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**Sampling:-When the population is very large it is difficult to examine each and
**

every unit of the population. We select a few units from the population examine

them. The draw conclusion regarding the whole population on the basis of these

few selected units. This known as sampling.

Sample:- Sample is a small part of the population selected from it to draw

conclusion regarding the whole population.

Population:- A group of similar objects is called population.

Finite Population:- A population consisting of finite number of units is called

finite population.

e.g. Population of student of a college is finite population.

Infinite population:- A population consisting of infinite number of units is called

infinite population.

e.g. population of fishes in a sea is infinite population.

Sampling fration:

N

n

is called sampling fraction where n! is the number of

unit the sample and "! is the number of units in the population.

!omplete Enumeration:- #f each and every unit of the population is examined

then it is called complete enumeration.

e.g. census.

Sampling error" an# non-"ampling error":-

Sampling Error":- A sample contains only a few units of the population and on

the basis of these few units we estimate the parameters of the population. $ven

when greatest care is taken in selecting the sample% there will always be a small

difference between the estimates obtained from different samples. There shall

also be a difference between the true parametric value and the estimates

obtained from the sample. These differences observed between different sample

estimates or between the population value and sample estimate are called

sampling errors. These errors are inherent and unavoidable.

Non-Sampling Error:- "on&Sampling errors are the errors committed in the

measurement of characteristics% recording the measurements% personal bias% the

careless use of sampling techni'ues etc. These errors can be avoided if a proper

care is taken. (ow ever sampling errors can only be minimi)ed by choosing

appropriate sampling techni'ues.

N.P.Singh (RATM) B.Statistics (015) 1

Sampling

Pro$a$ilit% &Ran#om' Sampling Non-Pro$a$ilit% &Non-Ran#om'

Sampling

Simple ran#om "ampling !on(eniene "ampling

Stratifie# ran#om "ampling Purpo"i(e "ampling

!lu"ter "ampling )uota "ampling

S%"temati "ampling *u#gement "ampling

Multi"tage "ampling

Simple Ran#om Sampling*& Simple random sampling is the best most widely

used method of sampling. Simple +andom sampling is used when the population

is homogeneous with respect to characteristic under study. #n random sampling

each and every unit of the population has an e'ual chance being selected in the

sample.

+andom sample can be selected by the following methods*&

,. -ottery method.

.. With the help of +andom "umber Table.

+otter% Met,o#:- Suppose we want to select a random sample of n! units from a

population consisting of "! units.

At first we assign numbers from , to " to all the "! units of the population.

We write these numbers on small chits and mix the chits in a bowl. "ow we

select n! chits one by one from the bowl. Those units whose number chits are

selected are included in the sample.

-it, t,e ,elp of ran#om num$er ta$le*& We assign numbers form , to " to all

the "! units of the population. "ow to select a sample of n! units% we select n

random numbers /between , to "0 from the random number table. Those units

whose numbers are selected are included in the sample.

Simple Ran#om Sampling .it, replaement an# -it, out replaement*& #f

at each stage of the draw the unit previously drawn is replaced before the next

draw is made. The method of sample is known as sampling with replacement. #f

however% the unit previously drawn is not replaced before the next draw the

method is known as sampling without replacement.

1 Sampling without replacement is better than sampling with replacement

since a unit of the population can be included only once in the sample in the cost

of sampling without replacement can standard error of the estimate is less is

sampling without replacement than in sampling with replacement.

N.P.Singh (RATM) B.Statistics (015) 2

Stratifie# Ran#om Sampling*&Stratified sampling is used when the population is

heterogeneous. #n stratified sampling we divide the heterogeneous population

consisting of "! units into 2 homogeneous groups /strata0. 3onsisting of ",% ".%

444"k. units respectively. Such that ",5".5&&&&&&&&&&&5"k 6 "% "ow to select a

sample of n units we select a sample of n, units from first stratum% Sample of n.

units from second stratum% 444444..% a sample of nk units from kth stratum

such that n,5n.5445nk 6 n. This procedure of sampling by first dividing the

homogenous population in to homogeneous group and than selecting sample

from each group is called stratified sampling. #f we select sample from each

stratum then the method of sampling will be known as stratified random

sampling.

