales began to emerge involving his
interactions with ;irbal, in which he was portrayed as being e+tremely clever and witty.
-s the tales gained popularity in India, he became even more of a legendary figure. >e
was mostly shown as being younger than -"bar, religious and being surrounded by
envious %uslim courtiers; these tales involve him outsmarting them and sometimes
even the /mperor, using only his intelligence and cunning, often with giving witty and
humorous responses and impressing the /mperor. &ome stories are told in versions
containing a different set of characters from other Indian fol"lore. ;y the twentieth
century onwards, plays, films and boo"s based on these fol" tales were made, some of
these are in children.s comics and te+tboo"s.
Shai(h 'bu al*ai+ ibn ,ubara(, popularly "nown by his pen,name, *ai+i (DA
&eptember ?FAG ' F ctober ?F@F
) was a poet and scholar of late medieval India. In
?FQQ, he became the Malik-ush-Shu'ara (poet laureate) of -"bar.s (ourt.
>e was the
elder brother of -"bar.s historian -bul !a:l. -"bar highly recogni:ed the genius in him
and appointed him tutor for his sons and gave place to him among his decorative
>e composed significant poetic wor"s in )ersian and is ascribed by ;ada.uni and his
other contemporaries to have composed over a hundred poetic wor"s, but all the titles
are not "nown to us. >is Divan (collection of poems), was entitled Tabashir al-Subh.
>is Divan comprises 6asidas, gha:als, and elegies.
The e+altation of pantheism
in some of his lyrics brought on him the enmity of the orthodo+ %uslim clergy.
In pursuance of the literary practice then in vogue, !ai:i planned to produce a anj
!anj (literally five treasures) or Khamsa in imitation of the )ersian poet $i:ami
3an0avi. -t the age of 2E, he started writing five wor"sH the "al o Daman (a )ersian
imitation of the famous Indian epic "ala and Dama#anti), the Marka$ ul-Advar (The
(entre of the (ircle), the Sulaiman o Bil%is (&olomon and ;al"is T the 6ueen of
&heba), the &a't Kishvar (The &even Uones of the /arth) and the Akbarnama (The
>istory of -"bar). >is two completed wor"s, the Marka$ ul-Advar and the "al o
Daman (completed in ?F@A) was the javab (imitation) of $i:ami.s the Makh$an ul-
Asrarand the (a#la o Majnun.
>is other three incomplete wor"s, the Sulaiman o
Bil%is, the &a't Kishvar and the Akbarnama were the imitations of the Khusraw o
Shirin, the &a't a#kar and the Sikandarnama respectively.
#uring his stay in #eccan from ?F@?,2, !ai:i wrote a celebrated series of reports on
political and cultural conditions of #eccan, as well as contemporary Iran.
>e wrote a
commentary on the Vuran, and translated ;has"aracharya.s celebrated &ans"rit wor" on
mathematics, (ilavati, into )ersian. -ccording to its preface, this wor" was completed
in -> @@F (?FQG).
!riedrich %a+ %Wller.s )ntrodu*tion to the S*ien*e o' Religion
(?QGE, last ed. ?QQD) has a number of metrical paraphrases of !ai:i.s poems.
,an Singh I
,an Singh (,an Singh I) (#ecember D?, ?FFE ' 7uly 5, ?5?A) was the 1acchwaha
1ing of -mber, a state later "nown as 7aipur. >e was a trusted general of the %ughal
emperor -"bar, who included him among the $avaratnas, or the @(nava) gems(ratna) of
the royal court.
Jodar ,al
Ra"a Jodar ,al was born in <aharpur, *ttar )radesh

in a >indu 1ayastha family,
and rose to become the !inance %inister in -"bar.s #arbar of the %ughal empire.
,ian Jansen (born ?A@2 or ?FE5 as 9amtanu )andey ' died ?FQ5 or ?FQ@ as Tansen)
was a prominent >industani classical music composer, musician and vocalist, "nown
for a large number of compositions, and also an instrumentalist who populari:ed and
improved the pluc"ed rabab (of (entral -sian origin). >e was among the $avaratnas
(nine 0ewels) at the court of the %ughal /mperor 7alal ud,din -"bar. -"bar gave him
the title %ian, an honorific, meaning learned man.
usical legacy
The legendary musical prowess of Tansen surpasses all other legends in Indian music.
In terms of influence, he can be compared to the prolific &ufi composer -mir 1husro
(?DF2'?2DF), or to ;ha"ti tradition composers such as &wami >aridas.
&everal of his raga compositions have become mainstays of the >industani tradition,
and these are often prefaced with Mian ki ("of the %ian"), e.g. %ian "i Todi, %ian "i
%alhar, %ian "i %and, %ian "a &arang; in addition he is the creator of ma0or ragas li"e
#arbari 1anada, #arbari Todi, and 9ageshwari.
Tansen also authored Sangeeta Sara and Rajmala which constitute important
documents on music.
-lmost every gharana (school) tries to trace its origin to him, though some try to go
further bac" to -meer 1husro. The #agar family of dhrupad singers believe themselves
to be the direct descendants of not Tansen but his guru, >aridas &wami. -s for the
#hrupad style of singing, this was formali:ed essentially through the practice by
composers li"e Tansen and >aridas, as well as others li"e ;ai0u ;awra who may have
been a contemporary.
-fter Tansen, some of the ideas from the rabab were fused with the traditional Indian
stringed instrument, veena; one of the results of this fusion is the instrument sarod,
which does not have frets and is popular today because of its perceived closeness to the
vocal style.
The famous 6awwals, the &abri ;rothers claim lineage from %ian Tansen
information of &abri brothers being the descendant of %ian Tansen is completely
wrong. This has been confirmed by Imtia: -li 1han,the last descendant of %ian
- national music festival "nown as .Tansen &angeet &ammelon. is held every year in
#ecember, near the tomb of Tansen at ;ehat as a mar" of respect to his memory.
Shai(h ,ubara(
&hai"h %ubara" - sufi, &hai"h %ubara" was the brain behind -"bar.s %ahU-T or
declaration which has been wrongly called a .#ecree of Infallibility..
4amim 4umam
>amim >umam - very close friend of -"bar, >amim >umam was the chief of royal
school (pathasiila).
(i) ;irbal - brahman of 1alpi, ;irbal is "nown for his gift of humour and wits. >is
original name was %ahesh #ass. >e was in charge of administration of 0ustice at the
royal court. >e died fighting with the Rousuf,:ai tribe on the north,west frontier of
(ii) Todar %al >e is "nown for his e+pertise in land revenue matters. &tarting his career
under &her &hah, he evolved a land revenue system which was followed not only by
&her &hah and -"bar but also by the %arathas.
(iii) Tansen ;orn at 3walior, Tansen was a court singer of
-"bar. >e is "nown as 3eet &amTat.
(iv) -bul !a:al - profound thin"er and writer, -bul !a:al is "nown for his boo"s,
-"barnama and -in,i,-"bari. )rince &alim.s instigation led to his murder.
(v) -bdul 9ahim (onferred the title of 1han,e,1hana by -"bar, -bdul 9ahim was a
celebrated >indi scholar. >e is remembered for 9ahim &atsai (a collection of dohas).
>e was also a great scholar of Tuf"i (he translated ?2aburnama into Tur"i) and )ersian
(vi) 9a0a %an &ingh - great9a0putXeneral of -"bar, %an
&ingh is credited with defeating %aharana )ratap, in the battle of >aldighati, and the
(vii) !ai:i - poet laureate of -"bar.s court, !ai:i is credited
with the translation of <eelawati into )ersian.