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1. What is Pharmacology? Pharmacology is the study of substances that interact with living systems through chemical processes, especially by binding to regulatory molecules and activating or inhibiting normal body processes.  2. What are the different branches or fields of study in Pharmacology? Pharmacy is a branch of pharmacology that deals with identification, selection, preservation, combining, analyzing, standardization, preparing, compounding and dispensing of medicines for administration to the patient. Pharmacognosy is a term derived from the Greek word 'gnosis' which means knowledge. It is a branch of pharmacology that deals with the sources of drugs derived from plants and animals. It is also a study of physical and chemical properties of such substances. Pharmacokinetics is a term derived from the Greek word 'kinesis' meaning a movement. It deals with the time course of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. In other words, it means "What the body does to the drug". It provides a rational basis for doses of a drug and helps in dosage adjustment in altered physiological and pathological states like aging, renal or hepatic impairment. Pharmacodynamics (Greek 'dynamics' means force) is the study of physiological and biochemical effects of drugs, mechanisms of action and the relationship of the plasma concentration of the drug with its response and the duration of action. In other words, it means "What the drug does to the body". Pharmacotherapeutics (Greek 'therapia' means medical treatment) deals with the use of drugs in the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of a disease or their purposeful use in alteration of physiological functions for the benefit of the recipient. In other words, it is the clinical application of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic knowledge of the drug. Therapeutics deals with the science and art of treatment of diseases. When therapy is based on clinical evidence it is called Empirical Therapeutics. It means the drug is effective, although its mode of action is unknown. Chemotherapy deals with the use of chemotherapeutic agents to inhibit or destroy invading microbes, parasites or cancer cells with minimal effect on healthy living tissues.
Toxicology (Greek 'toxicon' means poison) is the science of poisons. It deals with the adverse effects of drugs and poisonous effects of various chemicals (household, environmental, industrial or homicidal). It is also concerned with their source, chemical composition, action, tests for detection and antidotes. Clinical toxicology is the science of detection, diagnosis and treatment of poisoning. Pharmacogenetics is a relatively new field. It deals with genetically mediated variations in drug responses. Clinical Pharmacology is a branch of pharmacology that deals with the pharmacological effects of drugs in man. It gives useful data about the potency, usefulness, doses and toxicity of new drugs for their safe clinical use. Biopharmaceutics deals with the development of new drug delivery systems and new dosage forms. It also provides information how these dosage forms can influence the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of a drug. Medicinal Chemistry is the science of designing and synthesis of a new drug. It is based on the structure activity relationship data of existing drugs belonging to one generic group.  3. What is a drug? A drug is defined as an agent intended for use in the diagnosis, mitigation, treatment, cure, or prevention of disease in humans or in other animals.  4. What are the different classifications of drugs? First Division. For Local Action. Class I. Drugs used to destroy micro-organisms.
(a) To disinfect (Drugs too strong to be used upon the body). For buildings:
Formaldehyde, Sulphurous Acid, Steam. For clothing: Formaldehyde, Heat. For dejecta: Chlorinated Lime. (Antiseptics). Alcohol, Cresol, Formaldehyde solution, Hydrogen Dioxide solution, Mercuric Chloride, Phenol, Salicylic Acid.
(b) To inhibit the growth of bacteria upon the body or in one of its cavities
(c) To destroy shin-parasites (Parasiticides). Beta-naphthol, Chrysarobin, Iodine,
Pyrogallic Acid, Resorcin, Sulphur, the above Antiseptics.
Class II. Drugs used upon the skin.
(a) To protect (Dressings). Acetanilide, Bismuth preparations, Boric Acid, Iodine
synthetical powders, Lycopodium, Talcum, Zinc Oxide, Zinc Stearate. Olive Oil, Petroleum and Oils, Wool Fat.
(b) (b) To soothe (Emollients). Almond Oil, Boroglycer-ide, Cacao Butter, Glycerin, (c) To cause hyperoemia (Mild counter-irritation). Tincture of Iodine, Liniments,
(d) To blister. Cantharides.
(e) To corrode (Escharotics). Chromic Acid, Glacial Acetic Acid, Nitric Acid,
Potassium Hydrate, Salicylic Acid, Silver Nitrate, Trichloracetic Acid. Class III. Drugs used to act on mucous membranes.
(a) To soothe (Demulcents). Albumin Water, Barley water, Flaxseed infusion, Milk,
Warm Physiologic Saline solution, Slippery Elm infusion.
(b) To diminish secretion (Astringents). Alum, Bismuth Salts, Weak Silver solutions,
Suprarenal preparations, Tannic Acid, Weak Zinc solutions. (c) To stimulate. Copper Salts, Silver Salts, Zinc Salts. Class IV. Drugs used for local action in the stomach.
(a) To increase the appetite (Stomachics). Cinchona, Gentian, Nux Vomica,
(b) To aid digestion. Diastase, Hydrochloric Acid, Pancreatin, Pepsin.
(c) To reduce acidity (Antacids). Ammonia, Chalk, Lime Water, Magnesia, Sodium Bicarbonate.
(d) To cause vomiting (Emetics). Apomorphine (acting on the vomiting center),
Copper Sulphate, Ipecac, Mustard, Zinc Sulphate.
Class V. Drugs used for local action in the intestinal canal.
