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INTRODUCTION TO WELDING

.Definition:-
The welding is a process of joining two similar or dissimilar metals by fusion or without fusion, with
or without the application of pressure and with or without filler metal. [3]
During fusion a solid union or a compact mass is formed.
If filler material is similar with the base material then this type of welding is called homogenous
welding and if filler material is different from base material then it is heterogeneous welding, where
filler material is given should have low melting temperature.
Types of welding:-
The overall welding process shown in chart below
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The welding is broadly divided into the two groups
I. !ressure welding or diffusion welding this welding process is done under pressure
without additional filler metals. It is classified as"
a# $ot pressure welding and b# cold pressure welding
%
st
state
&
nd
state
&
nd
'
II. (usion or non"pressure welding This process is done with additional filler metals. It is
classified as a# )as welding, b# Thermit welding, c# *lectroslage welding, d# *lectron
beam welding, e# +aser beam welding and f# ,rc welding.
Cold pressure welding
Cold or contct welding is a solid"state welding process in which joining ta-es place without
fusion.heating at the interface of the two parts to be welded. /nli-e in the fusion"welding processes,
no li0uid or molten phase is present in the joint.
1old pressure welding is the establishment of an atom"to"atom bond between the two pieces to be
joined through intimate contact between o2ide"free areas achieved under pressure and without the
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formation of li0uid phase. In order to develop this bond, surface films have to be removed or at least
reduced in amount. 1old pressure welding is used for joining of aluminium cables, joining wires and
rods, various -itchen furniture, communication lines, and application of joining different materials
nowadays.

,D3,4T,)*
1old pressure welding of metals has the following advantages
There is no softening of a wor- hardened or heat"treated metal since the process is carried out at
room temperature. This welding is suitable for electronic parts, which may be bro-en by heating
5hen dissimilar metals are welded, a brittle intercrystalline layer is not formed which is observed in
the conventional heat welding at the interface of the metals. Then, welding cannot be achieved by just
pressing two metals together since the surface of the metal is generally covered with o2ide layer,
absorbed vapour layer and stained layer such as oil. 1old pressure welding is accomplished with
intimate contact of virgin metals, which appear owing to the brea-down of the surface layers, by
plastic deformation of the base metals.
!ROCEDURE
1old pressure welding can be characteri6ed by the large number of possible metal combinations.
%. 7urface !reparing
In order to reduce surface films, all the specimens were first degreased in cetone and then wire
brushed using a motor driven wire brush.
&. Deformation ,mount in +ap 5elding
In this welding method, deformation amount is an important parameter and named with deformation
result with the joined surface. In order to obtain bonding joint, plastic deformation of the two metals
is necessary, supposing that a basic parameter in cold pressure welding is the degree of deformation
normally e2pressed as the reduction 8.
(or lap welding is given by
where h9 is the original thic-ness of sheet and h% is the instantaneous thic-ness at deformation
8.
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3. 7urface 8oughness
The fact that initially rough surfaces are re0uired for welding suggests that bringing o2ide free metals
into contact does not result in welding unless there is also some shear displacement as the two
surfaces come into contact.
The :ond (ormation
5ire brushing at mechanical surface preparation forms a hard and brittle surface film
,t metal surface. This layer is called as cover layer. The observations on researches show that bond
formation is reali6ed by means of the stages given below. The stages are given in
(igure % shows schematically the mechanism of bonding. Deformation has not been
yet occurred in figure %.a., and the cover layers are intact. (igure %.b shows that a small deformation
has been resulted in fracture of the two cover layers as one layer. In figure %.c, the surface e2pansion
has further increased, and e2trusion of virgin material through the crac-s is initiated. 8eal contact and
bonding have been established between the rough end surfaces of the e2truded metals as shown in
figure %.d.
5elding Dies and 5elding "c#e$tic welding dies designed for lp welding is gi%en figure &'In
spce
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,fter surface preparation, the specimens are immediately set in the welding die and then the pressure
was applied. ,t the beginning of the e2periments, the pressure is applied at very slow rate and then at
a much higher rate. It is found that the rate of applying the pressure does not have a mar-ed effect on
either the welding deformation or the weld strength. The welding time ;time of applying and releasing
the pressure# is then set to be % min in all the e2periments were carried out at room temperature.
(ot pressure welding
$ot"pressure"welding is a solid stte process that produces joints between the faying surfaces of two
bodies. It is done by application of #et nd pressure. (usion temperature is not reached, filler metal
is not needed, and substantial plstic defor$tion is generated. $eat is generally applied by flames
of o)yfuel torc#es directed on the end surfaces of solid bars or hollow sections to be joined.
,lternatively, heat can be generated by eddy currents caused by electrical induction from a suitable
inductor coil. ,s soon as the two bodies facing ends reach the correct te$perture, the torches are
suddenly removed, not to stand in the way.
The bodies are brought to contact and upset toget#er under pressure, usually by hydraulic e0uipment.
This variant is properly called the open *oint process. If the parts are ma-ing contact under pressure
before heat application from the outside, it is called the closed *oint process. In either case flash
material is e2pelled and a +ulge is formed at the joint.
$ot"pressure"welding is si$ilr in wy to both friction welding ;see (riction 5elding !rocesses#
and flash welding ;see (lash 5elding !rocess#, although the source of heating is different. (or
obtaining the best results the surfaces should be $c#ined s,ure and clean. 7ome beveling can be
used to control the amount of upset. The process as described is performed as a $nul opertion.
The materials to be welded must e2hibit hot ductility or forge+ility. Therefore cast iron cannot be
$ot"pressure"welded. The materials commonly joined by $ot"pressure"welding are cr+on steels,
low alloy steels, and certain nonferrous metals. 1ertain dissi$ilr $terils combinations are
weldable by $ot"pressure"welding. <aterials that immediately form on the surface d#erent o)ides
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upon heating cannot be easily welded in air by this process. Typically among them lu$inu$ lloys
and stainless steels. Tests were performed in a vacuum chamber.
-d%ntges
7imple process
7imple joint preparation
8elatively low cost e0uipment
=uic- weld production
$igh 0uality joints
4o filler metal needed
<inimally s-illed operators re0uired
Li$ittions
4ot all metals are weldable
4ot easily automated
+ength of cycle dependent on time for heating
8emoval of flash and bulge re0uired after welding.
>nly simple sections readily butt weldable.
The most important parameter is the pressure se,uence cycle, possibly being developed by trial and
error. !ressure in the rnge of ./ to 0/ 1! ;? to %9 -si# must be available.
Typical application reported, refer to butt $ot"pressure"welding of railroad rils sections and steel
reinforcing bars, especially in @apan. (or use in the production of weldments for the aerospace
industry with delicate materials $ot"pressure"welding can be carried out in closed c#$+ers with
vacuum or a shielding medium. <echanical properties tend to be ner those of the base materials, but
depend upon materials composition, cooling rate and 0uality. $ot"pressure"welding can be an
econo$ic nd successful process for performing butt joints of simple shapes if the materials are
easily weldable.
$ot pressure welding is further sub devided as"
%. *lectric resistance welding
&. (orge welding
3. /ltrasonic welding
'. (riction welding
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A. *2plosion welding
Electric resistnce welding 2ERW3
*lectric resistance welding ;*85# refers to a group of welding processes such as spot and seam
welding that produce coalescence of faying surfaces where heat to form the weld is generated by the
electrical resistance of material vs. the time and the force used to hold the materials together during
welding. 7ome factors influencing heat or welding temperatures are the proportions of the
wor-pieces, the metal coating or the lac- of coating, the electrode materials, electrode geometry,
electrode pressing force, electrical current and length of welding time. 7mall pools of molten metal
are formed at the point of most electrical resistance ;the connecting or BfayingB surfaces# as an
electrical current ;%99C%99,999 ,# is passed through the metal. In general, resistance welding
methods are efficient and cause little pollution, but their applications are limited to relatively thin
materials and the e0uipment cost can be high ;although in production situations the cost per weld may
be as low as D9.9' /7D
[citation needed]
per weld depending on application and manufacturing rate#.
