BERNHARD KARLGREN

GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
REPRINTED FROM
THE MUSEUM OF F AB EASTERN ANTIQUITIES, BULLETIN 29
STOCKHOLM 1957
/6 7   ~ · ,_)
BERNHARD KARLGREN
GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
\
1 .
l
REPRINTED FROM
THE l\IUSEUlU OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES, BULLETIN 29
STOCiiHOLM 1957
..
GRAMMATA SERICA RECEN SA
BY
BERNHARD KARLGREN
INTRODUCTION
It was in the Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities 12, 1940, that
the Grammata Serica was first published. This edition is now exhausted, and it
has seemed desirable to issue a new edition.l)
For several reasons, however, a mere reprint was out of the question; a thorough
revision, embod:ying a multitude of new facts, has been found indispensable. In
fact, the presen_t version is to a large extent a new work; hence the new title:
Grammata Serica Recensa. It has been included in our Bulletin 29 in order to
furnish all subscribers to our Bulletins with the new work, which is to supplant
the older one, now obsolete in certain respects. The principal modifications are
of two kinds.
In the first place, the classical texts contain a great number of words and phrases
the m.eanings of which are in dispute and have been the subject of many learned
discussions by Chinese philologists. In giving my definitions of meanings in the
G. S. of 1940 I could follow neither Couvreur nor Legge. Couvreur accepted
slavishly the interpretations of the Sung school, although these have very often
been conclusively refuted by eminent Ts'ing scholars. Legge picked out at random
his interpretations from various commen_taries of Sung, Yiian rtnd Ming times
with almost as little consideration of the Ts'ing philology as Couvreur's. The
Chinese dictionaries gave just as little help. The K'ang hi tsi tien as well as the
modern Ts''i yuan merely repeated the ordinary orthodox glosses without regard
to the brilliant Chinese researches of the 18th and 19th centuries.
2
)
I had, in 1940, no other expedient than to follow faithfully the Han time scholars
and commentators, nearest in time (and thus in tradition) to the creative Chou
era. In the years since 1940, however, I have published the results of extensive
1) In the very same year (1940) that the Grmnmata Serica was published in Sweden, a pirated edition
of it (a photographic reprint) was published in Peking without my permission or knowledge.
2) The more recent Ts'i hai is somewhat better in this respect, but only occasionally does it draw
upon the foremost Ts'ing scholars, ancl it is thus far from satisfactory; to a large extent it repeats
uncritically word definitions from various early glossists refuted long ago by the best Chinese philo-
logists.
1
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
researches in the earliest Chinese classical texts (Shi: king and Shu king),!) On
scores of moot points my conclusions (based on a discussion of the best Ts'ing
researches on the one hand and on linguistic arguments of my own on the other)
have led me to reject the traditional interpretations and introduce different ones.
A new edition of the G. S. had necessarily to take these results of mine into account,
and so the definitions of meanings in the dictionary often diverge radically from
those in the first edition. I have found it useful to give full references to the
argumentations in my critical works on the Shi: and the Shu.
2
)
I always indicate the source of a meaning given (Shi:, Shu, Lunyii etc.) These
data are necessarily brief, and the student who wishes fuller references has to
turn, in the first place, to the excellent Index works published by the Harvard
Yenching Institute, and, secondly, to the Shuo \Will t'ung hun ting sheng by Chu
Tsun-sheng or similar works.
In the second place, I have filled a serious void in the first version. vVe can
know very little of the tones in Archaic Chinese, and since my primary interest
in 1940 was to show what a fine key the archaic pronunciation gives to the phonetic
compounds (h i e she n g) of the script, despite our ignorance of the tones; I
left the words bare of any tone marks at all. To every linguist, however, it is of
great interest to find registered what we really do know about the tones, and as
far as Ancient Chinese (the language of the Ts'ie ylin, around 600 A. D.) is
concerned, we have a detailed knowledge of them. Consequently, I have inserted
here the Anc. Ch. tones of every character, not only its tone with its principal
meaning, such as is recorded in the Ts'ie y1in (with T'ang y1in and Kuang yiin),
but also the tone variations it has undergone when used with other shades of
meaning or as k i a t s i e (phonetic loan character). In order to obtain all these
facts I have had to refer constantly to the passages in the classics where it occurs
and from there to the sound glosses of Lu Le-min.g (in the King tien shl wen, here
called Sruwen).
On the whole, a great amount of work has been devoted to the Ancient and
Archaic readings generally, not only their tones. Curiously enough, there is not a
Chinese or V\Testern dictionary which, in regard to the readings, has not mixed
up data of the most heterogeneous kinds. They are all, therefore, misleading on
numerous points. You cannot draw indiscriminately on the Kuang yiin, the Tsi
yiin, the Yiin huei and the Cheng ylin, as all predecessors have done. The safest of
them all is, to this day, the K'ang hi ts'i tien, since it at least indicates from which
mediaeval dictionary it has borrowed each separate reading (though sometimes it
1 ) Bernhard Karlgren, Glosses on the Kuo feng Odes, Bull. 14, 1942; Glosses on the Siao ya Odes
Bull. 16, 1944; Glosses on theTa ya and Sung Odes, Bull. 18, 1946; Glosses on the Book of Documents
Bull. 20, 1948; Glosses on the Book of Documents II, Bull. 21, 1949.
•) My Glosses on these works (see the preceding note) are numbered in a continuous sequence, so
that a reference here such as »Gl. 155>) ( = Gloss 155) or >)Gls. 306, 892» ( = Glosses 306 and 892) will
take the reader who has these available directly to the gloss or glosses in question.
2
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
gives erroneous information even in this respect). Ts''i ylian is deplorably faulty
in regard to the readings. Ts'1 hai is somewhat better, but like its predecessors it
draws, in its readings, upon all kinds of heterogeneous sources quite uncritically,
not realizing the necessity of keeping within one school of tradition, with the
readings based on one and the same ancient pronunciation, for instance that of
the Capital as opposed to that of dialectal areas, in order to obtain a consistent,
systematic result.
1
)
Fortunately it is possible to obtain a perfectly consistent set of readings for all
the words occurring in the classics, in their various meanings. This is because we
have two excellent sources: firstly the Ts'ie yiin dictionary published in 601 A. D.,
2
)
and secondly the King tien shi: wen by Lu Te-ming (died about 630 A. D.). These
two sources are based on one and the same ancient pronunciation, that of the
Capital Ch'ang-an, and they supplement each other exceedingly well. In our
present GSR. we keep strictly within the Ts'ie_yiin-Shi:wen tradition, and we do
not mix up with data of these consistent and precious sources any extraneous
matter from unrelated sources like the Tsi yiin of Sung time, or the Cheng yiin
of early time, as all previous lexicographers, both Chinese and Western, have
done.
The letters used in our GSR. for designating Arch. and Anc. Chin. sounds are
as follows:
Gutturals
Palatals
Voiceless:
k, Tc', X
t, t ', s, ts, ts'
Dentals t, t', s, ts, ts'
Supradentals    
Labials p, p'
Laryngals · ('iu)
Consonants:
Voiced:
g, g', ng, y
a, a·, n, j, z, di', nz
d, d', n, l, r, z, dz, dz'
d(
b, b', m, w
0 (iu).
K', g' etc. are aspirates; X= Germ. ach, y =North-German g in wagen (fricative); t
etc. are formed like the Ital. c in citta with the predorsum against the alveoli; the laryngal
'('j1t) is the ))Knacklaut)> in Germ. 'Eclce; no initalletter: 0 (i_u) is a smooth vocalic ingress,
as in Engl. aim.
1
) A single example: for i]i 'slice of meat' (Liki: Shao yi) Ts'i hai gives the reading fN: id. e. J'fiip
(c he), whereas the correct reading, according to the authoritative King tien shiwen, is z id. e.
t#iip ( c he). For its aberrant reading {l'i_iip it bases itself upon Cheng tsi t'ung (a dictionary first
published in 1705 A. D.!) quoted in K'ang hi tsi tien.
2
) With its enlarged versions T'ang ytin and Kuang yiin. The useful compilation Shi yiin huei pien
contains various important Ts'ie yiin and T'ang yiin fragmentary manuscripts and the complete
Kuang yful.
3
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
c1 as in French pate;
a as in French patte;
lf = short d;
a as e in Germ. Knabe;
e as in French ete;
a as in Germ. Biir;
Vowels:
E a still more open, slack ii-sound (Engl. man);
·D as in Engl. b7d;
i as ee in Engl. bee;
o as in Genu. Sommer;
o as in French beau;
9 = short 6;
t! = an open o as in Engl. law;
11 as in Engl. value;
as in Engl. Tude;
il, e, 0 =short ft, e, o;
    =subordinate vowels in diphtongs or triphtongs.
For each reading of a character in the dictionary we give a triple form:
A *n1"en l1iiien I j e n
t; *ko f kuo: f k u
7.W *tad 1 tui- 1 t a i
The first, with the asterisk, is the Archaic form (early Chou); the middle one is
Ancient Chin. (the language of Ch'ang-an around 600 A. D.); the third is modern
1\'I:andarin.
The reader may well ask: how do we know how the words were pronounced in
Arch. and Anc. Chinesd The answer is given in my work Compendium of Phonetics
in Ancient and Archaic Chinese, BMFEA 26, 1954, pp. 211-367.
1
) In that extensive
paper I have given the proofs for my reconstructions, step by step, and in no single
case is a reconstruction propounded without a reason being clearly stated. The
reason given may sometimes seem not to be an absolutely conclusive proof, but,
at least, no mndom guesses about >>ancient sounds>> are made in my reconstructive
system (as they are in so many other attempts). The best confirmation of my
Archaic system is that it allows of a natural and organic evolutionary scheme
from Arch. to Anc. Chinese; and that this Anc. Chin. of Ts'ie yiin was a true mirror
·Of a living language (that of Ch'ang-an) and not an artificially established compromise
between various dialects of Suei time is proved by the fact that the great majority
·Of the widely divergent modern dialects can be systematically and logically derived
from it as their ancient mother language'.
In Anc. Chin. there was the tone distinction between JJ' in g she n g (even
tone): s h a n g s h eng (rising tone): k' ii she n g (falling tone). I have used
1) .·Uso available as a separate book.
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERIGA REGENSA
the simple expedient of leaving even-tone words without any tone mark at all
(e. g. )... {izien), and .to indicate rising tone by a colon after the word (ii kno:) and
the falling tone by a hyphen tdi-).
With the aid of the An c. Chin. tones the modern Mandarin tones can be concluded
in a majority of cases, according to the following rules:
A. Unmarked Anc. forms (i. e. p' in g she n g) give Mandarin Tone 1, if
the Anc. form had a voiceless initial (see p. 3 above), but Mand. Tone 2, if the
Anc. form had a voiced initial:
:Oii *to I tno / t u
1
r!J.i t'ang 1 t'ling 1 t' an g
1
*sf.ang Jsjang I s i an g
1
u;JJ *d'o I d'uo 1 t' u2
f.lf *d'dng I d'dng f t' an g
2
*dziang / zjang / s i a n g
2
B. Anc. forms marked with a hyphen (k' ii she n g) always give Mand. Tone 4.
:k *t'ad 1 t'di- 1 t' a i1
Ji!. *kian / kien- I k i e n
4
C. Anc. forms marked with a colon (shan g she n g) give Mand. Tone 3,
if they l1ad a voiceless initial (seep. 3 above) or ng-, n-, j-, n-, l-, m-; but they give
]\{and. Tone 4, if they had the
affricates and fricatives):
i; *ko ( lnw: 1 k ua
:fifl *pwo / puo: I Jl u
3
tsfan / tsfJin-: I t s i e n
3
:1!1 *t' an 1 t'un: 1 t' a n
3
ih'f= *sian I sian- ( s i e n
3
*

/ m j3
1t! *lfag f lji: jl i
3
ix *n1·o j1iiwo: j n iP
remaining voiced initials (i. e. voiced explosiYes,
fi *g'o I yuo: I h u4
*b'o I b'uo: I p u
1
*dz'jan J dz'iiin: / t s i e n
4
1!! *d'an d'dn: f t a n
4
¥f. *dian i!iin: I s h a n
4
;J& *d'ior d'iei: f t i
4
*dziJg zi: 1 s 1
4
1JI *g'io / g'jwo: I k ii
4
How the Anc. forms ending in -p, -t, -lc (j u she n g words) have been distributed
over the :Mandarin tones cannot be read of£ in this book.
The Chinese script of our time is a technically modified version of the so-called
s i a o chua n >>Small Seal» style made obligatory in 213 B. C. (in the present
'vork simply called >>Seal>>). The earlier script forms of the Yin and Chou eras
known tln-ough inscriptions on tortoise shell, bone and bronze are frequently very
different from the Seal forms, and one and the same graph was often varied widely
in its details. I have quoted here only a small selection of such early forms, and
exclusively such as are of direct interest as prototypes of the later Seal forms and
modern normalized characters. A great many of the most important bronze
inscriptions can be dated within fairly narrow limits (see B. Karlgren, Yin and
Chou in Chinese Bronzes, BMFEA 8); hence it has been possible to assign an
approximate date to the pre-Han graphs cited. The signum Chou I for an Archaic
5
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
graph means that it is attested in an inscription from the period 1027 - circa
900 B. C.; Chou II means c. 900 - c. 770; Chou III means c. 770 - c. 450; Chou
IV means c. 450-c. 250 B. C. In other cases we have to be satisfied with wider
limits: Chou Ifii means that the inscription in question falls within the period
1027-c. 770, and so forth. 1>Chom> (no.t followed by Roman figures) means that
we can only know that it falls within the Chou era, and l>pre-Ham> that it is anterior
to the normalization of the script in 213 B. C.
ARCHAIC GRAPHS
In the dictionary below archaic graphs will be quoted according to the following
system. .,-
0 r a c I e i n s c r i p t i o n s.
Yin time graphs on tortoise shell and bone will be quoted directly, by k ii a n
and page in one or other of the following repertories, represented, for brevity's
sake, by capital letters:
A = Yin k'ii shu k'i ts'ien pien;
B = Yin k'ii shu k'i hou pien;
C = Yin k'ii shu k'i sii pien;
D Yin k'ii shu k'i tsing hua;
E T'ie yiin ts'ang kuei;
F = T'ie yiin ts'ang kuei chi yii;
G Tie yiin ts'ang kuei shi yi;
H Kuei kia shou ku wen tsi;
I Tsien shou t'ang so ts'ang Yin k'ii wen tsi;
K Yin k'i pu ts'i;
L Yin k'ii wen tsi ts'un chen;
M Sin huo pu ts'i sie pen;
N - T'ien ye k'ao ku pao kao I;
0 Yin k'i tsuei pien;
P Yin k'i yi ts'un.
Thus, for instance, an entry like this: A 5: 40,5 means that the graph in question
is to be found in Lo Chen-yii's Yin k'i.i shu k'i ts'ien pien, k i.i an 5, p. 40, shell
(or bone) no. 5.
B r o n z e a n d s t o n e i n s c r i p t i o n s.
The inscriptions upon which I have drawn I register here in a numbered series,
and in the dictionary an entry like this: Chou I 57 means that the graph in question
is to be found in our inscription 57 below, which is an inscription of the period Chou
I (cf. the introduction above). In our list of inscriptions here, the repertories are
indicated by the following abbreviations:
6
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
Chengsung
Chengts'iu
Eumorf.
Cheng sung t'ang tsi ku yi wen;
Cheng ts'iu kuan ki kin t'u;
The George Eumorfopoulos collection of Chinese and Korean Bronzes
Huaimi
K'i
.... 1929, 1930;
Huai mi shan fang ki kin t'u;
K'i ku shi k i kin wen shu;
K'ia chai tsi ku lu;
Ki.in ku lu kin wen;
Meng wei ts'ao t'ang ki kin t'u;
Pao yi.in lou yi k'i t'u lu;
San tai ki kin wen ts'1m;
Senoku seisho (Surnitomo cat.);
Shan chai ki kin lu;
Shi er kia ki kin t'u lu;
Shi ku shu ki (stone drums);
K'ia
Kiin
:Mengwei
Faoyiin.
Santai
Senolm
Shan
Sh'ierkia
Sh'iku
Siaokiao
Sung chai, sii
T'ao
Siao kiao king ko kin shi: wen tsi;
Sung chai ki kin si.i lu;
T'ao chao ki kin lu;
Tsunku
T'ulu
Wuying
Tsun ku chai so kien ki kin t'u;
Liang Chou kin wen ts'i ta hi t'u lu;
Wu ying tien yi k'i t'u lu.
List of
1. Chengsung 2: 24
2. Chengsung 2: 41
3. Chengsung 2: 44
4. Chengsung 4: 12
5. Chengsung 4: 43
B. Chengsung 7: 18
7. Chengsung 8: 23
8. Chengsung 8: 24
9. Chengsung 8: 28
10. Chengsung 8: 31
11. Chengsung, sii sang 26
12. Chengsung, sii chung 4
13. Chengsung, sii chung 8
14. Chengsung, sii chung 9
15. Chengsung, sii chung 19
16. Chengsung, sii chung 24
17. Chengsung, pu shang 18
18. Chengsung, pu chung 9
19. K'i 2:1
20. K'i 3:20
21. K'i 3:20
22. K'i 5: 12
23. K'i 13:13
24. K'i 16: 3
25. K'i 16: 4
26. K'i 16: 6
27. K'ia 6: 5
inscriptions quoted:
Yin:
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
K'ia 6:8
Ki.in 2/1 20
Ki.in 2/1: 41
Kiin 2/1: 49
Ki.in 2/3: 86
T'ao 1: 25
Chengsung 2: 9
Chengsung 8: 14
Chengsung 8: 18
Chengsung, si.i shang 19
Chengsung, sii hia 10
Chengsung, pu shang 19
Chengsung, pu shang 22
Chengsung, pu chung 18
Chengsung, pu chung 21
Chengsung, pu chung 29
K'ia 7: 16
Siaokiao 4: 51
Siaokiao 2: 34
Siaokiao 2: 48
Siaokiao 3: 70
Siaokiao 4: 46
Siaokiao 5: 20
Siaokiao 5: 94
Shierkia 4: 12
Shan 5: 44
7
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
Chou I (1027-c i rca 900 B. C.).
5-!.
55.
Chengsm1g 6: 6, T'ulu 9 94.
Chengsung, pu shang 12, T'ulu 14
K'i 2: 51
Chengsung 4: 47, T'ulu 11 95.
56. Shan 2: 8I, T'u1u 12 96.
K'i I6: 7
57. K'i 16: 9, Kiin 3/I: I4 97.
K'i I6: 36, T'ulu 64
K'i 6: I4
58. Chengsung, pu shang 29, Shan 8: 98 98.
59. Chengsung 4: 48, T'ulu 12 99.
Chengsung 4: 5, Shan 3: 19
K'i 6: I5
60. Chengsung 3: I8, Kiin 2/3: 22, T'u1u 4 100.
61. Kiin 1/2: 47 101.
K'i 2:3
62. Chengsung 3: I5, Paoyiin 8, T'ulu 15 102.
Chengsung 3: 29, Shan 2: 79
Chengsung 3: I6, T'ulu 266
lVIengwei 1: 24, Chou kin wen ts'un
63. Chengsung 4: 48, Eumorf. I: 26, T'ulu I03.
20 ' 104.
6-!. Chengsung 8: 42, T'ulu 21
65. K'i 2: 35, Kiin 3/3: 31, T'ulu 18
66. Chengsung, pu chung 12, T'ulu 24
67. Ktin 3/3: 42, T'ulu 19
68. K'i 7: 30, T'ulu 24
69. Chengsung 6: ll, T'ulu 2
70. Chengsung 4: 49, T'ulu 2-3
71. Chengsung 7: I7, T'ulu 4
72. Ktin 2/3: 82, T'ulu 13
73. Ktin 2/3 80, T'ulu 12
7 4. Chengsung, sti chung 23, T'ulu 16
7 5. Chengsung 3: 25, T'ulu 17
76. K'i 6: 15, T'ulu 86
77. T'ulu 23
7 8. Chengsung, pu chung I2, T'ulu 36
79. K'i 17: I7, T'ulu 38
80. Kiin 1/3: 42
8
')
....
83.
84.
85.
86.
87.
88.
89.
90.
91.
81. K'i 17:7, T'ulu 33
Chengsmig 4: 21, T'ulu 32
K'ia 6: ll, T'ulu 31
9
')
....
93.
132.
133.
13-!.
135.
136.
8
T'ao 2: 39, T'ulu 33
Senoku II: 105, T'u1u 34
K'i 4: 16, T'u1u 35
Kiin 3/I 15, T'ulu 32
K'ia 4: 28, Shan 2: SO
K'i 16: 5, T'ulu 8
Chengsung 7: I9, T'ulu 5
K'ia I9: 22, T'u1u 5
K'ia I9: 3, T'u1u 21
K'i 2: 5, T'ulu l4
Chou I I (circa
K'i 2: 21, T'ulu 83
K'ia 4: 26, T'ulu 61
K'ia 11: 7, T'ulu 58
Chengsung 3: 30, T'ulu 38
Chengsung 3: 3I, T'ulu 39
3: 109
105. K'i I6: 13, T'ulu I4
106. ~   i i n 2J3: 10
107. K'ia 4: 2I, T'u]u 31
108. Kiin 2J3: 6I, T'u1u 35
109. K'ia II: 5, T'u1u 27
110. Kiin 2J3: 36
111. Chengsung, pu shang 34
112. Chengsung 4: 44
113. K'ia 11: 25, T'ulu 234
ll4. K'i 1: I3, Mengwei I: 9
ll5. Chengsung 8: 23
116. Chengsung 4: 45, T'ulu 2II
117. Kun 2J2: 5, Chengts'iu 27
ll8. K'ia 9: 7, T'ulu 264
119. Chengsung 9: 27
I20. Chengsung, pu shang IO
121. K'i 6: 30
122. Shan 9: 32
I23. Shan 8: 48
124. K'i 5: 6
125. Chengsung 2: 35, Shierkia 6: 3
126. Burlington Mag. Apr. 1937
127. K'i 18: 8, T'ulu 225
128. T'ao 2: 38
129. Shan 3: 33
130. K'i 6: 23
131. K'i 6: 8
131 a. Tsunku I: 36
131 b. Sungchai, sii 37
900-c i r c a 770).
137. Chengsung 3: 33, T'ulu 62
138. K'i 4: 15, T'ulu 60
139. K'ia 5: I, T'ulu IIO
140. Chengsung 3: 34, T'u1u ll3
141. Chengsung 6: 3, T'ulu 107
142.
143.
144.
145.
146.
147.
148.
149.
150.
151.
I 52.
I 53.
I 54.
155.
156.
157.
I 58.
159.
160.
161.
162.
163.
I6J.
I65.
166.
167.
168.
169.
170.
171.
172.
203.
204.
205.
206.
207.
208.
209.
2I6.
217.
218.
2I9.
220.
221.
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
K'ia 15: 18, T'ulu 112
Chengsung 6: 44, T'ulu 116
Chengsung 6: 9, T'ulu 116
K'i 2: I5, T'ao I: 40, T'u1u 118
K'i 9: 30, T'ulu 118
K'i 8: 21, T'ulu 127
Chengsung 1: 9, T'ulu 93
Chengsung 3: 22
Kii.n 3/2:25, T'ulu 133
K'i 4: 27, T'ulu 135
K'i 9: 17, T'ulu 140
Chengsung 6: 17, T'u1u I46
Chengsung 6: 20
Chengsung, pu shang 39, T'ulu 8!
K'ia 9: 17, T'ulu 137
K'i 8: 15, T'ulu 88
K 'ia 15: 16, T'ulu 79
K'i 16: 10, T'ulu 99
T'ao 2: 10, T'ulu IOI
Kii.n 3/2:21, T'ulu 99
K'ia ll: 6, T'ulu I02
Chengsung 6:5, T'ulu 43
Chengsung 3: 36, T'u1u -!5
Kiin 1/3:62
Chengsung, pu shang I4, T'ulu 71
K'i 9: 11
Chengsung, pu shang I6
Chengsung 6: 7, T'ulu 73
K'i 4: 29, T'ulu 73
Chengsung 5:25, T'u1u 90
K'i 4: 30, T'ulu 89
173. K'i 2: 7, T'ulu 90
I74. K'ia II: 9, T'nlu I29
175. Chengsung 6: 10, T'u1u 74
176. Chengsung 3: 35, T'u1u 75
l 77. K'i 4: 22, T'u1u 76
178. Chengsung 6: 42, T'u1u 144
179. K'i 2: IO, T'ulu 143
180. K'i 2: 41, T'ulu 131
181. K'i IS: 25, T'ulu ll7
182. K'i 4: 25, T'ulu I35
183. K'ia 5: 7, T'ulu 63
184. Kiin 3/2: 56, T'ulu 25
185. K'ia II: 23, T'ulu I37
186. Kiin 3/2: 49, T'ulu 36
187. K'i 5: 19, T'ulu .'58
188. Kiin 3/1: 32, T'ulu 67
189. K'i 8: 19, T'ulu I34
190. Chengsung 6: 3, T'ulu 27
191. K'i 4:4
192. K'i 4:7, T'ulu 69
193. K'ia 13: 9, T'ulu 70
194. T'ao 2: 16, T'ulu 130
195. Chengsung 6: 2
196. K'i I6: 33, Chengsung 6: 4.
197. Chengsung 1: 18, T'ulu 124
198. Chengsung 5: 23.
199. K'ia 16: 25, Kiin 2/2: ll
200. Kiin 3/l: 15, T'ulu 92
201. K'i 16: 6, T'ulu 282
202. K'ia 5: 11, T'ulu 29
Chou IJI I (10:27-c i rca 770 B. C.).
Kiin 2/3:74, T'ulu 80
K.'i 16: 32, T'ulu 79
K'ia, 14: 13, T'ulu 80
Chengsung 3:16
T.'u1u 24:
K'i 4: I, T'ulu 30
K.'i 4: 2
210. Chengsung 3: 23
211. Kiin 2/2: 61
212. K'i 3: 15
213. Siaokiao 3: 22
2I4. Siaokiao 3: 26
2I5. Siaokiao 3: 98
C h o u III (circa 770-c i r c a 450 B. C.).
Chengsung, sii chung I 222. Chengsung 1: 5
Chengsung 1:16, Kiin3J1: 38, T'ulu 223. Chengsung 3:21, T'ulu 164
213 224. K'ia 2: I9, T'ulu 165
Kiin 3/2: 6, T'ulu 216. 225. K'i 9: 14, T'ulu I72
Chengsung 11: 3, T'ulu 203 226. K'i 17: 35, T'ulu 170
Chengsung, sii shang I, T'ulu 227 227. K'i 17: 36, T'ulu 170
Kiin 1j3: 38, T'ulu 206 228. K'i 18: 21, T'ulu 239
9
229.
230.
231.
232.
233.
234.
240.
241.
242.
243.
244.
245.
246.
247.
248.
249.
250.
251.
252.
253.
254.
255.
256.
257.
258.
259.
260.
282.
283.
284.
285.
286.
287.
294.
295.
296.
297.
298.
299.
300.
301.
10
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF' FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
Chengsung 6: 13, T'ulu 288
Chengsung 1: 13, T'ulu 152
K'i 18: 23, T'ulu 182
Shan 2:69
Chengsung 11: 8, T'ulu 211
K'i 18:16, T'ulu 255, Huaimi, hia 16
Chou II/I I I (circa
Chengsung 10: 39, T'ulu 205
Shan 8:78
K'ia 14: l4
Chengsung 6: 31, T'ulu 237
Chengsung 6: 29
Ktin 2/2: SO
Ktin 2/2: lO
Shan 2:70
Chengsung 3: 5, and 5: 19
Ktin 2/2: 70
K'i 16: 34, T'ulu 226
Chengsung 10: 35
Ktin 2j3: 18
K'ia 16:20
Ktin 2/2: 58, T'ulu 224
T'ao 2: 18, T'ulu 190
T'ao 1: 29, T'ulu 190
Chengsung 7: 33, T'ulu 208
K'i 5: 26, T'ulu 207
K'i 3:18
K'i 5: 22, T'ao 2: 46
235. Kiin 2/1: 29
236. K'i 17: 19
237. Burlington Mag. Jan. 1937
238. Kiin 3j3: 28, T'ulu 268
239. BurlingtonMag. 1930
900-c i r c a 450 B. C.).
261. K'i 1: 28
262. K'i 8: 34, T'ulu 204
263. Kiin 3/l: 9, T'ulu 203
264. K'i 17: 34
265. Chengsuhg 5: 27
266. Chengsung 6: 33
267. 10: 27
268. K'ia 15: 19
269. Kiin 2/2: 77
270. K'i 16: 33, Shan 8: 82
271. K'ia 8: 15, Huaimi, hia 22
272. Chengsung 5: 22
273. Sh!erkia 5: 6
274. T'ao, sti shang 18
275. Shan 8: 47
276. Chengsung 3: 6
277. K'ia 12: 6, Shan 8: 65
278. Chengsung 5: 37
279. T'ulu 165
280. Wuying 100
281. Shan 4: 51
Chou IV (circa
K'ia 1: 21, T'ulu 217
450-c i rca 250 B. C.).
Shan 4: 54, T'ulu 181
Chengstmg 5: 42, T'ulu 258, Pao
yiin 74, Wuying 79
Chengsung 6: 33
K'i 4: 13, T'ulu 260
Ktin 3/1: 21, T'ulu 257
288. T'ulu 261, BMFEA 7, p. 26
289. Kiin 2/3: 77, T'ulu 179
290. K'i 6: 35, T'ulu 262
291. K'i 17: 26, T'ulu 257
292. Kiin 2/3: 40, T'ulu 257
293. Kiin 2/3: 66, T'ulu 266
chou I II/I v (circa 770-circa 250 B. C.).
K'i 5: 26, T'ulu 194
Chengsung 1: 18, Eumorf. 1: 29,
T'ulu 269
Chengsung 3: 24, T'ulu 282
K'ia 5: 15, T'ulu 205
K'i 3: 29, T'ulu 254
K'i 8: 14, T'ulu 253
K'i 8: 12, T'ulu 238
K'ia2: 21, T'ulu 251
302. K'i 3: 14, Shan 8: 62
303. Kiin 2/1: 55
304. Kiin 2/3: 64, T'ulu 156
305. Kiin 3/1: 12, T'ulu 158
306. K'ia 1: 2, T'ulu 167
307. Chengsung 1: 20, T'ulu 175
308. Kiin 3/1:8, T'ulu 187
309. T'ulu 187
310. Chengsung 1: 15, T'ulu 194
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
:311. Chengsung 7: 34, T'ulu 266
:312. Chengsung 12: 20, T'ulu 279
:313. T'ao 2: 48
31±. Shan: 9: 7
315. Chengsung 1:21
316. K'ia 2: 17
317. Chengsung 4: 46
318. Chengsung 7: 14
aw. K'i 8: 11
320. Chengsung, J>U shang 2
321. Santai 1: 2
Kiin 2/2: 74, T'ulu 182
T'ulu 186
K'i 5: 18, T'u1u 191
322. Siaokiao 1: 13
323. Shiku: Wu kii
324. Shiku: K'ien yi
325. Shiku: T'ien kii
326. Shiku: Luau kii
327. Shiku: Ling yii
328. Shiku: Yu tso
329. Shiku: Er shi
330. Shiku: T'ien
331. Shiku: W u shuei
332. Shiku: Wu jen
Chou.
365.
366.
367.
K'i 17: 29
K'i 18: 13
K'i 18: 19
Chengsm1g, sii shang 24, T'ulu 191
T'ulu 200
K'ia 11: 13
K'ia 19: 25
Kiin 2/1: 65, T'ulu 222
Kiin 2/3: 5, T'ulu 286
Chengsung 2:42
Chengsung 2:42
Chengsung 3: 14
Chengsung 3: 18
Chengsung 3: 20
Chengsung 3: 23
Chengsung 5: 41
Chengsung 6: 26
Chengsung 6: 27
Chengsung 6: 38
Chengstmg 6: 39
Chengsung 6: 40
Chengsung 6: 41
Chengstmg 7: 32
Chengstmg 10: 29
Chengsung 10: 32
Chengsung 10: 41
Chengsung, pu shang 37
Chengsung, pu ch ung 29
K'i l: 25
Kiin 2/1: 57
Kiin 2/1: 58
Kiin 3/1: 16
Santai 3: 36
Santai 6: 51
Siaokiao 1: 7
Siaokiao 1: 13
Siaokiao 1: 18
Siaokiao 2: 89
Siaokiao 2: 92
Siaokiao 3: 96
Siaokiao 9: 29
K'i 8: 10
Siaokiao 9: 79
Chengsung 2: 33
K'ia 11: 18
see Ku wen sheng hi, cheng 1
see Ku wen sheng hi, yu 7
Chengsung 2: 4 7
Kiin 2/1: 50
Chengsung 3: 17
Kiin 2/2:65
3:33.
3:34.
335.
336.
337.
3:38.
3:39.
3-!0.
3-!l.
3-!2.
:3-!3.
:3-!4.
3-!5.
:3-!6.
:3-!7.
3-!8.
:349.
:3:30.
:351.
:352.
3.53.
:354.
   
