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6.1 Matrices

f ( x) = f ( x1 e 1 + x 2 e2 +K+ x n e n ) = x1 f ( e1 ) + x 2 f ( e2 )+K+ xn f (e n ) .

Meditate on this; it says that a linear function is entirely determined by its values

f ( e1 ), f (e 2 ),K , f (e n ) . Specifically, suppose

f ( e1 ) = (a11 , a21 , K, a p1 ),

f ( e 2 ) = (a12 , a 22 ,K , a p 2 ),

M

f ( e n ) = (a1 n , a 2 n ,K , a pn ).

Then

f ( x) = ( a11 x1 + a12 x 2 +K+ a1n x n , a 21 x1 + a 22 x 2 +K+ a 2 n x n ,K ,

a p 1 x 1 + a p 2 x 2 +K+ a pn x n ).

The numbers aij thus tell us everything about the linear function f. . To avoid labeling

6.1

a11 a12 K a1 n

a

21 a 22 K a2 n

M M

a p 1 a p 2 K a pn

f ( x1 , x 2 ) = (2 x1 − x 2 , x1 + 5x 2 , 3x 1 − 2 x2 ) .

Then f ( e1 ) = f (10

, ) = ( 2,1,3) , and f ( e 2 ) = f (01

, ) = ( −15

, ,− 2) . The matrix representing f

is thus

2 −1

1 5

3 − 2

Given the matrix of a linear function, we can use the matrix to compute f ( x) for

we need some jargon. For the matrix

a a22 K a 2 n

A=

21

,

M M

a p1 a p2 K a pn

6.2

a1 j

a

the matrices [ai 1 , a i2 ,K , ain ] are called rows of A, and the matrices are called

2j

M

a pj

which case the matrix is called a row vector, or as a n × 1 matrix, called a column vector.

Thus the matrix representation of f is simply the matrix whose columns are the column

Example

Suppose f : R 3 → R 2 is defined by

f ( x 1 , x 2 , x 3 ) = (2 x1 − 3 x2 + x 3 , − x 1 + 2 x2 − 5x 3 ) .

So f ( e1 ) = f (10

, ,0) = (2,− 1) , f ( e 2 ) = f (0,1,0 ) = ( −32

, ) , and f ( e 3 ) = f ( 0,0 ,1) = (1,− 5) .

2 −3 1

−1 2 − 5

Now the recipe for computing f(x) can be systematized by defining the product of

6.3

vector. For each i = 12

, , K, p, let ri denote the i th row of A . We define the product Ax

r1 ⋅ x

r ⋅ x

Ax = .

2

M

rp ⋅ x

f.

Example

f ( x 1 , x 2 , x 3 ) = (2 x1 − 3 x2 + x 3 , − x 1 + 2 x2 − 5x 3 ) .

2 −3 1

A= .

−1 2 −5

Then

x1

2 − 3 1 2x 1 − 3x 2 + x 3

Ax = x2 = = f ( x)

− 1 2 − 5 x − x1 + 2 x 2 − 5x 3

3

Exercises

6.4

1. Find the matrix representation of each of the following linear functions:

a) f ( x1 , x 2 ) = (2 x1 − x 2 , x1 + 4 x 2 , -7x 1 , 3x1 + 5x 2 ) .

b) R (t ) = 4t i − 5tj − 2t k .

c) L( x ) = 6x .

2 −1

−2 1

2. Let g be define by g( x ) = Ax , where A = . Find g(3,−9 ) .

0 −3

3 5

3. Let f : R 2 → R 2 be the function in which f(x) is the vector that results from rotating

π

the vector x about the origin in the counterclockwise direction.

4

d)Find f(4,-9).

4. Let f : R 2 → R 2 be the function in which f(x) is the vector that results from rotating

the vector x about the origin θ in the counterclockwise direction. Find the matrix

representation for f.

5. Suppose g: R 2 → R 2 is a linear function such that g(1,2) = (4,7) and g(-2,1) = (2,2).

6.5

Find the matrix representation of g.

and g: R p → R q . Suppose A is the matrix of f and B is the matrix of g. Let’s see about

, ,K, n ,

where, of course, the vectors e j are the coordinate vectors for R n . Now the columns of

A are just the vectors f ( e j ), j = 1,2,K , n . Thus the vectors g ( f (e j )) are simply the

, ,K, n , so

that A = [k1 , k 2 ,K , k n ] , then the columns of C are Bk1 , Bk2 ,K, Bkn , or in other words,

Example

6.6

1 0 2

−1 −5 8

Let the matrix B of g be given by B = and let the matrix A of f be

2 7 −3

2 −2 1

3 1

given by A = 1 2 . Thus f : R 2 → R 3 and g: R 3 → R 4 (Note that for the

−4 −3

3 1

the same as the number of rows of A.). Now, k1 = 1 and k2 = 2 , and so

− 4 −3

−5 −5

−40 −35

Bk1 = and Bk =

25 2 25 . The matrix C of the composition is thus

0 −3

−5 −5

−40 −35

C= .

25 25

0 −3

n × q matrix whose columns are the column vectors Bk j , where k j is the j th column of

A. Now we can simply say that the matrix representation of the composition of two

linear functions is the product of the matrices representing the two functions.

6.7

There are several interesting and important things to note regarding matrix

products. First and foremost is the fact that in general BA ≠ AB , even when both

products are defined (The product BA obviously defined only when the number of

columns of B is the same as the number of rows of A.). Next, note that it follows directly

from the fact that h o ( f o g ) = (h o f ) o g that for C(BA) = (CB)A. Since it does not

matter where we insert the parentheses in a product of three or more matrices, we usually

It should be clear that if f and g are both functions from R n to R p , then the

a + b a22 + b22 K a 2 n + b2 n

A+ B =

21 21

,

M

a p 1 + bp 1 a p2 + b p2 K a pn + b pn

where

a a22 L a 2 n

A=

21

M

a p1 a p2 L a pn

6.8

b11 b12 L b1n

b b22 L b2 n

B= 21

M

b p 1 b p 2 L bpn

is the matrix of g. Meditating on the properties of linear functions should convince you

that for any three matrices (of the appropriate sizes) A, B, and C, it is true that

A( B + C ) = AB + AC .

Exercises

2 1 −2 2 1 1

a) b)

0 3 1 0 3 3

1 5

−2 3

2 1 −2 1

c) d) [1 −3 2 − 1]

0 3 1 3 0 2

−3 4

9. Find a) 0 1 0 a 21 a 22 a 23 b) 0 0 0 a 21 a 22 a 23

0 0 1 a 31 a 32 a 33 0 0 0 a 31 a 32 a 33

6.9

10. Let A(θ ) be the 2 × 2 matrix for the linear function that rotates the plane θ

counterclockwise. Compute the product A(θ ) A(η ) , and use the result to give

identities for cos(θ + η ) and sin(θ + η ) in terms of cosθ , cosη , sinθ , and sinη .

11. a)Find the matrix for the linear function that rotates R 3 about the coordinate vector j

π

by (In the positive direction, according to the usual “right hand rule” for rotation.).

4

b)Find a vector description for the curve that results from applying the linear

12. Suppose f : R 2 → R 2 is linear. Let C be the circle of radius 1 and center at the origin.

g(11 and

g( −11

, ) = ( 4,− 5) . Find the matrix of g.

6.10

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