S%"temati Sampling*& The procedure is useful when elements of the

population are already physically arranged in some order% such as an

alphabeli)ed list of people with driving licenses% list of bank customers by

account numbers. #n these case one element is chosen at random from first k

element and then every kth element is included in the sample. The value k is

called the sampling interval.

!lu"ter Sampling*& A group of elementary units in the population is called a

cluster. When a cluster is taken as a sampling unit% the procedure of sampling is

called cluster sampling.

Multi-Stage Sampling:- Sometimes sampling is done in stages to reduce the

cost of the survey. #n this sampling method% the population is divide into first

stage sampling units also called primary units. Then the random sample of first

stage units is made. 7urther division is made of the first stage sampling units

selected% and a random sample is taken from these second stage sampling units.

The process can be continued for a number of stages.

Non-Pro$a$ilit% Sampling Te,ni/ue":-

!on(eniene Sampling:- #n this procedure% units to be included in the sample

are selected at a convenience of the investigator rather than by any prespecified

or known probabilities of being selected. 3onvenience samples are easy for

collection data on a particular issue. (owever% it is not possible to evaluate its

representativeness of the population and hence precautions should be taken in

interpreting the results of convenient sample that are uses to make inferences

about a population.

)uota Sampling:- #n 'uota sampling the selection of respondents lies with the

investigator% although in making such selection he8she must ensure that each

respondent satisfies certain criteria which is essential for the study.

Sampling error" an# Non-Sampling Error":-

N.P.Singh (RATM) B.Statistics (015) 3

Sampling Error":- A sample contains only a few units of the population and on

the basis of these few units we estimate the parameters of the population. $ven

when greatest care is taken in selecting the sample% there will always be a small

difference between the estimates obtained from different samples. There shall

also be a difference between the true parametric value and the estimates

obtained from the sample.

These difference observed between difference sample estimates or

between the population value and sample estimate are called sampling errors.

These errors are inherent and unavoidable.

Non-Sampling Error":- "on&Sampling errors are the errors committed in the

measurement of characteristics% recording the measurements% personal bias% the

careless use of sampling techni'ues etc. These errors can be avoided if a proper

care is taken. (ow ever sampling errors can only be minimi)ed by choosing

appropriate sampling techni'ues.

Stan#ar# Error:- The standard deviation of the sampling distribution of a statistic

is called the standard error of that statistic.

n

Mean of S.E.

σ

=

Te"ting of H%pot,e"i":- Testing of hypothesis is a rule of procedure by which

we reject of accept a null hypothesis on the basis of the sample.

Null H%pot,e"i"*& A hypothesis tested for possible rejection under the

assumption that it is true is called null hypothesis. "ull hypothesis is denoted by

(o.

Alternati(e H%pot,e"i": To every null hypothesis there exists an alternative

hypothesis which is different from null hypothesis and is accepted when the null

hypothesis is rejected on the basis of the sample. Alternative hypothesis is

denoted by (,.

Error":

Ho i" true Ho i" fal"e

N.P.Singh (RATM) B.Statistics (015) 4

!orret Dei"ion T%pe II error

T%pe I error !orret Dei"ion

Aept Ho

Re0et Ho

While testing a statistical hypothesis we may commit two types of errors.

i. We may reject a hypothesis which is actually true.

ii. We may accept a hypothesis which is actually false.

There are known as type # and type ## errors respectively. Their probabilities are

denoted by

α

and

β

respectively.

+e(el of Signifiane* & Probability below which we reject our null hypothesis is

called level of significance.

Power of a test* & Power of a test is the probability of making a correct decision.

Power 6 Prob.9+ejecting (: when (: is false;

6 Prob.9 +ejecting (: when (, is true;

6 ,& Prob. 9Accepting (: when (, is true;

Power 6 ,&

β

One taile# an# T.o taile# Te"t:-

(ypothesis testing for population parameters with large samples* (ypothesis

testing involving large samples

) 30 ( > n

is based on the assumption that the

population form which the sample is drawn has a normal distribution.