"pot welding
7pot welding is a resistance welding method used to join two or more overlapping metal sheets, studs,
projections, electrical wiring hangers, some heat e2changer fins, and some tubing. /sually power
sources and welding e0uipment are si6ed to the specific thic-ness and material being welded together.
The thic-ness is limited by the output of the welding power source and thus the e0uipment range due
to the current re0uired for each application. 1are is ta-en to eliminate contaminants between the
faying surfaces. /sually, two copper electrodes are simultaneously used to clamp the metal sheets
together and to pass current through the sheets. 5hen the current is passed through the electrodes to
the sheets, heat is generated due to the higher electrical resistance where the surfaces contact each
other. ,s the electrical resistance of the material causes a heat buildup in the wor- pieces between the
copper electrodes, the rising temperature causes a rising resistance, and results in a molten pool
contained most of the time between the electrodes. ,s the heat dissipates throughout the wor-piece in
less than a second ;resistance welding time is generally programmed as a 0uantity of ,1 cycles or
milliseconds# the molten or plastic state grows to meet the welding tips. 5hen the current is stopped
the copper tips cool the spot weld, causing the metal to solidify under pressure. The water cooled
copper electrodes remove the surface heat 0uic-ly, accelerating the solidification of the metal, since
copper is an e2cellent conductor. 8esistance spot welding typically employs electrical power in the
form of direct current, alternating current, medium fre0uency half"wave direct current, or high"
fre0uency half wave direct current.
If e2cessive heat is applied or applied too 0uic-ly, or if the force between the base materials is too
low, or the coating is too thic- or too conductive, then the molten area may e2tend to the e2terior of
the wor- pieces, escaping the containment force of the electrodes ;often up to 39,999 psi#. This burst
of molten metal is called e2pulsion, and when this occurs the metal will be thinner and have less
strength than a weld with no e2pulsion. The common method of chec-ing a weldEs 0uality is a peel
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test. ,n alternative test is the restrained tensile test, which is much more difficult to perform, and
re0uires calibrated e0uipment. :ecause both tests are destructive in nature ;resulting in the loss of
salable material#, non"destructive methods such as ultrasound evaluation are in various states of early
adoption by many >*<s.
The advantages of the method include efficient energy use, limited wor-piece deformation, high
production rates, easy automation, and no re0uired filler materials. 5hen high strength in shear is
needed, spot welding is used in preference to more costly mechanical fastening, such as riveting.
5hile the shear strength of each weld is high, the fact that the weld spots do not form a continuous
seam means that the overall strength is often significantly lower than with other welding methods,
limiting the usefulness of the process. It is used e2tensively in the automotive industryF cars can
have several thousand spot welds. , speciali6ed process, called shot welding, can be used to spot
weld stainless steel.
There are three basic types of resistance welding bonds solid state, fusion, and reflow bra6e. In a
solid state bond, also called a thermo"compression bond, dissimilar materials with dissimilar grain
structure, e.g. molybdenum to tungsten, are joined using a very short heating time, high weld energy,
and high force. There is little melting and minimum grain growth, but a definite bond and grain
interface. Thus the materials actually bond while still in the solid state. The bonded materials typically
e2hibit e2cellent shear and tensile strength, but poor peel strength. In a fusion bond, either similar or
dissimilar materials with similar grain structures are heated to the melting point ;li0uid state# of both.
The subse0uent cooling and combination of the materials forms a GnuggetH alloy of the two materials
with larger grain growth. Typically, high weld energies at either short or long weld times, depending
on physical characteristics, are used to produce fusion bonds. The bonded materials usually e2hibit
e2cellent tensile, peel and shear strengths. In a reflow braze bond, a resistance heating of a low
temperature bra6ing material, such as gold or solder, is used to join either dissimilar materials or
widely varied thic-.thin material combinations. The bra6ing material must GwetH to each part and
possess a lower melting point than the two wor- pieces. The resultant bond has definite interfaces
with minimum grain growth. Typically the process re0uires a longer ;& to %99 ms# heating time at low
weld energy. The resultant bond e2hibits e2cellent tensile strength, but poor peel and shear strength.
!ro*ection welding
Projection welding is a modification of spot welding. In this process, the weld is locali6ed by means
of raised sections, or projections, on one or both of the wor-pieces to be joined. $eat is concentrated
at the projections, which permits the welding of heavier sections or the closer spacing of welds. The
projections can also serve as a means of positioning the wor-pieces. !rojection welding is often used
to weld studs, nuts, and other screw machine parts to metal plate. It is also fre0uently used to join
crossed wires and bars. This is another high"production process, and multiple projection welds can be
arranged by suitable designing and jigging.
"e$ welding
B7eam weldingB redirects here. (or the geometrical welding configuration, see welding joints.
8esistance seam welding is a process that produces a weld at the faying surfaces of two similar
metals. The seam may be a butt joint or an overlap joint and is usually an automated process. It differs
from butt welding in that butt welding typically welds the entire joint at once and seam welding forms
the weld progressively, starting at one end. +i-e spot welding, seam welding relies on two electrodes,
usually made from copper, to apply pressure and current. The electrodes are disc shaped and rotate as
the material passes between them. This allows the electrodes to stay in constant contact with the
material to ma-e long continuous welds. The electrodes may also move or assist the movement of the
material.
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, transformer supplies energy to the weld joint in the form of low voltage, high current ,1 power.
The joint of the wor- piece has high electrical resistance relative to the rest of the circuit and is heated
to its melting point by the current. The semi"molten surfaces are pressed together by the welding
pressure that creates a fusion bond, resulting in a uniformly welded structure. <ost seam welders use
water cooling through the electrode, transformer and controller assemblies due to the heat generated.
7eam welding produces an e2tremely durable weld because the joint is forged due to the heat and
pressure applied. , properly welded joint formed by resistance welding is typically stronger than the
material from which it is formed.
, common use of seam welding is during the manufacture of round or rectangular steel tubing. 7eam
welding has been used to manufacture steel beverage cans but is no longer used for this as modern
beverage cans are seamless aluminium.
4orge welding:-
This is the oldest welding process. In this process the ends of the parts to be joined are heated to a
temperature slightly below the melting point temperature and a pressure is applied so that a joint is
obtained. This is a familiar method used by the village blac-smith. The force can be applied in
repeated blows manually or by a machine or continuously by rotating roll.
(ig"' (orge welding
4riction welding:-
The heat re0uired for welding in this process is obtained by the friction between the ends of two parts
to be joined. >ne of the parts to be joined is rotated at a high speed around 3999 rpm, and the other
part is a2ially aligned with the second one and pressed tightly against it is shown in fig""". The
friction between the two parts raises the temperature of the both ends then the rotation of the part is
stopped abruptly and the presser on the fi2ed part is increased so that the joining ta-es placed. This
process is termed as friction welding ;(85#.
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(ig."A;a# (ig."A;b#
(ig"A (riction welding

Ultrsonic Welding
8ub your hands together rapidly. 4otice anythingI They warmed up, rightI If you ta-e a hammer and
pound a metal surface rapidly and repeatedly, you will find that the place where the hammer stri-es
the metal warms up, too. In both these e2amples, the heat is due to friction. 4ow imagine rubbing
your hands or pounding that hammer thousands of times per second. The frictional heat generated can
raise the temperature significantly in a very short time. :asically, high"fre0uency sound ;ultrasound#
causes rapid vibrations within the materials to be welded. The vibrations cause the materials to rub
against each other and the friction raises the temperature at the surfaces in contact. This rapid
frictional heat is what sets the conditions for the materials to bind together.