356.
J57.
:J58.
:J.'iH.
:360.
:361.
:362.
36:3.
:364.
K'i 3:30
K'i 5:31
K'i 16: 1
K'i 16 23
K'i 17: 23
368.
369.
370.
371.
372.
373.
374.
375.
376.
377.
378.
379.
380.
381.
382.
383.
384.
385.
386.
387.
388.
389.
390.
391.
394.
395.
396.
397.
398.
see Shuo wen ku chou san pu 7: 7
K'i 8: 11
K'ia 12: 9
Chengsung 11: 6
see Slmo wen ku chou pu pu
Pre-Han.
399. Wuying 63 402. Chengsung 2: 35
400. Shan 2: 45 403. Chengsung 3: 14
401. Chengsung 2: 32 404. Chengsung 4: 43
11
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
405. Chengsung 4: 44 434. see Ku wen sheng hi, yu 8
406. Chengsung 4:45 435. see Ku wen sheng hi, yang 4
407. Chengsung 4:47 436. see Ku wen sheng hi, yang 15
408. Chengsung 5: 10 437. Kun 1/2: 33
409. Chengsung 7: 10 438. K'ia 23: 14
410. Chengsung 7: 13 439. see Ku wen sheng hi, siao 5
411. Chengsung 7: 15 440. K'ia 11: 27
412. Chengsung 7: 25 441. Chengsung, sii shang 27
413. Chengsung 8: 36
44•)
Yin wen ts'un, hia 31
±1±. Chengsung, pu chung ll 443. see Ku wen sheng hi, yii 13
±15. K'i 5: 9 444. see Ku wen sheng hi, yii 19
±16. K'i 16:8 445. Kun 2j2: 56
±17. K'i 17: 13 446. see Ku wen sheng hi, chi 1
±18. K'i 18: ll 447. see Ku wen sheng hi, chi 3
±19. K'ia 3:12 448 . .,.Chengsung 4: 35
±20. K'ia 5: l4 449. see Ku wen sheng hi, chi 12
±21. K'ia 6: 13 450. K'ia 22: 2
-!22. K'ia 17: 14 451. K'i 1: 19
±23. Kiin 1/2:47 452. Chengsung 8: 41
±2-i. !Gin 1/2:52 453. see Ku wen sheng hi, ts'i 1
425. Kiin 1/3: 52 454. see Kin wen pien 2: 9
426. !Gin 2/1:79 455. K'i 7:30
427. Santai 3: 18 456. Kun 2/1: 5
428. K'ia 6: 13 457. Kun 1/3: 52
429. K.'ia 14: 23 458. K'i 1: 17
430. K'i 1: 9 459. K'i 18: 7
431. Chengsung 9: 9 460. Chengsung 8: 42
432. T'ao 3:7 461. see Ku wen sheng hi, chi l.
433. K'i 7: 19
I giYe here in Chinese characters the names of the vessels which carry these in-
criptions, and the figures in the Chinese table refer to the inscription list above.
So 1 P'eng nu ting is the vessel the inscription of which is reproduced in Chengsung
2: 24 etc.
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BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
1 1 0 111 11 11 M-
c.L lr c d. e f ' h. i j k L m. n.. o
%-   #.-tr 4:t f¥-1 1 -sr
f 'I -r s t u v x 'J :z. a..' // c.' d' e' f,
J4f n% 1 it if K # =Pt Jt It
j' A' iJ J' k' Z' a. lr c d. e f :J h... i
* 1t t'A t ! { J 11:. tl K 1ft
J k l m. -n. o p 'l r s t « v x 'j z.
la-c. *k'a I k'a: / k'o can, able, may (Shi), suitable (Chuang). b. is Chou III/IV
(inscription 301), c. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 324).
d. *led I led k o axe-handle (Shi).
e. *kd I ka: k o shaft of an arrow (Chouli); character also applied to a synonymous
word *kdn kdn: / k an.
f. *g'a I yd: h o carry (Shi); loan for *g'd / yd I h o which, what, how, why (Shi),
\vhere
g-h. *g'a I ya I h o river, esp. the Yellow River (Shi). h. is Chou II (inscr. 169); -
i. id. (i. e. the same reading in Archaic, Ancient and Mandarin, the tone inclusive)
small herbs (Kuots'e); loan for id. molest, tyrannize (Li); scold, rebuke (Chouli); itch,
prurigo (Li).
j. *xd I xa I h o scold (Hanfei). - k-1. id. shout, scold (only Han time text ex.).
1. is Chou III (inscr. 225, sense of r. below).
m. *'a ;·a I o slope (Shi), river bank (Tso); (to slope, lean towards:) be insinuating,
servile (Kuoyii); loan for id. pillar (Chouli), ridge-pole (Yili); yes (Lao); beautiful (Shl).
Gl. 188.
n. *·a I ·a: I o and *'ia / 'if.!: I y i flutter as a banner (Ch'uts'i).
o. *g'a / ;.•a I h o lotus (Shi); loan for *g'a I ya: I h o carry (Lunyii), sustain (Tso).
Gl. 350.
P· *lcfi I lea / k o sing (Arch. form of q. below); in later times loaned for id. elder brother.
- q. id. sing, song (Shi). - r. variant of the preceding (Siin).
s. *(ia / / k'i strange, extraordinary (Tso); *kia / kji(}, I k i odd (number) (Yi);
umque (L1); surplus, supernumerary (Hanfei); irregular (Li).
t. *g'ia / / k'i precious stone (only Han time text ex.); to fondle, handle (Siin).
u. *g'ia, / / k'i to ride (Chuang); *g'ia j g'jie.· j k i rider -(Li).
v. *g'ia. / / k i and *g'ia I I k'i and *ngia j ngjif.!: I yi cooking pot (Shi)·
*g'ia I g'jif,.! j k'i crooked chisel (Shi). Gl. 350. '
x. *kia / / ki lodging (Kuoyii); give as residence, place at (Tso); commit to one's
charge (Lunyii); entrust to (Li); communicate (Li);. to place in exile (Li).
Y· *k1:a / kjif.!: / k i pull by one leg (Tso), pull aside (Shi).
z. *kia / kjif.! I k i odd (number) (Sun), odd, singular, exceptional (Chuang); wing of
an army (Kuoyii). - a. id. lodging-house (Tso); passing guest (Tso).
b'. *k'ia I k'jiQ: I k'i patterned silk (Kuots'e).
19
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF' FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
c'. *k'ia f k'jie, ( k'i one-footed (Kuoyii); *kia I kjif: I k i stand around close to the door
(Kungyang); *kia / kjif: I k i and *ngia I ngjie.: I y i knock against (Chuang).
d.' *k'ia / k'jie, ( k'i and *kia I kjie I k i slanting (Siin).
e'. *k'ia ( k'jie, ( k'i one horn turning up and one down (Yi, one version); loan for s.
odd (Chuang).
f'. *'ia 1 y i lean upon (Lunyii); rely upon (Kuots'e); leaning to one side (Li); pull
aside, lead astray (Shu); loan for s. strange (Chuang). Gl. 159.
g'. *"ia I I y i Catalpa (Shi).
h'. *"ia I "i(.! I y i oh! (Shi); final particle (Shi); *'ia / 'it;: I y i luxuriant (sc. leaves)
(Sh'i); *'d (·a:/ o luxuriant (Shi); loan for f'. 'deviate' and for f'. 'lean upon' (Shi). Gls.
188, 370.
i'. *ia fie.: / y i sides of carriage box (Kuots'e, one version).
j' -k'. *'ia j'ie ( y i place name (only Han time text ex.). k. is Chou II/III (inscr. 257).
1 '. *' ia I ie: I y i variant of h'. 'luxuriant' (Ch'uts'i).
,..
2 a-g. *nga f ngd: ( w o I, me, we, us, my, our (Shi). Pek. w o is irregular, we should
expect o. The form b. is Yin bone (A 1: 27,4), c. is Yin bone (A 2: 16,2), d. is Yin bone
(A 1:27 ,4), c. is Yin bone (A 2: 16,2), d. is Yin (inscr. 12), e. is Chou I (inscr. 58), f.
is Chou I (inscr. 65), g. is Chou I (inscr. 70).
h. *ngd I nga / o slanting (Shi); in a moment (Kungyang). - i-j. id. graceful (Lie).
j. is Yin bone (A 4: 52, 2, name). Gl. 165. - k. id. high (Shi). - 1. id. look, regard
(Kungyang). - m. id. name of a plant (some kind of Artemisia?) (Shi). - n. id.
fine (sc. words) (Shi ap. Shuowen). Gl. 758.
o. *ngd I nga- o hungry, starve (Meng).
p. *ngd I nga o goose (Meng).
q. *ngd I nga o silkworm (Shi); *ngia / ngjie.: I y i ant (Li).
r-t. *ngia I ( y i righteous, righteousness (Shi); true sense, meaning (Li). s.
is Yin bone (B hia 13: 5), t. is Chou I (inscr. 56). Yang 'sheep' is radical, a. above
phonetic. Gl. 1914.
u. *ngia / ngjie I y i proper demeanour, decorum (Shi); dignity (Shi); ceremony, rule
(Shi); courtesy (Shu); model (Kuoyii); (proper match:) mate, associate (Shi); (judge
what is proper:) estimate, judge (Shi); ought (Shi); loan for id. to come (Shu). Gls.
5013, 763, 768, 1022, 1346.
v. *ngia f ngjie- I y i to plan for (Shi); discuss (Shi); select (Yili).
x. *ngia / ngjie: I y i ant (Li); ant-coloured (Shu).
y. *xia I xfie I hi a proper name (Shu). - z. id. sacrificial animal, pure victim (Shi).
Gl. 1166.
3 a-c. *ta Ita Ito much, many (Shi). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 27,4), c. is Chou I (inscr.
58). The graph has 'flesh' (cf. 1033 and 178j) doubled: plentiful provisions.
d. *t'a It'd I t'o and *ta I td- Ito exhausted, sick (sc. horses) (Shi ap. Shuowen).
Gl. 402.
e. *ta / fa/ c h a to open (Chuang).
f.-g. *t'a f t'a f c h'a Shuo wen says: thick-lipped (no text). g. is Chou I (insci'. 121,
name).
h. *tia I chi confident (Siin).
i. *t'ia I c h'i great (Shi); extravagant, overbearing (Tso).
j. *t'ia t'ie,: I c h'i cleave, separate, take away (Chuang).
k. *t'ia t§'ie.: ( c h'i and *t'ia I ts'ia: I c h'e large (Shi). Gl. 617.
1. *d'ia d'ie I c h'i and *t'ia ( t§'i(<: ( c h'i separate (Kuots'e).
20
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
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m-n. *d'ia j rt'iQ I ch'1 to run (inscr. 326, stone drums). n. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 326).
o-p. *d'ia I I chi fall down, crumble (only post-Han text ex.). p. is Chou III/IV
(inscr. 314, name).
q. *dia I I y i move (Shu), change, alter (Meng); *dia I iQ- I y i to replete
(Li); reach to (Li); *t'ia I tS'ie: I c h'i enlarge (Li).
r-s. *dia I iQ / y i move, remove (Ch'uts'i). s. is Chou III (inscr. 232, name).
t. *t'ia I I c h'i wide, extend (Kuoyii).
4 a-e. *t'd I t'd / t'o The primary sense in the Yin bone inscriptions seems to have
been: danger, harm, obstacle; loan for id. another (Shi). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 39,2),
c. is Yin bone (A 1: 52,1), d. is Chou I (inscr. 58, name), e. is Chou II (inscr. 185, sense
of 'another'). The Yin drawing shows a foot treading on a snake, the Chou drawing
a cobra-like snake. It may be the primary graph of 1. below. - f. This is but another
modem variation of the same Arch. graph. - g. This, again, is a third modern varia-
tion of the same Arch. graph, as shown by the characters o. and u. below; loan for:
*dia / ia: / y e final particle (Shi). All three modern variants occur in the derivate series:
h. *t'd / t'a- / t'o lay burden on (Shi); *d'a I d'a I t'o wei- t'o compliant (Shi); sometimes
used for c'. below, Gl. 49.
i. Variant of f'. below.
j. *d'd I d'd f t'o bundle, tress of several threads (Shi). Gl. 50. - k. id. to flow (Shi);
name of a river (Shl).
I. *Cl'ia I dz'ia / she snake (Shi}; loan for *dia I ie, / y i wei- y i compliant, compla-
cent (Shi); loan for id. (shallow=) pretentious (Shi). Gls. 49, 607.
m. *8ia I 8ia Ish e short lance (Sun).
n-p. *dia I / y i ewer (Tso); ewer-shaped (sauceboat-shaped) ritual vessel (Yili).
o. is Chou II (inscr. 199, rad. 167 inst. of rad. 22), p. is Chou II/III (inscr. 262, rad. 167
and 108 inst. of rad. 22).
q. *dia I I y i conceited (Meng); *t'wd I t'ua / t'o and *t'a / t'd I t'o to cheat (Kuots'e).
r. *dia I I y i slant, deflect (Chouli). - s. id. rice or millet broth (Li; so ace. to
Kia K'uei and Cheng Hiian; Shuowen takes it to be some kind of spirits made of millet).
t-u. *d'ia I a'ie. I ch'i pool, pond (Shi); moat (Shi); a kind of ornamental covering (spout!)
over funeral car (Li); loan for id. uneven, of unequal length (Shi). Sometimes used for
k. above; u. is Chou I (inscr. 109). Gl. 70. - v. id. a kind of flute (Li). - x. id. gallop
(Shi), dash after (Tso).
21
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF' F'AR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
y. *d'ia I d'ir,<: I c h 1 and *t'ia I t'i((: I c h'i cleave wood following the fibres (Shi); *dia I
i(( I y i a tree resembling a white poplar (Li); loan for n'. below (Li, one version).
z. *d'ia I rl'ie: / c h r slope (Chouli); fall down, collapse (Kuoyii).
a'. *sia I si((: Ish i unstring, slacken (sc. a bow) (Li); release, be indulgent towards (Li);
remove (Tso ); extend (Li); spread (Shi, one version). Gl. 1043.
b'. *d'ia I d'i- / t i earth, ground (Shi); position (Meng). The Anc. Chin. form d'i is
·irregular. The Shi king rimes, as weH as the hie she n g character, clearly indicate
Arch. *d'ia, and this ought to give Anc. d'il).
c'. *t'd It'd / t'o another (Shi) (enlarged form of a. above).
d'. variant of f'. below.
e'. see group 850 below.
f'. *t'd It'd I t'o and *t'a I t'a- I t'o and *d'a I d'ti: / to to draw (Lunyii).
*dia / ir,<: I y i and *t'ia I t'iQ: I c h'i disembowel (Chuang).
h'. *dia I if'(/ y i lower hem of robe (Yili). - i'. id. turn aside (Shu); variant of l. above
in the phr. wei- y i, see Gls. 49, 1378. ""
j'. *sia I sit<: I s hi throw away, destroy (Kuoyii).
k'. variant of s. above (Mu t'ien tsi chuan).
1'. *sia / siQ Ish 1 expand (Yi); spread out, expose(Kuoyii); (extend:) set (sc. a net) (Shi);
apply (Shu); dodgingly (sc. to walk) (Meng) (then perhaps read *dia as loan for r.);
* sia I sia- I s hi give, bestow (Shi); *dia I i!! I y i transfer, extend to (Shi); loan for a'_
remove, throw aside (Lunyii}. Gls. 121, 212.
rn'. *8ia I Ish i name of a plant (Ch'uts'i).
n'. *dia I if'( / y i a clothes' stand (Li).
5 a-d. *tsa I tsd: / t so left, to the left (Shi}; to aid (Yi). b. is Yin bone (A 3: 31,
c. is Chou I (inscr. 67), d. is Chou II (inscr. 157). The graph is a drawing of the left hand,
in the last case with addition of k u n g 'work'.
e. *tsd I tsri- I t so to aid, assist (Shi).
f-g. *ts'a I   / c h'a diverge, discrepancy (Shu); mistake (Siin); t?'iii I c h'ai and
? /   / c h'a i choose (Shi);   /   It s'i graduated, of different length (Shi);
*ts'a I ts'ri / t s'o to rub (Li). *#a I ?it! J s i s i- k ii overseer of chariots (Tso). g. is
Chou III (inscr. 228). The meaning of the upper part is obscure.
h. *dz'a I d.?' a: I c h a and *dz'a I dip' a I c h'a cut trees (Kuoyii).
i. *ts'd / ts'a: It s'o white and brilliant (Shi). Gl. 187.
j. *ts'd / ts'a I t s'o to file, polish (Shi). -
k. *sd lsd Is o and ts'ri I ts'a It s'o onomatope depicting a tipsy and continued danc-
ing (Shi).
I. *dz'd / dz'd / t s'o and *tsia I tsfa I t s i e disease (Shi).
m. *dz'd / dz'd It s'o salt, salty (Li).
n. *t8fa / tsia I t s i e sigh, alas! (Shi); oh! (Shi).
o. *dz'ia I dz'ie- / t s i bone with meat on (Lii).
6 a. *la I lei flo bird-net (Shi); gauze (Kuots'e). The Seal has 'net', 'silk' and 'bird'. -
b. id. n ii - l o Cuscuta (Shi).
7 a-rl. *kwd / kud I k u o dagger-axe (Shi:). b. is Yin bone (A 6: 9,2), c. is Yin bone
(13 shang 10: 11), d. is Chou I (inscr. 59). A drawing.
e. *g'wa I ywa / h u a to punt (a boat) (Lii).
f-h. *g'wa / ywa: / h u a Shuowen says: thrust (no text). g. is Yin (inscr. ll, name),
h. is Chou I (inscr. 79, sense here uncertain).
22
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
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8 a-d. *g'wa 1 yud / h u o, h o growing grain (Shi). b. is Yin bone (A 3: 29,3), c. is
Yin (inscr. 37, name), d. is Chou II (inscr. 132). A drawing.
e-f. *g'wri J yud j h o harmony, harmonious (Shl); peaceful (Tso); reconcile (Tso);
ma,ke correct proportions, blend, mix (Tso); small flute (Chouli); ho-I u an bells on
chariot yoke (Shi); h o -men camp gate (Chouli); laudatory tablet at grave (Kuots'e),
*g'wd /!'uri- f h attune (instruments) (Li); respond in singing (Shi). f. is Chou IV
(inscr. 287, name).
g-j. same word as e. (Kuoyii). h. is Yin bone (A 2: 45,2), i. is Chou II (inscr. 146),
j. is Chou II (inscr. 153).
k-m. *g'wd / yud I h u o a kind of vessel (inscr. 64 and 203). I. is Chou I (inscr. 64),
rn. is Chou IIII (inscr. 203).
n. *k'wd 1 k'uii 1 k'o class, degree (Lunyii}; rule, statute (Kuots'e); loan for id. hollow
of a tree trunk (Yi); a hollow, cavity (Meng); k'o -to u tadpole (Chuang).
9 a. *ngwri fngua- I w o lie dmvn, sleep (Meng).
10 *twd I tuii: I to move (sc. the jaw, in chewing) (Yi).
11 a. *d'wd 1 d'ua: 1 t o Shuowen gives this as the primary form of e. below (hence
the reading), and considers 5 a., doubled, as phonetic. No text.
b. *t'wd 1 t'ttd: 1 t'o and *swia sue i and *xwia I xfwif0!-1 hue i shred sacrificial
meat (which was buried after the sacrifice), a sacrifice of shred meat (Chouli}; in later
times used as name of the Suei dynasty; loan for e. below (:Mo).
c. *t'wd / t'nd: / t'o narrow and long, oval (Ch'uts'i).
d. *d'·wd / d'ud: Ito long and narrow mountain (Shi).
e. *d'wa ; d'ud: 1 to and * xjwia 1 xjwi(.! 1 hue i dismantle, destroy the walls of (sc.
a city) (Ch'unts'iu); destroy, overthrow (Shu); spoil (e. g. sorneone's reputation) (Kuots'e);
loan for l. (Li).
f. * xwia I xjwif! I h u e i destroy (Lao).
g. *dzwia 1 zwia 1 sue i follow (Shu); to conform to, obsequious (Shi); foot (Yi). Gl. 916.
h. *swia / swie: I sue i marrow (Kuots'e).
i. * swia / swiQ- / sue i slippery (Li) .
. j. *twd 1 tua: / to and *d'wd / d'1vi: I to and *d'wia I rl'wit;. I c h'u e i hanging tuft
of hair (Li).
23
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
k. *t'wd I t'ud: I t'o and *d'wd I d'ud- Ito beautiful (Lie).
I. *d'wd I d'ua:, d'1ta-l to lazy, negligent (Shu); careless (Tso); useless (Li).
12 a. *dz'wd I dz'ua: / t s o sit (Shi); seat (Lunyu); kneel (Li). The Seal has two 'men'
and 'earth'.
b. *dz'wri / dz'ua / t s'o ulcer (Hanfei).
c. *tswd I tsua-1 t s'o push (Lao); maltreat (Meng); break (Chouli); round off (corners)
(Li); eliminate (Ohuts'l); destroy (Kuoyii); put down, apply (Chuang). The aspirate in
Mandarin is irregular.
d. *tswd tsua- It so and *tsa I I c h a to sham (sc. an obeisance) (Li).
e. *ts'wa ts'ua- It s'o and *tswd I tsua- I t so cut (Chuang).
f. *ts'wd ts'ud: It s'o cut small, minute (Shu).
g. *tswa I chua a kind of hair knot worn by women in mourning (Li).
13 a. *swd I swi: I so Shuowen says: the sound of cowries (no text); it seems more
likely this is the primary form of b. next, consisting in the Seal of 'small' and 'cowry'.
- b. 1d. small, fragment (Shi:); chain (Oh'u; in this latter sense Mo has Rad. 167).
14 a. The sense and reading of this element is unknown. Shuowen says: name of an
animal (no text). The Sung editors of the Shuowen read it lua j I o, but neither T nor
K has it recorded.
b. *lwri /lud: I l o k u o - I o a small wasp (Shl); a kind of mollusc (Kuoyii).
c. *lwia /1 e i lean, emaciated (Kuoyfi); weak (Tso); loan for id. entangle (Yi).
15 a-b. *ka I ka I k i a add (Lunyii); apply (Lunyii); attain, hit (Shi); attack (Kuoyii);
b. is Chou II (inscr. 157, sense of g. below). The graph has 'strength' and 'mouth'. Gl.
226. - c. id. flail (Kuoyii); ka I ka- / k i a a stand, support (Li). - d. id. women's
hair ornament, gem on hairpin (Shi).
e-f. *ka I ka- / k i a to yoke (Shl); yoke-horses (of a team) (Tso); yoked carriage (Lie);
loan for a. (Chuang). f. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 331).
g-h. *ka / ka / k i a good, excellent (Shi); happy (Tso); approve (Shi); gratify (Li).
h. is Chou III (inscr. 224). Gl. 774.
i. *ka / kd: I k o good, passable, possible, all right (Shl). Gl. 549.
j. *g'd I yd- I h o congratulate (Shi).
24
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
16 a-c. *sa I Ish a sand (Shi); loan for id. shrill, rough (sc. voice) (Chouli); satin
(Li; in later times wr. with rad. 120 'silk' instead of 'water' to the left). b. is Chou II
(inscr. 179), c. is Chou II (inscr. 181 ). The graph shows grains of sand and 'water'. -
d. id. a small fish living in the beach sand (Shi).
e. *sa I sa Is o saunter, dance (Shi:).
f. *swd j s1td Is o name of a plant (Cyperus) (only Han time text ex.); *sa I Ish a
s h a - k i a kind of locust (Shi).
17 a-b. *ma jma I m a hemp (Shi). b. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 313, name). The graph
shows bundles of hemp suspended under a roof.
c. *mwa I mud- / m o dust (Ch'uts'i).
d. *mwd /mud: / m o small (Lie).
e. *mwa 1 mud I m o rub (Tso); touch (Li); close to (Tso); crush, extinguish (Chuang);
loan for id. conceal (Chouli). - f. id. grind, polish (Shi).
g. *mia I mjit;; I m i rice gruel (Li); (to mash:) crush   .
h. *mia I mjit;;: I m i not, there is not (Shi); loan for small, tmy (Y1); lay down, let
fall (Tso); squander, prodigal (Li); exhaust (Kuoyii); to rub (Chuang); slowly (Sh'i);
obey (Siin); connect, unite (Chuang); *mia I mjiQ I m i to share with (Yi). Gls. 183,
197, 1074 a.
i. *xmwia I I hue i signal flag (Tso); to signal (Shi); loan for id. quick (Li).
j. *mia jtnjia / m i the part of a bell which is beaten (Chouli).
18 a. ? I k'wai / k'u a Shuowen says: wry mouth (no text). Without the rad. 'mouth'
below: *kwa j kwa: j k u a cut the meat from the bone, to bare a skeleton (Lie, one
version).
b. *kwa I kwa k u a and ? I kwai I k u a yellow horse with black mouth (Shi).
c. *kwa I kwa k u a and ? I kwai I k u a and *glwd I ltta /I o snail (Li).
d. *kwa I kwa k u a and ? I kwai I k u a a proper name (Li).
e. *kwd 1 kud- k u o to pass (Shi); transgress (Lunyii); excess, fault (Tso); *Inca I
kud / k u o to pass by (Shu).
f. *q'wd I yud: I h u o calamity (Sh'i); (to cause misery to =) to chastise (Sh'i). Gl.
1204. - g. variant of the preceding (Sun).
h. *k'wri / k'ua / k'u o great (Shl, Mao version; the Han version has rad. 9 inst. of 140
and says 'beautiful'). Gl. 162.
19 a-b. * xwa I xwa- I h u a transform (Shu); reform (Yi); change (Shu); loan for c.
'goods' (Shu). b. is Chou (inscr. 333). The graph shows one man turning away from
another (turn: change). Gl. 1316.
c. *xwd I xua- I huo property, goods, ware (Tso); bribe, bribery (Shu). Gl. 2057.
d. *ngu·a j ngua 1 o move (Shi); change (Shi). - e. id. move (Shi); change (Shi); false
(Shi); act, work (Shu). Gls. 508, 1219.
20 a. *ngwa I ngwa: / w a tile (Shi); ridge of a shield (Tso).
21 a-g. *ngia / ngjit;; / y i sacrifice to the deity of the soil (Li); loan for id. right, proper,
beseem, approve (Shi); adjust (ShY); liable to (Shi). Gls. 589, 897. b. is Yin bone (A
5: 37,2), c. is Yin bone (A 1: 39,2), d. is Yin (inscr. 27), e. is Chou I (inscr. 69), f. is Chou
I (inscr. 98), g. is Chou III (inscr. 229). Many authors take these early forms to be XII
t s u 'sacrificial' table', but I follow Shuowen; it may be t s u in some cases (the same
graph serving for both words, just as the same graph serves for both s i 'evening' and
25
I.
i '
I,
I •
BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
11 1r A tt ;i At 23 $J
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,..
y ii e 'moon'), but in a great many contexts it is undoubtedly y i. The graph shows
the sacred (phallic) pole of the she altar to the soil, behung with slices of meat.
h. *ngia I ngjiQ- / y i right principle (Kuots'e).
22 a. *xia I xiiQ I hi Shuowen says: earthenware vessel (no text). The Seal has 'vessel'
and 'tiger', the meaning of the latter obscure.
b. * xia I ;dir;:- I hi to sport (Shu), joke, jest (Shl); an interjection (Li, said to be read
xu.o for 'vhich is unlikely).
23 a. *t'lia I I c h'i Shuowen says: a mountain demon, thus taking it to be the
primary form of next (no text). - b. id. a kind of demon (Tso). - c. id. a kind of
dragon (Lu); a demon (Tso).
d. *lia I I l i kerchief (Shi). Gl. 392. - e. id. thin wine (Ch'uts'i).
f. *lia lljiQ I 1 i 1 i u-1 i name of a bird (Shi); loan for id. leave, depart from (Shi); to be
dispersed (Shi:); divide, distribute (Li); arrange (Tso); vis-a-vis each other (Li); meet
with, come across, fall into, incur (Shi:); fasten, attach (Shi); pass through (Shi); droop,
hang down (Shi); fall down (Tso); light, brilliance (Yi); *lia 11 i be separated from
(Li), differ from (Li); loan for g. (Kuoyii). Gls. 107, 196, 442, 638.
g. *lia I j I i hedge (Ch'uts'i). - h. id. drip, drop (Kuots'e).
24 a. *lia j ljiQ 11 i drag into, involve (Shu); sorrow, trouble (Shi); anxiety (Shu). Gl.
1683.
25 a-c. *b'ia I b'jil) j p' i skin (Shi:). b. is Chou III (inscr. 230), c. is Chou III/IV (inscr.
307). The graph shows a hand and a hide, see 931 b. - d. id. weary, exhausted
(Tso ); emaciated (Kuan).
e. *b'ia j b'fir;:- j p e i coverlet (Ch'uts'i); be covered by, wear (Tso); outside of gar-
ment (Yili); (be covered by:) be exposed to, receive (:Meng); suffer (Tso); to cover (Shi:);
reach out over (Shu); (covering:) head dress (Shi:); (covered part:) handle of a weapon
(Chouli); dishevelled (Tso); *p'ia j j p'i cover oneself with (Tso); *p'ia j p'jif),-
/ p 'i cloak (Tso).
f. *b'ia I b'jie_- j pi pulling strap on carriage (Kuoyii).
g. *pia I pjir;:: /pi that, they (Shi).
h. pia I pjif,;- I pi one-sided (sc. words), insincere (Meng).
26
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
i. *pia 1 1 pi river bank (Shi:); dyke (Shu); slope, slanting (Yi); pia j pfif),- j pi
oblique, unjust . . .. . . .
j. *p'ia 1 p'jir;: 1 p'i diVIde, disperse (Tso ); I I pI Side supports (ropes on coffm)
k.(L:t'ia 1 p'jie I p'i short sword, dagger (Tso); loan for j. disperse (Sun).
[... 1. *pn·a (_pud 1 p o wave, surge (Shi); be as or: waves (Chuang). . .
m. *pu·d 7 pud: I p o to walk lame (YI); I I pI to lean to one s1de (L1).
n. *pwa 1 pud:, pua- j p o to winnow (Shl) (to the left in the char. is k i winnowing basket).
o. *p'wd I p'ud- I p'o break (Shi).
p. *p'wri 1 p'wi I p'o slanting, oblique (Ch'uts'i); partial, unfair (Shu); perverse (Shu).
q. *b'zcri j b'ua I p'o p'o- so saunter, dance (Shi). Gl. 334.
26 a. *b'ia I j p'i wear out, exhaust (Tso); ? I b'ai: I p a stop, cease (Lunyii).
b. *pia 1 pjiQ 1 pi brown-and-white bear (Shi). Char a. may have been the primary
form of b. and then it may have been a drawing similar to 885 below.
27 a-e. *gwia I jwif) I we i make, do (Shi); to act as, to be (Shi:); act for, help (Shi);
*gu·ia 1 1 wei for, because (Shi); loan for k. (Shi). Gls. 3_06, 892. b. is Yin b?ne
(B hia 10: 11), c. is Yin (inscr. 46), d. and e. are Chou I (both mscr. 101). The earhest
form shows a hand at the head of an elephant (possibly referring to the handicraft in
ivory, so prominent in Yin time?)
f. *gwia I j'wic: j wei to open (Kuoyii).
g-j. *kwia 1 kjwif) I k u e i place and family name (Tso). h. is Chou I (inscr. 120),
i. and j. are Chou III (both inscr. 216).
k. *ngwia 1 ngju1ir;:- I wei false, spurious (Sun); cheat (Tso). Gl. 306.
1. *xwia 1 xiwir;: I hue i to signalize, manifest (Yi, so ace. to certain comm.).
m. *ngwa 1 ngztd 1 o deceive, false (Shi ap. Shuowen); act, work (Shu). Gls. 508, 1219.
28 a. *k'wia 1 k'jwif;! 1 k'u e i to fail, wane (Yi); diminish (Yi); lack, be missing (Tso);
injure (Shi). Gl. 1169.
29 a. *ngwia lngjwiQ j wei high (Li); precipitous (Kuoyii); lofty (Lunyii); ridge of
roof (Li); danger, dangerous (Yi); name of a constellation (Shu).
b. *kwia 1 kfwie.: j k u e i perverse, wily (Shi:); treacherous (Kuliang); weird (Chuang).
- c. id. oppose (Chouli).- d. id. ruinous, dilapidated (sc. wall) (Shi).- e. icl. treach-
erous (Chuang).
f. *g'wia 1 g'j1vil): j k u e i and *k'wia j k'fwic: I k'u e i kneel (Tso); foot (Sun).
30 a. *hvia 1 t:J'wiQ 1 c h'u e i to blow (Shi); *t'wia I #'wif),- / c h'u e i musical concert
(Li). The Seal has 'mouth' and 'gape'. Abbreviated phonetic in:
b. *t'tcia 1 j c h'u e i to heat, cook, prepare food (Kungyang); (loan for a., to
blow up:) expand (Chuang).
31 a. *rrwia 1 iwie. j c h'u e i hang down (Shi); fall (Tso); loan for b. border (Shu), frontier
(Kuots'e). The graph, as seen in c., consists of 'flower' (ef. group 44 below) and 'earth'.
- b.-e. id. border, frontier (Tso). c. is Chou IV (inscr. 283).
d. *rtwia 1 iwiQ- j shu e i sleep (Kuots'e).
e. *dwia 1 I shu e i a kind of (Chouli).
f. *d'wia 1 a'ni<: 1 c h'u e i and *d'wia 1 d'wic- I c hue i pot, jar (Lie). - g. id. (both
readings) sledge-hammer (Chuang).
27
I i
I
I ',,
I I
I,
I i
I
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
t? JE: $/e.1;e_ :tk ·1t 3o oJ( J<A 31 f_ P5! Fi 0i_ !.
a... lr c d e f a.. lr a. lr c d e
tA jf ?Of if i   ;f_ uf Jl M m 33
f 9 h t. -j k l rn. a 1r c cl. e. f
rl iu fL E tt J4 A' 3s
a. lr c d.. e. f 9 h. t 1. k l a. l.r
"F -- 3b Ji JI
a. t,. G d. a. /.,. G d.
h. *d'n·ia I I c hue i press down, crush (Lii).
i *twia I tjwi(.!: / c hue i beat (Li). - j. id. horse-whip (Kuoyii).
k *twia I twie- / c hue i implicate (Lie, in a symbolic name).
1. *twa I tu& I to droop (Siin); banked-up earth (Huai).
m. *t'wd I t'uri-1 t'o spit (Tso).
32 a-d. *ka / ka / k i a house (Shi); family (Shi'); keep a household (Shu). Gl. 2079.
b. is Yin bone (A 7: 4,15), c. is Yin bone (A 7: 38,1), d. is Chou I (inscr. 69). The graph
has 'roof' (house) and 'pig'.
e. * kfl I ka- I k i a to marry (said of woman) (Shi).- f. id. grain (Shl); to sow (ShY).
33 a-b. *ka / ka: I k i a Shuowen says: to borrow, thus taking it to be the primary
form of nex:t word (no text). b. is Chou II (inscr. 148, sense of d. below). - c. ia. false
(Li); simulate (:Meng); borrow (Tso); k i a me i steal a moment's sleep (Shi:); loan for
id. great (Shi); go to (Shi:); loan for d. felicity (Li) and j. distant (Li). Gls. 758, 1018,
2041. - d. id. great (Shi); abundance, felicity (Shi). Gl. 708.
e. *kfi I ka I k i a rush, sedge (Shi). - f. id. male pig, boar (Tso).
g. *g'a I ya- I hi a leisure (Shi:); respite (Shu). Gl. 1919.
h. *g'a I ya I hi a flaw, blemish (Shl); loan for id. how, why (Li); loan for j. distant (Shi:).
Gls. 111, 758. - i. irl. hi a-m a frog (Mo ap. T'ai p'ing yii Ian). - j. id. far, distant
(Shi); loan for id. what, how (Shi:). Gls. Ill, 446, 806. - k. same as the preceding (Ch'u-
ts'Y). - I. id. horse of mixed red and white colour (Shi).
34 a-b. *ldt / ka: I k i a a kind of ritual vessel (Shl). b. is Yin bone (B hla 7: 10). The
graph is a drawing.
35 a-c. *g'a I ya: I hi a down, below; *g'a I ya- /hi a descend (Sill). b. is Yin bone
(A 7: 38,1), c. is Chou II (inscr. 139). The graph is a symbol.
d. *g'a / ya- I hi a rush (Li); *g'o I yuo: I h u Rehmannia (Yili).
36 a-b *g'a / ya- I hi a summer (Shl); *g'a I ya: / hi a great (Shi); variegated (Shu);
name of place and dynasty (Shi:); loan for 38 d. below (Li). b. is Chou III (inscr. 229).
Gl. 841.
c, d. *g'a I ya: /hi a house, room (Ch'uts'i).
28
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
37 §' jf ;.! ft 3f.t 32 i=ifl ;
a. lr C d. e f 9 h_ a. lr c. d. a.
e %t ,tt 40 % f 1. 1 47 A
0
fl\,
l.r c d. e. CL lr c. c:L e f 9 h. a. lr
JLl\ !A 5JJ\ 42. t 43
f 9 h. 1.. a. Lr a. lr
44 r
L m a. !,
c d e.