H%pot,e"i" Te"ting for Single Population Mean:-

Te"ting t,e "ignifiane of t,e o$"er(e# mean &1-Te"t':-

-et

, ...., ,......... ,

2 1 n

x x x

be a random sample of si)e n /<=:0 from a large

population. -et sample mean ,

n

x

x

∑

= and sample variance

∑

− = . ) (

1

2 2

x x

n

S

N.P.Singh (RATM) B.Statistics (015) 5

-et the mean and standard deviation of the population be

µ

and

σ

respectively. Then to test*

0 0

µ µ = H

0 1

µ µ ≠ H

And if standard deviation

σ

of the population is known.

T,e 2-te"t "tati"ti i" gi(en $%:

Test& statistics*

n

x

z

σ

µ −

=

.

#f

TABULATED CALCULATED

Z Z <

% we accept our null hypothesis at >? level of

significance% other wise reject it.

When population standard deviation

σ

is not known% then x

σ

is taken as

1 − n

S

or

,

n

S

where S is standard deviation of sample values.

!ritial region for 1-"tati"ti:-

-evel of significance @ne tailed Two tailed

>? or :.:> ,.AB ,.CA

Te"ting t,e "ignifiane of t,e #ifferene $et.een t.o "ample mean":-

Suppose we draw two samples from two populations /or same population0. Then

to test the hypothesis% DThe difference of the means of two samples of not

significant or the two samples have been taken from the same population% we

consider the difference between two samples means and the standard error of

this difference.

2

2

2

1

2

1

2

1

) (

n n

x x

Z

σ σ

+

−

=

E

2 1

, n n

#ndependent random samples drawn first and second population

respectively.

Te"t of "ignifiane: Small Sample":-

Te"ting t,e "ignifiane of t,e mean of "mall "ample":

t 3 Te"t

N.P.Singh (RATM) B.Statistics (015) !

Stu#ent- t te"t:-

To test the significance between the difference of sample mean and population

mean or to test the null& hypothesis

,

0

µ µ =

a certain value when population in

normal% population standard deviation is not known and sample si)e is less than

=:% we proceed as follows*

-et

, ...., ,......... ,

2 1 n

x x x

be a random sample of si)e n% then

% Where

( )

,

2

n

x x

S

∑

−

=

#f

,

TABULATED CALCULATED

t t >

we reject our null hypothesis at >? level of significance

otherwise reject it.

"ote* Student t test can be applied only when n is small and population variance

is /unknown0.

Te"ting t,e "ignifiane of t,e #ifferene $et.een t.o "ample mean:-

To test the significance between the differences of two samples means taken

from two populations with same variance /Fnknown0%

, 30 ,

2 1

< n n

test statistic% t is

defined as follows*

+

− − −

=

2

2

2

1

2

1

2 1

2 1 ) ( ) (

n

S

n

S

x x

t

µ µ

Where

1

x and

2

1

S are the mean and variance for a sample si)e

1

n drawn from

the first normal population with mean

1

µ

and variance

2

1

σ . -ike wise%

2

x and

2

2

S

are the mean and variance for a sample of si)e

2

n drawn from the second

population with mean

2

µ

and variance .

2

2

σ

#f

,

TABULATED CALCULATED

t t >

we reject our null hypothesis at >? level of significance

otherwise reject it.

Te"ting of "ignifiane of (ariane &Small Sample"':-

F-te"t or Sne#eor4" F- #i"tri$ution:-

-et there be two independent random samples of si)es

1

n

and

2

n

from two

normal populations with variances

2

1

σ and .

2

2

σ respectively. 7urther let

N.P.Singh (RATM) B.Statistics (015) "

n

S

x

t

µ −

=

( )

2

1

1

2

1

1

1

∑

−

−

= x x

n

s

i and

( )

2

2

2

2

2

1

1

∑

−

−

= x x

n

s

j % be the variance of the first

sample and the second samples respectively. Then 7&statistic is defined as*&

,

2

2

2

1

S

S

F =

if ,

2

2

2

1

S S > with ( )

2 1

, v v degrees of freedomE where , 1

1 1

− = n v and 1

2 2

− = n v

#f calculated value of 7 <7.:> for /v,% v.0 d.f. then the ratio is considered significant

at >?. #f calculated value of 7 G7.:> for /v,% v.0 d.f. then the ratio is considered not

significant which means the two samples are taken from the population having

same variances.