/ltrasonic welding e0uipment has four main parts. , power supply converts low"fre0uency electricity
;A9"?9 $6# to high"fre0uency electricity ;&9 " '9 -$6J % -$6 K %999 $6#. 4e2t, a transducer or
converter changes the high"fre0uency electricity into high"fre0uency sound ;ultrasound#. , booster
ma-es the ultrasound vibrations bigger. (inally, a horn or sonotrode focuses the ultrasound vibrations
and delivers them to the materials to be welded. :esides these pieces, there is an anvil upon which the
welded materials are stac-ed and held. There is also some method to apply force ;usually air pressure
supplied by a pneumatic piston# to hold the materials together during welding.
7o what materials and industries ta-e advantage of this clever processI /ltrasonic welding of plastics
is used widely in ma-ing electronics, medical devices and car parts. (or e2ample, ultrasonic welding
is used to ma-e electrical connections on computer circuit boards, and assemble electronic
components such as transformers, electric motors and capacitors. <edical devices, such as catheters,
valves, filters and face mas-s are also assembled using ultrasonic welding. The pac-aging industry
uses this techni0ue to ma-e films, assemble tubes and blister pac-s. *ven (ord <otor 1ompany has
e2plored using ultrasonic welding to ma-e aluminum chassis in cars.
4ow that you -now the basics behind ultrasonic welding, letEs loo- at the welding process itself.
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Ultrsonic Welding "tep +y "tep
The basic process of ultrasonic welding can be described by the following steps
%. The parts to be welded are placed in the anvil or fi2ture.
&. The horn contacts the parts to be welded.
3. !ressure is applied to -eep the horn in contact with the welded materials and to hold them
together.
'. The horn delivers ultrasonic vibrations to heat up the materials. The vibrations move less than
a millimeter either up"and"down or side"to"side.
A. The materials are welded together.
?. The horn gets retracted and the welded materials can be removed from the anvil.
The welding times, applied pressures and temperatures are controlled by a computer or
microprocessor within the welding apparatus. ,nd what actually happens during the welding process
depends on the nature of the materials. In metals, the ultrasonic vibrations are delivered parallel to the
plane of the materials. The frictional heat increases the temperature of the metal surfaces to about one
third of the melting temperature, but does not melt the metals. Instead, the heat removes metal o2ides
and films from the surfaces. This allows the metal atoms to move between the two surfaces and form
bonds that hold the metals together.
In the case of plastics, the vibrations are perpendicular to the plane of the materials and the frictional
heat increases the temperature enough to melt the plastics. The plastic molecules mi2 together and
form bonds. /pon cooling, the plastic surfaces are welded together. 5elding times can vary, but the
welds can form in as little as 9.&A seconds.
The factors that vary in ultrasonic welding are the fre0uency of the sound waves ;usually &9, 39 or '9
-$6#, the pressure applied to hold the materials together, and the time over which the ultrasound is
applied ;fractions of a second to more than one second#.
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The ultrasonic welding techni0ues described so far are good for materials ;metals, plastics# that are
similar. :ut what about materials that are not similar. +etEs address this 0uestion by loo-ing at how
4ew :alance has used ultrasonic welding to assemble athletic shoes.
-d%ntges of Ultrsonic Welding
/ltrasonic welding has many advantages over traditional methods. (or one, welding occurs at low
temperatures relative to other methods. 7o, the manufacturer does not need to e2pend vast amounts of
fuel or other energy to reach high temperatures. This ma-es the process cheaper. ItEs also faster and
safer.
The process occurs in fractions of a second to seconds. 7o, it can be done more 0uic-ly than other
methods. In fact, it can bond plastics better and faster than glues. (or e2ample, the new smart -eys in
cars have a transponder chip in them. The car can only start when it senses the chip. To ma-e the -ey,
one end of the metal -ey blan- and the chip get placed into one half of the plastic top. The other half
gets placed over them and bonded to the base half. This bonding would usually be done with glue,
which ta-es time to cure. The same tas- can be done with ultrasonic welding in less than a second.
/ltrasonic welding does not re0uire flammable fuels and open flames, so compared to other welding
methods, itEs a safer process. 5or-ers are not e2posed to flammable gases or no2ious solvents. In
electronics, copper wires are usually bonded to electrical contacts on circuit boards with solder. The
same tas- can be done using ultrasonic welding in a fraction of the time and without e2posing wor-ers
to fumes from smoldering lead solder. ,lthough wor-ersE hearing may be damaged by e2posure to
high"fre0uency sound, this potential danger is easily reduced by enclosing the ultrasonic welding
machine in a safety bo2 or cage and.or using ear protection.
(inally, ultrasonic welds are as strong and durable as conventional welds of the same materials ""
which is just one of the reasons the method is being used in car manufacturing. To ma-e cars lighter
and more fuel efficient, auto ma-ers are turning to aluminum as the main metal in car bodies.
/ltrasonic welding can be used to bond the metal in less time and at lower temperatures than
traditional welding.
/ltrasonic welding does have its limitations, though. (irst, the depths of the welds are less than a
millimeter, so the process wor-s best on thin materials li-e plastics, wires or thin sheets of metal.
/ltrasonically welding a steel girder for a building would not be practical. 7econd, it does wor- best
when welding similar materials li-e similar plastics or similar metals. ,s you saw with 4ew :alance
shoes, ultrasonically welding dissimilar materials re0uires an additional material "" in the case of the
4ew :alance shoes, itEs a film that can be bonded between the synthetic suede and the mesh.
Despite these limitations, the popularity and potential of ultrasonic welding continues to grow.
5'&'6 E)plosion welding

*2plosive welding is a solid state welding process, which uses a controlled e2plosive detonation to
force two metals together at high pressure. The resultant composite system is joined with a durable,
metallurgical bond.
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*2plosive welding under high velocity impact was probably first recogni6ed by )arl in %L''. It has
been found to be possible to weld together combinations of metals, which are impossible, by other
means.
The Process
This is a solid state joining process. 5hen an e2plosive is detonated on the surface of a metal, a high
pressure pulse is generated. This pulse propels the metal at a very high rate of speed. If this piece of
metal collides at an angle with another piece of metal, welding may occur. (or welding to occur, a
jetting action is re0uired at the collision interface. This jet is the product of the surfaces of the two
pieces of metals colliding. This cleans the metals and allows to pure metallic surfaces to join under
e2tremely high pressure. The metals do not commingle, they are atomically bonded. Due to this fact,
any metal may be welded to any metal ;i.e." copper to steelJ titanium to stainless#. Typical impact
pressures are millions of psi. 4ig' 7 shows the e2plosive welding process.
E)plosi%es
The commonly used high e2plosives are C
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,pplications
%# @oining of pipes and tubes.
&# <ajor areas of the use of this method are heat e2changer tube sheets and pressure vessels.
3# Tube !lugging.
'# 8emote joining in ha6ardous environments.
A# @oining of dissimilar metals " ,luminium to steel, Titanium alloys to 1r C 4i steel, 1u to
stainless steel, Tungsten to 7teel, etc.
?# ,ttaching cooling fins.
M# >ther applications are in chemical process vessels, ship building industry, cryogenic industry, etc.
-d%ntges
%# 1an bond many dissimilar, normally unweldable metals.
&# <inimum fi2turing.jigs.
3# 7implicity of the process.
'# *2tremely large surfaces can be bonded.
A# 5ide range of thic-nesses can be e2plosively clad together.
?# 4o effect on parent properties.
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7 E)plosi%e & Detontion %elocity 8
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TNT ;Trinitrotoluene, 1
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M# 7mall 0uantity of e2plosive used.
Li$ittions
%. The metals must have high enough impact resistance, and ductility.
&. 4oise and blast can re0uire operator protection, vacuum chambers, buried in sand.water.
3. The use of e2plosives in industrial areas will be restricted by the noise and ground vibrations
caused by the e2plosion.