f h.
d. e.
l. j k
c. cL
37 a-b. *nga f nga 1 y a tooth (Shi). b. is Chou II/III (inscr. 250). The original graph
seems to have been a drawing. .
c. *nga 1 nga: 1 y a covered galleries on both sides of yard, horse-shed (Chouh).
d. *nga I nga I y a shoot, sprout (Li). . .
e. *nga 1 nga- 1 y a meet, receive (Yili); astonished (Lii). - f. meet, rece1ve (Shu,
orthodox version). Gls. 37, 1978.
g. *nga 1 nga: j y a correct, proper, refined (Lunyii); a kind of musical instrument ( Chouli).
b. *'i! I ·a I y a raven, crow (Chuang).
38 a. *xa 1 xa: 1 hi a Shuowen says: cover (no text). . _
b. *M f ka-1 k i a price (Lunyii); *ko f kuo: I k u merchant, do busmess (Sh1); buy (Tso).
c. *k(L I ka- I k i a price (:Meng).
d. *M I ka: f k ia Catalpa (Tso).
39 a. *pa f pa 1 p a snake (only Han time text ex.); place name (Tso).
b. *pli I pa: I p a grasp (:Meng); a handful . . .
c. *pd 1 pa 1 p a a kind of fragrant herb (Ch uts 1); flower (Ta Tal h). - d. td. sow,
pig (Shi). Gl. 62.
e. *b'a 1 b'a 1 p'a and *b'a I b'a- / p a a rake (Kuots'e).
40 a-e. *ma 1 rna: 1m a horse (Shi). b. is Yin bone (A 2: c. is_Yin bone (A 4: 47,5),
d. is Yin (inscr. 26), e. is Chou I (inscr. 55)._ The graph _1s a drawmg._ .
1-g. *rna f ma-l m a sacrifice in the open, m the campmg place (Shi). g. IS pre-Han
(inscr. 459). Gl. 473.
h. *mii I rrw:, rna-/ m a revile, curse (Tso).
41 a. *lc1va I kwa I k u a gourd, melon (Shi). _ .. ..
b. *kwo f kuo f k u wail, cry (Shi). - c. id. orphan (Lunyu);
solitary (Shu). - d. id. net (Shi). - e. Hydropyrum latifolmm .. - f. a
trumpet-shaped ritual vessel (Lunyii); loan for c. above (Chuang). - g. td. big bone,
curved bone (Chuang).
h. *g'wo 1 )'lW 1 h u bow (Yi); bend, curved (Chouli). - i. id. fox (Shi).
42 a-b. *kwa 1 kwa: j k u a few, little (Yi); solitary, resourceless (Sh'i); single-standing,
unique (ShY). Gl. 812. b. is Chou II (inscr. 180). The graph has 'roof' and 'head'.
29
j :'
l'
:
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
i It l i
F 9 h.;_ :i k L 1"rln. o
4s- {i s
II c. d. e
i AJJ f -t :t{§ *ft
p t( ·r S t V X 'j Z... a} l.r' C d_l e I f I
f! IJ§ 7f;f a{f lA
9'
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43 a. *k'wa I k'wa I k'u a boast (Shi). Gl. - b. id. boast (Kuan). - c. id. good
fine (Ch'uts'i). '
d. I k'wa- / k'u a to step over, pass over (Tso); *k'wo I k'uo- f k'u to squat over
have m one's power (Kuoyu); loan for b. (Lie). '
e. *k'wa I k'wa I k'u a and *xiwo I xiu I h ii flower (Chuang).
f. *k'wo I k'uo- / k'u cut open, cut to pieces (Yi).
g. *k'wo / k'uo I k'u to insert the hand (and grasp) (Yili).
h. / k'uo- / k'u trousers (Li). - i. same as the preceding (Mo).
j. g wo I yuo, yuo- / h u bottle-gourd, melon (Shl).
k. (Zito I ·uo I w u stagnant water, pool (Meng); dirt (Tso); deep (Ch'uts''i); dig a pit
I. *g'wil I ywa- I h u a big (Tso). - m. variant of the preceding (Tso).
44 a-b. *g'wa I ywa /h u a flo'."er, (Shi); loan for id. cleave (Li). *g'wa 1
!wa- / h u_ a name of a moun tam (Shu). b. Is Chou II (inscr. 139, name). The graph
IS a drawmg.
c. *g'wa / ywa I h u a a fine horse (Chuang).
d. * xwa I xwa I h u a shout (Shu).
45 a-c. I t.§ja: I c he word (Shi). b. is Chou I (inscr. 70, sense of p. ), c. is
  - d. red earth (Kuan); red pigment (Sill).
e-f; . *s10; / s1a /she extravagant (Lunyu). f. is Chou (inscr. 348, name).
g. t?.O I c h u bag for clothes (Tso); store away (Tso); baldaquin over coffin (Li)
h. *t?o f1WO / c h u pig (Tso); loan fork'. (Shu). Gl. 1357. ·
i. *t'io I c h'u and *to I tuo: It u paper-mulberry tree (Hanfei).
j. *d'fo d, .lWO- / c h u. chop-sticks (Li); loan for n'. manifest (Sun).
k. *tfo ts]wo: / c h n Islet (Shi). Gl. 57. - 1-m. id. to boil, cook (Li). _ n. Yariant
of the preceding (Chouli).
o. *Uo I tsiwo- I c h u fly upwards, soar (Ch'uts'i).
P· *tfo I I c h u many, all (Sh'i); initial particle (Kungyang); final particle (Sh'i);
pre;;:rves .(LI); equal to Z f- (Lunyii); loan for a. (Li). Gl. 75.
q. *tto I ts]wo: I c h u islet (Kuoyii), s. w. as k. above.
r. I Ish u to place, position (Kuoyii).
s. *dz]o I Z]Wo: Is ii line of succession, inheritance (Kuoyii); continue (Chuang); the
last, rest, remains (Chuang); work (Shi:). Gl. 1047.
30
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMAT A SERICA REGEN SA
t-v. *sio I siwo Ish u write (Yi); written document (Shl); script, graph (Chouli).
u. is Chou I (inscr. 56), v. is Chou II (inscr. 164). The phonetic is contracted in the
modern form.
x. *sio 1 s'{wo: Ish u heat (Shl).
y, z, a'. *to f tuo: I t u cubit_s length of (Shi); loan _for id. a. row or set of
or musical stones (Chouli). z. Is Chou III (rnscr. 217, radical 167 mstead of 32), a Is
Chou III/IV (inscr. 295, radical 'wall' instead of 32). - b'. id. banner (Sun). - c'.
id. see (Li). - d'. variant of the preceding (:M:eng).
e'-g'. *to I t1to It u capital city (Sh'i); loan for id. elegant (Shl); interjection (Shu);
fork'. below (Kuan). Gls. 727, 1357. f'. is Chou III (inscr. 184), g'. is Chou III/IV
(inscr. 301).
h'. *to f tuo It u and *ct'ia / di'ja I she tower on top of wall (Shi). Gl. 239.
i'. *d'o 1 d'uo I t'u to butcher (Chouli). - j'. id. fatigue, suffering, disabled (Slli).
'k'. *ti.o I tiwo I c h u stagnant water, pool (Chouli).
1'. *d'io I d'i:wo / c h'u collect, store up (Kuoyii).
m'. *dio I zi_wo- I s h u sunrise (Kuan).
n'. *tjo 1 t jwo- I c h u place, order of place, position (Tso ); loan for id. appear, visible,
manifest (Yi); evident (Meng); to signal (Kuan); loan for T (Shi). The same character
applied to another word of similar meaning: *tjak I tjak I c h o to place, put, apply
(Li); sacrificial vessel without feet (>>applied>> to the earth) (Li); publish (Tso); *d'jak I
cl'jak 1 c h o attach (Chouli). These different readings account for the two derivates:
o'. *cl'io I a'jwo I c h'u c h'o u- c h'u advance and draw back, hesitate (Chuang);
*t'jak I t'iak I c h'o jump over, pass over (Kungyang). Gl. 116.
p'. *tiak flialc I c h o cut, hack (Mo).
46 a-g. *ts'fii I ts' fa: / t s'i e moreover, and (Sill); even (Meng); meanwhile, temporarily
(Shl); presently, on the point of, will soon (Kuots'e); *ts'io I ts'jwo / t s'u obstruct
(Yi); *tsi.o I tsfwo I t s u final particle (Shi); plenty, many (Shl); loan for i'. go to (Shi).
Gls. 133, 229, 240, 1106, 1127, 1283. b. is Yin bone (E 124: 3), c. is Yin bone (A 1: 10,2),
d. is Yin (inscr. 9), e. is Chou I (inscr. 65), f. is Chou I (inscr. 86), g. is Chou II (inscr.
134). In. all these cases, our graph stands for   'grandfather, ancestor', and it
is a drawing of the phallic-shaped ancestral tablet. Allthe meanings-above are loan
applications of the primary graph for b'.
h. *tsia I tsia Its i e rabbit-net (Shl).
i. *tsd I 1$a I c h a a kind of sour fruit (Crataegus?) (Li).
j. *tsd I f$a / c h a and *tsja I tsja: I t s i e and *dz'ia / dz'ja: / t s i e pull out (of
water) (Mo).
k-1. *tsio I tsjwo- Its u marshy ground (Shl); *dz'jo I dz'jwo: / t s u to leak, ooze (Li);
loan for id. to stop, prevent (Shi); vanquish (Kuoyu). I. is Yin bone (G 1: 14, sense
of b'). Gl. 573. '
m. *t,sjo I tsjwo Its u t s i- t s ii millipEl.de. (Chuang).
n. *ts'jo I ts'jwo / t s'u earth-clad mountain (Shi); loan for i' (Sill, one version); cf. q.
Gl. 1078.
o. *ts'jo I ts'jwo It s'u monkey (Chuang). - p. id. (in Peking mostly irregularly read
t s ii) ulcer (Chuang). - q. id. rock covered with earth (Shi), s. w. as n. above. -
r. 1:d. t s'u - k i u an aquatic bird (Shi). - s. variant of the preceding (Tso),
t. *ts'jo I ts'fwo It s'u hemp in fruit (Shi); straw (Shi); ts'fo / ts'jwo It s'ii and tsio /
tsjwo Its ii straw as bottom in shoe (Ch'uts'i); loan for q'. (Li); *ts'jo I ts'jwo j t s'u
straw (Shi); *tsa f t§a: I c h a dung-mixed straw (Chuang).
u. *dz'i.o J dz'f:wo: Its ii chew (Kuan).
31
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
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v. / / t s u small sacrificial table (Shi).
x. f j t s u imprecate (Shi); oath (Shu).
y. / / t s u precipitous (Shi); dangerous, difficult, full of obstacles (Shi);
difficulty, trouble (Shi); make difficulties with, find fault with (Shi); hinder, obstruction
(Tso); loan for id. rely on (Tso); for a. 'presently' (Shu, one version). Gls. 89, 1283.
z. *df'i.o / d;'f.wo- / c h u aid (Shi).
a'. *d;'io j d;'iwo: j c h u c h u · y ii like irregular and uneven teeth, disparate, not
fitting together (Ch'uts'i).
b'-c'. *tso j j t s u grandfather, ancestor (Shi); sacrifice at roadside on start of a
journey (Shi); take as a norm, imitate (Li); to practise (Kuoyii); to start (sc. a funeral
cortege) (Li); loan for a. presently (Shu, one version). Gl. 1283. c. is Chou IV (inscr. 292).
d'. *tso j tsuo j t s u collect, hoard (Sh1); tax (Li). Gl. 382.
e'-g'. *tso j tsuo: j t s u cord (Shi). f'. is Chou II (inscr. 182), g'. is Chou II/III (inscr.
249, name). Gl. 143.
h'. *ts'o I ts'uo It s'u and *dz'o I dz'tw: / t s u coarse (Li).
i'. *dz'o I dz'uo It s'u, t s u (Pek. t s u is irregular) advance, go to (Shl); pass away
(Shu); Gls. 240, 635, 990, 1078, 1674.
j'. *dz'o I dz'uo It s'u pass away (sc. die) (Shu). - k'-1'. id. Shuowen says: fierce,
treacherous (no text). 1'. is Chou I (inscr. 67, sense of particle).
m'. *dz'o j dz'uo: I t s u and *tsiing f tsang: j t s an g powerful horse (only Han time
text ex.); horse-dealer (Lii) (the reading t s an g means that the character for t s u
has been borrowed for a synonymous word t san g); loan for e'. (Chouli).
n'. I Its ii (Mand. t s ii is irregular, we should expect a c h u) to pickle
(Shi); dried herbs (Kuan); loan for k. marsh (Meng; in this sense Tsi yiin reads tsia I
t s i e, which must be wrong, since the loan is obvious).
o'. *df'io / df'fwo- / c h u and *df'io I df'iwo / c h'u cooperate in cultivating the public
field (Chouli), cf. z. above.
p'. *df'io / df'fwo I c h'u hoe (Ch'uts'i).
q'. *tso / tsuo Its u and *ts'io I ts'iwo / t s'ii and *tsio I tsfwo / t s ii bedding or packing
of straw (for objects presented) (Chouli).
r'. I ttj'fvJo: I c h'u variegated and elegant (dress) (Shi ap. Shuowen). Gl. 360.
s'-t'. *tsa I j c h a a kind of tree (Crataegus?) (Chuang, one version), s. w. as i.
above. t'. is Chou I/II (inscr. 212, name).- u. vulgar form of the preceding (Li).-
32
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA. RECENSA


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v'-y'. id. Shuowen says: take (no text) x. is Yin bone (A 5: 37,5, name); y' is Chou I
(inscr. 54, sense of particle).
47 a. *zia 1 fa 1 y e place name (Meng); loan for id. interrogative particle (Yi); loan for
*dzia j zia ( s i e awry, crooked (Siin); deflected, depraved (Shi:); loan for 82 p.
*dzzo j zzo j s ii slow (Shi). Gl. 114. The Seal has 'tooth' and 'city'. - b. vulgar
· form of the preceding (Tso). - c. id. oblique, perverse (Chouli), s. w. as a. abovP:
phonetic abbreviated.
48 a-b. *.;fa, j £:ia· j she lodging-house (Chouli); to rest in, stop (Shi); to halt, resting-
place, encampment (Tso), a day's stage (Tso); to put de1_1osit (Tso); loan for
*8ia 1 8ja: j she put away, set aside, leave _(Sh!); let off (Sh1); gtve, bestow (Tso); b.
is Chou I (inscr. 148). The graph is a drawing. Gls. 223, 563.
c. *::iiii I .§fa: Ish e give up, let go (Kuoyii), cf. thP preceding.
49 a-e. *ko j kuo: J k u ancient (Shi). b. is Yin bone (A 5: 7,7, sense here uncertain),
c. is Chou I (inscr. 56), d. is Chou I (inscr. 65, sense of i. below), e. is Chou III/IV (inscr.
329, sense of i.). The graph has 'ten' and 'mouth'.
f. *leo J lcuo- I k u fortified, secure (Li); securely, make sure (Shi); strong, firm (Shu);
obstinate (Lunyii); mean (Lunyii); rude (Tso); old-established (Meng); certainly (Lunyii).
Gl. 1800.
.g-h. *leo I lciw j k u father's sister (Shl); mother-in-law (Tso); loan for ?'d. now, tempo-
rarily, for the present (Shl). h. is Chou I (inscr. 92).
i-j. *J.:o j kuo- j k u fact, phenomenon, matter (Meng); cause, reason (Sh1); because of
(Shi); old intercourse (Shi); old (as opp. to new) (Yi). j. is Chou II/III (inscr. 255).
:k-1. *ko ( kuo j k u name of a river (inscr. 147); loan for id. to buy, sell (Lunyii); for
*J.:o j kuo: j k u summarily, careless (Li). l. is Chou II (inscr. 147). .
m-n. *ko j k1w: j k u net (Yi); loan for p. (Shl). Gl. 651. n. is Chou III/IV (mscr. 328).
o. * ko j hoI k u cricket (Chuang). - p. id. guilt, crime (Shl).
q. *ko j kuo: I k u salt (Chouli); salty marsh (Tso); loan for id. slack, remiss, defective
(Sh!). Gl. 301.- r-s. id. a kind of vessel (inscr. 165). s. is Chou II (inscr. 165, rad.
22 instead of 108 and 121; many scholars read this mchaic char. as f u, which is not
admissible because of the initial in the phonetic).
J 33
i
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i I
i
! i
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
t. *k'o I k'1w I k'u "ithered, dried up (Li).
u. *k'o I k'w: I k'u Soncus, Lactuca (Shi); bitter (Shi); suffer (Shi}; loan for *ko I kuo: j
k u bad, of poor quality (Chouli).
v. *g'o I yuo: I h u wooded hill (Shi). Gl. 275.- x. id. rely on, depend on (Shi); reliant,
self-confident (Shu). Gl. 1270. - y-z. id. blessing (Shi:). z. is Chou III (inscr. 236).
a', *g'o I yw I h u dewlap (Shi}; loan for id. how, why, what (Shi); long-during, far-
reaching (Shi:); part of a dagger-axe (Chouli); hu-t i e butterfly (Chuang); Northern
Barbarians (Chouli); loan for i'. (Tso). Gl. 1126.
b'. *g'o I yuo: I h u overnight wine (shi'}; *ko I kuo, kuo-1 k u buy or sell wine (Sill).
Gl. 421.
c'-d'. *kio I kiwo I k u sit down (Lunyu); dwell, reside in, occupy (ShY); settlement,
residence (Shi); repose (Shi); tranquil, satisfied (Shi); overbearing, arrogant (Shi);
comfortable, easily (Shi); to hoard (Shu); in the end (Shi'}; loan for id. final particle
(Shi); ? I kji I k i final particle (Li). Gls. 300, 557, 869, 1316. d. is pre-Han (inscr. 417).
e'. *ko / kuo- I k u to stop, obstruct (Tso); (disease) (Li).
f'. 1 I kd- I k o piece, item (Siin).
g'. *ko I kuo I k u and *k'o I k'uo I k'u a kind of tree (Chouli).
h'. *g'o I yw: I h u a kind of tree (Sill); loan for *ko I kuo: I k u of bad quality (Siin)
( cf. u. above).
i'. *g'o I Y1W I h u a kind of sacrificial vessel (Lunyii). - j'. id. lake (Chuli).- k'. id.
gourd (Kuots'e).- 1'. id. supply food to, feed (Tso). - m'. id. pelican (Chuang).
n'. *kio I kjwo- I k ii bent in an angle (Li); arrogant (Tso).
o'. *kio I kfwo I k ii grasp (Shi'). Gl. 381.- p'. id. gem worn as girdle-pendant (Shl).-
q'. id. wide, ample (Siin).
r'. *kfo kfwo- I k ii to squat (Tso). - s'. id. a saw (Kuoyii).
t'. *k'io k'jwo I k'ii and *kjo I kjwo, kjwo- I k ii a kind of tree (ShY).
u'. *g'jo g'jwo I k'ii and *kfo I kiwo I k ii dried meat of birds, esp. pheasants (Li).
50 a. *ko I hw: I k u drum (Shl); measure of weight (Tso) or capacity (Li). - b-f. to
drum (ShY). a. and b. are not distinguished in modern praxis. c. is Yin bone (A 5: 1,1),
d. is Yin bone (E 38: 3), e. is Chou II (inscr. 139), f. is Chou III (inscr. 234). The graph
shows a drum on its stand and a hand with a drum-stick. - g. id. eyeless, blind (Sh!).
51 a. *ko I kuo: I k u thigh (Sill). The Seal consists of 'flesh' and 'to beat'. - b. id.
ram (Shi). a. is abbreviated phonetic.
52 a-b. *ko I kuo: I k u noxious vermin in the food, in the stomach (Chouli); noxious
influences, seduction, madness (Tso); loan for id. business, affair (Yi). b. is Yin bone
(A 6: 42,6). The graph has 'vessel' and 'insects'.
53 a-b. *g'o I yuo: I h u door (Shi); opening (Li); house, family (Tso); loan for id. to
stop (Tso). b. is extracted from the arch. graph for 1146 below (Chou I, inscr. 58),
cf. also f. below. The graph is a drawing of a door-leaf. - c. id. name of an ancient
city (Ch'unts'iu); loan for id. a bird resembling a quail (Sh'i); to stop, to check (Tso );
wide, vast (Li); to tend (sc. horses) (Kung-yang); be covered with, bear upon oneseH
(Ch'uts'i).
d, e, f. *g'o I yzw: I h u the first graph is Shuowen's form, the second Erya's for the
bird written c. in the classics (a bird resembling a quail); from Han time loan for
kuo- I k u to hire (Han shu). f. is Yin bone (A 2: 4,8, name).
g. *ko I kuo- I k u turn the head and look (Shi), regard (Shi:); take into consideration .
(Shu); favour, grace (Shu); loan for id. only, but (Li).
34:
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
S4 If ;f_i )§_ f) f f 'f
f 9 a l.r c. (L \;- c.
s6 tr a 57 ft.

d.
a.. lr (.. cL a.
c d..
yt S8 1i X z X 1Ji % * l  
e f d. L- c.. d. e f 3 h.
a%
l 1'11.. j k
tf oo 1§
n. 0 p r s t u.. tr
54 a. *g'o I yuo- I h u intertwining, crossing (Chouli); barrier (Chouli); a stand (of
crossing sticks) (Chouli). - b. id. railings, fence (Chouli). - c. id. shut in, stop up
(said of cold which freezes, shuts up everything) (Tso ).
55 a-d. *g'o I yuo I h u final particle of exclamation (Shi) and interrogation (Shi): in,
at, on, at side of (ShY). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 48,4}, c. is Chou I (inscr. 57, sense of h.),
d. is Chou II (inscr. 133). - e-g. variant of the preceding (Lunyii ap. Han shu).
f. is Chou I (inscr. 58), g. is Chou I (inscr. 76).
h. *xo I xuo, xuo- I h u call out, shout (Shi); oh! (Tso); call, summon (Li).
i. *xo I xuo I h u shout (Chouli); abuse (:Meng).
56 a-d. *g'o I yuo I h u flask, flask-shaped vase (Shi'); bottlegourd (Shi). b. is Yin
bone(A 5: 5,5), c. is Chou I (inscr.l21), d. is Chou II (inscr.l50). The graph is a drawing.
-57 a. * xo I xzw I h u Ts'ie yiin reads in even tone and Shuowen defines it as = the
streaks on a tiger (no text); but it is merely a short-form for b. below.
-b-e. * xo I xuo: I h u tiger (ShY). c. is Yin bone (A 4: 44,5) d. is Yin bone (B shang 6: 8),
e. is Chou I (inscr. 86). The graph is a drawing, the tail being distorted into two legs in
the modern form. - f. id. tiger-shaped jade object (Tso).
58 a-d. *ngo I nguo: I w u five (Sill). b. is Yin bone (E 24 7: 2), c. is Yin (inscr. G),
d, is Chou I (inscr. 54).- e. id. group of five (Tso).
f-i. *ngo I 1l(J'IW I w u I, we, my, our (Tso); part of name (Shi); ngfo I ngjwo I y ii re-
served (Kuoyii). g. is Chou I (inscr. 58), h. is Chon II (inscr. 180), i. is Chou III/IV
(inscr. 323). In h. and i. the phonetic is doubled, and in i. there are additional radicals.
j. *ngo I nr.JUO- I w u awake, realize (Shu). - k. id. to turn against (Yili). - I. id. to
meet, fu,c e to bee (Shi:). Gl. 339.
m. *ngo I ngno I w u Eloeococca (Shi).
n. *ngo I ng1w- I w u to wake, awake (Sh!).- o. id. go against (Lu); encounter (Ch'uts'l).
P· *ngfo I ngjwo: I y ii prison (Li); imprison (Tso). - q-r. id. a kind of sounding box
r. is Chou II (inscr. 200, name).
s. *ngfo 11l{Jiwo I yii to go (Ch'uts'i); *nga I nga j y a P'eng-ya place name (Tso).
t-u. *ngio I ngfwo: I y ii speak (Shi:); *ngfo I ngjwo- I y ii to tell (Tso). u. is Chou III
(inscr. 225 ).
35
I
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BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUjvf OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
1 t 'lJZ A1t 4 f If   60 :f B
lr c.. cL e.. f '3 h.. i. j k a.
CL
lr
C1 t 11- rr ;1_ 1ir tg
d. e -f 9 h. i "j k l -m.n o p q a.
! ;fM' j:_ _Q_ j_ a_i.{Jt 5±-
l.r c d e f 9 h. 1. a Lr c ci. e.. f 'J
1* llt.:t (3 ;t, '4 \I\ ® c;s-1A bb A
h. 1. j l.r c. a.. Lr a. a..
v. *ngio I ngiwo, ngiwo: I y ii c h u-y ti like irregular and uneven teeth, disparate, not
fitting together (Ch'uts'i).
59 a-c. *ngo / nguo / w u shout (Shi); name of a state ('l'so). b. is Chou I (inscr. 109,
name), c. is Chou II (inscr. 134, name). The graph has 'a bending man' and 'mouth'.
d. *ngo / nguo- I w u deceive (Kuots'e); mistake (Shu). - e. variant of the preceding
(Chuang).
f. *ngfwo / ngfu: / y ti tall (Shi). Gl. 110.
g. *ngiwo I WJilt / y ti rejoice (Shi).
h-i. *ngf:wo I ngfu I y ii gamester (Shi); forester (Shu); loan for id. estimate, calculate,
think anxiously about, consider (Shi); be preoccupied, anxious, foresee, take precautions
a sacrifice on the day of burial (Tso); to plot against (Tso); chat (Tso); loan for
g. (}Ieng). Gls. 63, 1001, 1161. i. is Chou II (inscr. 147, name).
j. *ngfwo / ngfu: I y ii numerous (Shi). Gl. llO. - k. id. in crowds, numerous (Shi).
60 a-e. *ngo lnguo: I w u cyclical character (Shi); loan for id. resist (Li); cross-wise
(U). b. is Yin bone (E 4: 1), c. is Yin bone (B shang 5: 9), d. is Chou I (inscr. 76), e. is
Chou I (imcr. 79).
f. *ngo / nguo:, nguo- I w u equal (Chuang).
g. *ngo I ng1to- I w u oppose (Hanfei).- h. id. go against (Lie).
i-j. *xio I xiu·o: I h ii approve, allow (Shu); promise (Lii); find likely, expect (i\feng);
admit (Shi); loan for id. a place (Tso); loan for *xo I xuo: I h u sound of hewing (Shl).
Gk 417, 858.
k. *xo j x1w: I h u river bank (Shi).
1-o. *mJio / ngfwo- I y ti drive a chariot (Lunyti); charioteer (Shi); govern, direct (Shi);
manage, do service (Li); office (Li); officer, attendant (Shi); set forth, present (Shi);
attend on (Tso); concubine (Tso); loan for p. (Shi:); *nga I nga- I y a meet (Shi:). Gls.
37, 813, 1519, 1999. m. is Yin bone (A 1: 34,7), n. is Chou I (inscr. 55), o. is Chou II
(inscr. 146). As seen from m. the element to the right is a kneeling man.
p-q. ngio I ngfwo: I y ii withstand (Shi); refractory (Shi); a match, opponent (Shi);
stop (Shu); hinder, prevent (Meng). q. is Yin (inscr. 12).
61 a-c. *'o I ·uo I wu crow, raven (Shi); loan for id. oh! (Shu). b. is Chou I (inscr. 58),
c. is Chou II (inscr. 180). The graJ}h is a drawing.- d. id. alas (Tso).
36
BERNHARD I<ARLGREN: GRAMJIIATA SERICA RECENSA

e-f. *'o 1 ·110 j w u. oh!. (Shi:); l_?an f?r *'io I 'iwo I to be in, in, at, on, (Shi);
loan for 1242 a *'to I ·rwo- I y u satiate, amply nounshed (Shu). Gl. 1213. f. IS Chou
III (inscr. 225). The graph is really the same as in a-c. above, the drawing of a bird
(crow, raven), loaned for the homophonous *'o oh!, though here it has been modified in a
different way in the modern form.
•·io ;·jwo- I (Li). h;_ id. blood congestion (Ch'uts'i).
i. *'io 1 / y u Withered (Ch uts 1).
62 a-c. *t'o 1 t'uo: I t'u soil, earth, land (ShY); loan for id. measure (Chouli); loan for
*d'o 1 d' 1w: 1 t u roots of mulberry tree (Shi). Gl. 380. b. is. Yin bone (A 5 :10,2), c. is
Chou I (inscr. 65). The graph is a drawing of the phallic-shaped sacred pole of the altar
of the soil.
d. *t'o f t'uo:, t' 110- I t'u eject from the mouth (Sh'i).
e-f. *d'o j d'110 I t'u go on foot, foot soldier (Shi); follower, adherent (Shi:); servant
(Chouli); common people, multitude (Shi, in: s I- t'u); loan for id. vainly (Lunyii);
mere, only (l\1eng): bare, naked (Li). f. is Chou II (inscr. 162).
g-i. *d'o 1 d'uo: It u Pyrus (Shi); to fill, block up (Shu), h. is Chou I (inscr. 97), i. is
Chou II (inscr. 134, name).
j. *Ilia 1 iia: Is h e spirit pole and altar to the spirit of the soil (Shi), sacrifice to that
spirit (Shi:); (cognate to a.).
63 a-b. *t'o I t'uo- I t'u hare (Shi). b. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 325).
c. *d'o 1 d'uo f t'u name of a plant (Tso, as part of place names); loan for a. (Ch'uts'i).
64 a-c. *d'o I d'uo / t'u map, drawing, table (Shu); plan, consult for, consider (ShY);
calculate, expect (Lunyu). This char. in the orthodox Shu version is sometimes a corrup-
tionof983e pi to despise (Gl. 1905). b. is Chou II (inscr. 147), c. is Chou II (inscr. 179).
The graph is a drawing.
65 a. *t,s'o I ts'1w It s'u gross, coarse (Chouli). The Seal has 'ox' and 'horn'.
66 a. *ts'o I t.s'uo It s'u gross, coarse (Tso), big (Li). Etym. s. w. a. last and as JG h'.
above. The Seal has 'deer' tripled.
67 a-b. *so /suo/ s u Shuowen says: to gather into sheaves (no text). b. is Chou II
(inscr. 163, name). The archaic graph has 'fish' and ('tree'=) 'plant', possibly the
primary graph for the next: 'to revive' (give food to).- c-d. id. f u.s u a kind of
tree (Shi); loan for id. revive (Yi); take (Ch'uts'I); tremble, fear (Yi). -d. is Chou III/IV
(inscr. 296, name).
68 a. *so I szw. / s u white silk (Sh'i); white (Shi); plain, unadorned (Li); in vain, for no-
thing (Sili); as usual, habitually (Tso); (familiar with:) premeditated(Kuoyti); prelimi-
nary estimate (Tso). Gl. 279.
69 a-c. *lo I luo flu Shuowen says: a kind of food vessel (no text). b. is Chou II
(inscr. 136, sense of q. below), c. is Chou (insc:f. 382, name). The lower part of the graph
is a drawing, the role of 'tiger' at the top is obscure.- d. id. Shuowen says: food Yessel;
but there are no pre-Han text examples in support of this; loan for id. cottage, house
(Tso); hound (Shi); lance shaft (Kuoyti); black (Shu).
e. *lo I luo: ll u captive (Shi). Observe that in the modern graph the middle part is
dra\vn somewhat differently from the rest of the series.
37
'I ,,,
:I I
i I
i
II
i
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BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
f. *li.o I li,wo- I 1 ii think of, foresee (Shi); be anxious about (Lunyii).
g-i. *pljwo I pj7t / f u skin (Shl); loan for id. pork (Yili); cut meat (Li); fine, beautiful,
admirable (Shl). h. is Chou III (inscr. 217, sense of y. below), i. is Chou (inscr. 389,
sense of y.).
j. *lo I luo I l u black and hard soil (Shu). Gl. 1370. - k. id. a kind of fruit tree (Lii).
-1. id. stove (Hanfei).- m. id. stove (Tso).- n. id.lance shaft (Kuoyii ap Shuowen).
-o. id. hempen threads (Meng). - p. id. skull (Kuots'e).
q. *ljo /lfwo I l ii hut (Shi); inn (Chouli); to lodge (Shi); loan for n. (Chouli).- r-s. id.
display, expose (Kuoyii). s. is Chou III (inscr. 219, sense of d.).
t. *lio I liwo: I 1 ii passive (Siin).
u. *lio /liwo I 1 ii madder-plant (ShY).
v. *lio /1 ii inlay (sc. inlay work in bronze or iron) (only Han time text examples).
x. *t'lio It 'iwo I c h'u extend (Ch'uts'i).
y-z. *li.o I liwo- I 1 ii (same as v. above, hence the reading) inlay (sc. inlay work in
bronze or iron) (inscr. 218). z. is Chou III (inscr. 218).
70 a-d. *lo I luo: /1 u dull, blunt, simple (Lunyii); place name (Sh!). b. is Yin bone
(B shang 31 2, sense here uncertain), c. is Chou I (inscr. 63, sense uncertain), d. is Chou
I (inscr. 71, name). The graph has 'fish' and 'mouth'.- e. id. shield (Li).
71 a-b. *lo lluo: /1 u salty (sc. land) (Tso); rustic, coarse (Chuang); loan for 70 e.
above (Kuots'e). b. is Chou I/II (inscr. 203). The dots may depict salt chrystals.
72 a. *p'o I p'uo: I p'n vast, everywhere (Yi); all (Shi ap. Tso).
73 a-b. *b'o / b'uo- / p n walk (Tso); course (Shi). GL 739. b. is Yin bone (A 2: 8,4).
The graph shows two feet making a step. In the Yin bone inscriptions, the character
is often enlarged by Rad. 144.
74 a-d. *kio / kiwo / k ii and t'fa / #'fa / c h'e carriage, chariot (Shi'). b. is Yin bone
(A 5: 6,5), c. is Chou I (inscr. 59), d. is Chou I (inscr. 86), The graph is a drawing.
e. *k'o / k'u arsenal (lVIeng); magazine (Tso).
75 a. *ki.o I kfwo: / k ii lift, raise (Shi); to present (offerings) (Shl); start (Shi'); to record
(Tso); mention (Li); promote (Li); take (Meng); loan for id. all (Tso).
38
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
g g 1g ;g r$1 gr g 8 77 jjf<__ rrl
lr c c:l -F '3 h. -i. j k L Cl. lr
7C
g
a...
7S  
c cl.. e f a. tr c d. e f CL lr c
4, i f!!_ :):f f) Az if 8o st 00
e f 9 h. i j k l m n. a. a.
iE] [!] 8l i i i q; i Et
lr c a... lr c cl e f 5 h. i j k l IY\.
'* i1z 1± jp JJ; -ti. it Jk M- &
3
t
0 p
s t U- v X :z. a! 1.,
1
c I d..'·
76 a-c. *glfo jljwo: flu spine (Chuang); pitch-pipe (Li), b. is Yin bone (H 1: 5,8,
sense here lmcertain), c. is Chou I (inscr. 98, name), The graph is a drawing.- d. id.
comrade (Kuots'e ). - e-f. id. beam supporting rafters of roof (only Han time text ex.).
f. is Chou (inscr. 333, name).
g. gli.o 1 ljwo f 1 ii village gate, street gate (Tso); village (Chouli); loan for id. come to-
gether, accumulate (Chuang); a kind of battle array (Yi Chou shu).
h-i. *glfo lli.wo: I l ii place name (inscr. 295). i. is Chou (inscr. 374, name).
j-k. *klio I k{wo: / k ii round basket (Shi); k. is Chou (inscr. 374, name). -I. id, name
of a plant (no pre-Han text ex.); loan for id. place name (Ch'unts'iu).
77 a-d. *glfo fliwo: /l ii troop (ShY); multitude (Shi); retainers (Shi); many (Shi);
younger men of the family (Shi); arrange in a series (ShY); one after the other (Li); set
forth, extol (Shu); loan for id. guest, stranger (Tso); traveller (Yi); to lodge, lodging
(Sh'i); road (Li); sacrifice to mountain deities (Lunyii); pieces forming a buff-coat (Chouli);
loan for e. (Shl). Gls. 644, 834, 901, 908, 1118, 1371, 1719. b. is Yin bone (A 4: 31,7),
c. is Yin (inscr. 36), d. is Chon I (inscr. 67). The graph has two (several) men marching
under a banner. -e. id. (Kuoyii), s. w. a. 76 a. above.
f. *glo lluo /I n black (Tso).
78 a. * k'io I lc'fwo / k'ii hill, mound (Tso); abandoned city, ruins, waste (Shi'); site
(Tso); loan for *xio / xiwof h ii empty (Li); modest (Shi). Gl. 114. Western authors
insist on reading the character h ii even in its sense of 'abandoned city, ruins', in the
famous expression Yin k'ii. 'the ruins of Yin' (=An-yang). But both Kuang yiin and
Kingtien shiwen are positive that in this sense it must be read *k'io j k'iwo / k'ii (being
identical with b. below, the reading k'ii of which is certain, and Kingtien shiwen,
Li ki, section 19, especially adduces the expression Yin k'li 'ruins of Yin' as an
example of the reading k'ii.
b. *k'io / k'iwo I k'u ruins (Kuoyii, Li); gully, gulf (Ch'uts'i').
c. *xio I xiwo I h ii sigh, sob (Ch'uts'i).
d. *xio I xiwo, xiwo- I h ii to blow, exhale (Chuang).
39
I
'
f I
i
I: I
I
. I,
f ,i
'I.'
I
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
e-f. *g'io I g'jwo: / k u upright posts of a drum or bell frame (Shi:). f. is Chou III/IV
(inscr. 295). -g. variant of the preceding (Chouli).
79 a-c. *ngjo I ngiwo / y u fish (Sill). b. is Yin bone (A 4: 55,5), c. is Chou II (inscr.
180). The graph is a drawing. - d-f. variant of the preceding, enlarged by *xo
'tiger', the role of which is uncertain. e. is Yin bone (A 6: 50,3), f. is Chou II (inscr.
189, name).- g-1. id. to fish (Tso). h. is Yin bone (A 7: 9,1), i. is Yin bone (A 5: 45,3),
j. is Chou IIII (inscr. 210), k is Chou II (inscr. 190), 1. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 324). -
m-n. id. to fish (Chouli). n. is Chou III (inscr. 224, sense of -fr).
80 a-b. *ng[o I ngfwo-1 y ii drive a chariot (Ohouli); to direct, govern (Chouli),
s. w. a. 60 I. above. The form b. is Chou I (inscr. 65). The graph has 'horse' and a
'hand' wielding some object.
81 a-c. *ngfo I ngiwo: / y u prison, Chou shu); restrain, embarras (l\Ieng);
(keap in enclosures:) keep horses (Tso); (Tso); (enclosures:) borders, frontiers ·
(Shi:); loan for 58 q. sounding box (Shi); for 60 p. stop, obstruct (Chuang). b. is Yin
bone (A 6: 53,1), c. is Yin bone (A 4: 4,1). The graph shows an enclosure with a man
with manacles; or, abbreviated, only the manacles.
82 a-e. *dio I f.wo I y ii I, we (Shi); loan for I. (Chouli). b. is Yin bone (A 2: 5,3), c.
is Chou I (inscr. 65), d. is Chou I (inscr. 105), e. is Chou II (inscr. 143, sense of s. below).
The graph may have been the primary graph for f. below, being a drawing of a plough-
share, applied to our meaning here by loan. -f. id. field in the 3rd (2nd?) year of
cultivation (Shi).
g-h. *di.o I fwo- I y ii pleased (Shu ap. Shuowen). h. is pre-Han (inscr. 427, name).
i-k. *dio / jwo I yi.i a proper name (inscr. 138). j. is Yin (inscr. 22), k. is Chou II
(inscr. 138). - I. id. remains (Shi:); surplus (Lunyli).
m-n. *d'io / ll'jwo I c h'u eliminate, remove (Shi:); to clear out (Tso); loan for id.
(= 45 1') to heap (Sill); *d'io / lt'jwo- I c h u pass away (Shi). Gl. 424. n. is Chou
IIIIN (inscr. 328).
o. *dzio / zfwo: I s ii arrange in order, order (Shu); class, rank (Chouli); seriatirn, each
in his place (Shu); by and by (Shu). Gl. 1248.
p. *dzjo / zfu'O Is u walk slowly (Meng); slow, by and by (Tso); gently (l\Ieng); quiet
(Chuang); loan for q. below (Tso). - q-r. id. place name (inscr. 223). r. is Chou
III (inscr. 223).
s. *si.& I §ja I she trade on credit (Chouli). - t. vulgar variant of the preceding
(Ohouli).
u. *d'o I d'tw I t'u path on bank of a canal (Chouli); paved path (Ohouli). - v. id.
road (Lie).
x. *d'o I d'uo I t'u and *d'a I a'a I c h'a some kind of Sonchus or Lactuca (Shi); bitter
(Shi); a kind of rush or reed (Shi); loan for *Sf.o I §jwo Ish u slowly (Chouli); a kind
of jade tablet (Li).
y-z. *d'o I d'uo I t'u a kind of tree (no early text ex.). z. is Yin bone (0 1017, name).
a'. *t'o I t'uo I t'u a kind of precious stone (Ts'ieyiin).
b'. *t'o I t'1w, t'uo: I t'u and *d'o I d'uo: I t u glutinous rice (Sbl).
c'. *d'io I a'jwo I c h'u coarse mat (Shi:, here metaphor for an ugly-looking thing).
Gl. 121.
d'. *d'o I d'uo I t'u mire (Shl); to plaster (Shi); stop up (Tso); to soil (Chuang); road
(Lunyii), cf. v. above.
40
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
-----
---------------
a. k l   0
w 3) ;A <BC.
a.
j k a. L-
+i Jf fJJ(
(..
Lr d.