(a) To increase peristalsis (Carminatives). Anise, Capsicum, Cardamon, Cinnamon,
Peppermint. (b) To promote evacuation of the bowels. Laxatives Aloes Euonymus Magnesia Podophyllum Purges Calomel Castor Oil Compound Cathartic Salines Magnesium Citrate Magnesium Sulphate Irritants Colocynth Croton Oil Elaterium Jalap
Rhamnus Purshiana Rhubarb Sulphur
Pill A large laxative dose of
Potassium any Tartrate
Seidlitz Powder Sodium Phosphate Sodium Sulphate
(c) To correct fermentation. Betanaphthol, Thymol, Salicylic Acid, Salol. (d) To remove Parasites (Anthelmintics). Aspidium, Betanaphthol, Pepo, Quassia,
Spigelia, Thymol. Second Division. For Systemic Action. Class I. Drugs used to act on the skin after absorption. (a) To stimulate. Arsenic, Thyroid.
(b) To decrease perspiration. Atropine, Sulphuric Acid. (c) To increase perspiration (Diaphoretics). Alcohol, Antipyrine, Pilocarpine.
Class II. Drugs used to act upon the genito-urinary system.
(a) To increase the secretion of the mucous membranes Buchu, Caffeine, Digitalis,
Scoparius, Squill, Water.
(b) To modify the character of the urine. Hexamethy-lenamina, Methylene Blue,
Potassium Acetate, Potassium Bicarbonate, Potassium Citrate, Salicylic Acid, Salol. Santal.
(c) To stimulate the mucous membranes. Cantharides, Copaiba, Cubebs, Oil of (d) To increase menstruation (Emmenagogues). Iron, Manganese Dioxide, Thyroid. (e) To contract the uterus (Oxytocics). Ergot, Hydrastis, Quinine, Viburnum.
Class III. Drugs used to act upon the respiratory tract.
(a) To increase the secretion of mucous membranes (Expectorants). Ammonium
Chloride (small doses), Ipecacuanha, Iodides.
(b) To decrease the secretion of the mucous membranes. Ammonium Chloride
(large doses) Atropine, Codeine, Heroin, Morphine, Terpin Hydrate. relax spasm. Atropine, Bromides, Nitroglycerin, Stramonium, Tobacco. Chloral,
Class IV. Drugs used to act on the circulation.
(a) To stimulate the heart. Alcohol, Ammonia, Camphor. (b) To depress the heart. Aconite, Veratrum. (c) To strengthen the heart. Caffeine, Digitalis, Strophanthus, Strychnine.
(d) To contract the blood vessels. Atropine, Ergot, Suprarenal.
(e) To dilate the blood vessels. Nitrites.
Class V. Drugs used to act upon the nervous system.
(a) To stimulate (Cerebral Stimulants, Antispasmodics, Excitomotors). Asafoetida,
Caffeine, Camphor, Cannabis Indica, Phosphorus, Strychnia, Thyroid, Valerian. Belladonna, Bromides, Chloral, Opium, Phenacetine.
(b) To depress (Analgesics; Depresso-motors). Ace-tanilide, Aconite, Antipyrine, (c) To produce sleep (Hypnotics). Bromides, Chloral, Hyoscine, Paraldehyde,
(d) To produce anesthesia. General: Chloroform, Ether, Nitrous Oxide. Local:
Cocaine, Ethyl Chloride, Ice, Menthol, Phenol. Class VI. Drugs used to lower the temperature of the body. (Antipyretics). - Acetanilide, Antipyrine, Cold, Phenacetine. Class VII. Drugs used for actions which are specific. Antitoxin in Diphtheria. Cinchona in Malaria. Colchicum in Acute Gout. Iron in Anaemia. Mercury in Syphilis. Salicylic Acid in Acute Arthritis. Thyroid in Myxoedema. Drugs and Preparations Which May Cause an Eruption on, or Itching of, the Skin. Antitoxin Arsenic Belladonna . Bromides Chloral Iodides Opium Quinine Salicylic Acid Synthetic Compounds Volatile Oils, and drugs containing them.
Drugs Which May Change the Color of the Urine. Drugs that increase its amount cause it to be lighter. Drugs that irritate the kidneys cause it to be darker. Methylene Blue causes it to be green, if acid. Phenol may cause it to be almost black. Rhubarb may cause it to be brown (same appearance as bile). Santonin causes it to be yellow, if acid; purple, if alkaline. Senna may cause it to be red, if acid : yellow, if alkaline. Sulphonal may cause it to be very dark. Trional may cause it to be very dark. Drugs Which Color the Faeces. Bismuth Salts-color them black or dark gray. Colchicum colors them greenish. Iron colors them black. Mercury colors them green. Purgatives cause them to be darker. Drugs Which Are Excreted With the Milk. Arsenic Bromides Iodides Lead Mercury Opium Quinine Sulphur Vegetable Cathartics Volatile Oils  1. What do you think is the importance of Pharmacology in the practice of Pharmacy? Since Pharmacy is the art and science of preparing and dispensing of medications, knowledge about drug is important. Pharmacology aids in the determination of the dosage, toxicity, mode of action and metabolism of a drug in the body. Reference List: 1. KATZUNG, B. G. 2009. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. 11th ed. Singapore: McGraw Hills Companies, Inc. p.1 2. http://www.medvarsity.com/vmu1.2/dmr/dmrdata/drug/pharmacology.htm [Date Accessed: November 8, 2009] 3. ANSEL, H. C. 2005. Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p.1 4. http://chestofbooks.com/health/materia-medica-drugs/Introduction-to-MateriaMedica-and-Pharmacology/Classification-Of-Drugs.html [Date Accessed: November 8, 2009]