'. The geometries welded must be simple C flat, cylindrical, conical.
.'7 -rc welding
,rc welding is a process of joining of metal where heat is produced by generating an electric arc
without the application of pressure and with or without the use of filler metal.
The filler metal is used or not depends on base plate thic-ness.
The various arc welding are"
%. 7hielded metal arc welding ;7<,5# or (lu2 shielded metal arc welding or <anual metal arc
welding ;<<,5#.
&. )as shielded arc welding.;)7,5#
3. 7ubmerged arc welding.
'. *lectroslag welding.
A. !lasma arc welding
?. ,rc spot welding.
M. 7tud ;,rc# welding.
N. 1arbon ,rc welding
L. ,tomic hydrogen arc welding
%9. ,tomic arc welding
7'7'7 1nul $etl rc welding 211-W3
This process uses consumable flu2"coated electrodes to produce by arcing, as well as to supply filler
material to the weld 6one.
This welding is very suitable for mild steel but it is also applicable in cast iron, wrought iron etc.

!rinciple of 11- Welding:
,n electric arc is generated between a piece of wire called electrode and the wor- pieces which is to
be welded. The heat re0uired for the welding is generated from this arc and fuses the electrode
gradually thus molten metal is formed falls in the gap between wor- pieces.
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(ig The basic arc welding circuit
(ig.... shows the electrode and wor- pieces. The electrode is connected to the ;C#ve pole and wor-
pieces is connected to the ;O# ve pole of a arc generating machine. The electric energy is change into
arc which generate heat and light ;spar-#. The electrode and wor- spices melt into molten state and
solidify to ma-e join by forming metallurgical bond or union.
Electric -rc
To generate the arc the electrode is touched to the wor- pieces as well as electric current is flow then
the electrode is withdrawn from wor- pieces and maintained &"3 mm gap between wor- pieces and
electrode to maintain an air resistance between them but the electron do not stop to flow, it ioni6ed the
air and a cannel of electron is produced. This cannel of electron is called arc which generate heat for
welding. The heat of the arc produces the temperature appro2imately 3999P1 to 3A99P1
The welding current may vary from &9 to ?99 ,mp in <<, 5elding. 5hen ,1 current is used the
heat is developed e0ually at wor- pieces and electrode as the electrode and wor- pieces are changing
polarity continuously.
(ig.& illustrates the shielding of the welding arc and molten pool with a 7tic- electrode. The e2truded
covering on the filler metal rod, provides a shielding gas at the point of contact while the slag protects
the fresh weld from the air.
Electrode
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,n electrode is a metal core wire with flu2"coated ;insulating covering#. The <<, welding
consumable flu2"coated electrode is used to supply filler material to weld 6one.



<<, welding is used for steel, alloy"steel, structural steel, heat resistant steel, cast iron , mild steel
and other metal alloys.
<etal electrodes are may be three types as"
%. :ar electrode
:ar electrode is a carbon steel filler rod without coating which have limited used for welding of
wrought iron and mild steel. 5hen the globules of metal flow from the electrode to the wor- pieces,
they are e2posed to the o2ygen and nitrogen in the surrounding air and thus decreases the strength and
ductility of the metal. If a bar wire is used as the electrode it is found that the arc is difficult to control
and the weld tends to be porous and brittle. 5ith bar wire electrodes, much metals is lost by
volatilisation which turning into vapour
&. 1oated electrode
, coated electrode is a carbon steel filler rod that has been covered by same form of flu2ing material.
1oated ;covered# electrodes reduce the loss of metal by volatilisation. <aterials of coating for arc
welding are mainly :ora2, ,mmonia, 7ulphur, 1ellulose, 1alcium carbide, Dolomite, 8utile, mica,
clay, 7lica, <anganese dio2ide, Iron powder, (ero"silicon, 7odium silicate, !otassium silicate, etc
3. $eavy coated electrode
The arc can be rendered easy to control and the absorption of atmospheric gases are reduced to
minimum by heavy coated electrode. /nder the heat the coating react to form a slag which is li0uid
and lighter then the molten metal. It rises to the surface, cools and solidifies, forming a protective
covering over the hot metal while cooling and protect it from the atmospheric effect of the weld
metal.
The coating of the welding electrodes serve several purposes are
%. *stablish and maintain the arc.
&. !rotect the molten metal from o2ygen and nitrogen.
3. Increases the rate of cooling.
'. !rovide alloying element to the join.
A. Influence the shape of the bead.
17
Types of coted electrode: The electrode are classified as per the core material as follows
a. <ild steel electrode
b. 1ast iron electrode
c. Inconel electrode
Welding power source
The power sources of welding supply can be ,.1. Transformer or D.1. )enerator. In D.1 set, an
electrode connects to the ;O# ve pole, which will burn away A9Q faster than if connected to the ;"#ve
pole. ,s a result the bar electrodes or medium coated electrodes are connected to the ;" ve# pole as
heat re0uires to burn this electrode is less where as heavily coated electrodes are connected to the ;O#
ve pole, due to e2tra heat re0uired to melt the heavy coating of electrode.
>n the other hand, when alternative current ;,.1.# is used, the heat generates e0ually at wor- pieces
and electrode as the electrode and wor- pieces are changing their polarity at the fre0uency of the
supply
5hen the job is connected to the ;O#ve pole and electrode is connected to the ;"#ve pole, the
arrangement is said to be of Rstraight polarityS. >n the other hand, when the job is connected to the
;"#ve pole and the electrode is connected to the ;O#ve pole, the arrangement is said to be of R8everse
polarityS.
18
(ig. 7traight ;left# and reverse ;right# polarity
The D.1. output units are used for both steel and non"ferrous metals and welding can be obtained in
current ranges of 399"'99 amps, as re0uired. Thev ,.1. output unit ;,.1. transformer# supply current
is usually from N9 to %99, and voltage N9"%993 from mains supply.
-'C' Trnsfor$er
, transformer consists essentially of high magnetisable silicon iron core and two windings wound
upon the core with insulated wire. >ne of the winding is connected to the supply line which is called
Rprimary windingS and the other winding delivers the desired voltage or current, which is called the
Rsecondary windingS. The voltage supplied to the transformer is termed the input voltage, while that
supplied by the transformer is termed the output voltage. If the output voltage is greater than the input
voltage, it is a Rset"upS transformer, while if the output voltage is less than the inputJ it is a Rset"downS
transformer. Transformers for welding purpose are always set"down. The transformer may be of the
dry type;air cooled#or it may be immersed in oil;oil cooled# contained in the outer container. >il"
cooled transformers have a lower permissible temperature rise than the dry type and therefore, their
overloaded capacity is much smaller. 5elding transformers are available up to 'A9"A99 amps. ,
circuit diagram of a transformer is shown here
19
(ig
(ig.
20

(ig
21
CHAPTER 5
< Gs Welding:-
22
It is the types of fusion welding, in this welding the heat is obtained by the combustion of fuel gas.
The most widely used gas combination for producing a hot flame for welding metals is o2ygen and
acetylene. The appro2imate flame temperature produced by o2y"acetylene flame is 3&99
o
1. [3]
(ig )as welding process
Gas welding equipent:-
The basic e0uipment re0uired to carry out o2y"acetylene gas welding is as follows"
i! "elding torch:-
It is also -nown as blow pipe. It is a tool for mi2ing the o2ygen and acetylene in the desired
volumes and burning the mi2ture at the end of tip, which produces a high temperature flame.
The welding torches are commercially available in the following two types
a. Injector or low pressure typeJ and
b. !ositive or e0ual pressure ;also -nown as high pressure# type.
ii! "elding torch tip:-
The tips are made of high thermal conductivity material such as copper or copper alloy. The
interchangeable tips for the various thic-nesses are usually provided with each welding
torch.
iii! Pressure regulators:-
There are two gauges on the body of the regulator, one showing the pressure in the cylinder
while the other shows pressure being supplied to the torch. The desired pressure at the
welding torch for o2ygen is between M9-4.mT and &N9-4.mT and for acetylene it is between
M-4.mT and %93-4.mT.