11'1. 0
83 a-b. *dio I fwo: I y ii give (Sbl); together w1th (Shi); loan for *dfo I fico I y ii
I, we (Shi), cf. 82 a. above. Gl. 247. b. is Yin bone ( 2,7: 9).
c-d. The reading of this is unknown; it seems to mean 'to run' (inscr. 329). It is
adduced here in order to show the late Chou form of a. above; d. is Chou IIIIIV (inscr.
329).
e. *dfo 1 jwo- f y ii Shuowen says: elephant (no text); (elephant-like:) slow and deliberate
(Lao); think beforehand, take precautions (Li); anticipate (Tso); loan for id. joy (Shi),
happy (Shu); amusement, recreation (Meng); satisfied (Chuang).
f. *i!/fo f cl'fwo: I c h u shuttle (Shi); (shuttle-shaped:) tapering (Chouli); *d'io j di'iu:o: I
shu oak (Chuang); *a'i.o I di'j1co- Ish u trough (Kuan).
g. *a'f:.o I di'i.wo: I s h u remove (Tso ).
h. *dzfo 1 zfwo: Is ii walls running nurth and south at sides of the hal] (of a palace);
space or galleries close to such walls (Shu); school (Meng); loan for id. order (Tso);
degrees (Tso); arrange in order (Shi:); continue, succeed (Shi). Gls. 1075, 1082. - i.
id. a kind of chestnut (Chuang).
j. *§io f sfwo Ish u and *ct'io I di'i1ro: Ish u to be remiss (Shi); relax, alleviate (Tso);
to delay (Tso).
k. *.Sio I Sj·wo I shu relax, slowly, leisurely, easy (Shi:); lazy (Shu). Gl. 1911.
l. *r:lia I ia: f y e open country outside cities (Shi:); rustic (Lunyii); *rlfo I ij1co: / s h n
field hut (Kuots'e). - rn. variant of the preceding (open country) (Ch'uts'i). The
graph has two 'trees' and 'earth'.- n-o. variant of the preceding (with the phonetic
left out) (Lu). o. is Chou II (inscr. l39).
84 a-b. *d'fo I cl'itm: I c h u and *d'i.o I ll'f-wo I c h'u space between gate and gate-
screen (Li). b. is Yin bone (A 4: 33,6, sense here uncertain); loan for 45 n'. place
(Kuo:yii). The graph is a drawing.
c. *d'io I a'jwo: I c h u to stand in attendance (Sh1). - d. id. to stand (Ch'uts'i). - e.
id. a kind of hemp (Shl). - f. id. lamb (Sbi).
g-k. *tfo I tiwo: I c h u to store, to heap (Kuliang). h. is Yin bone (A 4: 2,3), i. is
Yin bone (B hia 18: 8), j. is Chou I (inscr. 58), k. is Chou I (inscr. n7).
85 a-b. *t'io I ts'iu•o: I c h'u dwell, stay (Shi); keep still (Shi); to place (Li); *t'io I
tS'i.tm- I c h'u a place (Shi'). b. is Chou II (inscr. 132). The graph bas a man and a
stool below, the role of the h u 'tiger' above is uncertain.
41
',,
' ..
: i i!
! <I
BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEUM OF F' AR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
86 a. *l'fo I t§'jwo: I c h'u pestle (Yi).
87 a-d. *l$'io I tfiwo / c h'u begin, beginning (Shl). b. is Yin bone (A 5: 39,8, not
very clearly drawn), c. is Yin (inscr. 25), d. is Chou I (inscr. 55). The graph has
'garment' and 'knife'.
88 a-c. *l$'io I t.fiwo: / c h'u thorny tree, thorns (Shi); bushy, luxuriant (Shi); ample,
rich (Shl); arrange in order (Shi); ferule (Li). Gl. 360. b. is Yin bone (0 1547, name), c.
is Chou I (inscr. 69, name). The graph shows two trees, possibly 90 a. below is phonetic.
89 a. *zio I izro: / y ii lift (only Han time text ex.). The archaic graph (as sho·wn by
c. and d. below) had four hands.
b-d. *zio I jwo: I y ii give (Shi), to, for (Shi); help (Meng); associate with (ShY); together
with, and (Shi); stand up against (Lao); compared with (Li); hold with, approve of
(Shi); *zi,o j iwo- / y ii participate in, at (Tso); loan for *zio I iwo / y ii
final interrogative particle (Lunyii); fine, abundant (sc. grain) (Shi); dignified (Lun;yi.i).
c. is Yin (inscr. 12), d. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 301). The meaning of the element in the
middle is uncertain; d. is enlarged by 'mouth'.
-e. *zio I iwo / y ii final interrogative particle (Li.i). - f. id. a kind of gem (Tso).
g-h. *zio / jwo: / y ii (Tsi yiin; Kuangyiin has, curiously, the reading "i]i) fat (no
early text ex.). h. is Chou (inscr. 336, name).
i. *zio / iwo / y ii to praise (ShY); *zio / iwo- / y ii praise, renown (Meng); joy (Shi). Gl. 449.
j. *zfo / jwo / y ii vehicle, carriage (Tso); carrier, carry on the shoulders (Tso); underlings,
the crowd, many (Tso ); k'ii a n-y ii (to sprout =) beginning (Shi). Gl. 328.
k. *zio / iwo- I y ii name of a bird (raven? crow?) (Shl).
1-m. *zio I fwo / y ii falcon flag (Shi); bending upwards (hair curling) (Shi). m. is
pre-Han (inscr. 443, name).
n. *dzfo / zfwo; I s ii and *zio I jwo: / y ii fine, good-tasting (sc. wine) (Shi).
o-p. *dzfo / ziwo: / s ii name of a fish (Shi). p. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 324).
90 a. *$io / / s h u foot (Ti tsi chi ap. Shuowen). The archaic graph was probably
a drawing. -b-e. id. wide apart (Tso); distant (Shi); loose (not dense, sc. a stuff)
(Li); take away, eliminate (Kuo;yii); (not fine:) course (Shi); to separate   perforate
(Li); penetrate, perspicacious (Li); engrave (Li); loan for d. (Chouli).- d. id. vegetable,
grain (Li).
e. * sjo j sjwo / s ii aid (Kuan); together, mutually (Shi); all (Shi); loan for id. linger
(Shl); functionary (Chouli); butterfly (Chuang); wait for, expect (Shr). Gls. 298, 564,
719, 790, 1925.
f. *sfo I sfu·o: I s ii to strain (spirits) (Shi); abundantly dripping (sc. dew) (ShY); abundant,
flourishing (Shi). Gls. 298, 564. - g. id. grain ripe so as to drop its kernels (Li).
h. *sio / siwo: / s ii and / $iu·o: /shu sacrificial grain (Ch'uts'i).
i. *sio I siei- / s ii · son-in-law (Tso). The Anc. Chin. reading siei is very enigmatic.
The modern reading s ii agrees with that of the phonetic a. above, which rimes as
*sio in the ShY, so our word here must reasonably have been *sio as well.
91 a-c. *$io / f!fwo: /so (The Pek. reading so is irregular, we should expect a shu)
})lace (Shi); where, the place where (Shi); quem, quam, quod (Shi); *xio I xfuo: I h ii
quantity (Shu, in the phr. n i en h ii number of years); loan for 60 i. *xo j Xtto: I h u
sound of hewing (Shi). Gls. 417, 1872. b. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 328), c. is Chou (inscr.
370). The graph has 'door' and 'axe'.
-42
BFJRNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMAT A SERICA REGEN SA
---------
'92 a. *sio j sju:o: I shu rat (Shi); loan for b. below (Shi). The original graph must
have been a drawing. - b. id. hidden suffering (Shi). Gl. 529.
'93 a-d. *sfo j sfwo: j shu millet (Shi); loan for id. wine vessel (Lii). b .. is Yin b_one
(A 3: 29,7), c. is Yin bone (A 4: 40,2) d. is Chou (inscr. 391). The graph IS a drawmg.
'94 a-e. *nio j Jtjwo: I n ii woman, lady, girl (Shi:); *nio / Jlfu·o-j n_ii give as wife <.Shu).
loan for j. 'you' (ShY). b. is Yin bone (A I: 41,1 -mostly used m the sense of -f:ll:), c.
is Yin (insc;. 1), d. is Chou I (inscr. 65, sense of j. 'you'), e. is Chou I (inscr. 70, sense
of j. 'you'). The graph is a drawing.
f. *nio 1 Jtfwo: j n ii cakes (dumplings or threads) made of rice-flour and (Ch'uts'i).
g-i. *njo l1lijwo 1 j u resemble, like, as if (Shi); if (Lunyu): accord With (Shu); as to
(Lunyii); loan for id. go to (Tso); or (Lunyii); auxiliary= ffij (Shi:). Gls. 217, 471, 536,
729, 1264. h. is Yin bone (E 72: 4), i. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 326).
j-k. *1/jo 1 ilij1vo: j j u name of a river (Shi:); loan for id. you (Shu). k. is Yin bone
(G9:2).
1-n. *no j 'FHW j n u slave (Lunyii). m. is Yin bone (A 5: 33,2), n. 375).
-o. *nio j1iiwo j j u "Tapping silk band (Chouli). (The 1\'Iand. readmg J u IS megular,
we should expect a n i.i).
p. *nio /11-iwo / n ii rags (Yi).
q. *1iio / 1liiwo, Mjwo- / j u marsh (ShY).
!· *1iio j Jliiu·o 1 j u madder plant (Sh!); *1/jo / ftiiwo, 1iijwo- I j u
(Yi); loan for *1ljo j 'Jiifwo:, Jtijwo- I j u to swallow, eat (Sh!); for *n1o / IIZ!wo: / J u
putrid, rotten (Lii); soft (Ch'uts'i:); for *11jo / 1/ijwo- / j u to deliberate, calculate,
examine (ShY). Gls. 66, 456.
s. *1ijo / (tifu-o / j u quail (Li).
t. *sftio I siwo-j shu generous, indulgent (Lunyii); loyal (Tso). - .
u. *snjo 1 sfn·o- j s ii coarse raw silk, floss (Meng); loan for *t'njo / t'IlCO- / c h'u to
season, to flavour (sc. the soup) (Li).
43
I,
I.
I.
'
i
,.
I
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
v-x. *no I mw j n u wife and children (Shu). x. is Chou I (inscr. 100, graph slightly
abbreviated). Gl. 1403. - y. id. store, treasury (only Han time text ex.); loan for
id. tail (Tso); for v. above (Shi:).
z. *no j nno: In u crossbow (Chouli).
a'. *no/ nuo:, nuo- In u anger, angry (Shi); violent, vigorous (Chuang).
b', c'. *na I 1la In a to handle (Ch'uts'i); take (Chuang).
d'. *1w nuo, nuo: j n u a kind of stone used for arrow-heads (Shu).
e'. *no n1w, nw- I n u and *na / 1ia I n a cage (Ch'uts'!).
f'. *no nuo / n u bad horse (Li). ·
95 a-b. *kiwo I kiu: I k ii (same as c. below, hence the reading) carpenter's square-
(Kuan); loan for *g'fo j g'iwo: I k ii great (Meng). b. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 308, name).
The graph is a drawing.
c-d. *kiwo / kiH: I k ii carpenter's square (Meng); rule, law (Lunyii); to mark, set a
mark on (sc. a tree to be felled) (Chouli). is Chou (inscr. 347, name). - e.variant
of the preceding (Ch'uts'i). - f. id. gutter (Chouli).
g. *g'fo / g'iwo I k'ii canal (Li); loan for id. vast, spacious (Shi); tire of wheel (Chouli) ;.
shield (Kuoyii). - h. id. millipede (Chuang).
i. *g'fo I g'i1vo: I k ii oppose, ward off (Lunyii); *lcjwo I kiu: / k ti troops drawn up in
squares (Tso ).
j. *g'fo I g'iwo: I k ii black millet (Shl). - k-m. same as the preceding (inscr. 86).
1. is Chou I (inscr. 86), m. is Chou II (inscr. 155). - n. id. cakes (dumplings or threads}
made of rice-flour and honey (Ch'uts'i). - o. id. plough (Kuan).
p. *g'fo I g'iwo:, g'fwo- / k ii y u n g- k ii how, num (Chuang).
q. *g'jo j g'iwo: I k ti spur (Tso); loan for id. to oppose, resist (Shi:); distant from
keep at a distance (Meng); come to, reach (Shu); leap (Tso). - r. id. hard iron (Stin);.
loan for a. 'great' (Li), for p. (Kuots'e).
96 a-b. *kfwo I kiu- / k ii Shuowen says: look to right and left, thus taking it to be·
the primary form of c. below (no text). b. is pre-Han (inscr. 442, name).
c. *lcjwo I lcfu- I k ii frightened glance (Li); anxious, careful (Shi); flurried (Shi); loan.
for *g'fwo I g'fu I k'ii a kind of lance (Shu). Gls. 252, 1996.
d. *g'fwo I g'fu / k'ii street (Tso). - e-f. id. go (Ch'uts'i). f. is Chou II (inscr. 180,.
sense of i. below; rad. 156 instead of 157). - g. id. k'ii-y ii name of a bird (Tso).
h. *g'fwo I g'fu I k'ii and *g'iwo / g'fu- / k ii lean, emaciated (Kuots'e).
i. *g'fwo I r/iu- I k ii to fear (Shi:).
97 a-g. *gfwo I fiu I y ii to go, go to (Shi'); to, in, at, on (Shi); an empty particle (Shi);
loan for id. great (Li); enlarge (Shu); lips of a bell (Chouli); chant (Chouli); tranquiL
(Chouli); loan for t. (Shi:); for p. (Chuang). Gls. 575, 1006. b. is Yin bone (A 1:
c. is Yin bone (B hia 43: 1), d. is Yin (inscr. 6), e. is Yin (inscr. 27), f. is Chou I (inscr.
56), g. is Chou I (inscr. 57).
h. *gjwo I jiu: j y ti eaves, sides of house under eaves (Shi); abode (Shi); (cover =)
protect (K.uoyii); ten·itory (Shi); boundary (Tso); the world (Shi-tsi:); vast (Chuang).
Gl. 499.
i. *giwo j jiu I y ii bath tub (Li); big cup (Siin); loan for id. complacent, self-satisfiecl
(Siin). - j. id. a kind of precious stone (Lie). - k-m. id. bowl (Hanfei); a formatioiL
of a hunting party (Tso). I. is Yin bone (A l: 41,7, name), m. is Chou I (inscr. 65, name) ..
- n. id. reed organ (Li).
o. gfwo j jin- I y ti Colocasia (Yili); loan for h. sheltered (Shi:). Gl. 499.
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA    
·---·-----..·--
0/ t:1r.:t dlH- ,{$ A
1311
'\'t t
/ftJ l.::ll::l 1f_ llf[ IX- "- it
11- lr c. d e t h
1 lY ;ff ft _1 * ¥
f ff 1 *
l.r
'ot
d.. e
f t. J k l 'Y\1.1'\.. 0
:t5 A's n- 4 :Js
y "' ,... 5 t
%lJ ;t
v )1. y :z.. o.! c' d..'
f8 tt !00 ffu ;;;
e f "1 a.
1r c. cL
cL
c. d.. e
. giwo j fiu 1 y ii and 'fwo j 'iu / y ii bend, (Shu); from
!-s: giwo 1 jiu j y u sacrifice with prayer for ram (Lunyu); r. 1s Ym bone (A 5. 39,6),
s. is Chou I (inscr. 54, sense of a. abo;e). . . . .
"t , ·wo 1

1 h u oh, alas, to sigh, gneve (Sh1). - u. lift the eyes and regard (Y1).
'st:re pained (Shi). Gls. 244, 610. - v-x. id. great (Shi), x. is Chou III/IV
(inscr. 311). Gl. 244. .
y 'iwo I ·iu I y ii bent, crooked (Chouh).
:z: 1 ·1;0 1 w u to plaster (Tso). -a'. _id. (Lunyu). . . .. .
b'-c'. ·
1
vo j ·
1
w j wu impure (Tso), untidy (Sh1); stagnant
low mean (Tso); laborious service (Tso); debase, reduce, dlimmsh (L1); wa I wa I
w a' impure, vile, mean (Meng); dig a hole in the ground (Li); loan for y. (Tso). Gls.
11, 554.
.d'. xJwo I xiu: I h ii ceremonial cap (Shi:).
98 a-b. gfwo 1 jju: fy ti feather, wing b .. is extracted from the archaic graph
for 1124 below (inscr. 439). The graph 1s a drawmg .
.c. x,iwo 1 xiu: 1 h ii oak (Sh!); loan for id. glad (Chuang). - d. id. self-asserting, ener-
getic (Li); far-reaching (Li).
-99 a-c. *gi-wo 1 jiu: 1 y ti Shuowen says: c h'n n g (insect or reptile),_ (no text); pr.
· (Shi); loan for 95 c. above (Chouli). b. is Chou II (inscr. 174, name), c. IS Chou III (mscr.
229, name). - d. id. circumspect (Lie).
.e. *ki1vo 1 kiu: j k ti a clan name (Shi:). - f. id. carpenter's square (Chouli), s. w. a.
95 a. and c. above. - g. id. solitary (Shi:).
100 a-e. *gfwo 1 jj 1t: j yii rain (ShY); *gjwo / jin- j y ii to. rain upon (Shi). b .. is ,Yin
bone (A]: 25,3), c. is Yin bone (A 2: 35,3), d. is pre-Han (mscr. 444, name), e. IS Shou
III/IV (inscr. 327). The graph is a drawing.
101 a-d. *pjwo 1 Pi'n 1 f u man (Shi); loan for *b'fwo I b'f1[ / f :1 that (Sh!); the
one in question (Lunyii); as to (Tso); final particle (Lunyii). b. 1s Ym b_one (A 5: 32,1),
c. is Yin (inscr. 17), d. is Chou I (inscr. 65). The graph shows a man w1th a honzontal
stroke (hair-pin?) on the head.
.e. *piwo I pfu / f u axe (Li).
45
' '
'
I,!'
BULLETIN OF T!!_E   OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
f. *b'fwo I b'fu I fu to support, assist (Lunyii); loan for id. to crawl (Li then also react
*r:'wo I p'uo I p'u); first syllable in various names of plants etc. (Sh'i etc.); *piwo 1
PfU If u breadth of 4 fingers (Li). Gl. 98. '
g. *b'fwo I b'iu If u a kind of tree (Kuan). - h. id. f u- j u n g lotus (Ch'uts''i).
102 a-e. *b'jwo I b'j1i: I fu father (Sh'i); old man (Tso); *pfwo I pju: 1 f u honorific
?part ?f name e. g .. Kia-fu (Shl). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 24,5), c. is Yin
-),d. Is Chou I (mscr. 54), e. IS Chou IT (inscr. 139). The graph has a hand hold-
mg   tablet (?, cf: :± 'ancestral tablet', which has the same top element).
f.-g. b I b JU: I f u cookmg-pot (Sh'i); a measure (Lunyii), g. is Chou IV (inscr. 290
rad. 121 mstead of rad. 167). '
**pjwo I pju: If u axe (Shi'). S. w. a. 101 e. above; i. is pre-Han (inscr. 417).
J-1. pwo I !uo-) P u cloth (Shl); currency (money) (Chm1li); loan for id. spread out
(a. mat) (LIJ;. display (Tso); announce (Tso); disperse (Tso). k. is Chou I (inscr. 91),
1. IS Chou I (mscr. 131 a). The modern graph is distorted so as to obscure the fact that
a. above is phonetic.
m. *p'wo I p'uo- j p'u fear (Chuang).
*pfw.o / pju: I fu honorific second part of personal name, e. g. Ki-fu (Sh'i); name
(LI) (this IS \\r •. a. 102 a. above in its reading); great (ShY); to begin (Chouli). Gls.
464, 678. o: IS Ym bone 8, 4; possibly sense of z. below), p. is pre-Han (inscr. 440,
name), q. ,rs Chou (mscr. 303, The explanation of graph is ven-
obscure. archarc forms, e. g. x., m . below, clearly have Jfj as radical and a. abov-e
as phonetic .. But other e. g. o., p., a'., b.', r'., seem rather to be a drawing of
a plant growmg from a field (the primary form of z. below'?). Something between these
two extremes are forms like q., s'. and z '.
r. *pfwo I p[u: If u c:ried meat (Shi'). - s. id. an auspicious plant (Shuowen, no early
loan for n ·reed (Ch'uts'i). - t. id. embroidered with axe figures (Shl). Gl.
u. *pfwo I p{11, pju:, pfu- If u a kind of ritual vessel (Yili).
v-x. *b'jwo / b'(u: / f boards on sides of carriage (Sh'i); protect, help (Slu);
bones ?f upper Jaw (YI). x. Is Chou II (inscr. 156, name). Gl. 544. - y. id. a measure
(Chouh), cf. f. above.
z-b.' 1. r:uo- I p u vegetable garden (Shi); park (Shi); gardener (Lunyii) ..
Gl. 464. a 0 IS Yrn (mscr. 21), b. is Chou I/II (inscr. 211).
46
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
*pwo j pzw: 1 p u supplement, mend; r.epair (ShY); assist
*pwo 1 pzw 1 p u escape (Shu). - e. eat (Meng); meal m the afternoon (Lii).
*p'wo f p'uo: I p'u river bank (Shi) .
• *p'wo f p'1w I p'u and *p'jwo / p'j1L / f u suffering, exhausted, disabled (Shl). -
h'. id. (both readings) spread out, extensively (Shi); loan for g'. suffer (Shi), harass.
(Shi). Gls. 564, 1037.
i'. *b'wo 1 b'uo- I p u have food in the mouth (Chuang). - j'. id. seize (Tso).
k'. *b'wo f b'uo I p'u a big drinking-bout (only Han time text ex.); loan for *b'wo j b'uo-
/ p u a malevolent and noxious deity (Chouli).
1'-ro'. *b'wo I b'uo I p'u and *b'g'wo I b'i.1t j f u crawl (Shi). m. is Chou I (inscr. 65,
sense of t'.). Gl. 98.
n'. *b'wo I b'uo I p'u rush, reed (Shi); willow (Shi:); loan for r. (Tso). - o'. variant of
the . preceding ( Siin) .
p'-s'. *p'fwo I j f u diffuse, extend, spread out (Yi). r. is Chou II (inscr. 148),
s'. is Chou II (inscr. 180). - t'. id. spread out widely, wide (Shi); extensively (Shu);
arrange (Shi); set forth (Sh1); publish (Shu). Gls. 1037, 1890.
u'. *piwo f pfu-1 fu assist, assistant (Slli'); teacher, instruct (Tso); *b'fwo j b'iu- If 11
attach, apply (Tso); reach to, come to (Sh'i); close to, approach (Tso); loan fort'_
extensively (Shi:, one version). Gl. lOll.
v'. *b'jwo I b'j1t I fu a kind of tree (Lii).
x'. *b'iwo I b'fu- If u money contribution to cost of burying (Tso).
y'-z'. *p'wo I p'uo I p'u name of a fish (inscr. 324). z. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 324).
103 a-f. I mi1t I w u not have (Shi:); not, no (Shi), don't (Slli). b. is Yin bone
(A 6: 21,1), c. is Yin bone (A 3: 20,4), d. is Yin (inscr. 49), e. is Chou I (inscr. 63), f. is
Chou II (inscr. 140). The graph is the primary form of g. below, 'to dance', being a
drawing of a man with dancing plumes in the hands.
g. *mjwo j1nju,; I w u make postures to music, dance (Sh'i); loan for id. upper surface
of a bell (Chouli). -h. variant of the preceding (Chuang). - i. id big house
loan for id. luxuriant (Shu).
j. *miwo j miu: I w u and *xmwo I xuo I h u taken aback, stupefied (Lunyii); loan
for id. great (Sh'i).
k. *nvjwo j1nj1t: I w u jar (Li).
1. *mjwo j mju I w u overgrown with weeds (lVIeng). - m. id. induce, advise (Kuan)_
*xmwo J xno j h u cover (Li); loan for id. great (Shi, one version); arrogant (Li).
o. *xmwo I xuo I h u and * xmfwo I xiu: I h ii and mjwo I mfu I w u big slice of dried
meat (Li); loan for mfwo j rniu: j w u big, important (Shi'); numerous (Shl); rich, beauti-
ful (Shi); cf. i. above. Gl. 580.
p. *p'fwo I p'fu: If u lay the hand on (Li); soothe, pacify (Tso); stabilize (Tso); accomo-
date oneself to (Shu); hold (Li); manage (Shu). Gls. 1685, 1760.
q-r. xrnio I X1'wo: I h ii place name (inscr. 294), a state in the classics called * xio
I xiwo: I h ii. The alternative graphs evidently indicate alternative readings. r. is Chou
III/IV (ins cr. 294 ).
104 a-e. *rnjwo l1niu: I w u martial, military (Sh'i); loan for id. foot-print (Shi); a.
rolled-up cap (Li). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 20,7), c. is Yin (inscr. 32), d. is Chou I (inscr. 75),
e. is Chou I (inscr. 65). The graph has 'foot' and 'dagger-axe'. - f. id. parrot (Li).
g-h. *pfwo I pfu- I fu tax, to tax (Shu); contribution (Tso); give, distribute
loan for id. ballad, to chant (Tso). h. is Chou II (inscr. 180).
47
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BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES

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105 a. *m.jwo I miu I w u magician (Lunyu). The Seal has kung 'work' and 'man'
doubled. - b. id. deceive (Lunyii); slander, accuse falsely (Tso); to err (Li).
106 a. *mjwo I miu I w u not have, not (Yi).
107 a. *rnjwo I I w u do not (Shi); not (Tso); ? I I m o u m o u- t u e i name
of a kind of ritual cap (Li) (sometimes v.Titten with 947 a. instead).
108 a-b. *k1t I I k o u hook, hooked (Li); curved (Shi); *kiu I kiu- I k ii a phrase
(only Han time text examples); loan for u. (Ohouli). b. is Chou II (inscor.l43, name). The
graph has 'mouth' and two hooks gripping each other. Gl. 883.
c. *ku I kgu I k o u hook (SW); belt-hook (Tso); to hook (Tso); elicit (Yi); crooked
(Kuots'e ). GL 843.
d. *klt I ki!,1t: I k o u dog (Tso).- e. id. trap or basket for catching fish (Sh'i). - f-g.
id. wizened face of old age, old (Shi). g. is Chou II (inscr. 133). - h. id. Shuowen
says: a herb (no text); loan for id. carelessly, lightly (Tso); it does not matter (Sh'i);
really (Li), if really, if only (Shi). Gls. 307, 953.
i. * I I k o u the crowing of the pheasant (Shi).
j. *k'u I I k'o u stupid (Ch'uts'i).
k. *k'u I k' '1,71: I k'o u beat (Ohouli).
1. *k'u I I k'o u slit, indentation in garment (Yili).
m. I I h 0 u and I XiJ.1L· I h 0 u revile, insult, disgrace (Tso ).
n. ;(It I Xi/11: I h o u ant (Lu).
o. *kin I kiu: I k ii a kind oftree (Legge etc. say: Hovenia Dulcis) (Shi); *kn I kiJ.1t J k o u
crooked wood (Sun).
p. *kin I kiu I k u grasp, seize (Shu); *k1t I I k o u to cover (Li), receive (Li); loan
for a. 'hooked' above (Sun); *g'ju I g'j1t I k'u c h u- k'u stump of a tree (Chuang).
q. *kin I kju, I k u crooked spine (Chuang).
r-s. *kiu I kju I k u colt, young horse (Sill). s. is Chou II (inscr. 133, name).
t. *g'j1t I g'iu I k'ii toil (ShY); recompense for toil (Li). Gl. 86. - u. id. cord ornating
nose of shoe (Li).- v. id. bent part of a slice of dried meat (Li); loan for id. far (Kuan);
loan for x. (Tso). - x. id. curved exterior part of a yoke, gripping over the neck of
the horse (Tso); loan fort. (Sun).- y. id. name of a bird (Tso, one version); k'ii- to,
name of an insect (Chuang; perhaps: >>what the k'u bird picks>>).
48
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAiVJMATA SERICA RECENSA
---------------------
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a. l.r c. a. l.r a.
2. *k'fu k'fu: I k'ii and k'u I I k'o u dexterous, skilful, fabricate (Yi Chou shu).
*xiu xiu, xiu- I h ii exhale, breathe on (Lao); cry out (Kuots'e); spit out (Chuang).
*Xi.1t J:i'lt: I h ii merry (Lii).
c'. *xi.1t xiu:, xi1t- I h u warm, heat (Li). Gl. 92.
109 a-d. *ku I k?,u- I k o u c hung- k o u inner chamber (Shi; sense: trellis-work?).
Gl. 130. b. is Yin bone (E 77: 1, sense of l. below), c. is Chou (inscr. 383, sense of c.
below), d. is pre-Han (inscr. 413, name). The fundamental sense of this word stem
*ht here seems to be 'intertwine, interlacery, trellis-work, connect, cross', and all the
words a, e, f, g, h, i. are of the same stem. Etymologically the same word is 108 e.
of last group: 'basket for catching fish', being made of interlaced bamboo strips, the
word meaning really 'interlacery'. Our graph here shows such an 'interlacery' fish-
trap. - e. id. second marriage (Yi); favour (Sill). Gl. 362. - f. id. to cross, join
(as weapons in fighting) (Meng). - g. id. fabricate, build (Shu); unite (Yi); come in
contact with (Shl); come in conflict with (Shi:); to plot against (Tso).
h. *ku, I kiJ.lt I k o u drain, irrigation canal (Lunyii); moat {Li). - i. id. bamboo cage
(Ch'uts'I).
j. *kn I k?.u- / k o u come across, meet with (ShY); loan for 112 c. (Shi:, certain versions).
Gl. 242. - k. id. to present, give (Kuots'e). - 1-o. id. meet with (cf. j. above)
(Shu). loan for 112 c. (Shi:, certain versions). Gl. 242. n1. is Yin bone (A l: 2,6), n. is
Yin (inscr. 32), o. is Chou I (inscr. 77).
110 a-c. *k'n I k'gu: I k' o u mouth (Sh'i). b. is Yin bone (0 220, name?) c. is extracted
from the Archaic graph for 575 l. (inscr. 54, Chou I). The graph is a drawing.
d. *k'u ( I k'o u strike (Lunyii); attack, set to work upon (Lunyu).-e. id.
strike lay hold of (Tso).
.f. *k'u, I k'gn: I k'o u beat on some metal object, make a noise (Kuoyu).
111 a-b. *lc'll I k'.,z,u-1 k'o u to rob (Shu); robber (ShY); invader (Tso); bandit (Tso).
b. is Chou II (inscr. 1:32). The graph has 'roof' and 'beat' and 'head'.
112 *g'u I ygu- I h o u sovereign, lord (Sh1); queen (Tso); loan for :fJt (Li).
b. Is Yin bone (lVI 351 ). Explanation of graph uncertain, cf. 972 a.
49
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BULLETIN .OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
c. *g'u J ygu- I h o u hie- h o u carefree and happy (Shi). Gl. 242.
d. *len I k o u filth (Shi). Gl. 130.
e. *lczt lle£u- I k o u to meet (Yi); good (Kuan).
t. *ku 1 kgu: 1 k o u and *lc'1t fle'f!.1t- I k'o u and *xu I 1 h o u revile, disgrace (Tso).
g. *xu I Xg1t:, Xgu- I h o u disgrace, insult (Ta Tai li).
113 a-d. *g'u / J'g1t I h o u target (Shi); (skilled archer, chief:) feudatory prince (Shi);
princely (Shi); loan for id. a particle (Shi); implore (Chouli). Gls. 760, 784, 857. b. is
Yin bone (A 2: 28,2) c. is Yin (inscr. 9), d. is Chou I (inscr. 60). The graph has 'arrow'
and a roof with only one side-wall, cf. 807 f. archery hall.
e. *g'u f ?'i!U· I h o u be on the look-out for, watch (Tso ); receive, escort, attend, wait
upon (Shl).
f. *g'1t I I h o u throat (Shi). -g. id. monkey (Chuang).- h. id. Shuowen says:
root of a feather (no text); loan for i. below (Yili).
i. *g'n I y7u, I h o u arrow with (Shi).
j. *g'11 I yQu I h o u dried food, provisions (Shi:).
114 a-d. *g'1t / ygu: / h o u thick (Shi); ample (Lao); generous (Li). b. is Yin bone
(P 211), c. is Chou I (inscr. 93), d. is Chou II (inscr. 152).
115 a-c. *g'u / ygu: f h o u behind, after (Shl); follow (Tso ); to place after (Lunyii);
descendants (Shi); successor (Tso). b. is Chou I (inscr. 69), c. is Chou I (inscr. 94).
116 a. *f11 j tern: I to u bushel, a measure (Shi); ladle (Shi:); name of a constellation
(Shi); *tj1t (t§j1t: I c h u ladle (Chouli). -b. variant of the preceding: 'ladle' (Li).
118 a-c. *d'1t / d'gu· Ito u a ritual vessel (Shi); loan for id. bean (Li); loan for 116 a.
above (Chouli). b. is Chou II (inscr. 138, name), c. is Chou II (inscr. 147, name).
The graph is a drawing. - d. id. neck (Tso).
e. *d'1t I d'g1l f t'o u head (Tso).
f. *rliu I ifu: /shu robe made of poor cloth (Lie).- g. id. attendant, young man (Tso).
119 a-c. *tsu I I t s o u run, hurry (Shi); go (Yili). b. is Chou I (inscr. 63), c. is
Chou I (inscr. 65). The graph has 'man' and 'walk', or 'man' and 'foot'.
120 a. *lu llg1t-ll o u to leak (Tso); secluded northwestern corner of the house (Shl).
Gl. 956. Shuowen has a >>primary>> form without 'water' at the left (no text).
121 a-c. *g'j1tl g'f:.u- I kii provide, arrange (Tso); to hoard (Shu); implement (Tso);
complete (Shi); loan for d. (Shl). b. is Chou II (inscr. 132), c. is Chou II (inscr. 145).
The graph has 'two hands' and 'cowry'.
d. *kiu f k{:1t I kti both, all, together (Tso).
e. *kjzt I ki1t: I k ti Hovenia dulcis (Li); a kind of tray or stand for dishes (Li).
122 a-b. *k'jn I k'in I k.'ti conceal (Stin); loan for id. class, classify (Lunyii); division
(Shu); area (Huainan); small (Tso); content, happy (Tso); *'1t /'QuI o u conceal (Tso);
loan for id. a measure (Tso); loan for *leu I I k o u crooked (Li). b. is Chou I
(inscr. 67). The graph shows objects stored in a receptacle.
c. *k'iu lle'j1t, k'i11- I k'ti drive (horses) forward (Shi:); gallop, hasten (Tso); drive out,
expel (Tso). - d-f. variant of the preceding (Chouli). e. is Chou II (inscr. 182), f. is
Chou III/IV (inscr. 323). - g. id. body, person (Meng).
50
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMM AT A SERICA RECENSA
j m 0 p r
*k'u J   I k'o u and *k''£1t I k'iu I k'ii pull up (as a dress) (Li).
*'u / o u vomit (Tso); *'u I / o u babble (as a child) (Siin).
*'u / o u beat (Lii).
*''U J / o u to steep, soak (Shl); loan for *'n I f o u sea-gull (Lie).
*'u f'gu, I o u bowl (Sun). - m. £d. sing (1\feng).
*'iu I 'iu: / y ii bend the body (Tso); humpback (Li).
•·ju / 'j11:, 'ju- I y ii to warm with the body (as a mother a child) (Li).
*'iu ( 'iu· I Y ii and *k'j11 I k'fn / k'ii satiated (Sh'i). (written w. Rad. 164 in Ode
164, Han version, Gl. 414).
  I ts'i1t / c h'u piv?t (1;'i), *'u / I o u a kind of thorny elm (Shi) (the dic-
  read c h m this as well, but both Ts'ieyiin and Shiwen read 0 u).
lkt'1u/t'1nl ch'u w1ld cat (Lie). ·
a. *gliu fljzt ll ii drag, trail (Sh'i); loan for *glju fliu: ll ii bind (Kungyang);
connec:t for *gln ll o u empty (Shi); name of a constellation (Li); in
?wme)_.(Tso); for *glnllgu, /lou mound, hillock (Tso). Gls. 289,557 .
ll ..u and *gln flo n bend (Siin), bend the body, hunchbacked (Tso).
/ lJ1l 11 u and *glu / lg11 flo u a sacrifice in the 2nd or 8th month (Hanfei). -
d. td. (both readings) drag away (1\feng).
+<glf:u / liu, lfu: 11 ii and *gln /ZQn flo u a kind of Artemisia (ShY).
*gli-?f ll ti frequently, constantly, to repeat (Shi). Gl. 796.
flzn ll ti k ii- 1 ii hunchbacked (Lie). r
. *gl'J,u flJu: ll ii thread (Meng).
*glu. I 1 o u and *glj11 / li11- ll ti and *lelju I kiu- I k ii a kind of shoe (Chonli).
*glu. 1 lgu: II o u mound (.M:o).
fr*'glu ll o u seYeral-storeyed building (Meng). - I. id. mole-cricket (Chuana);
0
j (Lii; foul-smelling (Chouli; ace. to some comm.: *gln 1 1 o u internal
tr/lu jl?_1t- / 1 o u carve, engrave (Shi:); (carving metal:) hard metal (Shu).
glu / 11 o u skull (Chuang).
*g'liu f g'ju: / k ii straitened, in want (Shi). - p. variant of the preceding (Shi:
ap. Shuowen).
*lclju I kiu- I k ii sandal, shoe (Shi:).
51
i'
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BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEUM OF F'AR E.4.STERN ANTIQUITIES
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r. *slin 1 f s h u number (Yi); degree (Li); rule, norm (Li); method, art (Meng);
some, several (Lunyii); *sljn f f!in: /shu to count, calculate (Shi); (tell the faults of:)
reprimand (Tso). The same character is applied, because of sense affinity, to another
word *.suk 1   f s h u o a number of times, frequently (Lunyii), see 1207 s. below.
124 a-b. *ngi_u I ngiu- I y ii monkey (Li, as part of aN. Fr.); loan for *ngfn / ngiu I Y ii
a kind of fish (Yi Chou shu); loan for i. (Kuan), for o. (Kuan). b. is Chou III (irucr.
237, probably sense of g. below). The original graph must have been a drawing.
c-e. *ngfn 1 ngfu- 1 y ii lodge (Meng); give a place in (Tso ); entrust to (Tso). d. IS
Chou IIII (inscr. 206, name), e. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 332).
f. *ngiu, 1 ngftt I y ii corner or bend of a hill (Meng).- g. id. ignorant, stupid (Lunyii).
h. *ngiu f ngfn· 1 y ii meet with (Shi); loan for g. (Shi, Shu); Gls. 605, 1469.
i. *ngfu f ngfu I y ii angle, corner (Shi); loan for n. counterpart (Shi); Gl. 946.
j, k. ngi11. / ngj7t( y ii and ngu / / o u clavicle (Yili).
1. *ngiu f ngftt 1 y ii and f ng?_n f o u (uneven teeth:) uneven, irregular (sc. spokes
in wheel) (Chou1i).
m. *ngfn f ngfu f y ii and *nginng f ngfwong / y u n g and *ngn I / o u res-pond
in singing (Chuang). . , .
n. *nglt f ng?_u: f o u pair, double (Li); a mate, be a mate to (Shu); match, v1s-a-vJs
(Tso); (the double of a person:) statue (Hnainan); loan for *ngu / ngg'll· I o u lu<"k,
unexpected (Lie). .
o. *ngtt 1 f o u two ploughers working together (Shi); a pmr (Tso).
p. *ngfung / ngftC01l{J I y u n g great (Shi'); dignified (Shi). Gl. 914.
125 a-b. *din f 1.11 f y ii yes, agree (Shu); satisfied, at ease (Chuang); loan for f. (Lii),
for o. (Sun). b. is Chou II (inscr. 172, name). .
c. diu 1 iu- I y ii. understand (Lnnyii); instruct, enlighten (Lunyii); metaphor, instructive
example (.Meng). ..
d-e. *df.11. f fu: f y ii increase, proceed (Sill); all the more (Tso); surpass (Lunyu); con-
valesce (Meng)'; loan for f. (Siin) .. e. is Chou II/III (inscr. 251, Gl. ?30. , ..
f. *diu 1 l71 f y u pleasant, enjoy (Sill); loan for u. negligent g. td .. elm (Sin).
-h. id. change (Shi); loan foro. (Tso).- i. id. a kind of precwus stone (L1).
j. *dj1t 1 ftc f y ii sickness, suffering (Shi); convalesce (Han time ex.).
k. *diu/ in I y ii sheep (Lie); goodness (Tso).
52
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
*diu 1 iu, fn- I y ii look for, desire (Tso ).
*'aiu} ftt- 1 y ii instruct, proclaim (Li); understand (Kuots'e); cf. c. above.
*diu j iu 1 y ii leap or pass over (Shi); transgress (Lunyii). - o. id. transgress (Shu);
pass over to (Shu).
*diu 1 jtl 1 y ii and *d'n I d'gti: / to u pull towards oneself, scoop out (as a mortar)
(Sbi, one version, but probably faulty). Gl. 876. Loan for 1144 m. pheasant (Li); for
126 a. (Chuang).
*diu ·I 1'11 / y ii and I d'iJ.U / t'u opening, small gate (Lunyii).
*diu J fu I y ii and *rl'iu I di'i·u / c h'u snail (Yili). ·
*Siu 1 §ju f shu to transport, convey, contribute (Tso); transmit (Shu); tilt, overturn
(Sbi); (transport away:) squander, exhaust (Tso); to ruin (Ch'unts'iu). Gl. 2070.
t. *d'u I d'ij,U / t'o u a kind of song (Ch'uts'i:).
u. *t'u 1 t'gu I t'o u steal (Kuan); reckless, careless (Li); rude (Tso); mean (Lunyil).-
v. id. to slight, despise (Tso); loan for f. above (Lii).
126 a. *dftt I it< / y ii pull, drag (Chouli); s ii- y ii a short while (Li).
b. *diu 1 f.u: I y u stacks in the field (Shi); a measure of capacity (Lunyii). - c. id. n
measure (Chouli), s. w. a. the preceding. - d. id. a kind of Catalpa tree (Shi).
e. *diu 1 f.u I yii fat on belly (Li); intestines (Li); fat (Kuots'e).- f. id. flatter (:M:t'ng).
.g. *diu I {u: I y ii a measure (Chuang), see b. and c. above.
127 a-d. *tin I tiu- I c h u post or stand on which to suspend musical instruments (inscr.
293). l1. is Yin bone (A 5: 2,7), c. is Yin bone (I 25: 12), d. is Chou IV (inscr. 293). The
graph is a drawing.
e-g. *c/in / if.u- / s h n to stand, be in attendance (inscr. E 172: 4). f. is Yin hone
(E 172:4), g. is Yin bone (A 7: 5,1). In the Yin bone inscriptions, this is the regular
graph corresponding to the later 1M; 'attendant'. Sometimes, as in inser. A 7: 5, 1, instead
of the standing man there is a kneeling woman: servant girl. - h-i. id. raise, put up
so as to stand (only Han time text examples). i. is Chou (inscr. 385, name).
j-1. *tl iu f iiu- Is h u tree (Tso ); *diu/ iiu: / shu to plant (Shi); placed upright
(Shl); establish (Tso). k. is Yin bone (A 2: 7,6), l. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 328).
m. *d'iu / r'l'i1tj c h'u kitchen (1\'Ieng). - n. id. chI-c h'u walk hesitatingly (Hhi).
GI. 116.
*tj1tl t/;f.u. I c h u red (Shi); loan for id. c h n · j u dwarf (Tso). b. i:-; Yin
bone (:B shang 12: 8, name?), c. is Chou I (inscr. 86). The graph shows a 'tree' with the
stem marked by a stroke or a dot: a tree from the stem of which is drawn some red pig-
. ment. - d. id. dwarf (Li).- e. id. pearl (Shu).
f. *tiu I ti,tt I c h u tree root (Yi); tree stem (Hanfei). - id. spider (Kuanyin).
h-j. variant of the preceding (Shuowen). i. is Chou III (inscr. 217, seme of m. below),
j. is Chou III (inscr. 218, sense of m.).
k. *tiu I /iu. / c h u reprove (Lunyii); plmish (Tso), kill (Tso). - 1. jump forward
('_rso). - m-o. id. place name (Tso). n. is Chou IV (inscr. 282), o. is Chou II/IIl
(mscr. 248, rad. 79 instead of 163).
p-q. *t'iu I ts'iu I c h'u beautiful, fine (Shi); compliant (Shi); soft, mild (Chuang).
Gl. 144. q. is Chou II/III (inscr. 248, name).- r. same as a. above (Siin), same asp.
above (Shi ap. Shuowen).
*Cliu I iiu / shu to die, kill (Chuang); cut off (Tso); loan for id. different (Yi); strongly,
very (Sh'i). - t. id. 24th part of an ounce 1 ian g (Li).
*tu I Ito u and? I tfft.1t- I chou beak (Shi:).
53
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BULLETIN OF' THE !JfUSEUM OF F'AR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
!28 -* *- t 1t a. m J% t' 1(
l; c.. d e f 9 h. 1. 1 k L n. 0
%k -}f'- :7$ it-
0
*- L £ yi_ tJ J1 {1 ;ff -t
p T 5 t u a.. c:. cL e f g K i
130 9:
1-Z 737 M ¥
a.. L, C. Ct... lr c d. e f 9 h.. 1. j k
tlfX- * 15l *1 J!
l Tn n o p '! a. lr C. d. e f h.
129 a. I tditt: I c h 11 master, lord, host (Shi:); princess (Kuoyii); ancestral. tablet
(Chouli); govern (Li); principal, count as principal (Lunyli). Shuowen says: the wick
of a lamp, taking it to be the primary form of a word :!'.±, which, however, is known
only from Han time. Possibly the graph is a drawing of an ancestral tablet on a stand
(? , of. 102 a-d).
b. tjzt, I t§fn- I c h u net (Kuoyli).
c. tilt I tsiu- I c h u and *tin I tf:n-1 c h u to conduct water (Sh!); be led to, flmv to (Shi);
to apply (Tso); be touched by (Chuang); bring together (Chouli); loan for 128 11. above
(Chouli). - d. id. (both readings) to record (Kuliang).
e. *ti·zt I tin: I c h u to prop up, to support (Kuots'e).
f. *ti1t I I c h u mineral (Kuan).
g. *d'in I d'jlt-1 c h u to stop (Lie).
h. *d'jl£ I r'l'jzt: I c h u pillar (Yili), a stay (Li).
i. *t'n ( t'   I t'o u yellow (Kuliang).
130 a-b. *diu I iiu Ish u baton, a kind of lance (Shi). b. is Chou II (inscr. 136). The
graph shows a hand holding a baton.
c. I I t'o u to throw (Shu); to throw to, to present (Shi); throw out, eject (Shi);
to reject, relegate (Li); Gl. 600.
131 a-d. *ts'j1t I ts'f:7t: I t s'li an *ts'u I ts'gu: It s'o u take (Shi:); *ts'in ( t s'ii
take wife (Shi). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 9,7), c. is Yin bone (A 4: 26,1), d. is Chou II (inscr.
180). The graph has 'hand' and 'ear'.
e-f. *ts'i_1t I ts'iu- It s'ii take wife (Meng). f. is Yin bone (D 7).
g-h. *ts'j7( ( ts'iu- j t s'ii hasten to (Shi); *ts'1t ( ts';!.7t: It s'o u (cause to run:)
t s'o u. m a manager of horseR (Shi). Because of this sense 'urge on to run' it is also
loan for 1219 d. ill: (Li). h. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 308, sense of a. above).
1
i. *tsf7t I Its ii part of name of a constellation (Tso).- j. id. enquire, consult (Shi).
k. *dz'in I dz'izt:, dz'jn- Its i.i collect, bring together (Yi), store (Tso).
I. *tsu I tsr_1t ( t sou and *tsjn I tsi1t Its ii angle, corner (Kuots'e); loan for id. :P e i-
t sou uneasy (Chuang).
m. *tsu I fs?_n I t sou and *tsf:7t I tsftt Its i.i and? I t?ig·u: ( t sou beat night watches
(Tso).
54
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMAT A SERICA RECENSA
n. *tsu I ts?J,lt ( t so n and I tsfu. Its ii and? I i?fr.u Its o u dark-brown (Lunyli).
(), *su I .sgu: Is o u grassy marshland (Li).
p. ? I ( t sou hemp stalk (Yili); good arrow (Tso). The same graph also serves as
composite ideogram ('take' and 'grass') in: *dz'wdn ( dz'uan ( t s'u an gather wood
(Li).
q. ? I d?'ig1l- I t so u fast-running (sc. horse) (Shi); quickly, suddenly (Tso); loan for id.
:repeated!)' (Tso ). The Anc. Chin. final regularly goes back to Arch. *-fog, and it
is difficult to explain these h i e s h eng words ( m, n, p, q) where *fu: *i6g alternate in
this series, as also in the next. r
132 a-b. f?'iu / lif'f7t, ( c h'u grass for fuel or forage (Shi). b. is Yin bone (A 7: 32,4).
The Yin time graph has 'hand' and 'grass'. - c. id. hasten, run to (Shl); strive for aim
(.M:eng); loan for 1219 d. (Li). Cf. 131 g. above. '
d. d?'in I d(jtt I c b'u chicken, young bird (Li); young of animals generally (Li). -
e. id. y ii an- c h'u name of a bird resembling a pheasant (Chuang).
f. ? / / t sou crinkle, crape (Shi). Gl. 134.
g. ? ( I t sou groom (Shi); ? I d-?'fil.u- ( t sou to run (Li). Gl. 63.
h. ? ! ( t sou teeth shutting against each other (Siin).
For the words with Anc. Chin. ifi.7t see what was said under group 131.
133 a-c. *sin I siu / s ii (Yi); loan for id. wait (Sh!); what is needed, necessary,
to exact (Shu); supply, a1d (L1); s ii · y i.i a short while (Li). Gl. 1984. b. is Chou (inscr.
sense of f. below), c. is Chou (inscr. 352, sense of f.). The graph is a drawing. -
d. td. (.Tso ); enlarged form of last. - e. id. elder sister (Ch'uts'i).
f-:b.. I 8f1t: Is ii (Ts'ieyiin and a. _reading ?iwo, but Ts'ieylin as quoted
Sung ed. of the Shuowen has 8f7t; th1s IS obvwusly the correct reading) a kiml of
rttual vessel (inscr. 142). g. is Chou II (inscr. 142), h. is Chou II (inscr. 178).
134 a. *sn[l£ I sfu Is ii tarry (Tso); wait (Chuang). By confusion of this char. and the
238, a. below, our a. here is loan for *tiiwan 1 Jiif:wtin: ( j u an supple
(Ohouh), *nwan ( mtan: ( n u an weak (Chouli), cf. e. below.
b. *miu I sitt Is u and *1ii_u I nif.7t ! j u frayed silk (Yi).
c. *llf..u ( 1/iiu I j u scholar, litteratus (Li); dwarf (Li); loan for c. (Sun).
d. *n1u ( 1/ii.n- ( j u child (Shu); (weak=) mild (Shi). Gl. 415.
e. *1ii.u I·Jti{n I j u weak, timid (Siin). By the same confusion with a similar phonetic
a. above) loan for *1iiwan 1 niiwan: 1 i u an and *nwan; nuan- ; n u a. n and
nwar ( wua- (no weak, timid (Tso).
55
if
1
':. '
' ' ,,
'
'li
I
jl
I;·
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
f. *1/iu I 1iiiu I j u moisten (Shi); soak (Tso); wet, glossy (Sbi:); loan for id. to stop (l\Ieng),
to tarry (Chuang); loan for 238 h. below (Li), for 982 e. below (Li), because of form simi-
larity of the phonetics. - g. variant of the preceding (Chuang).
h. *n:fiu I I j u pliant, soft (Sun); ? I nau, ndu- In a o shoulder, upper part of front
leg (of animal) (Yili); loan for 982 c. (Ch'uts''i).
i. *ni1t I 1iiju I j u jacket (Tso); loan for b. (Chouli).
j. *ki1t I 1tiju, 1iiju: I j u strong (sc. spirits) (Shi). Compare this group with group 238
below.
135 a. *Mn I nif_n: I j u nipple (Chouli); milk, suckle (Tso ); hatch (Li), rear, breed (Lii),
136 a-b. *pfu I pju- I f u give (Shu); loan for j. below (Chouli). b. is Chou II (inscr. 132).
The graph has 'man' and 'hand'.
c. *pin I pfu: If u repository (Chouli); treasury (Lunyu); magazine, arsenal (Tso);
accumulate (Shu). -...
d. *pj1t I pfu If u a raft, a float (Kuan); *b'izt I b'j1t: If u and *b'u I b'gu: I p o u a
board on which body lies in coffin (Tso); loan for f. (Chouli), fork. (Yili).
e. *pin I pfu I f u instep (Yili); calyx of a flower (Kuan).
f. *p'ju I *p'fu: If u the part of a bow where it is grasped (Li). -g. id. lay the hand
on, pat, comfort (Sh!); strike (Shu); a kind of drum (Shu); handle (Li). Gl. 1340.
h. *p'fu I p'jzt If u raft, float (Kuoyii), cf. d. above.
i. *b'jn I b'iu- If u add to, increase (Lii). - j. id. adjoin a recently dead person in the
sacrifices to an earlier generation (Tso ); adjoin a dead person in the same grave as
another, bury two together (Li).- k. id. to lean on (Yi); adhere to, to stick (Shi); be
added to, adjoin (Shi:); add to (Lunyii); loan for j. (Li). Gl. 722. - 1. id. additional
horse (Hanfei).
m. *b'fu I b'fu I f u a tally (Chouli).
n. *b'f_1t b'fu: I f u rotten, putrid (Li).
o. *b'fu   fu intestines (Han time ex.); *pin I pin I fu foot (Kuots'e).
p. *b'fu b'i:1t- I fu scales under belly of serpent (Chuang). - q. z:d. perch (Yili).
r. *pf:n pfzL: If u bend the head, bend down (Tso).
137 a. *b'jlt I b'fu If u wild duck (Sh!). The Seal has 'bird' and two legs.
138 a-b. *miu I mizt: I wu despise (Shu); insult (J\feng); disgrace (Shu).
139 a-b. *krin I kdn I k an shield (Shi:); knock against, violate (Tso); seek, obtain
(Sill); loan for id. pole (Shi:); river bank (Sh!); valley-stream (Sill); piece, item (Li) for q.
(Shi). Gls. 27, 160. b. is Chou II (inscr. 180). The graph was a drawing.
c. *kan I krin I k an, ki en treacherous (Tso); disobey (Tso); violate (Tso). 1\Iand.
k i en is irregular (due to confusion with 184 below); Anc. krin should always give
k an. - d. variant of the preceding (Kuots'e).
e. *kdn I kan I k an variant of a. in the sense of 'violate' (Kuoyii).
f. * kan I kdn- I k a n sunset, dusk, evening (Tso ).
g. *kdn I krln I k a n a kind of precious stone (Shu).
h. *kdn I krln: I k an black in the face (Lie).
i. *kdn I krin I k an vermilion (Sun).
j. *kan I krin: I k an straw of grain (Tso).
k. *kdn I kan I k a n bamboo pole, rod (Shi:), slip of bamboo, (for writing) (Chuang). -I.
id. liver (Li).
56
DERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERIGA REGEN SA
13'1 f Y -ff '\'f at ;f &.t ¥ llt if-
a.. l.r c de f 3 h 1 j k l mn 0
1ft :ff -f 1t 1r }t r:r1 .%t it !f
t u. V X !J z. a.'
!.,' C.l d_l e./ f I
fA tt
ff r! tt
h.'
d . I
1. j
a [,. c. d.. e f 5 h. i j k
1411)L 't !4i. t
!r c. d
*krin 1 kdn 1 k an and *kjan I kivn I k i en thick gruel of rice (Chuang); character
also used for the synonymous Hf (Meng).
*k'an 1 k'an 1 k'a n cut (Shu). Gl. 1314. - o. variant of the preceding (Shu ap.
Shuowen).
*k'an 1 k'an-1 k'a n rejoice (Shi).
, *g'rin 1 yan- I han to ward off (Li); protect, guard (Shu). r. is Chou II (inscr. 176).
*g'dn I yrin: I han drought, dry (Shi).
*g'an I yrin- I han sweat (Yi). . .
*g'an 1 yan 1 han earth-worm (Chuang). - v-x. td. place name (Tso). x. Is Chou
III (inscr. 237, probably sense of q.).
y. *g'dn 1 yrln- 1 han archer's arm-cover, cuff (Kuan); loan for id. and *krin I kdn I k an
brisk, quick (Chuang).
z-a'. *g'an 1 yrin- 1 han gate (Tso ). a'. is Chou II (inscr. 180). - b'. id. to bolt (as a
horse) (Hanfei).
c'. *ngdn 1 ngrln-1 an prison (Siin).- d'. id. wild dog (Li); loan for c'. (Siin).- e'.
irl. bank of a river (Shi); loan for c'. above (Shi). Gl. 833.
*xa.n I xan: I han net (only Han time text ex.); loan for id. rare (Shl) .
. *xiiin j xivn I hie n carriage with an upwards-curved pole (Tso); rising tall (Shl);
loan for irl. thin slice of meat (Li).
• *r!'rin I yan- I han violent (Siin). - i'. id. ward off (Li); arm protection (Li}
(s. w. as q.); loan for id. quick, agile (Chuang, cf. y. above).
'. *g'1van I ywan: f h u an protruding eyes (Tso).
*kd.n I kdn-1 k an Shuowen says: sunrise (no text). b. is Chou III (inseT.
220, sense of h. below).
c. *kdn I krin / k an dry (Shi); *g'ian I g'fiin I k'i en heaven, heavenly (Yi).
d. *kdn,/ krin- / k an stem (Tso); framework, skeleton (Tso); body, substance (Yi);
loan for id. occupations, duties (Shu); carry out, perform (Yi); well-curb (Chuang). -
Ul. posts in framework used in rearing earth walls (Shu); (to support:) to correct (Shl);
a kind of tree (Shu). Etym. s. w. as the preceding, and the two are often interchanged.
*g'rln I ydn-1 han pheasant feather (Yi Chou shu ap. Shuowen); wing, to fly
(Sill); loan for id. high (Yi); drawn-out (sound) (Li); white (Yi); prop up, support (Shl);
Qrnaments on sides of coffin (Tso). g. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 331).
57
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li'
BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
143 ® f ! {_ t t{/44 a{ xl 14) r
a. lr c d_ e f S h_ i_ a.. lr c. o..
I 11c :f f11 rf1 147 ¥ ¥ ¥
lr :::.. lr C. cL e f :J h. i. a. lr c. cL
1Sf1 :W. 1ifl
e f '3 h. i i k L 1n n o r -r s t
1f. 11] .t5f li
ll \T J'.. 1j Z. Q./ Cl d._ I f I '.3 I hI

h-i. *g'an fydn /han place name (Shi). - j. id. 11 bird with variegated feathers
(Yi Chou shu, cf. f. above).
k. *kan /lean: I kan slender bamboo (Lie).
1. / kuan: J k u an (s. w. a. 157 j. below, hence the reading) wheel-axle cap
(Ch'uts '!); later applied to a word ·uat f w o 'turn round' (only Han time text ex.).
m. *g'wdn yndn: I h u an wash (Shl).
141 a-c. *lc'dn / k'an;, k'an- / k'a n straight-forward (so Shuowen; others: id. w. l39p.
pleased) (Lunyii). b. is Chou II (inscr. 197), c. is Chou IIIJIV (inscr. 316).
.d. *k'ian / k'jiin- / k'i en fault (Li).
142 a. *k'dn / k'dn, k'dn-/ k'a n to see (Hanfei). The Seal has 'eye' and 'hand'.
143 a-c. *g'rin / ydn /han cold (Shi:); b. is Chou II (inscr. 139, name), c. is Chou
II/III (inscr. 245, name). The graph shows a 'roof', a 'man' and 'herbs' doubled (fuel?
1Jadding for the in the first form also two strokes marking the floor (mats?).
.d. *kfan / kjiin: / k'i en take, pluck (Ch'uts'i). The Pek. k'i en is irregular, we should
expect a k i en.
e *kfan / kfiin: j k i en speak frankly, loyally (Ch'uts'i); speak with difficulty (Ch'uts'I).
f, *kfan I k[tin: / k i en and *kfiin / kjvn: / k i en lame (Chuang); loan for id. difficulty
(Yi); high (Ch'uts'i); arrogant (Tso); pull U})P (Kuan); a particle (Ch'uts'1); loan for
g. tuck up (Chuang).
g. *!..-'jan I k'jiin / k'i en trousers (Tso); tuck up the skirts (Shi').
h. *k'ian I k'jiin / k'i en defective, fault (Shi:).
i. *l.·fan / kian: / k i en and *kfdn f kfvn: / k i en lift (Chuang).
144 a. *xdn I xan:, ;r,dn-1 han scorch (Shi:). GI. 202. The Seal has 'sun' and 'distress'.,
b. *xdn / xrin: /han dry (Yi), burn (Kuan); 1/ian I {t.ijan: f jan respectful (Shi')
(then loan for 152 h below). GI. 664. ·
-c. *zan I xan- I h a n name of a river (Shi'); phonetic here contracted.
145 a-b. *xan I xan-1 han cliff (inscr. 147). b. is Chou II (inscr. 147). The graph
is a drawing.
58
BERNHARD J{ARLGREN: GRAi}iMATA SERICA RECENSA
46
*'an 1 ·an j an peace, peaceful, tranquil (Sh'i); loan for id. how (Sh1); where,
1
b. is Yin bone (G 10:17), c. is Chou I (inscr. 91). The graph has 'roof'
d
' ,
(house) an woman. , ,_ . . .
d. *'an 1 ·
1
in- 1 an repress (ShY); arrange C?h uts 1); (L1); loan td.
(Siin). _e. id. \Chouli)! tray loan for td. lay hand on, setze (Sun); hm1t,
frontier (Kuoyii); 1111tial par:tiCle ,(Sun). .. *' .
f *'an ;·an-/yen and *'an/ ·an- /an late (Lunyu); loan for an/ an- I yen
• bright (Shl); pleasant (Shl); for *'an/ ·an- I yen and *'ian/ 'ien- /yen peace, rest
(Li)· peaceful, mild (Shu). Gl. 1208.
g.   1 ·an- j yen name of a bird (Lu).
b *.at ; ·at 1 o root of the nose (Meng).
t.' *'an l'an-/ yen name of a bird (Li, see g. above).
147 a-d. *tan f tan/ tan ample (Shl); exhaust (Li); carry to the utmost
(Tso); single, simple (Li); a u_nit (Shu). Gls. 423, 905. ?· IS bone
·(A 7: 26,4, sense here uncertam), c. IS Ym bone (D 5, sense d. 1s Chou
II (inscr. 162, name). The graph may be a for z. c1cada below.
e. *tan 1 tan: f tan ample (Shi:); loan for n. (Chouh). GI. 423. . .
f. *tdn j trin f tan box containing ancestral tablets (Chouh). - g .. td. exi_Iaust
(Chuang). - h. id. (Lunyii). - i. id. :mlined (cf. a. 'simple, smgle'
above) (Li). - j-k. td. place name (Tso). k. 1s Chou (mscr. 373).
1. *tan j tdn: 1 t a n and *taT f Ui- I t o disease, suffering, distress (Shi); thick
m. *t'dn 1 t'rin 1 t'a n exhausted, fagged out (Shl); loan for id. numerous (Shi:); *t'1an /
t'Miin: 1 c h'an slow, drawn-out, easy-going (Li). Gls. 402, 1017.
n. *d'dn f d'an f t'a n shoot pellets at (Tso); beat (Ch'uts'i'); play on stringed instrument
(Li); shake (Chouli); *d'dn j d'dn- /tan pellet (Kuots'e).
Q, *d'dn j d'an- 1 tan to fear, dislike (Shl); *tdt I td- f to toiled, exhausted (Shi) .
Gl. 998.
p-q. *t'i1n f l'ttn f c h'an bite (no early text example). q. is pre-Han (inscr. 416, name).
r.. *tian t!;iiin- chan battle, to fight (Lunyu); to fear (Shi).
s. *tfan c han a kind of tree (Li); *dian / zian- / shan coffin (Chuang).
t. *tra-n tsian: chan and *t'ian f tS'ian: I c h'a n to heat (Tso); to flame (Kuoyii).
11. *t'ian ts'ian: j c h'a n slow (Shi). Gl. 439. - v. id. (slack:) indulgent, generous
(Lao). - x. id. to open up, make clear, e}l..-plain (Yi).
y. *dian I iiiin j c h'a n captivating (Ch'uts'i); attached (Ch'uts'i); affinited, relatives
(Ch'uts'l). - z. id. cicada (Li).
.a'. *r'tian / iian: I s han levelled area (Shi:).
b'. *rlian f ifiin- / s han relinquish, cede, hand over to another (Meng).
c'. *tiar j tsifi., j c h 'i a kind of ritual vessel, cup (Li).
.d'. *d'ar j d'd f t'o and *d'dn 1 d'dn I t'a n and *tian / tien f tie n bluish-black hor8c
with white spots (Shl).
.e'-g'. *d'dr j d'd f t'o and *d'dn I d'an f t'a n alligator (Sh'i). f. is Yin bone (B hia
33: ll), g. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 295). - h'. variant of the preceding (Lu).
148 a. *tim 1 tdn: j tan sincere (Shi:); truly (Shi'); loan for g. to bare (Chuang); for
147 g. exhaust (Shu). GI. 1891. - b. id. suffering, distress (Li).
.c. *t'rin J t'dn: 1 t'a n easy-going (Chuang); *(lfan f :iian I c h'a n, shan irresolute
(Ch'uts'!).
.d. *d'dn / d'dn j t'a n altar (Shu); loan for 147 a'. above (Li). - e. id. a kind of tree
(Shi). Gl. 439.
59
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l''i
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f. *d'dn I d'6.n- It an let loose, free of care (Chuang).
g .. *d'iin /. cl'dn: It_ a n to bare (the body, esp. arms and 'J;?reast) (Shi); *tian j tfan: 1 c h an
smgle, simple (L1); to bare, leave open (Li); *tjan j tfan- j chan bare, undecorated
(robe) (Li).
h. *tfan / }ilin: I c h an and *tian j tS'fiin: I c h an pellicle (Li).
i. *tf:an / tfan / chan move with difficulty (Yi); *d' ian I cl'fan: I c h an turn round
(Ch'uts'i).
j. *t{an, lian j chan name of a fish (Shi).
k. *t t8f0n I c h a n a kind of flag, banner (Chouli). - I. id. felt (Chouli).
m. ts1iin, tSian: I c han gruel, thick congee (Tso).
n. *t !U1L tsjiin I c h a n a kind of hawk or falcon (Tso ).
o. *ajrLn ifiin- /shan act on one's own authority, autocratic, high.handedly, presume
(Tso).
p. *afan I iian: Ish an earth-worm (Siin).
q. *§1'an I sf/in Ish an smell of sheep, rancid (Li). - r. variant of the preceding
(Lie). - s. id. keen sense of smell (Chuang).
149 a-b. *tdn I tan-/tan dawn, morning (Shi:); bright (Shi); loan for id. painfully,
intensily (Shi'). Gls. 186, 305. b. is Chou II (inscr. 135). The graph is said to
the sun rising.
c. *tan I tan. It an name of a bird (Lii).
d. *t'an I t'an: j t'a n level (Yi); at ease (Lunyii).
e. *d'dn I d'dn: It an only (Ch'uts'I). -f. id. to bare (the body, esp. arms and breast)·
(Tso), s. w. a. 148 g. above. Pek. t'a n here is irregular, we should expect a tan ..
g. *tr1t I tat It a grieved (Shi:).
15.0 a_-b. *tan I tan /tan vermilion, red (Shi). b. is Chou I (inscr. 92). The grarJh, 1
by a dot or a stroke the contents of a square receptacle.
c. / tsfiin I c han a kind of flag (Shi'); loan for icl. him, her, it (Shi:); final particle,
(Shi:).
151 a. *t'an I t'iin- / t'a n coal, charcoal (Li); lime (Tso). The Seal has 'mountain',
'cliff' and 'fire'.
60
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA,

a-b. *t'nan 1 t'dn, t'an-j t'a n to sigh (Shi). b. is Chou (inscr. 377, name). The
graph 'mouth' and 'distress' (see 480 below). - c. variant of the preceding (Shi:);
rad 76 mstead of 30. .
·*nan 1 niin 1 nan difficult (Shi); difficult to obtain, rare (Shi:); *nan I nan- j
a
11
difficulty, calamity (Shi); to balk, keep away (Shu); loan for k. expel (Li); for k.
:mple (Shi'); for h. *nian. respectful (Shi). Gls: 188, 693, 1149, 1278. e. is Chou
(inscr. 300), f. is .Chou (mscr. of, c .. has left for b1rd,
the role of which IS obscure. *t nan to s1gh and *nan difficulty, calanuty are cognate
words; our *ndn here is again phonetic in a t'dn (*t'niin), m. below. - g. variant of
the preceding (Shuowen).
*nan 1 nan: 1 nan and *ltian I riiian: I i an to fear (Shi:).
. *
1
iian j1liian I j an burn (variant of j. is Chou III (inscr. 230, name).
*ndr 1 nd 1 no expel demons and noxious influences (Lunyii) (same as d. above);
*ndr j nd, nd: j o rich, fine (S?I). Gl. 188. . . . .
*niJr 1 niei I n 1 and *nar / na I n o pickled meat with bones m It (Chouh).
*t'ndn 1 t'dn j t'a n foreshore (Shi: ap. Shuowen and Han time ex.). Gl. 202.
:153 a-b. *t.sdn I tsdn- It san assist (Shu); to manifest (Yi). Gl. 1312. - c. id.
praise, approve of (Lie).
.d-e. *dz'dn j dz' dn: I t san jade of inferior quality, in part looking like stone (Chouli);
jade libation ladle (Shi).
:f. *tswan j tsuan: j t s u an continue (Shi:); succeed (Shu). Gl. 777. - g. icl. group of
100 families (Chouli).
h-i. *tswan j tsuan I t sua n to bore, perforate (Chuang); penetrate (Lunyii).
j-k. *dz'wdn I dz'uan j t s'u an bundles of rods (Li).
], *dz'w'ln 1 dz'wan- j t sua n collect (onlu Han time text examples); loan for h. (Li).
154 a. *dz'dn I dz'iin It s'a n Shuowen says: bore through (no text).
b. *ts'dn j ts'an- It s'an fine grain, food (Shi); bright, splendid (Shi); beauty-triad (Shi);
(showing white teeth:) laugh (Kuliang). Gl. 224.
·C. *t8'dn j ts'dn j t s'a n eat (Shi); food (Kuots'e); meal (Chuang).
155 a-b. *clz'an I dz'dn I t s'a n damage, nocuous (Shu, lost cha})ter ap. Shuowen);
*dz'ian j dz'ien I t s'i e n accumulated (Yi). b. is Yin bone (A 6: 38,4, sense here un-
certain). The graph has 'dagger-axe' doubled; is it the primary graph of c. below?
·C. *dz'6.n j dz'dn j t s'a n kill (Chouli); cruel (Shi:); vicious (Lunyii); damage, hurt (Kuots'e);
oppress (l\feng); fragment, remainder (Lii).
.d. *dz'an I d.f'an:, d.p'an- I chan and *dz't'in I d:;' iin: I chan shed made of inter-
twined branches (Chuang); carriage box made of bamboo or wood (Shi); hearse (Yili).
-e. *tstin j j chan jade cup (Li). - f-g. id. cup (inscr. 231). g. is Chon III (inscr.
231).
:b. *tsan I
i. *ts' an 1 t9' an:
j. *tsian I tsfan:
(Kuoyii).
chan and I / chan cup (Li); half-elarified spirits (Li).
c h'a n to plane (Kuots'e). Gl. 46.
t s i en hoe, weeder (Shi:); *dz'jan I dz'iJin I t s'i en coin, money
:k. *18' ian I ts'jan: j t s'i en shallow (Shi:); short.lmired (so. fell) (Shi:); *tsian I tsien I
t s i en to flow rapidly (Ch'uts'i:).
I. *dz'jan I dz'jdn: Its i en shallow (Shi:); unmailed (sc. horse) (Sh'i). Gl. 313.
m. *dz'fan j dz'jan:, dz'ian- j t s i en (>>shallow•> words =) insincere, artful (Kuoyii,
Shu in the Kung-yang version). Gl. 2109.
n. *dz'fan I dz'jiin- j t s i en cheap (Tso); low, mean (Lunyii).
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BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
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o. *dz'ian I dz'ian: I t s i en tread, trample (Shi); to walk along, follow (Li); loan fo
id. (shallow =) low (Shi); loan for p. present of food (Shi'). Gl. 233.
p. *dz'ian I dz'ian:, dz'fiin- Its i en give a farewell feast (Shi); say goodbye to (Shu).
Gl. 1223.
q. I dz'fan: I t s i en and *tsian I tsfJin I t s i en narrow (Chouli).
r. *sjan I s'fiin- Is i en thread (Kungyang).
s. *tsfan I tsfan- I t s i en and *tsian I tsien I t s i en gush forth (Kuots'e ).
156a-b. Jsan:, sdn- I san disperse (Shl); undisciplined (Sun); useless (Chuang);
loan for *san I sdm- Is an a kind of ritual vessel (Yili). b. is Chou II (inscr. 147, name).
c. *san I I shan and *si'in I Ish an tears flowing (Sill).
d. *sian I sien- I s i en sleet (Sill).
157 a-d. *kwan I kudn I k u an official's residence, office (Li); office, public char(fe
(Tso); official, officer (Lunyti); function, to function (Li). b. is Yin bone (B hia 4: 6),
c. is Chou I (inscr. 78), d. is Chou I (inscr. 99).
e. *kwdn / kuan I k u an inner coffin (Tso); *kwan I kudn- I k u an put in coffin (Li).
f. *kwdn I kuiin- I k u an to bubble (Siin).
g. *kwdn I kudn: I k u an fatigue, exhausted (Shi:). -h. id. tube (Shl); flute (Shl);
key (Li); take care of, manage (Li); connect, comprise (Li); loan for id. helpless, without
anything to rely on (Shi; really loan for g.). Gl. 923. - i. variant of the precedinrr
(Ta Tai li).
0
j. *kwan I kuan:, kuiin- I k u an w·heel-axle cap (Uili).
k. *kwdn I kudn- I k u an lodging-house, hostelry (ShY); to lodge (Shl).
I. *kwdn I kudn I k u an and *kwnn j kwan-1 k u an servant, groom (Shi).
m. *g'wdn I yurin- I h u an escape, avoid (Li).
n. *kan I kan j k i en a kind of white-flowered rush (used for ropes etc.) (Sill); pale
1
(Kuan).
158 *ktDdn j k7a1n- I knan (Shi ap. Shuowen). b. is Yin bone (A6: 14,1)'
c. IS Ym bone (A 4: 43,±, sense of i. below), d. is Chou I (inscr. 76, sense of i. or j. below?)·
The graph is a drawing. - e. id. variant of the preceding (ShY). - f. id. to pour out
(Lunyti); to drip, fall in drops (Chuang); loan for id. dense, crowded (Sh!); loan for m.
62
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
. Gls. 6, 027.- g. id. to draw fire, make fire (Chouli).- h. id. a kind of jade
1 kudn 1 k u an see, look, regard (Shi); *kwdn I kudn- j k u an cause to see,
(Chouli); aspect, scene (Kuan); a sight (Shi); look-out tower (Tso); embellish one-
(Li). Gl. 732.
I zudn I h u an (Tso). - k. variant of the preceding (Hiaoking).
1. variant of the precedmg (Meng).
*xwcin 1 xudn- I h u an cry out (Sun). GL 927.
* 1 xuan I h u an and *xfwitn I xiwvn I h u an shout (Li); joyous (Li).
•-••A'""' 1 g'fwiin I k'ii an weight of a steelyard, to weigh (Lunyii); the balance of
exigencies of time (Shu); power (Kuots'e); k'ti an-y ti (to sprout =)
(Shi). GL 328.- p. id. an insect which eats the leaves of melon plants
ot.v•.l"..     - q-r. id. Shuowen says: walk ·with bent body (no text); r. is Chou
(inscr. 271, name).
*k'fwan I k'iwvn- I k'ii an exhort (Shu); encourage (Lunyti).
a-b. *kwdn I kudn, kndn- I k u an perforate (Tso); go through the centre of (Sh'i);
a string through, to string (Li); tightly bound together with, intimate with (Shi);
serve (Shi); *kwan I kwan- I k u an be familiar with, practise, used to (Meng);
(Lunyti). b. is Chon I (inscr. 57). The graph shows a string passed through cowries.
1 kwan- I k nan familiar with, used to (Tso ap. Shuowen). - d. vulgar form
the preceding.
*kwan 1 kwan- I k nan custom (Shi); usage (Shi). This is really a corrupted form
a. above (cowries strung together), and the word is etymologically identical with
in its second reading. Gl. 824.
*r/wan I ywan- I h nan calamity (Shi); distress (Tso); grief, anxious (Lunyii).
a. *kwdn I kudn I k u an cap (Shi); * kwan I kuan- j k n a n put on a cap (Li).
e Seal has 'covering', 'head' and 'hand'.
a-c. *kwrin I kuan:, kuan- I k u an wash the hands (Shu). b. is Yin bone (A 6: 42,1),
is Chou III/IV (inscr. 299). The graph has 'vessel', 'water' and 'hand' (b.) or 'hands'
(o.).
a. *k'wdn I I k'u an sincere, staunch (Ch'uts'i); empty (Chuang); to knock,
rap (Lii). - b. id. hole, opening (Chuang).
a. *g'wan I yudn I wan pellet (Tso); ball (Chuang); loan for 164 f. pillar (Shi).
1206. The Mand. wan is irregular, we should expect a h u an.
*g'wdn lyudn- I h u an ulcer (Chuang).
*g'wan fyudn I h u an thin white silk stuff (Kuots'e). - d. id. 1\'Ietaplexis (ShY).
*'iwar / 'jwirt: I we i bent (Lie).
. a:-e. The sense of thiR element is not known through any text examples. Its read-
:mg IS not recorded in Ts 'ieyiin or Kuangyiin. Tsi yiin and the Sung editors of the Shuowen
rea.d it sfwiin, thus taking it to be the primary form of t. below. But more probable
seems to me that it was the primary form of f. *g'u·dn in its sense of 'to turn round'.
is Yin bone (A 1: 53, 1), c. is Yin bone (W 4: 30,4), d. is Yin bone (A 7: 12,1), e. is Yin1
bone (A 7: 13, 1) - all in the sense of name.
*(f'wan / yudn I h u an pillar (Li); martial-looking (Sh'i); loan for id. turn round.
back, hesitate (Yi). Gl. 1188. - g-i. id. name of a river (Tso); big flow of
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BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES

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water (Shi:, Han version). Gl. 243. h. is Yin bone (B hia 3: 11, sense here uncertain),
i. is Chou III (inscr. 234, name). - j. id. martial (Shu ap. Shuowen, cf. f. above). -
k. id. a kind of violet (Li).
1. *zwrin 1 xzuin 1 h u an and *g'wrin 1 ruan 1 h u an and *xi.wan 1 xi.wvn I h u an
badger (Shi).
m. *gjwiin J fiwvn I y ii an wall (Shi).
n-p. *gf.wan I fiwvn J y ii an Shuowen says: to change fields (no text). o. is Yin bone
(A 2: 8,4, name, rad. 77 inst. of 156), p. is Chou II (inscr. 157, sense of f. above as name).
q. *xiwan I xiwvn: J h ii an brilliant, illustrious (ShY). Gl. 154. - r. id. to dry in the
sun (Yi ap. Shuowen).
s. *xiwan 1 xiwvn, xiwvn: 1 h u an to sun, to dry in the sun (Yi); xi.wdr I I
h u e i sunlight (Ohouli). Gl. 154.
t-v. *siwan I sfwan I s ti an spread, diffuse, everywhere-reaching, all-embracing (Shi);
dissipate (Tso); to clear (a channel) (Tso); proclaim, display (Shi); (displayful =)boast-
ful (Shi:); comprehensive understanding (Shi); loan for id. a cubit (Shi'); whitening
hair (Yi ap. Shi:wen); for m. (Shl). Gls. 479, 765, 791 a, 1006, 1041. The initials- is
phonetically very enigmatic, all the more since the derivates again have guttural: x-,
u. is Yin bone (B shang 24: 7), v. is Chou II (inscr. 157). .
x. * xiwan I xiwvn: I h ii an variant of q. (Shi ap. Li). - y. id. variant of q. (Shi
ap. Shuowen).
z. *xiwan I xiumn I h u an clamour (Lii).
165 a. *g'wan I yudn I h u an Shuowen says: mountain sheep (no text).
b. *k'wan J k'uan I k'u an vast, wide (Yi); grand (Shi:); magnanimous (Shi); to pardon
(Ch'uts'i); relieve (Tso); enjoy ease (Tso). Gls. 161, 1289.
166 a. *g'wan I yudn I h u an a kind of sedge (Shi). The Seal has 'herb, grass' and 'bird'.
167 a. *xwan I x1uim- I h u an ample (Li); p'a n h u an relaxed (Shi'). Gl. 832. -
b. id. disperse (Yi); ample (Sh'i); p'a n h u an relaxed, slack (ShY). Gls. 243, 1112.
- c. id. brilliant (Lunyi.i).
d-e. *g'wdn lf'udn I h u an Shuowen says: encircling wall (no text) e. is Chou IIIIII
(inscr. 267, name).
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMAT A SERICA REGEN SA

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f. *g'wdn j )'?;an- I h u an change (Lie); p'a n h u an relaxed (Sh1, some versions).
Gl. 832.
g. *xiwan I xiwen- I h ti an and *xiwcng I xiwiing- I hi u n g distant (Kuliang). The
first is the proper reading of the character, with a. as 1Jhonetic; the second is another
word applied to the same character, because it was a synonym which moreover has a
certain phonetic resemblance. These two different readings explain the following deriva-
tes. Gl. 84.
h. *xiwan I xiwen- I h ti an insist, eager (Kuan).
:1. *g'iweng / g'fwiing / k'i u n g precious stone, precious (Shi).
168 a-c. *twdn I tuan J t u an tip, end, point (Chouli). b. is Chou III (inscr. 227)
and c. is Chou II/III (inscr. 264, sense of g. below). The graph possibly is a drawing
of a sprouting plant, cf. next word. - d. id. tip, end, point, extremity (Li); (first
appearing point, sprout:) beginning, first symptom (Meng); to begin (Shu); take initiative
(Kuots'e); upright, straight (Li); correct (Tso); piece, item (Li); a kind of robe (Tso).
Gl. 2017.
e. *twdn I tuan I t u an and *(jwan I I chua n cut (Knots' e).
1. *twdn I tudn It u an black straight robe (cf. d. above) (Mo). - id. a kind
of vessel (inscr. 226). h. is Chou III (inscr. 226).
I t'?;an J t'u an rushing water (Meng).
J. *t'i.wan I ts'fwiin: I c h'u an to pant (Chuang).
k. ;af.wan I iiwiin I c h'u an and *t'iwiin I t:i'iwan- I c h'u an to blame (Lii).
J. cljwan J iiwiin J c h'u an funeral car with solid wheels (no spokes) (Li). - m-n. -id.
quickly (Shi). n. is Chou IIII (inscr. 215).
{). *tiuw J t.§wiQ- I c hue i amcious (Shi); loan for *t'iwan / J c h'u an >niggle
(as a worm) (Chuang).
P· *ajwar I iwiQ- I j u e i jade tablet as insignium (Shu). The Pek. reading is irregular;
we should expect a s h u e i, which is indeed the form of many other Mand. dialects.
q. I 1-?'wic: I c h'u e i and *twdr I tud: / t o and *t'iwan J t!;'iwiin: I c h'u an to
measure (Meng); to estimate ('l'so); (lst and 2nd reading:) to shake, move (Yi, in the
King Fang version).
*twdn I tudn: J t u an short (Lunyii).
65
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BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF' FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
170 a. *twdn j tudn:, tudn- / t u an and *d'wan / d'udn: / t u an cut off (Sh!); decide
(Yi); resolute (Shu). Gl. 2113.
171 a. *t'wan j t'ttdn- j t'u an Shuowen says: running pig (no text); >>definitions>> of the
hexagrams in the Yi king (Yi). Erya: Shi shou has a word #$1 *t'wan / t'uan / t'u an
(even tone) a kind of pig (text: Ch'uts'i: Kiu si), and probably Shuowen takes our 171 a .
here as a variant (falling tone) of the same stem. The "pig running" is a speculation
due to the fact that 428 a. (as used in Li for »pig-walking>>, i.e. lazily, not lifting
the feet) has a variant (ap. Shiwen) with our 171 a. for right half. - b. id. black
robe (Yili).
c. *di:wan j iwan j y ti an young locust (Ch'lmts'iu). . . . .. ..
d. *diwan j jwan- j y ii an hem or border of a garment (L1); *d1wan / 1wnn /yuan
go along, follow (Chuang); to climb (a tree) (Meng); loan for b. (Chouh).
e. *d'iwan I a'jwiin I c h'u an beam, rafter (Tso).
f. *d'1:wan j (l'jwan: j chua n carved desiga on jade insignium (Chouli). - g. id.
band on bell or on axle-cap of wheel (Chouli); inscribe, inscription (Lti).
h. *d'iwan 1 a'iwan: 1 chua n and *t'iwan 1 t'iwan: 1 c h'u an carved, decorated (Chu-
ang).
i. *t'iwad j tli'fwai- j c h'u e i and ? / xiumi- / hue i snout (Tso); to pant (Shi).
172 a-b. *twdn j tudn- j t u an to hammer, forge (Chouli); *d'wdn / d'tlan-j t u an
torn to pieces (Kuan). loan for d. (Li). b. is Chou IJII (inscr. 207, name).
c. *twan j tndn- j t u an to hammer, forge (Shu); strike (Chuang); (to beat in water:)
wash (Yili); hammering stone (Shi); loan for d. below (Kuliang). Gl. 907.- d. id. slice
of dried spiced meat (Tso).
173 a-b. *swan j sudn- j sua n counting tally (inscr. 205). b. is Chou I/II (inscr.
205). The graph has 'bamboo', 'two hands' and a drawing of some object, probably
some kind of tally.
174 a. *swan j suan:, surim- j sua n to count (Yili); counting tally (Yili); reckon, take
into account (Lunyti). In the graph, the central element may be a drawing of an abacus.
b. *swan j suan: j sua n basket (Yili). - c. id. bamboo vessel (Li).
d. *tswdn j tsuan: j t plaited or woven sillc band (Kuoyti); continue (Tso ).
e. *ts'wan j j t s'u an take by force, usurp (Meng).
175 a. *swan j suan- j sua n calculate (Yi Chou. shu ap. Shuowen). cf. 173 a. and
174 a. above. The graph may be a drawing of com1ting tallies (divinations staThs?),
cf. 553 a. below. - b. id. garlic (Ta Tai li).
176 a. *ts'wan j ts'ndn- j t s'u an to hide (Tso ); flee, skulk off (Tso ); (cause to skulk
off:) to banish (Shu). The Seal has 'hole' and 'rat'. Gl. 1272.
177 a. *ts'wdn j ts'udn- j t s'u an furnace (Shi); to heat, cook (Tso).
C:\ 178 a-b. *blwtin j luan j l u an bells on horse's trapping (inscr. 135). b. is Chou II
(inscr. 135, cf. f. below). The graph is a drawing. -c. id. small peak (Ch'uts'!).- ?· id.
the corners of the rim of an oval bell (Chouli); loan for id. emaciated (Shi). -e. to
drip (Kuots'e). - f-g. id. bells on horse's trapping (inscr. 326). b. is Chou III/IV
(inscr. 326). - h. id. (Ch'uts'l); loan for a. (ShY).
66
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
*blfwan / lf:wiin: / l ti an and *blwtin / l1tdn / 1 u an worn, emaciated (cf. d. above)
ap.· Shuowen); *bljwan flfwiin: / l ii an cut meat (Lti); cramped (Chuang). j. is
III/IV (inscr. 324).
*blfu•nn / lfwiin:, lfwiin- / l ii an beautiful (Shi:). l. is Chou II/III (ins cr. 268, name).
*blfwan I lfwiin- / l ii a 11 to long for (Lie).
*bliwan / lfwan jl ii an connect, continue (Yi).
*plian I pfiin- / pie n change (Lunyti); changeable, amenable (Shu) .
. · *rnlwan / mwan / m a 11 Southern barbarian (Shi); loan for id. mien- m a 11 small-
looking, pretty, little (Shl). Gl. 741.
*slwan j j shu an and *slfwan / / shu an twins (Lti).
a-b. *lwdn j ludn- / 1 u an Shuowen takes this to be the primary form of c. below
(no text). b. is Chou II (inscr. 194, sense here uncertain). If Shuowen's definition is
right, the graph may show siTh thread on a stand and two hands working on it.
*lwan / ludn- / 1 u an disorder, confusion, rebellion (Shi:); loan for £d. to cross a
stream (Shi); end of a piece of music (Lunyii); loan for a char.   which i'l a variant
(known from bronze inscriptions, see 972 c, d. below) of 1iJ / si j s 1 (972 a.)
regulate, bring into order (Shu) (traditionally it is read l u an in this sense as well,
which is erroneous). Gls. 906, 1464, 1696.
a. *pwan / pudn- / p an a half, half (Yi). The Seal has 'ox' below and two vertical
strokes above, said to mean 'cleave, divide', cf. 471 below. - b. £d. strap forming
part of horse's trapping {Tso).
*p'wan / p'uan- / p'a n p'a n · h u an relaxed (Sh'i); *b'wan / b'ndn: j pan comrade
(Ch'uts'Y). Gl. 832.
*p'wdn / p'uan- j p'a n cleave (Chouli); divide (Tso); p'a n- h u an relaxed (Sh'i).
Gl. 832.
e. *p'wdn / p'uan / p'a n throw away (only Han time text ex.); loan for d. above (Lii).
*p'wdn / p'uan- / p'a n semi-circular pool (Shl); shore (Shi); loan for id. dissolve
(Shi). - g. id. a half (Yili).
*p'wan / p'uan- j p'a 11 meat on the side of an animal (Li); *b'wan j b'ul1n f p'a n
a.thple, corpulent (Li).
67
BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEUM OF' FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIF:S
J84 fx ;&s 3ft $! tf 00 i,f_ xfiJ
CL lr c. ci e f 9 h. 1. :J k l 111.
t&r; Xi !87 r#J !&8 i   -#:
n 0 a..
p '1 a. lr CL /.r C a.. lr
!90 j)£ 191 jej M rFl1 PJ 1\AJ ifAJ
l.r a. L- c. a. L- c. cL e f g h.. \.
:i
J9l J93 tll w JJ 1w 194 ,!
lr CL lr C. d e f a.
i. *p'wan j p'udn- / p'a n semi-circular pool (Li), see f. above.
j. *b'wan j b'nan I p'an tray (Mo).
k. *b'wan 1 b'udn- I p a n bank between fields (Tso ); to separate from (Lunyu); to rebel
(Lunyii); pan - y ii an relaxed (Shl). Gl. 832.
I. *b'wan j b'win- I p'a n to desert, revolt (Tso), Pek. p'a n is irregular.
m. *b'jwc'in f b'iwvn. If an uncoloured garment (Sh!). GL 135.
182 a-c. *b'wan j b'1tan I p'a n turn round (Li); loan for id. joy (Meng); *p1cdn I puan /
pan squat (Chuang); loan fori. below (Kuliang), for HJO c. variegated (Li). Gl. 160.
b. is Yin bone (A 1: 48,4), c. is Chou II (inscr. 135). The graph has 'boat' and 'baton'
(punt?). .
d. *b'wan I b'uam I p'a n basin (Li); loan for id. joy (Sh'i). GL 160. - e-f. 1d. tray,
di;;h (Tso); basin (Li); loan for id. turn round (cf. a. above) (Yi); joy (Shu); loan for g.
(Sun). Gl. 160. f. is Chou II (inscr. 157). - g. id. big stone, rock (Yi). - h. id.
girdle-satchel (Li). - i. id. big belt (Yi); belt with pocket or pouch (Tso ).
183 a-b. *mwan 1 mudn 1 man even (only Han time text examples). b. is Chou II
(inscr. 195, name). Possibly a drawing of a balance (?).
c. *mwan I nmd.n: /man full (Tso ).
d. *mwan l1nuan 1m an shut the eyes, be deluded (Sun); ashamed (Chuang, so ace.
to certain comm.).
e. *rnwan 1 muan 1 me n and *rniwt'in / rnjwvn / wan a lund of elm (Tso ); *miwun /
rnfwvn f wan and *rmvan I mndn, rnwin- I man resin, gum (Chuang).
f. *mwan lmuJn I men (red gem, here loan for 'id.:) red millet(= 442 a) (Shi). Gl. 210.
g. *mwdn I m,uan: lm an and *mwJn lmu;m:, nntJn- /men grieved (Li).
184 a. *kan I kan I k i en villainous, traitor (Shu); wickedness (Shu); adultery (Tso).
The Seal has 'three women'.
185 a. *kli'in / kt'"in: I k i en select, distinguish (Siin).
b-d. *klan 1 kan- I k i en remonstrate, admonish (Shi). c. is Chou II (inscr. 154), d.
is Chou II (inscr. 160).
e. *klc'in f kicn: f k i en select (Yi Chon shu).
68
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
*gldn 1 ldn 11 an barrier, be a barrier to, protect (Kuots'e). g. is Chou II (inscr.
name).
1 lien- I lien boil silk (Chouli). - i. id. boil silk (Chouli); white silk (Tso );
, exquisite (Lii); to train (Li); improve by training (Shu ap. Mo).- j. id. refine
(metal) (Kuots'e).
*gUn j zan, kin- I Ian big wave (Meng). Gl. 278.
*gldn llrin- 11 a n brilliant (Shl); cooked into shreds (Lii); rotten, dissolved
(Kungyang); burn, consumed by fire (Tso).
*gUn j Zan fl an orchid (Tso); h u an -l an l\ietaplexis (Sill).
*gldn llan, Zan: I l an to fib, cheat (only Han time text ex.). p. is Chou I (inscr.
65, sense of b. above).
*glian 1 lien- I lien a kind of tree (Chouli); *gldn I ldn / 1 an railing, pen (only
Ban time text ex.).
a. *ngan / ngan- I y en wild-goose (Shi:).
variant of the preceding (Tso).
a. *kwan I kwan- / k u an two tufts of hair on child's head (Shi). The original
graph must have been a drawing.
, *kwan f kwan I k u an bar (Lao); barrier, frontier gate (Shi); loan for id. bird's
cry (Shl); loan for •·wan I ·wan I wan to bend (sc. the bow) (Tso); loan for 159 a.
insert (Shi:). c. is Chou IV (inscr. 290). Gl. 699.
a-b. *g'wan I )'Wan-/ h u an servant (Kuoyii); officer, official (Tso); learn for
office (Tso). b. is Chou II/III (inscr. 274, name). The graph has 'roof' and 'slave,
servant'.
a-b. *nwan / nwan, nwan- / n u an Shuowen says: to quarrel (no text). b. is
pre-Han (inscr. 431, name). The graph has 'two women'.
90 a-b. *pwan / pwan I pan divide, distribute (Shu); spread out (Tso); scatter (Tso);
hold back, withdraw (an army) (Tso); walk hesitantly (Yi); classify, arrange (Meng);
rank (Tso); variegated (Li). b. is Chou (inscr. 352). The graph has 'knife' and 'jade',
doubled. - c., id. variegated (Li).
,a-c. *kan I kan / k i en crevice, interstice (Chuang); interval, space between (Li);
middle, in, among (Shl); interval in time (Chuang); *kt1n I kan- f k i en find a crevice in,
find fault with (Lunyii); to separate, alienate, differences (Tso); favourable moment,
occasion (:Meng); intermeddle (Tso); replace, supersede (Shi); alternate (Shu); (look in
a crevice:) to spy on (Tso); insert (Shl); g' an/ yan I hie n (interstice in time:) leisure
(Meng); peace (Tso). Gls. 699, 1956. c. is Chou II (inscr. 184). The graph has 'door'
and 'moon'. b. is a later vulgar form. In modern praxis the word is \\Titten b. with
'sun' instead of 'moon' in its reading k i en, whereas the original form is maintained
for the reading h i e n. J3ut in classical texts it should always be written a.
*kan I kan: I k i en slip or tablet of bamboo, for writing (Shi); loan for id. select
(Shu); abridge, summary (Yi); moderate (Li); treat summarily, large-minded, not minding
matters (Lunyii); to slight (l\Ieng); great (Shi); loud (sound) (Shl); examine (Shu);
real, effective (Li); loan for 184 b. (Tso). Gls. 87, 109, 1290, 1484, 1916. e.
IS Chou III/IV (inscr. 325).
*Jean / kun I k i en a fragrant plant (Orchis?) (Shi, Mao version).
*g'an / ylin: /hie n beautiful, refined (Shi). Gl. 153.
*g'iin / yi'in I hie n to spy on, watch (Meng).
69
BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEUM OF' FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
Jtj) 71( ¢l i   UF i-
a.. l.r C- d e. f 9 h_ i. j k l 11. 0
ti !9C l; 1{ w !9711]-
i CL p 'I -r s a.. /.r c cl e f 9 h..
1irf !9& Jt J9J Jj to;
l.r c a.. lr a. l.r C- d a.. l.r a. lr
2o1_ It to3 !Jf= *-E tJ.E 2.01- Ji Ni
c a. tr G d. e.- f 9 a. ir c
i. *kan I kan- I k i en stream in a ravine (Shi).
j. *g'an I yan: I hie n forceful, energetic, fierce (Tso). Gl. 153.
192 a-b. *g' an I yan I hie n bar, barrier (Yi); enclosure (Chouli); obstruct, guard
against (Tso); protect (Meng); loan for id. to train, well-trained, refined (Shl);great (Shi);
large-minded (Chuang); move leisurely (Shi). Gls. 88, 153, 844. b. is Chou II (inscr.
169, s,ense of 191 a. above). The graph has 'door' and 'wood'.
193 a-c. *san I   Ish an mountain, hill (Shi). b. is Yin bone (0 72), c. is Chou II
(inscr. 139). The graph is a drawing.
d. *san/ I shan wicker trap (Sh'i). Gl. 443.
e *san I I shan vilify, slander (Lunyi.i.).
f. *sian I sfiin I s i en an immortal (Lie).
194 a. *san/ / c h'a n (Pek. c h' an is irregular, we should expect a shan)
breed, bear (Tso); produce (Li); product (Meng); livelihood (Meng).
195 a. *b'c(n / b'ltn- I pan (Kuangyiin) and b'fan / b'jiin I p'i en (Sbi:wen to Ode 222)
discriminate, arrange, distinguish (Shu); punctilious (Shi). The Seal form of our 195 a.
being very similar to that of zp. 825 a., the latter was substituted to the former in Shu
and Sill versions already in Han time. Our word here is cognate to but not (as often
stated) id. with 219 b. b'fan I b'1iin /pie n distinguish. Gls. 716, 1212, 1217.
b-e. *p'iwan I p'fwvn /fan a turn, a time (Lie); *puv'ir I pu{i I p o martial (Sbl); loan
for r. ('white', here:) white-haired (Shu); form. (Siin). Gl. 2107. c. is Chou II (inscr.
194, name).
d. *p'f:wan I p'iwvn I fan turn, change (Meng); to wave (as leaves) (Shi); changeable,
frivolous (Sbi:); nimble-minded, versatile (Sh'i). Gl. 619.- e-f. id. banner (inscr. 325).
f. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 325).
g. *p§wc'in / pfwvn If an cover (Lii).
h. *b'f:wc'in I b'iwvn If an and *p'jwan I p'jwan l fan confuse, disorderly (Chuang; ace.
to others: disentangle, arrange).
i. *b'iwan I b'jwvn /fan burn, roast (Shi); loan fork. (l'\feng). - j. id. a kind of gem
(Tso).- k. 1'd. cooked sacrificial meat (Kuliang). - 1. id. paw (Tso).
70
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
*b'iwan 1 b'jwvn If an luxuriant (growth) (Sh'i); to be numerous, prosper (Shu,
'}'so); '*pfwan / pfwvn If an hedge, screen (Sbi:); (screening:) outer regions of the empire
(Chouli). G. 716.
  j p'uan I p'a n rice water (Li); loan for o. (Lie).
P• *b'wan 1 b'·ztdn / p'a n to curl (Shang shu _ta circulate (Li): .
1'· *pwar I rwi- I p 0 spread out, to sow (Shi); distnbute (Shu); publish (Tso); bamsh,
.. :reject (Shu); winnow (Chuang); shake (Lunyi.i.).- q. id. promulgate (Shu ap. Sbuowen).
r. *b'wdr I b'ud I p'o and *pwdr I pu(t / p o white (Yi); loan for *b'wdr I b'wi I p'o big,
bulging (Tso).
s. *piu,an 1 pfwvn If an hedge, fence (of. m. above) (Sb'i); frontier (Chuang); covered
carriage (Tso).
196 a. *k'jan I k'jiin: I k'i en Shuowen says: a small clod of earth (no text).
b-d. *k'janl k'jiin: lk'ien send (Shi); send off, let go (Tso); *k'jan-1 k'fiin-lk'ien
convey (sacrificial meat) to the grave (Li). c. is Yin (inscr. 12), d. is Chou II (inscr.
184).
e. *k'ian I k'jiin: I k'i en k'i en- k'ii an to cling to, closely attached (Shl). Gl. 919.
f-i. *k'jan I k'jan- / k'i en reprove, reprimand (Shi). g. is Yin bone (B bia 3: 10), sense
here uncertain) h. is Chou I (inscr. 71, sense of b. above), i. is Chou I (inscr. 72, sense of b.);
in all these archaic forms rad. 30 instead of 149.
197 a. *gian I fiin:, fan- I yen flow over, flow out (Yi); (periodically inundated:) low-
land (Tso); go to excess (Shl); abundant (Sill); extensive (Shu); loan for id. basket (Tso).
Gls. 419, 1552. The Seal has 'water' and 'go'.
b. *k'jan I k'fan I k'i en exceed (Sh'i); to err, error (Shi); to lose (Tso); evil malady (Tso).
c. variant of gj (Siin).
198 a-b. *g'fan I g'jiin I k'i en kill (Shl); to cut (Shi); reverential (Shl). b. is Chou II
(inscr. 180). Gls. 1024, 2023. The graph bas 'tiger' and 'strokes, 'lines'.
199 a. *ngfan I ngjiin- j yen adornment (Shi); accomplished, talented (Sh'i). - b. id.
proverb, saying, vulgar talk (Tso). Gl. 1831.
c. *ngan / ngan I yen face, countenance (Shl); colour (Sbi).
d. *ngan I ngdn- I an coarse, rude (Lunyii) (ace. to others: relaxed, careless).
200 a. *'ian I 'ian I yen Shuo wen says: a kind of bird (no text); loan for id. how
(Shi); *gfan I jiiin I yen suffix forming adverbs (Chuang); final particle (Shi).
b. *xfan I xian I hie n joy, laugh (Ch'uts'l).
201 a. *tian I tian: I chan roll over (Shi, certain versions); unfold, open (Yili); develop,
set forth, explain (Tso); examine (Li); loan for id. truly (Shl); for *tjan / tjan- I chan
ritual robe (Sh'i).
b. *tjan I lian: I c h an roll over (Shi').
c. *njan I (tjiin: / n i en trample (Chuang).
202 a. *t'jan I t'jan: I c h'a n to complete, accomplish (Tso).
203 a. *dian I fan I yen extend (Shu);continue (Tso); delay (Shu); stretch (sc. the neck)
(Lunyii); to conduct, invite (Shu); (>>extensiom>:) square crown on top of ceremonial
cap (Li). Gl. 1586. - b. id. bamboo mat (ShY). - c. id. square crown on top of cere-
monial cap (Tso), see a. above. ·
71
i.
BULLETIN OF THE .fi!IUSEUJif OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
10) -* flli J1t 20( 1$£- 2.07 & 2.08 y'*-
lr C. d. e.. f a. /.r C CL a.. /r
1/}:}-14 2.09 f!.t m¥ it JjO l/7 211 --M
c cL e a. lr c cL e a.. a.. a. !r
2.13 ;!_ ;!_ Jl_ tt4 Jt# 11s- 1- t.t' ;t_ .tR 117 tt8
c
C).. l.r C CL (l... lr a_ lr
J1 211 1f Jf-f !Jf" n"t 17Jf m ff- --r.: tt tit-
lr c cl e. t a. lr c d. e.- f a. C1.