2

χ

- Te"t &!,i-"/uare te"t':-

3onditions regarding applications of 3hi&s'uare Test*&

,. The total fre'uency should not be less than >:% otherwise the condition of

normally is not fitted.

.. "o expected fre'uency should be less than >. #f it so some adjustments

are made.

=. The sum of observed fre'uency must be e'ual to the sum of expected

fre'uencies.

B. The selection of sample should be on random basis.

2

χ -Te"t for ompari"on of t,eoretial an# o$"er(e# proportion" of

fre/uenie":-

,. "ull (ypothesis* "o difference between observed and expected

fre'uencies or proportion.

.. The total observed proportion or fre'uencies " is classified into k cells.

=. $xpected fre'uency is computed for each cell under null hypothesis% (:

based on the given rule.

B.

2

χ &statistic or test statistic is computed by the formula*

( )

∑

=

−

=

k

i i

i i

E

E O

1

2

2

χ E

Where k

O O O O ..., ,......... , ,

3 2 1 are the observed fre'uencies.

The value of

2

χ calculated is compared with the table value of

2

χ at a

given level of significance.

3onclusion* i #f

2

05 . 0

2

χ χ >

Cal

% the null hypothesis (: is rejected at >? level

of significance i.e.% the two sets of fre'uencies are dissimilar.

iii. #f

2

05 . 0

2

χ χ <

Cal

% the null hypothesis (: is accepted and the difference

is said to be significant% i.e.% observed and theoretical sets of

fre'uencies are nearly alike.

N.P.Singh (RATM) B.Statistics (015) #

2

χ - Te"t of Goo#ne"" of Fit:-

/3omparison of observed fre'uencies and theoretical fre'uencies when

theoretical fre'uencies are based on a probability Histribution0

The procedure for

2

χ &test of goodness of fit is as follows*&

,. Write null hypothesis% there is no difference between observed and

expected fre'uencies /based on any theoretical fre'uencies distribution0.

.. 3ompute

( )

∑

=

−

=

k

i i

i o

e

e O

1

2

2

χ %

=. 3ompare the calculated value of

2

χ with table value of

2

χ .

#f calculated value of

2

χ is less than table value the difference is not significant%

this means there is no significant difference between the two distributions. #n this

situation we say the fit is good. When calculated value of

2

χ is more than table

value% the difference is significant. #n this situation we say the fit is not good.

A""oiation of attri$ute":- An attribute is a 'ualitative characteristics. @ne can

only feel the presence and absence of this characteristics while observing

individual or items under consideration.

@+

An attribute is a characteristic of an individual which cannot be measured

numerically. $.g% honesty% beauty% marital status etc.

Association of two attributes*& Association of two attributes measures the degree

of relationship between two phenomena whose si)e cannot be measured but one

can only determine the presence or absence of a particular attribute or 'uality.

@r

#f a relation exists between two or more attributes% they are said to be associated.

There are three types of association of attributes*

i. positive ii. "egative iii. #ndependent.

@rder of class*&

" * 7re'uency of a )ero order.

/A0% /I0%

) ( ), ( β α

* 7re'uencies of first order.

) ( ), ( ), ( ), ( αβ β α A B AB

* 7re'uencies of second order.

3lass J 7re'uencies*& The attributes may be positive or negative. #f the attribute

is present% it is termed as positive calssE

e.g%

i. #f A! represent Kale! then

α

! would represent 7emale!.

ii. #f I! represent Ilinds!% then

β

! would mean "on&Ilind!

The two attributes can be combined. The combination of attributes is represented

by grouping together the letter% such asE

) ( ), ( ), ( ), ( αβ β α A B AB

.

N.P.Singh (RATM) B.Statistics (015) $

#n the language of the above e.g%

) ( AB

stands for male&blind!

) ( β A

stands for male&nonblind!

) ( B α

stands for female&blind!

) (αβ

stands for female&non&blind!

"% A% I and AI etc are positive classesE

αβ β α , ,

etc. are negative classesE

β αβ A ,

etc. are pairs of contary classesE

β A

stands for Kale "on&blind!

αβ

stands for 7emale "on&blind!

"ine S'uare Table*

N.P.Singh (RATM) B.Statistics (015) 10

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