23
i#! Hose and hose fittings:-
The standard colour for o2ygen cylinder is blac- and for acetylene cylinder it is red.
#! Gas c$linder:-
The standard colour for o2ygen cylinder is blac- and for acetylene cylinder it ismaroon.
(ig )as welding e0uipment
Gas flae:-
The following three type of flame are use for gas welding.
i! %eutral flae:-
The neutral flame, as shown in fig."&9 is obtained by supplying of o2ygen and acetylene. It
has the following two sharply defined 6ones.
a# ,n inner luminous cone ;3&99
o
1#, and
b# ,n outer cone or envelope of bluish colour ;%&A9
o
1#.
The most o2y"acetylene welding ;e.g. welding of steel, cast iron, copper, aluminium etc.# is
done with the neutral flame.
ii! &'idising flae:-
The o2idising flame, as shown in fig."&9, is obtained when thereis an e2cess of o2ygen. It is
used for welding brass and bron6e.
iii. Reducing or car(urising flae:- The reducing flame, as shown in fig."&9, is obtained when
there is an e2cess of acetylene. It is used for welding of molten metal, a certain alloy steel,
many of non"ferrous, hard surfacing material is such as satellite.
24
(ig )as flame
Electroslg Welding 2E"W3
*lectroslag 5elding is a welding process, in which the heat is generated by an electric current passing
between the consumable electrode ;filler metal# and the wor- piece through a molten slag covering
the weld surface.
!rior to welding the gap between the two wor- pieces is filled with a welding flu2. *lectroslag
5elding is initiated by an arc between the electrode and the wor- piece ;or starting plate#. $eat,
generated by the arc, melts the flu2ing powder and forms molten slag. The slag, having low electric
conductivity, is maintained in li0uid state due to heat produced by the electric current.
The slag reaches a temperature of about 3A99P( ;%L39P1#. This temperature is sufficient for melting
the consumable electrode and wor- piece edges. <etal droplets fall to the weld pool and join the wor-
pieces.
*lectroslag 5elding is used mainly for steels.
25
Advantages of Electroslag Welding:
$igh deposition rate " up to 'A lbs.h ;&9 -g.h#J
+ow slag consumption ;about AQ of the deposited metal weight#J
+ow distortionJ
/nlimited thic-ness of wor- piece.
Disadvantages of Electroslag welding:
1oarse grain structure of the weldJ
+ow toughness of the weldJ
>nly vertical position is possible.
7'7'& "u+$erged -rc Welding 2"-W3
"u+$erged -rc Welding is a welding process, which utili6es a bare consumable metallic electrode
26
producing an arc between itself and the wor- piece within a granular shielding flu2 applied around the
weld.
The arc heats and melts both the wor- pieces edges and the electrode wire. The molten electrode
material is supplied to the surfaces of the welded pieces, fills the weld pool and joins the wor- pieces.
7ince the electrode is submerged into the flu2, the arc is invisible. The flu2 is partially melts and
forms a slag protecting the weld pool from o2idation and other atmospheric contaminations.
Advantages of Suberged Arc Welding !SAW":
3ery high welding rateJ
The process is suitable for automationJ
$igh 0uality welds structure.
Disadvantages of Suberged Arc Welding !SAW":
5eld may contain slag inclusionsJ
+imited applications of the process " mostly for welding hori6ontally located plates.
27
!ls$ -rc Welding 2!-W3
!ls$ -rc Welding is the welding process utili6ing heat generated by a constricted arc struc-
between a tungsten non"consumable electrode and either the wor- piece ;trnsferred rc process# or
water cooled constricting no66le ;non-trnsferred rc process#.
!ls$ is a gaseous mi2ture of positive ions, electrons and neutral gas molecules.
#ransferred arc $rocess produces plasma jet of high energy density and may be used for high speed
welding and cutting of 1eramics, steels, ,luminum alloys, 1opper alloys, Titanium alloys, 4ic-el
alloys.
%on&transferred arc $rocess produces plasma of relatively low energy density. It is used for welding
of various metals and for plasma spraying ;coating#. 7ince the wor- piece in non"transferred plasma
arc welding is not a part of electric circuit, the plasma arc torch may move from one wor- piece to
other without e2tinguishing the arc.
Advantages of Plasa Arc Welding !PAW":
28
8e0uires less operator s-ill due to good tolerance of arc to misalignmentsJ
$igh welding rateJ
$igh penetrating capability ;-eyhole effect#J
Disadvantages of Plasa Arc Welding !PAW":
*2pensive e0uipmentJ
$igh distortions and wide welds as a result of high heat input ;in transferred arc process#.
End of rc welding 2$y +e3
Lser Welding 2LW3
+aser 5elding ;+5# is a welding process, in which heat is generated by a high energy laser beam
targeted on the wor- piece. The laser beam heats and melts the wor- pieces edges, forming a joint.
*nergy of narrow laser beam is highly concentrated %9
N
"%9
%%
5.in
&
;%9
N
"%9
%9
5.cm
&
#, therefore
diminutive weld pool forms very fast ;for about %9
"?
sec.#. 7olidification of the weld pool surrounded
by the cold metal is as fast as melting. 7ince the time when the molten metal is in contact with the
atmosphere is short, no contamination occurs and therefore no shields ;neutral gas, flu2# are re0uired.
The joint in +aser 5elding ;+aser :eam 5elding# is formed either as a se0uence of overlapped spot
welds or as a continuous weld.
+aser 5elding is used in electronics, communication and aerospace industry, for manufacture of
medical and scientific instruments, for joining miniature components.
Advantages of 'aser Welding:
*asily automated processJ
1ontrollable process parametersJ
3ery narrow weld may be obtainedJ
$igh 0uality of the weld structureJ
3ery small heat affected 6oneJ
Dissimilar materials may be weldedJ
3ery small delicate wor- pieces may be weldedJ
3acuum is not re0uiredJ
+ow distortion of wor- piece.
Disadvantages of (arbon Arc Welding:
+ow welding speedJ
$igh cost e0uipmentJ
29
5eld depth is limited.
===1etl Inert Gs Welding 21IG8 G1-W3
<etal Inert )as 5elding ;)as <etal ,rc 5elding3 is a arc welding process, in which the weld is
shielded by an e2ternal gas ;,rgon, helium, 1>
&
, argon O >2ygen or other gas mi2tures#.
1onsumable electrode wire, having chemical composition similar to that of the parent material, is
continuously fed from a spool to the arc 6one. The arc heats and melts both the wor- pieces edges and
the electrode wire. The fused electrode material is supplied to the surfaces of the wor- pieces, fills the
weld pool and forms joint.
Due to automatic feeding of the filling wire ;electrode# the process is referred to as a semi"automatic.
The operator controls only the torch positioning and speed.
Advantages of )etal *nert +as Welding !)*+, +)AW":
1ontinuous weld may be produced ;no interruptions#J
$igh level of operators s-ill is not re0uiredJ
30
7lag removal is not re0uired ;no slag#J
Disadvantages of )etal *nert +as Welding !)*+, +)AW":
*2pensive and non"portable e0uipment is re0uiredJ
>utdoor application are limited because of effect of wind, dispersing the shielding gas.
===Tungsten Inert Gs -rc Welding 2TIG8 GT-W3

Tungsten Inert )as ,rc 5elding ;)as Tungsten ,rc 5elding# is a welding process, in which heat is
generated by an electric arc struc- between a tungsten non"consumable electrode and the wor- piece.
The weld pool is shielded by an inert gas ;,rgon, helium, 4itrogen# protecting the molten metal from
atmospheric contamination.