d. · *t'i.an t'i,an f c h'a n long (sc. beam,s) (Shi).
e. sian 1 shan make bricks (Kuan). - f. id. (Lao). , .
g. *d'dn d'dn: 1 tan great words (Shu), boast (Shu); .cheat
extravagant, disorderly (Shu); wide, far apart, far-reaching (Shi); loan for td. a partiCle
(Shi). Gls. 833, 1617.
204 a. *d'jan 1 d'fan 1 c h'a n soil belonging to one family. (Chou.li); a .. farm, a
farmyard (Shi); shop (Li). - b. id. orbit of a celestml body, go Its orbit (Lu). - c.
id. bind, wind (Lie).
205 a-c. *djan 1 iian: I shan good (Shi); approve (Meng); make good (Lunyii); treat
well (Tso). b. is Yin (inscr. 28), c. is Chou II (inscr. 160). The graph has 'sheep' and
'flute' doubled (mutton, i.e. food, and music!). Possibly the original graph for d.(!)
d-e. *ai,an 1 ifan- 1 shan cooked food (Shi); eat (Li). e. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 298). -f.
id. (make good:) repair, put in order (Tso).
206 a. *t,s'jan 1 ts'jan 1 t s'i en Shuowen says: to rise high (no text). Abbreviated in
the derivates:
b. *sian f sf.iin 1 s i en caper about, dance (Sh'i); loan for 193 f. an immortal (Lie).
c. *ts'fan I ts'fiin It s'i en remove, be removed (ShY); alter (Tso). Gl. 620.
207 a. *dzjan 1 zian- 1 s i en and *dz'jan f dz'fiin- Its i en covet, desire (Shi); surplus,
affluence (Shi); *zian I jan f yen oblong (Chouli). Gl. 559.
208 a. *dlfan 1 d/jan 1 c h'a n and *dz'un I df' dn I c h'a n timid (Ta Tai li); loan for
c. (Shu, one version).
b. *dlfan / d-?'ian I c h'a n to flow (Ch'uts'i). . .
c, d. *dz'£7n 1 d-9'i1n: 1 chan and *dr'fwan I d.?'iwan-1 chua n exh1b1t (Shu). Gl. 1234.
e. *dz' c(n 1 d/ c7n: 1 chan and *d::;'an I d}'an: I chan sleeping-carriage (Tso ).
209 a-c. *sian I sian I s i en fresh fish (Li); fresh meat (Shu); good  
bright (Shi); die prematurely (Tso ); *sian I sian: / s i en rare, few (Shi); sohtary (Sh1);
Gls. 122, 624, 643, 702, 838, 1845. b. is Chou I (inscr. 125, name), c. is Chou III/I\
(inscr. 324). The graph has 'fish' and 'sheep' (mutton).
72
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
1 sjan: 1 i en . . .
/ sien 1 s 1 en p 1 en-s 1 en walk w1th diff1culty (Chuang).
*sian 1 sjiin: Is i en rare, few (Yi, Cheng Hiian's version). The Seal has 'that,
and 'few'. Of. 209 a.
*sian 1 sfiin Is i en fresh food (Chouli). The Seal has 'fish' tripled. Cf. 209 a.
a. *:H.an I sian- I shan wicker door, leaf of door (Li); screen (Lii); loan for c. (Shi,
version). The Seal has 'door' and 'wing'. -b. id. blaze (Shi ap. Shuowen). - c.
blaze (Shi).
a. *lian f ljiin: I I i en a kind of carriage (Chouli, one version, = 215); loan for
1 ljan 1 I i en connect (Li), (Meng), in a row, consecutively (Shi); to wash.
toilsome, difficult, slow (Yi). loan for c. (Li). The Seal has 'carriage' and 'go'.
. *lfan 1 ljiin /lien ripple (Shi); to drip (as tears) (Shi). Gl. 278.
*lfan f ljiin: I I i en a kind of sacrificial vessel (Lunyii).
*lfan f ljan / l i e n 5! lotus fruit (Shi, Lu version, Gl. 352).
a. *Zjan I liiin /lien join, bring together (Chouli). The Seal has *'f. to the right:
string' and 'ear'.
*lian I ljan: In i en (Pek. n i en is irregular, we should expect a I i en) cart
by two men (ShY). The Seal has 'carriage' and 'man' doubled.
a. *njan I ·1ljiin: I n i e n Shuowen says: to work leather so as to make it smooth
soft (no text).
*nan I tum: In an blush (:Meng).
*nian I nijiin I j an burn (Meng); loan for id. so, thus (Shi); affirm, approve
); adverb suffix (Shi). The Seal has 'flesh', 'dog' and 'fire'.- b. id. burn (l\'Io).
a. *p'ian I p'ien- I p'i en (one half=) partial, one-sided (Lunyii); *p'wan f p'wrin- /
n one half, one of two parts (Chuang). Gl. 2077. The Seal shows one half of the
uarac-ver for 'tree' (1212).
a. *pian I pfiin: / p i en Shuowen says: criminals accusing one another (no text).
*b'jan I b'fiin: /pie n and *b' an I b' an- /pan (c£. 195 a) divide (Chouli);
discriminate (Lunyii); distribute (Tso); loan for f. (Chouli); for 246 b. (Tso).
is pre-Han (inscr. 405, name).
'ian I b'fiin: /pie n distinguish, discriminate (Yi); dispute (Meng); strive (Tso);
regulate (Shu); find fault with (Chouli); distribute, everywhere (Li); loan
246 b. (Yili). Gl. 1217.
*b'an I b'1'tn- I pan manage, deal with (Tso).
a. *b'ian I b'fiin- I pie n cap (Shi); loan for id. hurriedly (Li); loan for d. to fly
Gl. 591. The Seal shows 'two hands' and a drawing of a cap. - b. id. Tllis
a corrupted modern form of the preceding graph; loan for id. law (Shu); quick,
(Tso, cf. a. above). Gl. 2002. - c. id. to clap the hands (Ch'uts'!).
f:an I b'ian- I pie n (same as the preceding; loan for:) *p'jwun I p'jwun /fan to
• -voltigate (Sh!); *pfu.JJn I pjuJn- I fen to dust (Li).
73
(- i  
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
$f't 21z :Jt 1t. l i'ft fiG f5t. A;t
a. \.r c a.. lr c d. e f 1 h.. i. 3 k
;:t 22.'3 \jj 1® #® 224 ;!_  
L a. L- c d.. a. l.r G d. e. f a. l.r
LJ.C 8! :[Jt ftJJ 0-
lr c d. e f 'j h.. i J k l
tt 1t7 w rn t t
a. lr c d. e f h { J k
a..
a
f
e. *p'iwlin I p'jwvn I fan circuitous (Chuang).
f. *b'i_wan I b'fwvn If an and *b'fan I b'jiin- I pie n basket (Li).
221 a. *b'fan I b'fiin- I pie n comfortable (Ch'uts'l}; convenient, useful (Li); prompt
(Sun); thereupon, then (Chuang); *b'fan I b'jiin I p'i en eloquent, specious (properly:
discriminating, punctilious, cf. 195 a.) (Lunyu). Gls. 716, 1217.
b. *b'fan I b'fiin- I pie n and *b'jan I b'jiin I p'i en a kind of tree (lVIo).
c. *pian I pjiin I pie n whip (Shu).
222 a. *mfan I mfiin: I mien escape, avoid (Tso); take off (Tso ); cease (Lunyii); loan
for *mfwan I mfuan- I wen mourner's hair-dress (Li); for id. new, fresh (Li).
b. *mfan 1 mjiin: I mien bend the head (Chouli); bend down (Tso); character sometimes
loaned for the synonymous 136 r.; loan for c. (Li). - c. id. make an effort (Shi);
vigorous (SW:). - d. id. ceremonial cap (Shu).
e. *mwdn 1 rnudn I man and *mwan I muan: I men confused, stupid (Chuang; mea-
ning much debated).
f. *mwdn I mudn I man shoe, sole (Lii); loan for j. (Lu); for 183 g. (Lii).
g. *mfwan I mfwvn: I wan and *mjan I rnjiin: I mien complaisant, mild (Li).
h. *mjwan 1 mjumn: I wan late (Li). - i. id. lustrous, rich (sc. colour) (Ch'uts'i). - j.
id. pull (a cart) (Tso).
k. *mjwan I mj-uan- I wen mourning clothes, mourning hair-dress (cf. a. above) (Tso);
loan for d. (Siin).
1. *mwar 1 muqi: I me i smoothly flowing water (Shi, Mao version); to defile (Meng).
223 a. *mfan lrnjiin- I m i e n face (Shi); face to face (Shi:); loan for 222 c. (Shu). Gl.
1728.
b. *mian I mfiin: I m i e n to turn from, abandon (Ch'uts'i:). - c. id. sink in (sc. wine)
(Shi). Gl. 940. - d. id. thin, drawn-out (Kuoyii); loan for id. distant (Kuliang).
224 a. *mfan I mfiin I mien Shuowen says: hidden, not visible (no text), possibly the
oriainal graph for f. below (cf. d., e.). - b. id. lath supporting the eaves (Ch'uts"i).
c-e,
0
*pian 1 piwen I pie n borders (Tso); side (Li). d. is Chou I (inscr. 65), e. is Chou
II (inscr. 147). - f. id. a kind of ritual vessel (Shl).
74
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
225 a-b. *mjan I mfan I m i e n thin and long, drawn out (Shi); tiny, delicate (Shi:);
in a continuous row (Shi). Gl. 741. The Seal has 'silk' and 'silk stuff'.
226 a. *kjwan I kjwiin: I k ii an to roll (Shi); *g'jwan I g'iu·iin I k'ii an bend, curved
(Shi); handsome (Shi); loan for g. fist (Li). Sometimes u. f. 418 a. Gl. 249.
b-e. *kiwan I kfwiin- I k ii an look on with affection (Shi).
d. *k'fwan I k'fwiin I k'u an crooked wood (Kuots'e); bowl made out of curving wood
(Meng); *kfwan I kfwiin- I k u an ring in nose of an ox (Lii).
e. *g'fwan I g'fwiin I k'ii an and *k'jwan I k'fwiin I k'ii an chignon (Li); loan for a.
beautiful (Shi, one version). Gl. 249.
f. *g'jwan I g'jwan I k'ii an force, forceful (Chuang). - g. id. (rolled hand:) fist (Li);
force, strength (Shi). - h. id. wriggle, move as a snake (Ch'uts'i:).
i. *g'jwan I g'jwiin- I k ii an tired (Lunyii). - j. variant of the preceding (Chuang).
k. *g'fwan I g'fwiin: I k ii an and *g'jwan I g'fwvn: I k ii an enclosure for pigs (Kuan);
*kfwan I kfwvn: I k ii an and *k'iwan I k'iwvn: I k'ii an turn round (on the foot)
(Li); loan for d. wooden bowl (Li).
1. * k'iwan I k'iuvn- I k'ii an bond, deed, consisting of two halves (wooden parts) (Kuan).
m. *k'jtoan I k'jwvn:, k'fwvn- I k'u an k'i e n-k'ii an to cling to, closely attached
(Shi:). Gl. 919.
n. *k'iwan I k'fwvn: I k'u an and *'iwan I 'jwvn: I yuan head covering (Hanfei); loan
for 418 a. (Siin).
o. *g'wan I ywan- I h u an feed animals with grain, rear (for slaughter) (Tso); grain-fed
animal (Li). - p. variant of the preceding (Chuang).
227 a-b. *gftcan I jiu·iin I y ii an circle, circumference (Shi); round (Meng); return
(Shu); *gjwan I ffuJn I y ii n a particle (Shi). loan for g. (Shi). Gls. 238, 545, 1187,
2104. b. is Chou I (inscr. 124, name). The graph has a 'circle' and a 'cauldron': the
round rim of a cauldron. In the modern graph the t i n g cauldron has been corrupted
into p e i cowry.
c. *gjwan I fiwiin I y ii an round (Hanfei); all round, universal (Yi).
d. *xiwan I xiwvn I h u an ocarina (Chouli).
e. *gjwcn I jiwen: I y ii n drop, lose (sc. life) (Kuoyii); destroy (Sun).
f. *giwcn I fitcen I y u n loop through which a rope is passed (in fixing a target) (Chouli).
g. *gfwm I fiwen: I y ii n fall down, throw down (Shl); overthrow (Tso); to lose (Tso);
loan for c. circle (Shi). Gl. 1187. - h. variant of the preceding (Tso ap. Shuowen).
- i. id. to rain, fall down like rain (Kungyang); fall to the ground (Tso).
j-k. *giwan I jfuan I y u n (variant of 460 c. below, Shuowen, hence the reading) clan
name (inscr. 96). k. is Chou IIII (inscr. 212).
228 a. *'iwan I 'iwen I y ii an Shuowen says: small worm, taking it as primary form
of b. (hence the reading). No text.
. b. *'iwan I 'fwiin, 'fwiin: I y ii an and *'iwan I '·iwen I y ii an and *g'fwan I g'fwiin:
( k u an to crawl as a caterpillar (SW:); soft, bending (Chouli).
c. *'iwan I 'fwiin I yii an dissatisfied, grieved (Shi:).- d. id. fatigue, suffering (Lie).
e. *kjwan I kfwiin- I k ii an pent up, reserved, cautious (Lunyii). - f. id. a kind of
oilk stuff (Mo ).
g. *gfwan I fwiin I y ii an abandon (Kuots'e); remove (Meng).
h. *kiwan I kiwen I k ii an to cleanse (Kuoyli}.
i. *kiwan I kiwen, kiwen- I k ii an glance at, look askance (Meng).
75
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF' FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
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j. *g'iwan 1 yiwen: 1 h ii an Shuowen says: strap for fixing a yoke (no text); pure (said
of jade) (Shi; .the Lu version ap. Erya had rad. 96 inst. of 177).
k. *xiwan I xiwen, xiwen- I h u. an bluish-black horse (ShY).
229 a. *djwan 1 jwiin: 1 y ii an Shuowen says: marsh between mountains (no
b. *djwan 1 jwiin 1 yen (the Pek. reading yen is irregular, we should expect a yuan)
go along (sc. a river) (Shu); follow, imitate (Li).
c. *djwan 1 jwiin 1 k'i en (The Pek. reading k'i en is irregular, we should expect a
y ii an) lead (the metal) (Shu); loan for. b .. (Siin). ..
d. *djwan 1 jwiin: J y e n (the Pek. y e n IS 1rregular, we should expect a y u a n) pi ace
name (Shu).
e-f. *a'jwan 1 di'jwiin 1 c h'u an boat (Mo). f. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 315, sense here
)
uncertain).
: 230 a. *djwan 1 jwiin 1 y ii an hawk, kite (Sill). The Seal has 'stringed arrow' and 'bird'.
r - --
231 a-b. *tjwan 1 tf;iwiin J chua n alone (Lunyii); entirely, exclusively (Meng);
make sole object, entirely bent on (Tso); monopolize, have sole power (Tso); loan for
11
. (Chouli). b. is Yin bone (A 5: 12,1 name). _is, perhaps, the for
171 c. *d1'wan 'locust', here as phonetic loan for *t1wan; for the drawmg of the msect
(left part;,the right being a culling hand) cf. the identical drawing undoubtedly depict-
in(}' a cicada or cricket in 533 below.
c. ftjwan 1 t&fwiin: 1 chua n and *d'wan l·d'1uin I t'u an to cut (Li); loan for a. 'alone'
(Sun).
d. *tjwan I t&jwiin I c h u an to divine by aid of bamboo slips
e. *tjwan I tfwiin: I chua n turn round (Shi); transfer, (Shl): Gl. ..
f-i. *d'jwan 1 cl'iwan 1 c h'u an transmit (Lunyii); .. *d 1wan- I d 1U'all- f
chua n (what has been transmitted:) a record (Tso); *t?wan I itwan-1 chua n (trans-
mitting place:) relay (of post etc.) (Tso). g. is bone (B hia 7: 13, sense here
uncertain), h. Chou II (inscr. 147), i. is pre-Han (mscr. 415, name).
j. *d'fwan J d'jwiin: chua n (Chouli); roll and wrap up (Tso).. . .
k. *ajwan 1 ijwiin: shu an and *tjwan I tsj1van: I chua n cut slice
loan for *ajwan ijwan 1 c h'u a n potter's turning mould (Chouh); loan for *cltw<m
1 zj?ten 1 c h'u n and *tjwan 1 tsjuen: I c hun femur (Yili).
76
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMAT.4 SERICA REGEN SA
1. *clfwan I iiwiin: I shu an name of a fish (Yili); *tjwan I tc<:jwiin, tc<:fwan: I chua n
another kind of fish (Lii).
m. *twan I twin I t u an and *tju·an I tsjwiin: I chua n regulate (Kuoyii).
n. *d'wan I d'udn I t'u an round, everywhere, plenty (Shi ap. Shiwen). - o. id. grieved
(Shi). - p. id. round, make round (Li); collect (Kuan); bundle (Chouli) (Shiwen here
alt. reads *d'fwan 1 a'fwan: 1 chua n, id. w. j. above, but this is impossible since both
occur with different meanings: j. small bundle, p. big bundle, in Chouli; Yii jen); loan
for a. above (Lii). - q. id. rich, plentiful (dew) (Sill).
232 a. *t'fwan I ts'fwiin / c h'u an bore through (Shi). The Seal has 'tooth' and 'hole'.
233 a. *t'fwan I / c h'u an oppose, contrary (Chuang).
234 a-b. *dz'fwan J dz'jwiin It s'ii an complete (M:eng); preserve (Chuang). - c.
id. one-coloured sacrificial animal (Tso).
d. *ts'j-wan I ts'jwan I t s'ii an become cured (sc. illness) (Chuang). - e. id. bamboo
trap to catch fish (Chuang). - f. id. a fragrant plant (Chuang). - g. id. to weigh,
to measure (Kuoyii).
h. *rlfwan I ijwan I c h'u an car with solid wheels (without spokes) (only Han time
text ex.); loan for id. or *ts'fwan I ts'fuiin J t s'ii an to measure (Chuang).
235 a. *dz'jwan I dz'jwiin: Its ii an fat (meat) (only Han time text ex.); loan for d.
(Tso ). The Seal has 'bird' and i=j 'bow'.
b. *tsjwan I tsfwiin: / t s ii an fat (Ch'uts'i).
c. *tsjwan I tsjwiin I t s i en (Pek. t s i en is irregular, we should expect a t s ii an)
chisel, sharp point (Mo ).
d. *tsfw:m I tsfnan- It s ii n remarkable, extraordinary (Tso), same w. as 468 t.
(
236 a-b. *dzfwan I zfwiin I s ii an turn wund, to wheel (Tso); return (Shl); deflect
(Sh1); all round (M:eng); a ring (for suspending a bell) (Chouli); Joan for id. to urina.te
(Tso). b. is Yin bone (B hia 35: 5). The graph has 'foot' and 'banner' and a circle. -
c. id. beautiful (Shi), Han version· ap. Shiwen. Gl. 248. - d. id. a kind of precious
stone (Sun). - e. variant of the preceding, with phonetic abbreviated (Siin).
237 a-d. *dz'fwan I dz'jwiin I ts'ii an spring, source (Shi). b. is Yin bone (A 4: 17,1),
c. is Yin bone (B hia 3: 6), c. is Chou II (inscr. 147). The graph shows a fountain with
water flowing; the modern graph, by 'folk etymology', has modified this into 'white'
and 'water'.
e. *sian I sjiin- J s i en thread (Chouli).
238 a. *1ijwan I nijwiin: I juan soft, weak (Kuots'e). - b. id. soft, weak (Kuots'e).
- c. id. wriggle, move slightly (Siin). - d. variant of the preceding, through confusion
of this phonetic with that of series 134 above.
e. *1/,jwan I 1lijwiin, 1lijwiin: I j u an a kind of precious stone (Li, Sii l\iiao's version ap.
Shiwen). - f. variant of the preceding (Li, current version), due to the same confu-
sion of this phonetic with that of series 134.
g. *nwdn I nudn- In u an weak (Siin).
h. *nwdn I nu.dn:, noon- I n u an hot water (Yili).
i. *nwan J nudn: In u an warm (Kuoyii).
j. *1/jwat l1iijwat J j o to dip, soak (Yili). - k. variant of the preceding (Chouli),
due to the same confusion of this phonetic with that of series 134.
77
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
237 fft w 1:f:( 238 5
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239 a. *kian I kien I k (en Shuowen says: even, level (no text). The graph (cf. e.
below) shows two objects of unknown meaning in a parallel position. - b. id. pig
or boar 3 years old (Shi).
c. *kian I kien: I k i en callus, corn (Chuang).
d-e. *k'ian I k'ien, k'ien- f k 'i en water from a river running out and forming a stag-
nant pool (Lie). b. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 324).
f. *k'ian / k'ien / k'i en glow-worm (Lii).
g-h. *ngian / ngien I yen (grind:) thoroughly examine (Yi).
i. * kiad I kiei / k i and * kian I kien I k i e n crosspiece of wood on top of (Chuang).
240 a. *kian f kien f k i en shoulder (Shi:); to carry (Shu); loan for b. (Shi:); loan for
*g'ian I yien I hie n and *g'an / ym / hen thin, emaciated (Chuang). Gl. 1486. -
The graph (cf. d. below) has 'flesh' and a drawing of a shoulder(?).
b-d. *kian I kien I k i en pig or boar 3 years old (Lii). d. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 323).
Cf. 239 b. above.
e. *k'ian / lc'ien I k'i en and *k'an / k'an / k'i en long-necked (Chouli).
241 a-d. *kian I kien- / k i en to see (Sill); auxiliary forming the passive voice (Lunyii);
*g'ian I yien- / hie n appear (ShY); conspicuous, manifest (Meng); cause to appear,
introduce (Lunyii); loan for *kiin f kan- I k i en covering of a coffin (Li); to mix (Li);
b. is Yin bone (A 1: 29,1), c. is Yin bone (A 1: 29,2), d. is Chou I (inscr. 58). The graph
shows a 'man' with a big 'eye'. - e. is a later, vulgar form of a. in the reading hie n.
f. *k'ian I k'ien- I k'i en and *g'ian / yien: I hie n to be visible, to be like (Shi). GL
775.
g. *g'ian I yien: I hie n beautiful (Shi). Gl. 87.
h. *g'tin / yan- f hie n a plant with red stem (Kuan); loan for *g'wan I ywan: f h u an
smile (Lunyii ap. Shlwen; - if this is not rather 165 a. above, wrongly abbreviated1).
242 a-b. *xian I xien: I hie n display, manifest (Tso); bright, illustrious, splendid
(Shi); clearness, clear norms (Shu). Gls. 1113, 1647, 1676. b. is Chou I (inscr. 65). The
left part may have been the original graph for c. (?).
c. *xian I xien: I hie n strap forming part of horse's trappings (Tso).
78
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
'it
' /243 a-b. *'ian I 'ien- I yen the swallow (Sill); loan for id. to rest, at ease soothe
· (Shi; the Han version here adds Rad. 38); in priva;y, fami-
hanty (L1); * wn I ten I yen name of an ancient state (Tso). Gl. 120. b. is Yin bone
(A 6: 43,6). The graph is a drawing.
c. *'ian/ I y en to swallow (Hanfei). - d. id. sun shining without clouds (Shr,
Han verswn). Gl. 723. - e. id. converse (Kuots'e).
244 a. *t'ian I t'ien: I t'i en face (Shi:). The Seal has 'to see' and 'face'. Gl. 614.
245 a_:-d· I dz'ien It s'i en before (Shi); precede (Yili); advance (Li); former
(Sh1). b. IS Ym bone (A 1: 40,2, here enlarged by rad. 144), c. is Chou II (inscr. 186)
d. is Chou II (inscr. 196). '
e. *tsian I tsian: I t s i en cut off (Yili).
f. *tsjan I tsian Its i en throw water on, wash (Kuots'e). - g. id. fry, boil (Li); con-
sume, diminish (Hanfei).
h. *tsian I tsian- I t s i en bamboo used for arrows, arrow (Li).
i. *tsjan I t.sjiin: l_t s i en clip (Shi); cut, strip (Tso); utterly (Tso); washy (colour) (Yili).
- J. vulgar vanant of the preceding.
k. *tsfan I tsfan, tsfan- I t s i e n hair-tufts at the temples (Ch'uts'i)· *ts1'an 1 tsian· j
t s i e n cut the hair (Li). ' ' ' ·
246 a .. *pian / pien:_ I p i en a circumscription, a population district (Hokuan); loan
for 1d. flat and thin (Shi). Loan for b. (Sun), for k. (Chuang). The Seal has 'door'
(i. e. family) and '1'Titing tablets'.
b. I pien- I pie n all round, universally (Sill); name of a sacrifice ()>all-round)>-
serv,J?e) 1217, 1258. - c. variant of the preceding (Kuots't3).
d. *b .tan I b. ten 1 e n board under body in coffin (Tso ).
e. / pten I 1? 1 en and 1Jfan I pfan / pie n plait, weave (Li); *b'ian j b'ien: 1
p 1 en arrange .m a series (Chouli).
f. I Piiin: I pi e n coleric (Chuang). - g. id. narrow (Shi); cf. a. above.
h. / p'iiin I p'i e _o?lique, inclined .to one side (Shu); side, lateral, border
. . .. of war charwts (Tso); partial, incomplete (Li).
l. _P ?an z P zan-. I P 1 en ammal of uncertain species (a kind of monkey?) (Chuang);
ptan I pten I p 1 en otter (Huainan).
j. *;'ian I p'iiin I en writing slip, section in writing (Kuots'e). - k. id. fly about,
fl} to and fro (Sh1); flutt.er (as a flag) (ShY); loan for h. awry (Shi)· for m. (Shi:) Gls
618, 718. ' . . .
1. *p'ian I p'fJin I p'i en and *pian I pien, pien: I p i en name of a plant (a kind of
Polygonum?) (Ch'uts'l).
m: *b'ian I b'fiin / p'i en and *b'ian I b'ian: I pie n glib-tongued, insincere words (Shu
m the orthodox version). Gl. 2109.
247*a .. *rnian_l rnien: I m i e Shuowen says: hidden (no text).
b. mtan j ntten:,_ mten- I m 1 e n to look askance (Chuang).
C-d. *mzan I rnzan: I mien richly flovving (stream) (Shi). d. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 324).
248 a. *g'iwan / yiwen / h ii an suspend (Sh1)· loan for *g'ian f yien- 1 hie n district
(Chouli). '
b. *g'iwan / yiwen / h ii an suspend, hang up (l\1:eng).
79
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF' FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
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249 a. *kftin I kinn- I k i e n set up, establish (Shi); loan for id. name of a constellation
(Sagittarius) (Li); loan for i. (Li).
b. *kian I kfun: I k i en and *g'fi1n I g'jun: / k i e 11 obstacle, obstruction (Chuang).
c. *kitin I kfvn I k i en bow and arrow case (Tso).
d-e. *kian / kfon / k i e 11 and *g'fan / g'fiin I k'i en red horse with yellow mane
(inscr. 325). e. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 325).
f. *kftin I kfvn I k i en and *g'fun / g'fvn- I k i en sinew (Ch'uts'Y).
g. *g'fun I g'fon- I k i en strong (Yi).
h. *g'ian j g'fvn: I k i en door bar, bolt (Lao); loan for *kii'in I kfvn: / k i e 11 weary
(Chouli).
i. *g'fan I g'fiin: j k i e 11 bolt of a lock (Chouli); linch-pin (Shl-tsi).
250 a-b. *xitm I xiun- j hie n law (Shu); model (Shi:); rule (Chouli); loan for id.
illustrious (Li); elated, rejoice (ShY); for 139 g'. rise high (Li), lift high (Li). Gl. 924. b.
is Chou II (inscr. 152).- c-d. id. name of a river (inscr.147). d. is Chou II (inscr. 147).
251 a-d. *ngflin j 'il{!ivn I yen big flute (l\Io); loan for id. speak, speech, talk (ShY).:
I, we (not in Shi, but in Chuang); a particle (Shi:); high and large (Shl); loan for *ngiJn /
ngfJn j yin contented (Li). Gls. 10, 844, 978. b. is Yin bone (A 5: 20,3, sense here
uncertain), c. is Yin bone (B hia 10: 4, sense here uncertain), d. is Chou II (inscr. 143,
name). The graph is a drawing of a kind of a flute.
e. *ngfan j ngian- j yen condole (Shl); console (Shi').
f. *ngfsn j ng{en j yin affable, reasonable (Lunyii).
g. *ngfgn j ngfJn I y i 11 to quarrel (as dogs) (Ch'uts'l).
252 a-c. *ngfi'in j ngjnn- I yen Shuowen says: a kind of boiler (no text). b. is Yin
bone (B hia 8: 1, name), c. is Chou I (inscr. 67, sense of e. 'vessel' below). The yen
is a boiler shaped as a 1 i in its lower part, and with an additional upper part. The
archaic forms are drawingR of this. The modern form, on top of the 1 i, has substituted
a 'tiger', the meaning of which is uncertain. Both Ts'ieyiin and Shlwen read this char.
slightly differently from d.
d. *ngi(tn I ngfvn j yen and *ngfan jngjan:, ngfiin- I yen boiler (Tso).
e-g. *xian I xivn- I hie ll to offer, present (Sh'i); exhibit, show (Shi); (conspicuous:)
prominent, wise man (Shu). Name of a sacrificial vessel (properly: the presenting
80
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA.
11'eBSel), the ritual name for a above (Chou inscriptions). Gl. 1327. f. is Chou I (inscr.
82), g. is Chou I (inscr. 102). graph has added: 'tiger' and 'dog' (meat?).
*ngfi1n j ngjvn: I yen and *ng?an / ngfiin: I yen hill top (Shi).
*n.gjat 1 ngjiit I y e a1mounce a sentence (of a court) (Li).
*n.gat f ng6.t I o stump of tree, shoots from stump of a tree (Shu ap. Shuowe11).
For the same Phonetic with Rad. 159 see Gl. 17 4.
a. *'an j ·an- I yen tranquillize (Sill ap. Shu owen). The Seal has 'sun' and 'woman'.
*ian I ien- j yen to rest, repose (Yi); feast (Shi); have pleasure (Shl). c. is Chou
m (inscr. 218).
*'jan I 'jvn:, 'jvn- I yen gutter, latrine drain (Chouli). e. is Chou I (inscr. 103,
name), f. is Chou II (inscr. 139, name).
, *'ian I ·jvn: I yen bend do·wn (Shu); lie down (ShY); low-lying land (Tso); loan for
iif,. arrogant (Tso); mole (Chuang); for d. (Chuang).
*'fan I jvn- I yen place name (inscr. 293). i. is Chou IV (inscr. 293).
*'fun I 'jon: /Yen some kind of mud-fish (Shi). k. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 324).
*'ian I 'ien: j yen lizard (Sun).
*at I at I y a pull up (Meng).
a-e. *'ian / 't.vn: /yen Shuowen says: a fluttering streamer (no text). b. is Yin
bone (A 5: 5, 7). The graph is a drawing.
a-c. *gfwi:in I jiwvn / y ii an dragging slowly (Shi:); loan for id. then, thereupon
(Shi); a particle (Shi); change, substitute (Tso, so ace. toFu K'ien); for e. lift, encourage
Gls. 20!, 461, 1473. b. is Yin bone (T'ien ye pao kao p. 147, sense here uncertain),
c. 18 Chou II (mscr. 157). The graph shows two hands grasping some object of uncertain
analysis. - d. id. monkey (Chuang).
*gjwi'in / jjwvn I y ii an pull (Meng); pull up, raise (Meng); lay hold of, cling to (Tso);
ladder (Sh'i); part of a k u o dagger-axe (Chouli); p'a n- y ii an undisciplined, relaxed
(Sill); *gjwan / fi'wiin- j y 1i an to succour (Kuoyii). Gls. 832, 843, 1981.
*gi.wan I jiw))n. / y ii a 11 and *gfwan j jg'wiin- j y ii an ring-shaped jade insig11ium
(Siin).
gjwan I ji_wiin- I y ii an a beauty (Shi); *gjwan j jfwvn I y i.i an distracted, embar-
rassed (Ch'uts'i). Gl. 135.
*gjwan / jjwiin I y ii an to flow (Ch'uts'i').
I xiwvn / h ii an warm (Li). Character also applied to a synonymom; ·word:
nwan / nudn: I 11 u an warm (Li).
I xfwvn, xiwnn: I h ii all soft, mild (Chuang); chaTacter also applied to
/ nuan: I 11 nan warm (Ch'uts'i). This is really a variant of the precedina.
.*'f!U:,{tn I I h 1i an (Kungyang); forget (Shi:). ,.,
I yuan: / h u a 11 slack, mdulgent (Tso); slow, delay (Meng); remiss, negligent
(Y1); soft (Lii).
*g'wan I )'1oan I h u a 11 name of an ancient weight (Shu, one version). Gl. 2052.
256 a * · · j .. j .. Sl
• (!11L an y u a n mo wen says: long robe (no text); loan for id. place
(Tso): -b. garden (Shi').- c. id. monkey (Kuots'e). - d. id. stand for a
ell (Kuan). -e. id. carriage pole, thill (Tso).
fro !JlWan I nwvn: I y ii an far, distant (ShY); *gfwc'tn I jjwnn- I y i.i an keep far
m, leave (Shl); g. is Chou II (inscr. 139). '
81
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
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h-j. *g'wan ( ywan I h u an (primary form of k. below, hence the reading) turn round
(Mo). i. is Chou I (inscr. 91, name), j. is Chou II .(inscr._ 154, of n.). graph
has 'eye' as radical (roll the eyes, revolve) and a. slightly abbreVIated as phonetic. The
same character serves for yet another word *g'iweng, see 829 a. below.
k-m. *g'wan 1 ywan 1 h u an turn round, return (Shi). Character often _used. for
synonym 236 a. *dz'jwan I zjwiin I s ii an turn round (ShY); promptly (Sh1); ag1le (Sh1).
Gl. 248. 1. is Chou II (inscr. 147), m. is Chou II (inscr. 173).
n-p. *g'wan 1 ywan 1 h u an ring (Shi); encircle (Meng). b. is Chou II (inscr. 180),
p. is Chou II (inscr. 193, a. above instead of h. as phonetic).
q. *g'iwan I yiwen: I h u an tie round, encir?!e (Kuoyii). . .
, r. *g'wan 1 ywan 1 h u an metal ring (Knots e). - s-t. td. royal domam proper (Ku-
liang). t. is Chou II (inscr. 181, a. instead of h. as phonetic, cf. p. above) ..
u. *g'wan 1 ywan- 1 h u an go into (so. the buff coat), to don (Tso ). - v. !d. to tear
asunder between chariots (Tso).
x. *g'wan 1 ywan 1 h u an and *xiwan 1 xiwan I h u an quick-minded, prompt (Chuang).
y. *giwan I jiwiin I yuan round (Yi). , . , ,_
z. *xiwan 1 xfwiin I h u an nimble, smart (ShY). Gl. 249.- a. td. to fly about (Ch uts 1).
b'. *kjwan I kjwiin- I k u an reserved, cautious (Meng).
c'. *'iwan I 'iwen- I y ii an bad, Epoiled (so. food) (Lu).
257 a-c. *ngiwan 1 ngjwrm I y u an head (Shu); principal, supreme (Yi); great (Shi);
eldest (Shi); primary, fundamental (Shu); good (Li). Gl. 1277. b. is Yin bone (A 3: 22,5),
c. is Chou II (inscr. 132). The graph has 'man' with the head marked by two strokes. -
d. id. name of a poisonous plant (Mo).
e. *ngfwan 1 ngiwvn j y u an and *ngwdn I nguan I w an tmtle (Tso ). - f. variant of
the preceding; loan for p. (Chuang). . .
*ngwan 1 ngwan 1 wan and *ngwan j ngwan /wan obstn:ate (Tso).
h. *ngwan 1 ngzwn 1 wan cut so as to round off corners (Ch uts 1). - 1. vanant of the
preceding (Chuang).
j. *ngwan 1 nguan, nguan- I wan avid (Kuoyu).
82
BERNH1iRD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
k. *ngwan I ngwin- I wan pla.ything (Tso); to play with (Kuoyu); loan for l. (Kuoyu).-
1. id. used to, familiar with, despise (Tso); loan for j. (Tso).
m. *g'wan I yuiin /wan to build ready, to complete (Shi), complete (Lunyii); solid
(Chouli). The lVIand. reading wan is irregular, we should expect a h u an.
n. *g'wan yuan I h u an name of a weight (Chouli); turn round (Huainan).
p. *g'wan yuan- / h u an and *ngwan I ngudn:, nguan- /wan round (Chuang).
(
o. *g'wdn yuan: I h u an to wash clothes (Kungyang).
q. *g'wan yuan I h u an and *kwan I kuan I k u an Juncus, Cyperus (ShY); loan for
*g'wan I ywan: / h u an smile (Lunyii).
r. *kwan j kudn: I k u an (tube:) flute (ShY); key (Kuots'e).
s. *lc'wan I k'uan: / k'u an small table (Li).
t. *g'wan I ywan: I h u an to stare (Chuang, so ace. to certain comm.; ace. to others
'shut the eyes'); loan for id. brilliant (sc. stars) (Shl); beautiful, rich (sc. fruits) (Shi').
Gl. 87. 1
( u. *gfwan I jiwan-jy u an wall a courtyard (Mo).
258 a-b. *ngfwan I ngfwvn I y ii an spring, source (M:eng); origin (Yi); high plain (ShY);
loan for id. repeat, again (Yi); for d. (Lunyii). b. is Chou II (inscr. 139). The graph has
'cliff' and a drawing of a spring. - c. id. spring, source (Li); loan for e. (Meng).
d. *ngfuxln ngjwvn- /yuan sincere, attentive, careful (Shu).
e. *ngfwan ngiwvn /yuan quiet talk (Meng ap. Shuowen).
f. *ngfwan ngiwvn- / yuan to wish (Shi); think of, long for (Shi). Gl. 126.
g. *ngiwan ngjwvn I y ii an red horse with white belly (Shi).
h. *g'wan I ruan I h u a n a kind of pig (Yi Chou shu).
259 a-b. *ngjwi1n I ngjwvn j y u an a plain (Chouli), cf. 258 a. b. is Chou II/III
(inscr. 263, name).
260 a. *'iwan / 'fwvn: I y ii an Shuowen says: to turn over in bed (no text).
b. *iwan I 'fwvn: / y ii an, wan supple, accomodating (Chuang); obliging, polite (Slu);
elude (Shi); loan for id. small (Shi); piled up (sc. cliffs) (Shl), for d. wither (Shi); Gls. 290,
323, 330. The Pek. reading wan is irregular.
c. *'fwc!n I "jwun- j y ii an resent, resentment (Slu); 'jwan j'jwvn, 'jwvn- I yuan enemy
(Li).
83
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTE:RN ANTIQUITIES
d. *'iwlin I 'iwvn: I y ii an trees with rich foliage, umbrageous (Kuoyii); loan for
I iinan: / y ii n stop up, obstruct (Li); full of ornaments (sc. a shield) (Shi:);
for *'[wan/ 'iwvn: / y ii an and *'iwat I fu;;t I y ii pent up (feelings), oppressed (Sill);
to wither (Huai). Gl. 323.
e. 'iwun /'iwvn / y ii an mandarin duck (Shi).
f. ·wan / 'un,n / wan disused, dried-up (sc. a well) (Tso).
g. 'iwlZn j'jwvn: / y ii an beautiful (Shi); gentle, docile (Tso); to soar (said of dragons)
(Ch'uts'i). Gl. 120. - h. id. small hole (Chouli). - i. id. late (evening) (Ch'uts'i). -
j. id. an area of a certain number of acres (30 ace. to Shnowen) (Ch'uts'i).
k. 'iu·an f'iwvn / y ii an y ii an- c h'u name of a bird resembling a pheasant (Chuang).
1. ·jwtin I 'i.wvn: / y ii an and ·wan I 'uan- I wan jade tessera with rounded top (Shu).
m. ·wan f ·udn- f wan wrist (Tso). - n. variant of the preceding (Kuots'e).
o. ·wan I ·uan: f wan bowl (Kuan).
p. 'iwcln / ·jwvn I y ii an and 'lwan / 'ittiin / y ii n a kind of chariot (Mo).
q. 'iwiin I 'iwvn: / y ii an and 'fwat I 'fuJt / y (growth) (Sill); park, enclosure
for animals (Kuan; in modern praxis d. above is used for this sense). Gl. 323.
r-s. 'iwtlt f 'jwvt / y u e and 'jwJt I 'fuat I y ii sweets (in inscr. 74 it seems to mean:
to sacrifice sweets). s. is Chou I (inscr. 74).
261 a. 'iwan f 'iwun I y ii an injustice, grievance (Ch'uts'i:).
.1.
'i"
262 a-d. *pfwitn I pjwvn: If an turn (Sill); return (Shl); bring back (Tso); retort (Shu);
repeat (Sill); contrary, on the contrary (Shi); to rebel (Kuots'e); loan for n. (Shi); for
f. (Siin). Gls. 652, 711. b. is Yin bone (A 2: 4, I, name, c. is Yin (inscr. 27), d. is Chou I
(inscr. 54:). The graph shows a hand, bending or turning over something.- e. id. return
(Shu ap. Shuowen).
f. *piwan I pjwrm- / fan to trade (Chouli).
g-h. *pjwan / pjwvn: If an and *b'wan I b'wan: I pan slope, bank (Shi); loan for a.
contrary (Siin). h. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 328).
i. *b'jwan / b'ivmn-f fan cooked rice or millet (Li); *b'jwan I b' iwvn: /fan eat (Lunyii),
meal (Lunyii); give to eat (Chuang); loan for id. base of the thumb (Yili).
j. *pwan I pwan: / pan a plank (Shi); a hamper (Kuan); loan for n. (Shi, one version).
Gls. 711, 921. - k. id. board (Sill); tablet (Lunyii); loan for n. (Shl, one version).
Gl. 921. - I. id. metal plate, plaque (Chouli).
m. *p'wan I p'wan / p'a n and *pwan f pwan / pan pull forward (Kungyang).
n. *b'wan f b'wan: I pan and *pwan I pwan: /pan great (Shl). Gl. 711.
263 a. *b'fwiin / b'jwvn f fan fence, hedge (Sh'i ap. Shuowen). The Seal shows two
trees connected. - b-e. id. fence, hedge (Shi); cage (Chuang); loan for id. mixed,
topsy-turvy (Chuang); *b'wan f b'·uan I p'a n strap, belt (Chouli). c. is Chou II/III
(inscr. 273, name).
d. *p'wan I p'wan f p'a n pull (Kuoyii); puJl oneself up by grasping something above
(Chuang).
264 a. *b'fwiin / b'jwvn If an trouble, molest, troublesome (Tso). The Seal has 'fire,
heat' and 'head'. -b. id. paw (Lii).
265 a-e. *b'wan I b'uan f p'a n strap, belt on horse (see 263 b.) (Tso). a. is the form
of Shuowen, b. is the current form. Loan for *b'fwun I b'fwvn If an
(Shi). c. is Chou II (inscr. 134).
d. *b'iwan I b'fwvn I f an a kind of Artemisia (Shl).
84
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMAT.4. SERICA REGEN SA
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266 a_:e, *·rnjwlin / mjwvn- I wan extended, long (Sh'i); slender, delicate (Ch'uts''i)·
*mwan I rnndn- I man (drawn-out:) distant, unlimited (Chuang); loan for 267 a:
(Siin). b. is II/III (inscr. 252, name), c. is Chou IV (inscr. 285, name).
rills may be the ongmal graph for o. below: an eye (with brow), a hand and a cover
placed above the eye, cf. the analogous composition of 1062 below.
d. *mjwan I mfwvn- /wan creaping plants, creep, spread over (Shi).
e-f. *man/ man- / man to slight, insolent (Tso). f. is Chou II/III (inscr. 256, name).
- g. vanant of the preceding (Siin). - h. id. slow (Sh'i); negligent (Shu); to despise
(Tso); indulgent (Li).
i. *mwdn j1nuan I man trowel, to plaster (Meng).
j. *mwan / mudn- /man tent (Kuoyii). - k. id. plain silk (Kuan); plain,
unadomed (Tso); loan for modulation (in music) (Chouli); terrified (Chuang); loan
for h. (Chuang). -1-m. place name (Tso). m. is Chou I (inscr. 114). - n. id.
(flow out): all round, everywhere (Kungyang); free, careless (Chuang); loan for i.
(Chuang).
o. / mwin, rnnd.n- I m a ·n and *man frnan- I man and *rnjan 1 mian 1 m i e
11
deceive, be falBe against (Siin); *rnwdn I rnudn- I m a 11 excessive, reckless (Chuang).
267 a-b. *tniwi'in I mjwvn- I wan Shuowen says: an insect (no text); loan for id. ten
thousand (Shi); ritual dance (Sill). b. is Chou I (inscr. 59). The graph is a drawing
of an insect (cf. 326 and 340 below).
c * .:1 I . I . '
• m a I exert ones strength (Shu). - d-f. id. proceed, go, march
  VIgorously (Tso); loan for id. displeased, dislike (Sh'i). Gl. 726. e. is Chon I
(1nscr. 86, sense of a. above, 'ten thousand'), f. is Chou I (inscr. 92, sense of a.).
268 a. *ngdt I ngdt I o stump of a tree, shoots from stump of a tree (Shu, one version).
269 a-e. *ngdt / 'll{ldt / o Shuowen says: fragment of bone (no text) (in later times the
character has to a colloquial word t a i 'bad'). d. is Yin bone (I 48: 3,
sense here uncertam), e. IS extracted from the archaic graph for :7E (Chou I, inscr. 65).
270 a *'at / ·at/ o obstruct, stop (Chuang). ·
85
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR ANTIQUITIES
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271 a. *t'dt I t'dt / t'a Shuowen says: lamb (no text).
b-e. *d'at I d'at I t a break through (as growing grain) (Shi); penetrate, come through
(Shu); be born (Sh'i); communicate (Shu); reach to (Lunyii); come forward, become
prominent (Shi:); make prominent, to manifest (Llmyii); penetrating, clever (Tso);
reaching everywhere, universal (Lunyii); loan for id. side-building (Li); *t'at I t'dt / t'a
go to and fro (Shi). Gls. 237, 868, 1189, 1311. c. is Chou II (inscr. 182, name).
d. *t'dt I t'dt I t'a scourge (Shu); beat (Meng); rapid, brisk (Shl); middle part of a bow
(Yili). Gl. 237. - e. id. (door= )room (Shi). Gl. 251.
272 a-d. *ldt I ldt I I a wicked (Yi Chou shu). b. is Yin (inscr. 45, name), c. is Chou I
(inscr. 107, name), d. is Chou II (inscr. 179, sense of 291 e.).
e. *lad fldi- I 1 a i to gain, get hold of (Kuoyii); lean on, depend on, rely on (Shu);
gain, advantage (Kuoyii). Gl. 2052. -f. id. shallow water flowing rapidly over sand
(Ch'uts'i:). - g. id. tube (Chuang).
h. *leid / wi- I 1 a i and *ldt flat fl a Artemisia (Erya, no text ex.); loan for *hid I
ld,i- ! l a i shade (Chuang).
i. *t'lat / t'at I t'a and *t'k!t I t'at / c h'a otter (Li).
273 a. *"wdt I '1wt / w o Shuowen says: pull out the eyes (no text). The Seal has 'eye'
and 'claw'.
b. *"min I ·uan- I wan wrist (Yili).
274 a. *d'wat / d'wit Ito rob, take away, snatch (Shi); *d'wdd I d'u·ai- It u e i narrow
passage (Li).
275 a. *pwdt I pudt I p o Shuowen says: trampling feet (no text).
b. *b'wdt I b'udt / p o trample down and destroy (sc. grass) (Tso ap. Shuowen).
c. *pfwlit / pf.wvt If a throw out (an arrow); shoot (Shi); send forth, issue (Shl); to
manifest (Shi); to start, go out (Shi); go away (Shi); to open (Shi); (thrown out:) rapid,
rushing (Sili:); loan for *pwdt / p1uit / p o splash, plop (sound of fishes beating their
tail) (Shi). Gls. 173, 366, 1069, 1188.
d. *pwdt I pudt I p o spread out (Li); establish order (Shi:); dispose of, arrange (Shi:);
bend (a bow) the opposite way (Kuots'e); loan for id. ropes for pulling a coffin (Li).
Gls. 945, 1188. - e. id. rain-coat of straw (Kuoyi.i).
86
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRA1vlMATA SERICA RECENSA
f, *pfwctd 1 pjwvi- If e i cast aside (Tso); suppress (Li); remove (Shi); neglect (Shu);
cease (Li); fall (Tso); fail (Shl); destructive, exhausting (sc. sickness) (Li); id. and
*pjwat /1rjwvt If a great (Shi:). Gl. 640.
276 a. *b'wat I b'1tdt I p o expel (Chouli). The Seal has 'dog' with a stroke on one leg.-
b. id. trample (Shi); trudge (Shi); foot, base (sc. of a torch) (Li). Gl. 145. - c. id.
demon of drought (Shl).
d. *b'wat I b'uiit I p o and *b'jwlit I b'jwvt If a to plow, furrow (Kuoyii).
{l, *b'wat I b'1tdt I p o and *b'wad I b'wdi- I p e i sacrifice to thej gods of the road (Shl).
Gl. 145.
f. *pwdt f pudt / p o small hairs on body (Chuang). - g. id. roots of grass (only Han
time text ex.); *b'wat I b'uat I p o to halt in the open, amid the grass (Shi).
b. *b'wat I b'wi:it I p a pull out (Shu); b'wdt I b'udt I p o to rise above (Meng); loan for
id. the end of an arrow (Sh'i); quickly (Li); *b'wad I b'wdi- / p e i thinned out (as a
forest, some trees having been pulled up) (Sh'i). Gls. 366, 800.
i. *piwat I piwvt / fa hair (Sh'i).
j. *b'{wat I b'iwvt If a shield (Yi Chou shu).
k. *piwat I pfugt If u silk band in which the seal was tied to the waist (Yi). - I. id.
knee-cover (Li). - m. id. emblem-adorned (Shl); loan for I. (Tso). Gl. 1321.
n. *p'jwJt f p'juat If u wand \\'i.th silk pennons carried in ritual dances (Chouli).- o. id.
and *pfwc(d I pjwvi- If e i expel noxious influences, purify (Tso). Gl. 45.
277 a. *mwdt I mudt / m o end of a branch (Tso); the tip (Li); extremities (arms and
legs) (Tso); end, finish, result, the last (Shu); small (Li); diminish (Tso); loan for id.
not (Lunyii). Gl. 2003. The Seal has 'tree' with the top marked by a stroke.- b. id.
foam, froth (Chuang); spittle (Chuang); loan for *rnw(1d I rnu:ai- I me i to finish
(Oh'uts'Y, often wrongly written iJlc).
c. *Jnwdt I muat I m 0 to feed (grain to horses) (Sh'i).
278 a. *kelt f kat I k i e stalk of grain, straw (Li). The Seal has 'skin' and 'grain'.
Gl. 1386.
279 a. *k?it f k' at f k'i e Shuowen says: skilful engraving (no text). Probably original
form for b. script notches.
b. *k'iad I k'iei- f k'i script notches (Yi); contract (Li); loan for id. distressed (Sh'i);
afraid (Chouli); perforate the tortoise shell in divination (Shi); loan for *k'iat / k'iet I
1
k'i e separated (Sh'i); loan for f. (Lii); loan for *sjat I sjiit I s i e aN. Pr. Gl. 82.
( c. *k'iat I k'iet I k'i e to lift (Li); loan for b. above (contract) (Chuang).
d. *kiat f kiet I k i e and *g'iat I yiet /hie bind (Chuang); to measure, to moderate
(Li); loan for j. (Shl).
e. *ngiat I ngiet f n i e gnaw, crunch in the teeth (Li).
f. *k'iat / k'iet / k'i e cut (Siin); cut through (Tso).
g. *kjad I kiiii- I k i mad (sc. dog) (Tso).
h. *k'ad I k'ai- I k'i e energetic (Chuang).
i. *siat f siet I s i e wedge, piece of wood between the teeth of a corpse (Li).
j. *kiat f kiet I k i e pure, purify (Lunyii).
k. *g'iat I yiet / hie and *k:iat I k'iet I k'i e girdle (Chuang).
280 a. *"lit I ·at I y a crush under the wheels, crush, throw down (Chuang).
b. *tsat f I c h a a slip, a strip (Tso); loan for id. pestilence (Chouli); die prematurely
87
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
280 ;fL 28! J\} \) \) \i8l f 283 J 284 1f l8S
a... lr a_ [, c. d... a.. a.. a.. L-
t 1 ril tt vr ;[l
CL lr C. d_ e.. f. a. l.r C. c:L e. f a... l.r
=ftr ::fA- l!r( .!j o:1-ti :fA :-t-.:::- 288 -L t89 th
a •'-!>-. V \] ;l-o.. -v llVI 13 i:i Vl Q
c. d... e f 9 h. i. :i k L "l'1l. 11.. a... a..
11 gf. v \1} 1R
290