The heat produced by the arc melts the wor- pieces edges and joins them. (iller rod may be used, if
re0uired.
Tungsten Inert )as ,rc 5elding produces a high 0uality weld of most of metals. (lu2 is not used in
the process.
31
Advantages of #ungsten *nert +as Arc Welding !#*+, +#AW":
5eld composition is close to that of the parent metalJ
$igh 0uality weld structure
7lag removal is not re0uired ;no slag#J
Thermal distortions of wor- pieces are minimal due to concentration of heat in small 6one.
Disadvantages of #ungsten *nert +as Arc Welding !#*+, +#AW":
+ow welding rateJ
8elatively e2pensiveJ
8e0ures high level of operatorSs s-ill.
32
)orge "elding *)&"+
(orge 5elding is a 7olid 7tate 5elding process, in which low carbon steel parts are heated to about
%N99P( ;%999P1# and then forged ;hammered#.
!rior to (orge 5elding, the parts are scarfed in order to prevent entrapment of o2ides in the joint.
(orge 5elding is used in general blac-smith shops and for manufacturing metal art pieces and welded
tubes.
Advantages of -orge Welding:
)ood 0uality weld may be obtainedJ
!arts of intricate shape may be weldedJ
4o filler material is re0uired.
Disadvantages of -orge Welding:
>nly low carbon steel may be weldedJ
$igh level of the operators s-ill is re0uiredJ
7low welding processJ
5eld may be contaminated by the co-e used in heating furnace.

Cold "elding *C"+
1old 5elding is a 7olid 7tate 5elding process, in which two wor- pieces are joined together at room
temperature and under a pressure, causing a substantial deformation of the welded parts and providing
an intimate contact between the welded surfaces.
,s a result of the deformation, the o2ide film covering the welded parts brea-s up, and clean metal
surfaces reveal. Intimate contact between these pure surfaces provides a strong and defect less
bonding.
,luminum alloys, 1opper alloys, low carbon steels, 4ic-el alloys, and other ductile metals may be
welded by 1old 5elding.
1old 5elding is widely used for manufacturing bi"metal steel " aluminum alloy strips, for cladding of
aluminum alloy strips by other aluminum alloys or pure aluminum ;1orrosion protection coatings#.
:i"metal strips are produced by 8olling technology. !resses are also used for 1old 5elding.
1old 5elding may be easily automated.
)riction "elding *)R"+
4riction Welding is a 7olid 7tate 5elding process, in which two cylindrical parts are brought in
contact by a friction pressure when one of them rotates. (riction between the parts results in heating
their ends. (orge pressure is then applied to the pieces providing formation of the joint.
33
1arbon steels, ,lloy steels, Tool and die steels, 7tainless steels, ,luminum alloys, 1opper alloys,
<agnesium alloys, 4ic-el alloys, Titanium alloys may be joined by (riction 5elding.
,n another special type of friction welding is friction"stir welding which is e2plained below
E'plosi#e "elding *E,"+
E)plosi%e Welding is a 7olid 7tate 5elding process, in which welded parts ;plates# are
metallurgically bonded as a result of obli0ue impact pressure e2erted on them by a controlled
detonation of an e2plosive charge.
>ne of the welded parts ;base plate# is rested on an anvil, the second part ;flyer plate# is located above
the base plate with an angled or constant interface clearance.
*2plosive charge is placed on the flyer plate. Detonation starts at an edge of the plate and propagates
at high velocity along the plate.
The ma2imum detonation velocity is about %&9Q of the material sonic velocity.
The slags ;o2ides, nitrides and other contaminants# are e2pelled by the jet created just ahead of the
bonding front.
<ost of the commercial metals and alloys may be bonded ;welded# by *2plosive 5elding.
Dissimilar metals may be joined by *2plosive 5elding
1opper to steelJ
4ic-el to steelJ
,luminum to steelJ
Tungsten to steelJ
Titanium to steelJ
1opper to aluminum.
Advantages of E.$losive Welding
+arge surfaces may be weldedJ
$igh 0uality bonding high strength, no distortions, no porosity, no change of the metal
microstructureJ
+ow cost and simple processJ
7urface preparation is not re0uired.
Disadvantages of E.$losive Welding:
:rittle materials ;low ductility and low impact toughness# cannot be processedJ
>nly simple shape parts may be bonded plates, cylindersJ
Thic-ness of flyer plate is limited " less than &.AH ;?3 mm#J
34
7afety and security aspects of storage and using e2plosives.
*2plosive 5elding is used for manufacturing clad tubes and pipes, pressure vessels, aerospace
structures, heat e2changers, bi"metal sliding bearings, ship structures, weld transitions, corrosion
resistant chemical process tan-s.
to top
Diffusion "elding *D)"+
Diffusion Welding is a 7olid 7tate 5elding process, in which pressure applied to two wor- pieces
with carefully cleaned surfaces and at an elevated temperature below the melting point of the metals.
:onding of the materials is a result of mutual diffusion of their interface atoms.
In order to -eep the bonded surfaces clean from o2ides and other air contaminations, the process is
often conducted in vacuum.
4o appreciable deformation of the wor- pieces occurs in Diffusion 5elding.
Diffusion 5elding is often referred more commonly as 7olid 7tate 5elding ;775#.
Diffusion 5elding is able to bond dissimilar metals, which are difficult to weld by other welding
processes
7teel to tungstenJ
7teel to niobiumJ
7tainless steel to titaniumJ
)old to copper alloys.
Diffusion 5elding is used in aerospace and roc-etry industries, electronics, nuclear applications,
manufacturing composite materials.
Advantages of Diffusion Welding:
Dissimilar materials may be welded ;<etals, 1eramics, )raphite, glass#J
5elds of high 0uality are obtained ;no pores, inclusions, chemical segregation, distortions#.
4o limitation in the wor- pieces thic-ness.
Disadvantages of Diffusion Welding:
Time consuming process with low productivityJ
3ery thorough surface preparation is re0uired prior to welding processJ
The mating surfaces must be precisely fitted to each otherJ
8elatively high initial investments in e0uipment.
35
-ltrasonic "elding *-."+
Ultrsonic Welding is a 7olid 7tate 5elding process, in which two wor- pieces are bonded as a
result of a pressure e2erted to the welded parts combined with application of high fre0uency acoustic
vibration ;ultrasonic#.
/ltrasonic vibration causes friction between the parts, which results in a closer contact between the
two surfaces with simultaneous local heating of the contact area. Interatomic bonds, formed under
these conditions, provide strong joint.
/ltrasonic cycle ta-es about % sec. The fre0uency of acoustic vibrations is in the range &9 to M9 U$6.
Thic-ness of the welded parts is limited by the power of the ultrasonic generator.
/ltrasonic 5elding is used mainly for bonding small wor- pieces in electronics, for manufacturing
communication devices, medical tools, watches, in automotive industry.
Advantages of /ltrasonic Welding:
Dissimilar metals may be joinedJ
3ery low deformation of the wor- pieces surfacesJ
$igh 0uality weld is obtainedJ
The process may be integrated into automated production linesJ
<oderate operator s-ill level is enough.
Disadvantages of /ltrasonic Welding:
>nly small and thin parts may be weldedJ
5or- pieces and e0uipment components may fatigue at the reciprocating loads provided by
ultrasonic vibrationJ
5or- pieces may bond to the anvil.
<a-e 1ut chat of solid state welding ;above#
. Welding stinless steels
Dr! Ditri /opelio#ich
Welding ustenitic stinless steels
Welding ferritic stinless steels
Welding $rtensitic stinless steels
Welding ustenitic-ferritic 2Duple)3 stinless steels
Welding precipittion #rdening stinless steels
,ccording to the ,I7I classification 7tainless steels are divided onto groups austenitic, ferritic,
martensitic, austenitic"ferritic ;Duple2# and precipitation hardening steels.
36
<ost stainless steels may be welded by different welding processes
7hielded <etal ,rc 5elding ;7<,5#
7ubmerged ,rc 5elding ;7,5#
<etal Inert )as 5elding ;<I), )<,5#
Tungsten Inert )as ,rc 5elding ;TI), )T,5#
8esistance 5elding ;85#
)as 5elding ;)5#
(riction 5elding ;(85#
*lectron :eam 5elding ;*:5#
+aser 5elding ;+5#
:ra6ing
Electric resistance welding:-
It is a type of pressure welding. It is used for joining pieces of sheet metal or wire. The welding heat is
obtained at the location of the desired weld by the electric resistance through the metal pieces to a
relatively short duration, low voltage ;from? to L volts only# high amperage ;varying from ?9 to '999
amperes# electric current. The amount of current can be regulated by changing the primary turns of
the transformer. 5hen the area to be welted in sufficiently heated, the pressure varying from &A to AA
<!a is applied to the joining area by suitable electrodes until the weld is solid.
(ig"? *lectric resistance welding[0]
Principle &f Electric resistance welding:-
37
In resistance welding, a low voltage ;typically %v# and very high current ;typically %A999,# is passed
through the joint for a very short time ;typically 9.&As#. this high amperage heats the joint, due to the
contact resistance at the joint and melts it. The pressure on the joint is continuously maintained and
the metal fuses together under this pressure. The heat generated in resistance welding can be
e2pressed as"""[1]
[1]
2 3 t4e total 4eat generated in t4e wor5, 6
* 3 electric current, A
t 3 tie for w4ic4 t4e electric current is $assing t4roug4 t4e joint, s
7 3 t4e resistance of t4e joint, o4s
and 5 3 a constant to account for t4e 4eat losses fro t4e welded joint.
The resistance of the joint, 8, is a comple2 factor to -now because it is composed of the
a. 8esistance of the electrodes,
b. 1ontact resistance between the electrode and the wor-"piece,
c. 1ontact resistance between the two wor-"piece plates, and
d. 8esistance of the wor-"piece plate.
The amount of heat released is directly proportional to the resistance. It is li-ely to be released at all
of the above"mentioned points, but the only place where a large amount of heat is to be generated to
have an effective fusion is at the inter face between the two wor-"piece plate. Therefore, the rest of
the component resistances should be made as small as possible, since the heat released at those places
would not aid in the welding.[1]
T$pes of resistance welding:-
The various types of electric resistance welding are as follows
i! .pot welding :-
It is used for welding lap joint, joining component made from plate material having
9.9&Amm to %.&Amm is thic-ness. The plates to be joined together are placed between the
two electrode tips of copper or copper alloy. It may be noted that[3]
38
(ig"M 7pot welding
The electrode tip diameter ;d# should be e0ual to where t is the thic-ness of plate
to be weld.
The distance between the nearest edge of plate and centre of weld should be at least
%.Ad.
The spacing between two spot"weld should not be less than 3d.
ii! Roll spot and sea welding :-
5hen the spot welds on two overlapping pieces of metal are spaced, the process is -nown
as roll spot welding. If the spot welds are sufficiently made close, then the process is
called seam welding. This process is based adopted for metal thic-ness ranging from
9.9&Amm to 3mm.[8]
(ig."N;a# 8oll welding (ig."N;b# 7eam welding
39
(ig"N 8oll V seam welding[9]
iii! Pro0ection welding :-
It is similar to spot welding e2cept that one of metal pieces to be welded has projection on
its surface at the points where the welds are to be done. In other words, it is a multi"spot
welding process. It may be noted that [:]
5hen two pieces of different metals are to be welded by projection welding, then the
projection should be made on the metal pieces with the higher conductivity.
5hen the two metal pieces are of different thic-ness, the projection should be made
on other metal pieces.
(ig"L !rojection welding [;]
Arc welding:-
In welding, generation of heat by an electric arc is one of the efficient methods. ,ppro2imately, A9Q
of the energy is liberated in the form of heat. The electric"arc welding process ma-es use of heat
produced by the electric arc to fusion"weld metallic pieces. This is one of the most widely used
welding process, mainly because of the ease of use and high production rates that can be achieved
economically.[<]
40
(ig"%% ,rc welding[9]
Principle of Arc:-
,s arc is generated between two conductor of electricity, cathode and anode, when they are touched
to establish the flow of current and then separated by a small distance. ,n arc is a sustained electric
discharge through the ioni6ed gas column, called plasma, between the two electrodes.[<]
It is generally believed that electrons liberate from the cathode move towards the anode and are
accelerated in their movement. 5hen they stri-e the anode at high velocity, a large amount of heat is
generated. ,lso when the electrons are moving through the air gap between the electrodes, also called
the arc column, they collide with the ions in the ioni6ed gas column between the electrodes.The
positively charged ions, move from the anode and impinge on the cathode, thus liberating heat. ,bout
?A to MAQ of total heat is liberated at the anode by the stri-ing electrons. , temperature of the order of
?999Pcis generated at the anode.[<]
In order to produce the arc, the potential difference between the two electrodes ;voltage# should be
sufficient to allow them to move across the air gap. The larger air gap re0uires higher potential
differences. If the air gap becomes too large for the voltage, the arc may be e2tinguished. $ere, we
may ma-e use of an analogy of a person wal-ing on the road. 7uddenly, when a deep trench comes in
his way, the person would try to jump across it, if it is a short one. :ut if it is a broader one, then he
may move bac- a littleJ come running towards the trench and try to jump over it. If it is too broad, he
may abandon the idea of jumping across it. The energy spent in jumping is much more than what is
spent while normal wal-ing. In the case of an arc, the e2tra energy spent crossing the air gap is
liberated as heat.[1]
(or convenience of e2planation, we have chosen a direct current arc for the above description. :ut
even with an arc of the alternating current ;,1#, it would be similar, with the main difference that the
cathode and anode would change continuously and as a result, the temperature across the arc would be
more uniform compared to a D1 arc.
Arc-welding Equipent:-
The main re0uirement in an arc"welding set"up is the source of electric power. They are essentially of
two types
41
!a" Alternating current !A(" ac4ines
!i" transforer
!ii" otor or engine&driven alternator
!b" Direct current !D(" ac4ines
!i" #ransforer wit4 D( rectifier
!ii" )otor or engine&driven generator
(ig"%& ,rc welding e0uipment[9]
The transformer does not have any moving part and as a result operates with less maintenance cost
and also has higher efficiency. The power used is also less e2pensive and practically there is no noise
in operation of the welding transformer. In ,1 welding, normally only transformer are used.
In D1 arc"welding, a rectifier or a generator can be used to supply the re0uired D1 power. In the
rectifier type, the power supply is first stepped down by means of a transformer to the re0uired
voltage and then silicon controlled rectifiers ;718# are used to convert ,1 to D1. These rectifiers are
very compact, highly reliable and have high efficiency. The other type is a D1 generator, which is
driven by either an induction motor running on ,1 or an oil engine. This combination is less efficient,
more e2pensive and noisy in operation.[1] [3]
1!2!3! Arc-welding processes:-
The following are the various arc"welding processes commonly used in *ngineering practice
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5 4etal arc welding :-
<etal arc is initiated by touching coated electrode with wor- piece. Then a gap is maintained between
electrode and wor-"piece with in the gap, between electrode and wor-"piece, free electrons and holes
will be formed in gas.
In metal arc welding, the arc is produced between the metal electrode ;also called filler rod# and the
wor-"piece. During the welding process, the metal electrode is melted by the heat of the arc and fused
with the wor- piece. The temperature produced by the heat is about &'99
o
c to &M99
o
c.[1]
(ig"%' <etal arc welding machine[9]
5 Tungsten inert gas welding *T6G+ :-
In this techni0ue non consumable tungsten electrode will be used to generate the arc to increase the
thermal resistance of tungsten alloying elements li-e T#oriu$ nd >erylliu$ are added.
This will be used for less thic-ness material without using filler material.
<olten weld pool is protected by inert gas atmosphere ;$elium, 4e, ,r, 4&,V 1>&etc#.
4&is preferred for welding copper.
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The power supply will be ,1 or D1 depending upon wor- piece material for all over
material e2cept ,l, <g alloys RD17!S will be used so that heat concentration will be more
on wor-"piece side and depth of penetration is more.
(or ,l and <g alloys if we use straight polarity due to high temperature o2ide formation is
severe and this will not allow electrons from the electrode. To overcome this D18! is used
but the melting rate of the electrode is more when compared to melting of the wor-"piece
due to this depth of penetration is reduced. To overcome this ,1 welding will be used for
welding of ,l and <g alloys.[3]
(ig"%A TI)[;]
TI) welding of ,l and <galloys in ,erospace industries and automobile industries. 7ince weld bead
thic-ness is less it can be used for welding in any position.
7 4etal 6nert Gas welding *46G+ :-
In this techni0ue consumable electrode in the form of spool wire will be supplied.
D18! will used for welding of all materials increase the weld deposition rate.
:y increasing the current supply ;%99amps to 399amps# we can increases the depth of
penetration and we can weld high thic-ness material also.
1onstant voltage type of power source is used since the control of movement of electrode
and feeding of the electrode is done automatically.
44
It is used for welding stainless steels, ,luminium, <g, 1u and 4i alloys in aircraft and automobile
industries.[8]
(ig."%?;a#[9] (ig."%?;b#[;]
(ig"%? <I)[9]
8 .u(erged Arc "elding :-
7ubmerged arc welding is semiautomatic version of shielded metal arc welding. It is used for long
weld run.
In this techni0ue arc will be submerged inside the molten weld pool any length of welding
with high thic-ness of materials can be done by using this techni0ue in a single run. $igh
welding current will be used to increase the melting rate of electrode and wor-"piece ;&99"
&999 amps#.
:est suited for high deposition rate, high welding speed and high depth of penetration.
The flu2 material contains 1a> and 1a(&.
The arc is produced between a bare metal electrode and the wor-"piece. It is used for non"ferrous
metal. It is mostly done on low carbon and steel alloy.
45
(ig"%M :loc- diagram of saw
T$pes of welded 0oints:-
The types of welded joints are
I. 'a$ joint: The lap joints are employed on plate having thic-ness less than 3mm, shown in
fig"%;a#.
46
II. =utt joint: In butt joint, the plate edges do not re0uire bevelling if the thic-ness of the plate is
less than Amm. if the plate thic-ness is Amm to %&.Amm, the edges should be bevelled to 3 or
/"groove and plate having thic-ness above %&.Amm should have a 3 or /"groove on both
sides shown in fig"%;b#.
III. (orner joint:The type of edge join shown in fig"%;c#.
I3. #ee joint: The type of edge join shown in fig"%;d#.
3. Edge joint: The type of edge join shown in fig"%;e#. [A]
(ig."% Types of welded joint [A]
T$pes of welded 0oint according to Position:-
(lat welded joint.
3ertical welded joint.
$ori6ontal welded joint.
>ver head welded joint. [A]
7hown in figure below"
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(ig"& Types of welded joint according to position [M]
"elding Ters:-
9ac:ing:-
It is the material support provided at the root side of weld to aid in the control of $enetration.
[8]
9ase etal:-
The metal to be joined or cut is term the base metal.[8]
9ead or weld (ead:-
:ead is the metal added during a single pass of welding the bead appears as a separate metal
from the base metal.[8]
Crater:-
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In arc welding, a crater is the depression in the in the weld"metal pool at the point where the
arc stri-es the base metal plate.[8]
Deposition Rate:-
The rate at which the weld"metal is deposition rate and is normally e2pressed as -g.h.[8]
)illed "eld:-
The metal fused into the corner of a joint made of two pieces placed at appro2imately L9oc to
each other is termed fillet weld.[8]
Penetration:-
It is the depth up to which the weld metal combines with the base metal as measured from the
top surface of the joint.[8]
Puddle:-
The portion of the weld joint that is melted by the heat of welding is called puddle.[8]
Root:-
It is the point at which two pieces to be joined by welding are nearest.[8]
Tac: weld:-
, small weld generally used to temporarily hold the two pieces together during actual
welding is the tac- weld. [8]
Toe of "eld:-
It is the junction between the weld face and the base metal.[8]
Torch:-
In gas welding, the torch mi2es the fuel and o2ygen and controls its delivery to get the desired
flame.[8]
49
"eld )ace:-
It is the e2posed surface of the weld.[8]
"eld 4etal:-
The metal that is solidified in the joint is called weld metal. It may be only a base metal or a
mi2ture of base metal and filler metal.[8]
"eld Pass:-
, single movement of the welding torch or electrode along the length of the joint which
results in a bead is a weld pass.[8]
(ig"33arious welding terms[;]
Defects of welding:-
In view of the server thermal regime through which the welding process proceeds, the weldments are
li-ely to be affected and if proper care is not ta-en, they are li-ely to end up with certain defects.
Distortions have been discussed in greater details earlier. The li-ely defects are"[3]
50
/ndercut
Incomplete fusion
!orosity
7lag inclusion
$ot crac-ing
1old crac-ing
$ydrogen crac-ing
1oncave and 1onve2
.afet$:-
<ishaps fre0uently occur in welding operations. In many instances, they result in serious injury to the
welder or other personnel wor-ing in the immediate area. In most cases, mishaps occur because of
carelessness, lac- of -nowledge, and the misuse of available e0uipment. !recautions that apply to
specific welding e0uipment are pointed out in the chapters that cover that e0uipment. In this section
we are particularly interested in such topics as protective clothing, eye protection devices, and
practices applicable to the personal safety of the operator and personnel wor-ing nearby.!roper eye
protection is of the utmost importance. This covers the welding operator and the other personnel, such
as helpers, chippers, or inspectors, who are in the vicinity of the welding and cutting operations. *ye
protection is necessary because of the ha6ards posed by stray flashes, reflected glare, flying spar-s,
and globules of molten metal. Devices used for eye protection include helmets and goggles.
NOTE: In addition to providing eye protection, helmets also provide a shield against flying metal and
ultraviolet rays for the entire face and nec-. 7everal types of eye protection devices is commonly use.
4ls# goggles are worn under the welderSs helmet and by persons wor-ing around the area where
welding operations are ta-ing place. This spectacle type of goggles has side shields and may have
either an adjustable or nonadjustable nose bridge.
Eyecup or co%er type of goggles is used in fuel"gas welding or cutting operations. They are contoured
to fit the configuration of the face. These goggles must be fitted with a shade of filter lens that is
suitable for the type of wor- being done.
NOTE: The eyecup or cover type of goggles is not to be used as a substitute for an arc"welding
helmet.
(or electric arc"welding and arc"cutting operations, a helmet having a suitable filter lens is necessary.
The helmet shown in view 1 has an opening, called a window, for a flip"up filter lens & inches by '
%.' inches second is to eliminate the harmful infrared and ultraviolet in si6e. The helmet shown in
view D has a ' %.&"inch byA %.'"inch window. The larger window affords the welder a wider view
and is especially useful when the welder is wor-ing in a confined place where head and body
movement is restricted. 5hen welding in locations where other welders are wor-ing, the welder
51
should wear flash goggles beneath his helmet to provide protection from the flashes caused by the
other welders Rarcs. The flash goggles will also serve as eye protection when chipping the slag from a
previous weld deposit. $elmets and welding goggles used for eye protection are made from a non"
flammable insulating material.
They are fitted with a removable protective colours filter and a clear cover lens.
T(-N?@OU
52