h- c. d. e f 9 h.. i j a.
(Tso). The phonetic in these words had a Seal form practically identical with[...; and
it was read *'at I ·lit I y a, meaning 'a swallow', first text ex. early W. Han (Mao Heug
in gloss on Ode 28).
281 a-d. *pw(tt I pwat I p a eight (Shi). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 6,6), c. is Yin (inscr. 25),
d. is Chou I (inscr. 54).
282 a. *g'at I yat I hi a wheel-axle cap with linchpin (Shl).
283 a. *kfat I kjiit I k i e a kind of lance (Tso); rising straight and slender, as a lance
(Sh"i); entire, undamaged (Shi). Gl. 995.
284 a. *g'fat I g'fiit I k i e perch for fowls (Shl); loan for id. remarkable, surpassing,
hero (Shl); loan for *kfat I kjiit I k i e lift, carry on the shoulders (Tso); high (Shi).
Gls. 17 5, 255.
b. *g'iat I g'fat I k i e of a surpassing quality (ShY); hero (1\'Ieng); vigorous (Chuang).
285 a-b. *ngfat I ngfiit In i e target (Chouli in Cheng Htian's version); lmv (Shu).
Gls. 1641, 1926; b. is Yin bone (A 5: 13,6, name?). The graph is a drawing of a target
on a (tree =) stand.
c. ngfat I ng1:at In i e and *ngiat I ngiet I n i e vertical post in middle of gate (Li).
d. *ngiat I ngiet I n i e unstable (Yi); the radical is wei 'danger'.
e-f. *ngfad I ngfiii- I y i cut off the nose (Yi ap. Shuowen). f. is Chou (inscr. 379,
sense here uncertain).
286 a. The sense and reading of this element is not known.
b. *d'iat I a'iat I- and *t'fat I t'iat lc h'e remove, take away (Lunyii).- c. id. (both
readings) penetrate (ShY); understand (Shi); perspicacious (Chuang); communicate
(Tso); divide land ace. to a certain share system (Shi); remove (Shi'); discontinue (Tso);
destroy (Shi). Gls. 560, 905 a.
d. *d'iat I a'jiit I c h'e clear, limpid (Yi). Pek. c h'e in this and e. below is irregular,
we should expect a c he. - e. id. wheel-track (Tso). -f. variant of the preceding
(Lie).
88
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
287 a-b. *tiat I tS{iit I c he to break (Shi); to bend (Li); destroy (Yi); decide (Lunyii);.
loan for id. a frame in the grave (Li); *aiat I iiat Ish e to bend (Li); loan for *d'iad I
d'iei 1 t'i slowly (Li); for 335 a. *tfad restrain (Shu). Gls. 2025, 2038. b. is Chou I
(inscr. 67). The graph has 'hand' ('hands') and 'axe'.
c. *tfat 1 tfat I c he perspicacious, wise (Sill); loan for 335 a. restrain (Shu). GL
2084. - d-f. variant of the preceding (Shu, Wang Su's version). e. is Chou II
(inscr. f. is Chou II (inscr. 183). -g. id. to sting (Lie) ..
h. *t'fat I t'fat I c h'e and ? I, t'iek I t'i to knock down (Chouh).
i-j. *tiad I tsfai- I chi and *tiat I #fat I c he bright (Sill).
k-1. *diad I .ifai- I s hi proclaim, swear (Shi); solemn declaration (Shu); loan for id.
respectful, attentive (Li). Gl. 1972. 1. is Chou II (inscr. 145). - m. id. go to  
go away (Shi); come to the point that (Shi); to pass (Shi). Gls. 76, 283, 309, 972.
n. *tat I tat I c h a chirp (Ch'uts'i).
288 a. *a' fat I di'iat I she tongue (ShiJ.
289 a-c. *siat I sjat Is i e to correct, control, govern (inscr. ISO). b. is Chou II (inscr.
139), c. is Chou II (inscr. 180). Explanation of graph uncertain; for the left part cf.
157 a-c. 'official'. -d-e. id. name of a plant (only Han time text ex.); loan for id.
place name (Ch'unts'iu). In the following derivates there are often vulgar variants
with e. substituted to a.:
f. *sat I sat Is a and *s(at I siet I s i e to march about (be restlessly at work) (Chuang).
g. *rUJiat I ngiiit I n i e concubine's son (Meng); loan for id. calamity (Shi); tall-coiffecl
(ShY). Gl. 174. - h. id. inauspicious, unhappy (Ch'uts'i'). - i. id. yeast (Li).
j. *ngfit I ngfit I o and *ngjat I ngfiit In i e stump of a tree, shoots from stump of a
tree (Shi'). The alternation s-: ng- in this series is probably a trace of some Archaic
initial consonant combination.
290 a. *sjat I Ish e establish, put up, to place (Shi'); supposing (Kuots'e); loan
for id. great (Chouli). The Seal has 'speak' and 'baton, beat'.
291 a. *ljat lliat I I i e divide (Siin); distribute, arrange (Chouli); rank, order (Tso );
degree (Shu); loan for id. obstruct (Li). Gl. 1967. The Seal has 269 (bonen and
'knife'. - b. id. cold (Shi). - c. id. limpid (Yi). - d. id. burn (Meng); broil (Shl);
blaze, blazing (Shi); fierce (Shu); ardour (Shl); brilliant, famous (Shi); merit, meritorious
(Shi); loan for a. rank (Shi); for b. (Shi). Gls. 214, 627, 758. (possibly b. and d. here
are etymologically the same word: sharp, piercing?). - e. id. a kind of rush used for
making brooms (Li). -f. id. tear asunder, divide (Tso), cf. a. above.
g. *ljad ( lfiii- 11 i and *ljat lliat I I i e a kind of tree (Sill). Gl. 823.
h. *liad I lfiii- I I i usage, rule (Kungyang). - i. id. epidemic (Kungyang).
292 a. *b'iat / b'jiit I pie and *pjat I pfat I pie divide, separate (Chouli); distinguish ·
(Lunyii); different (Li); leave (Ch'uts'i:).
293 a-b. *xiwat I xiwiit I h tie Shuowen says: to wink at, give a signal with the eyes
(no text). b. is pre-Han (inscr. 455, name). The graph has 'eye' and '(baton:) beat'.
294 a. *xmiwat I xiwat I h ii e extinguish, destroy (Sill).
b. *miat I mjat I m i e to drown (Yi); extinguish, destroy (Shi). -c. id. lay the hand
on (Chuang).
89
l' '
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF' FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
--- ---
29! ;r A:Y'J 11·J fJ 29t 71'J t.9J ! 194
a. lr c cL e f '3 h. i a.... a.... lr
A ;;AJ£,. tz w;:_ iA 29&
a.... lr c a... lr c. d._ e.. f 9 h... i. j k
At M:, 1::77 ,f.:, tJ8 2.11 j:f J4 :rq- Joo
tr c cL a. l.r a.. a. L- c d_
 
t,. c. ci e. f 3 h.... i j k L
295 a. *tiwat J tiwiit I c h o Shuowen says: to connect, thus taking ,it to the pri_m.ary
form of b. below (no text). It occurs in Huainan in the sense of short. The ongmal
graph may have been a dra•ving of in sewing. . .
b. *tjwat 1 tfwiit 1 c h o and / t1'11:iii- I c hue i sew, (Shu); tiC, connect
(Sh'i); adjunct (Shu); continue (Li); hem, border (Ch'uts'1); designate (L1); token, badge
(Sh'i); loan for:e. (Li). Gls. 361, 1980, 1987.
c. *tiwat f tjwiit 1 c h o to gulp (Shi); *'t'iwat I U'jwat I c h'o and *diu-ad/ iju.·iii-1 shu e i
to taste, eat (Li). Gl. 206.
d. *tfwat I tfwiit I c h o grieved, sad - e. id. stop, cease (Lunyii).
f. *tj1cat j ti.wat 1 c h o and *tfwad f tiwai- ( c hue i path between fields (Li). Gl. ll94:.
g. *tfwat 1 t fwiit I c h o and *tu·iit j tuat I to to cut (Shangtsi).
h. *twcU j tudt 1 to and *tfwat I f{11'iit / c h o pick, gather (Sh'i); loan for id. short
(Chuang).
i *t'jwat I   I c h'o drink (Li), cf. c. above. .
j. *heat 1 twat 1 chua sharp iron point at end of wl11p (Lie); *tfuxt.d / {fw'ii- I c hue i
needles used as tallies (Kuan).
k. *tiad f tiei- I t i ti-t u n g rainbow (Shi).
296 a. *dz'jwat 1 dz'iwat 1 t s ii e cut off, break off (Lunyii); extinguish (Shi); exceed,
extremely (Shi).
b. *ts{wat 1 tsjwiit 1 t s ii e and *tsjtcad I tsi1ciii- I t s u e i bundle or sheaf of coarse
grass (Kuoyii). . . . .
c. *t.s'iu·ad 1 ts'iwai- 1 t s'u e i brittle (Chouh); phonetic abbrevmted. - d. vanant of
the preceding (Lii), the phonetic corrupted.
297 a-b. *siwat 1 sju;t'it Is ii e snow (Shi); wash, bathe (Chuang), wash off (Meng).
b. is Yin bone (B hia I: 3). The graph has 'rain' and a drawing of snow flakes.
298 a. I f ? and *steal I I shu a scrape clear, brush (Chouli).
299 a-b. The sense and reading of this element are obscure. Shuowen says: to pluck
(no text), Ts'ieyiin reading it liuet f 1 ii. In the inscription 56 (Chon c.
Shnowen evidently took it to be the primary graph for b.elow (yet Ts Ie.yun s
does not follow this), and tb.c graph shows two hands gnppmg a round obJect (a frmt. ).
90
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAJllMAT A SERICA REGEN SA
If, however, it should be the primary graph for c. (as in the inscription), the round
object may be a weight?
c. *lfwctt I liwiit / l ii e name of an ancient weight (Chouli). Gl. 2062. - d. id. channel,
river-bed (Lie); dyke (Huainan); loan for id. equal (Kuoyii).
e. *lwat lludt I l o gather, pluck (Shi).
300 a. *kiat I kivt I k i e and *kiat / kiat / k i e and *kiad I kjai- I k i accuse, denounce
(Llmyii). The Seal has 'speak' and 'to lmock against', the latter at the same time
phonetic.
301 a-b. *kitvat I kfwDt I k ii e a kind of sickness (Lie). b. is Chon I (inscr. 88, possibly
sense of 302 i. below, 'arrow'). The left part resembles 560 a. arrow. - c. id. stone
(? Siin, Ta liie p'ien, so ace. to one comm.); loan for id. his, her, its, their (Sh'i); to butt
(Meng). - d. id. fern (Sh'i). - e. id. jerboa (Lii).
f-g. *kjwat I k'fwvt I k ii e and *g'fwat I g'jwvt I k ii e stumble, fall (Meng); trample
(Lii); loan for id. pull out, tear up (Tso); *kitrad / kfwiii- / k u e i move rapidly, agile
(Li); alert (Shi); loan for l. (Shi). Gl. 802.
h. *k'jwat I k'fwvt I k'ii e look-out tower over gate (Shi); gate (Li); opening, breach
(Li); (crevice:) shortcoming, defect, defective (Shl); diminish (Li); omit (Tso ); k'ii e-t i
a kind of ceremonial robe (Chouli); loan for *g'jwat I g'jwvt I k ii e excavate (Tso).
i. *g'iwat I g'fwvt / k ii e pull up, dig out (Yi Chon shu), cf. f. and h. above; *kitcad I
hm'ii- I k u e i lift (the dress) (Li).
j-k. *g'jwfit / g'fwvt I k ii e pole, post (Lie); horse's bit (Chuang).
I. *k{1cctd I kfwiii- / k u e i small sacrificial table (Li).
302 a-d. *kiwcit / kjwvt I k ii e this is the usual Archaic graph in the inscriptions for
(301 c. above) 'his, her, its, their', hence the reading. b. is Yin (inscr. 5), c. is Yin
(inset'. 6), d. is Chou I (inscr. 54).
e-g. *kwat I kndt jk u o Shuo wen says: to shut the mouth (no text). g. is Chou III/IV
(inscr. 305, name). The upper part is a. above as phonetic, more or less contracted
in the modern forms. The last one of these, f., has thus coincided with 15'. (288 a. above),
with which it has really nothing to do, not even in o. below.
h. *ku·at I kttat fk u o to tie, bind (Yi); bring together (Shi); loan for id. end of an
arrow (Li). Gl. 198. - i. id. a kind of tree (cedar?) (Shu); carpenter's square (Sun);
end of an arrow (Chuang).- j. id. noisy talk (Shu); to deafen by noisy talk (Hanfei). Gl.
1419. - k. id. bind up the hair in a knot (Yi); loan for id. warped, not straight (sc.
vessel) (Chouli).
1. *g'wat 1 ruat 1 h u o and *kwat I kuat I k u o join (Shi). GI. 198.
m. *g'wat I ywit I h u o (moist:) living, alive, to live (Sh'i); loan for *ku•tit f kttat I k u o
k u o-k u o to purl (as running water) (Shi:).
n. *kwat I ktvat / k u a scrape (Chouli); polish (Li).
o. *g'wad I ywai- I h u a speak, word (Sh'i); good words (Tso). The right hand part in
this character is not s h e 'tongue' but e. above as phonetic.
p. *ktvat / kuat / k u o pig-headed, stupid and self-willed (Shu ap. Shuowen; in other
versiom j. above, and great divergence as to interpretation). Gl. 1419.
q. *k'wdt I k'uat I k'n o distant, widely apart, separated (Shi). Gl. 82.
.303 a-c. *giu·ilt / jiwvt I y ii e a kind of axe (Shu, one version ap. Shiwen). b. is Yin
bone (A 4: 13,1), c. is Chou II (inscr. 157). The graph is a drawing. - d. id. a kind
of axe (Shl).
91
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
302 l E t 117 JiJ Jf{t !t {i Yi
a. l.r c. d. e f 9 h. i. j k L 0
11, 3oJ r\ 1 $c\ 1rt. 304- g e t3 t:3 18 Ja
It c. c:L e.. f a. lr c. d. e.. f a..
y IJ> JY JY tA A1 m 3£?71\
c cL e f '3 h i j a.. L-
308 fj i> ,Q 310 ti
a.. c. a.. a. lr
c e
e. *giwat ( jiwvt 1 y ii e transgress (ShY); pass over to (Shu); extend (Kuoyii); proclaim,
extol (ShY); far away (Kuoyii}; disperse (Tso); to spread (Shu); throw fall
(Shu); loan for id. regulate (Shu); and (Shu); .a particle (Sh1); openmg, hole (m a lute}
(Li); for *g'wat 1 yuat 1 h u o to plait straw (mto a mat) (Tso). Gls. 1068, 1468, 1479,
1612, 1676, 1720.
f. *xiwat ( xiwnt ( h ii e to trot, run (Li).
304 a-d. *gjwi'it 1 jiwnt 1 y ii e say (Sill); a particle (Shi). b. is Yin bone (A 7: 17,4),
c. is Yin (inscr. 10), d, is Chou I (inscr. 56). Gls. 791, 803, 1054, 1207. The graph shows.
a 'mouth', for the rest interpretation uncertain.
e. *g'w<Jt 1 yuat I h u to dig up (a grave) (Sii). .
f. *kw<Jt 1 kuat 1 k u bring into disorder (Shu); to regulate, to .. (sc.
rivers) (Kuoyil); *g'wat I Y1Wt I h u bl_lbble up. *g1wct I nuet I y u t<: f!ow
(Ch'uts'i). This character is as the, part were B, but th1s IS a.
confusion with a river name I I m 1 (Ch uts 1).
305 a. *giwi'lt 1 jiwvt 1 y ii e a particle (Shu ap. Shuowen); generous, favourable (Kuan) ..
306 a-f. *ngfwat 1 ngfwnt 1 y ii e moon (Slu); month   ?· Yin 1: 36,G),
c. is Yin bone (A 2: 4,1), d. is Yin bone (A 2: 22,G), e. IS Ym (mscr. 10}, f. L'l Chou I
(inscr. 54). The graph is a drawing. - g,. id. to break (Kuoyii).
h-i. *ngiwat 1 ngfwvt 1 y ii e and *ngwat ( ngwat ( w a cut the feet (Shu).
i. is yu;: bone (0 1223, name?). - j. variant of h. (Hanfe1).
307 a-e. *b'iwat 1 b'iwvt 1 fa strike (Sh'i); hew,. cut (Shi); atta.?k (Shi); punish (Shu);
(what is beaten:) a shield (Shi); loan for id. ment, (L1_1-nyu); earth thrown
a ploughed furrow (Chouli). b. is Yin bone (A 2: 8,5}, c. IS Ym bone (A 6:5, 7), d. lS Ym
(inscr. 27), e. is Chou I (inscr. 54). The graph has 'man' and 'dagger-axe'.
f. *b'wad 1 b'wai- 1 p e i streamer (Tso); flutter (Sill) (same w. as 501 d.). Gl. 1148.
308 a-c. *b'iwat 1 b'jwvt 1 fa to punish, to fine (Shu). b. is Chou (inscr. 56}, c. is Chou L
(inscr. 65). -The graph has 'net', 'speak' and 'knife'.
92
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA_ RECENSA
.309 a. *ts'iat I ts'iet It s'i e steal (Shu); stealthily, without permission (Tso); take the
liberty to (Lunyii); loan (Siin). The phonetic to the right, lower part, was (oracle
bone inscriptions and Han shu: Ku kin jen piao) *sfat I sfiit Is i e, name of the ancestor
of the Yin-Shang dynasty (in the classics replaced by 279 b.).
.310 a-b. *dz'iat I dz'iet Its i e (cut, trim =)restrain, govern (Shi); a short-cut (Kuoyii);
loan for id. shallow, insincere (Shu). Gls. 1052, 2109. a. is the form of Shuowen (Seal:
'small bird' and 'dagger-axe'), b. is the corrupted modern form.
.311 a-e. *rniat ( miet ( m i e destroy, extinguish (Shl); not have, not (Shi:). Gls. 930,
1880. b. is Yin bone (A 1: 49,2, name), c. is Yin (inscr. 10), d. is Chou I (inscr. 54), e.
is Chou I (inscr. 78). In c-e. the sense is doubtful ('to signalize'? 'to reward'?). The
graph has 'attack' (307 a.) and a horned head. - f. id. covering (Sill); character also
applied to a synonymous word *miek I miek I m i (ShY).
g. *miat I rniet I m i e to despise (Shu, lost chapter ap. Shuowen). - h. id. sore eye,
troubled e;ye-sight (Lii). - i-j. id. Shuowen says: grain, corn (no text). j. is Chou I
(inscr. 92, sense of c. above). - k. id. strips of bamboo skin (Shu).
1. *mjwiit lmiwvt I w a sock, stockings (Hanfei); to wear stockings (Tso). - m. variant
of the preceding (Tso).
312 a. *kiwat I kiwet I k ii e archer's thimble (Sh'i ap. Shiwen); *l"Wad I kwad- I k u a i
divide, make a breach (Yi).
b. *kiwat I kiwet I k ii e open a passage for and lead forth a stream (Shu); to open (Chouli);
cut off (Tso ); bite off (Meng); decide (Li); decidedly, certainly (Kuots'e); loan for a.
(thimble) (Sh'i); loan for *xiwat I xiwet I h ii e quickly (Chuang).
e. *kiwat I kiwet I k ii e half-circle shaped girdle-pendant (Tso); loan for a. above (thimb-
le) (Li).
d. *kiwat ( kiwet I k ii e sleeve (Lunyii). The same character has been applied to a
synonymous word *miad I mfai- I m i (Li).
e. *kiwat I kiwet I k ii e farewell words (Lie). - f. id. make heavy traces in the earth
(sc. horse, when running fast) (Kuots'e). - g. id. shrike (Meng).
h. *k'iwat I k' iwat I k'ii e and *k'iwat I k'iwet I k'ii e break, splinter (Shi:); defeetive,
incomplete (Lao).
i. * xiwat I xi wet I hue and * xiwat I xiwat I hue wheeze (Chuang).
j. *'iwat I 'iwet I y ii e pull up, pull out, dig out (Tso).
k. *!.:'wad I k'wai- I k'u a i cheerful, find pleasure in (Meng); satisfy (Tso).
313 a-c. *ktid I kdi-1 k a i and *kdt I kat I k o to beg (Tso). b. is Yin bone (A 5: 7,6
sense here uncertain}, c. is Chou I (inscr. 108). The graph has 'man' and wang 742
'not have, want'.
d. *g'at I )'UtI h o what, where, when, how, why (Shi); loan for 314 a. to injure (Shu).
GL 1407. - e. id. felt (Yili). - f. id. grubs in wood (Kuoyii). - g. id. hair cloth,
coarse cloath (Shi).
h. *g'dt I ydt I h o name of a bird (Lie); *k'dt I k'dt ( k'o k'o- tan name of a bird (Li).
i. *kat kdt I k o Dolichos, Pachyrhizus (Sh'i).
j. *k'dt k'at I k'o thirsty (Sh'i); *g'iat I g'fiit I k i e dried up (Chouli).
k. *xat xut I h 0 shout (Kuots'e); *'ad I 'ai- I y a i choke (Chuang, in the Ts'uei ver-
Rion).
I. *'at I 'at I o stop, repress (Shi}; cease (ShY). GL 764.
m. *k'fat I k'iat I k'i e and *k'iat I k'ivt I k'i e go away (Lii); loan for id. martial-looking
(ShY); Gls. 175, 358. loan for d. (Lii).
93
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
----
311 J{ t u ft 0;{ f! ;{ 372 }<:_
lr c ci e f 9 h i :J k l
  Jj(_ fst vc.}:!; 1Jt r;}( it tit 373 f2] :t:J
lr c. d._ e f 9 h..i. :J k a_ lr c d... e.-
:m 1; JL m 'ff;x.
t
f 9 h.. -L .1 k L m n o P q
)1JA 3!4 ti 1tJ
CL l.r C. d._ f
T .s
tr X
y a..'
n. *g'fat 1 g'jat I k i e and *kiat fkiiit I k i e and I I k'i e yiat I
1 k i e lift, raise (Sill); carry on the shoulder (Kuots e); high, tall (Shl); *k lad I k
l k'i lift up one's clothes (Shl). Gl. 944.
o. *g'fat I g'jiit I k i e commemorative pole (over a grave) (Chouli); (Chouli);
*k'at 1 k'at I k'i a a kind of musical instrument (Li); wooden vase (Ll).
p. *g'jat I g'fat I k i e and *kjat I kfvt I k i e robust (Chuang); *k'fat I k'iat I k'i e g(}
away (Shi, loan for m.). Gl. 358.
q. *g'fat 1 g'fat 1 k i e monolith (Shu, as name of a rock). - r. id. exhaust (Shl); k i e-
k ii e fall prostrate (Sun); loan for n. lift (Li).
s. *k'iad I k'iai- I k'i and *k'iat I k'iat I k'i e to rest (Shl); *k'dd I k'ai- I k'a i to desire-
(Tso); hasty (Kungyang).
t. *xiat 1 xivt 1 hie short-muzzled dog (Shi ap. Shuowen). - u. id. to cease, to rest
(Tso); loan fort. (Shl). . .
v. *'iat 1 ·jvt 1 y e suffer from heat (Siin). - x. id. announce (Tso); go to see, visit
y. *'iad I 'f:lii- I y i and *'ad/ ai- / y ai and *'at/ ·at I o sour, bad (food) (Lunyu).
z. *k'dt I k'at I k'o to thirst for (Kuoyii).
a'. *'dd 1 'ai- 1 a i ample, rich (sc. clouds) (Kuan); (ample:) numerous (Sh'i).
314 a-b. *g'ad I ydi- 1 h a i to hurt (Shi:); to be hurt (Shi:); damage, .harm (Tso); disad-
vantage (Kuots'e); loan for 313 *g'at what (Shl). b. is Chou II (mscr. 180, sense of
'what').
c. *kad I kai- /Ide castrate (Chuang).
d-e. *kdt 1 ktit f k o cut (Tso); destroy, destruction (Shu). Gls. 1404, 1810. e. is Chou
II (inscr. 179, sense of 313 a. above).
f. *g'at I yat I hi a wheel-axle cap with linch-pin (Tso ).
g. * xwdt I x1uit I h o empty (Lii).
315 a. *tad 1 tdi- 1 t a i girdle, sash (Shi:); strap, string (Tso); carry at the girdle, carry
(Tso). The original graph was probably a drawing of skirts with a girdle above.
b. *d'jad 1 d'jai- f c h 'i coagulate (Kuoyii); to block, obstruct (Meng); accumulate (Chou-
li); collect (Tso); discard, left over (Sh'i).
c. *tiad f tiei- It i bottom of a flower or fruit, base (Mo).
d. *d'iad 1 d'iei- 1 t i to screen off, to shade (Ch'uts'i); *d'iat / d'iet It i e to hoard (Kuan).
94
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMllfATA SERICA RECENSA
--------------
375 ff; ytf 3!' 317 A
n 1: A 1\ y}\_
c. d. e f a_ lr c d. e f
7A f;k_ tk;f:A. 3!8 #, _t.
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a. lr c cl e f 1 a... l.r c. d. e f
Mit 1- f l
32J. ?\' 1V 1- 3.23
9f-t. i j k llYLn
a. lr a...
e. I It i §o away li); for *ajad I ifai- Ish 'i sword sheath (Li).
f. *t ?ad I ts ?WL· I chI and ? / tsu;.: / c h 1 discordant (so. notes) (Li).
316 a. *t'dd I t'ai- I t'a i great (Lunyii); excessive (Shi); arrogant (Lunyii); spread out
and reach everywhere (Yi); a kind of ritual vessel (Li).
317 *d'dd I d'di- It a . and *t'ad. I t'ai- I t'a i great, greatly (Shl) (cf. 316 above).
b. IS Ym bone (A 1: 3,1), c. IS Chou I (mscr. 54). The graph is a drawing of a man (grown-
up person).
d-e. *t'dd I t'ai- / t'a i special form of writing the preceding word in this reading (inscr.
70). e. is Chou I (inscr. 70).
f-g. *d'ad I d'ai-1 i wave (Ch'uts'1); lo,an *t'ad I t'di- f t'a i excessive, arrogant
(Tso); penetrate, discern (Chuang); for *t'at I t'at f t'a pass over (Tso).
h. / d:ai- It a i and *d'iad I d'iei- It i wheel-axle cap (Ch'uts'i:).
i. *d1ad / Z?iii- I s h 1 experienced (Kuan).
j-k. *d'iad I d'iei- It i solitary-growing (sc. tree) (Shi:). k. is Chou III/IV (inscr.
name).
1. *d'iad I d'iei- I t i aud *d'dd I d'di- It a foot shackle of criminal (Kuan).
318.a-b. *ruid I ndi- / n a i name of a fruit (only Han time text ex.);loan for id. expe-
dient, resource (Shu).
319 a-e. *ts'dd I ts'di- / t s'a i place name (inscr. 117 etc.); this is the name written
in the classics, and hence we know the reading above. b. is Chou I (inscr. 117) c. is
Chou II (inscr. 167). '
d. *sat I Ish a (Sh'i); *sud I I s h a i diminish, reduce (Tso); of a smaller
degree (LI); loan for a bag round the feet of a corpse (Yili). Gl. 1272. - e. variant
of the preceding ('kill') (Chouli).
f. *:11! / i}it! I s h a and *l}jat I / she a kind of fragrant tree (Ch'uts'i:).
g. sat I sat Is a to slap from the side (Kungyang).
320 a-e. *pwdd / pwai- I p e i co\vry shell (Shi). b. is Yin bone (A 4: 30,2), c. is Yin
bone (A 5: 10,2), d. is Yin (inscr. 4), e. is Chou I (inscr. 54). The graph is a drawing.
95
l'
I
!
!
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
f-g. *b'wad J b'wai- I p a i and *pwad / pwai- I p a i to ruin, ruined (Shi); destructive
(Shu); break (Shi); defeat,. become defeated (Tso). g. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 315).
321 a-e. *g'wdd / ywai- I hue i collect, unite, assemble (Shi); jointly (Shi); combine
(Shu); meet, a meeting, encounter (Shi); (meet with:) happen (Shi); (shutter:) lid, cover
(of vessel) (Yili); conform to (Li); *kwad I ku:ai- J k u e i (adding up:) calculation, account
(Li); keep together (sc. the hair) (Shi); Gls. 156, 788, 1321. b. is Chou III (inscr. 220),.
c. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 297). The graph is a drawing of a vessel (with handles) on a
stand, covered by a lid.
d. *kwdd J kwdi- 1 k u e i barn (Hanfei). - e. id. a kind of flag (Tso ). Gl. 782. - f.
id. watering channel, drain (Shu). - g. id. to mince (food) (Shi).- h. id. joining-
point of the two ends of a collar or a belt (Tso).
i. *kwdd / kwdi- I k u e i and *kwdt I kudt I k u o a kind of coniferous tree (Shi); orna-
ment on coffin (Tso).
j. *kwdd j kwdi- I k u e i and *g'wdd J ywai- I hue i sacrifice to avert calamity (Chouli).
k. *g'wad I ywdi- /hue i apply several make variegated (Lunyii).
1. *k'wad I k'wai- I k'u a i comfortable (sc. room) (Shi); *kwdd I kwai- I k u e i and
*kwat I htdt I k u o faded (sc. colour) (Chuang). Gl. 504.
m. *g'wat I yudt I h u o and *kwdd I kwdi- I k u e i bind up the hair in a knot (Yili).
n. 'wdd I ·wai- I wei to screen (Shi). Gl. 363.
322 a-b. *ngwdd 1 ngwdi- I w a i outside (Shi); abroad (Shi); exclude (Yi). b. is Chou I
(inscr. 109). The graph has 'moon' and 'to divine by tortoise-shell oracle'. Moon YJ
*ngfwat may be phonetic in our *ngwdd; and the r oracle cracks appeared on the out-
side, the exterior of the shell, when the inside was singed.
.323 a. *twdd 1 twdi- It a i baton (Shi). The lVIand. form is irregular, we should expect a
t u e i.
324 a-c. *d'wdd d'wdi- It u e i glad (Chuang); loan for *d'wdd / d'wdi- It u e i and
*t'wdd I t'wdi- I t'u e i open a passage through (Shl); opening (Lao); loan for f. (Siln).
Gl. 800. b. is Yin bone (B hia 9: 12, sense here uncertain), c. is Chou II (inscr. 153, name).
The graph has 'man' and 'mouth' (id. w. 765 below), meaning of the top strokes obscure ..
d. *t'wad I t'wdi- I t'u e i and *d'wdd I d'wdi- It u e i withdraw, flee (Shl). Gl. SOL ·
e. *t'wad I t'wai- 1 t'u e i and *siwad I sjwiii- I shu e i and *t'wdr I t'u(t- I t'o and
djwat I jwiit I y ii e exuviae of insects or reptiles (Chuang).
f. *diwad I fwiii- / j u e i sharp, pointed (Chuang); keen, valiant (soldiers) (Tso); thin,
small (Tso ); *d'wdd I d'wdi- I t u e i lance (Shu). Gl. 1996.
g. *stwad 1 siwai- 1 shu e i and *ts'iu·ad 1 ts'fwai- It s'u e i kerchief (Shl). - h. id.
(both readings) to purify water (Li). •
i. *{;fwad I sfwiii- I s hue i to tax (Ch'unts'iu); to present, give (Li); loan for *t'wr:d I
t'1vdi- 1 t'u e i mourning worn after the regular period is passed (Li); for *t'wdn I t'uan /
t'u an black dress (Li); for m. take off, set free (Tso).
j-k. *d'wdt I d'1lat It 0 snatch (Shu ap. Shuowen). k. is Chou nr (inscr. 220). '
I. *t'wat I t'uat f t'o and *d'wdt 1 d'udt Ito take away (Lao); beat, kill (Kuliang);
*liiwad I I shu e i wipe off (Yili). ..
m. *t'wdt I t'udt / t'o and *d'wdt I d'udt Ito peel off (Lie); take off (as clothes) (Kuoyu);
take away (Tso); (take oneself away:) escape, disappear (Lao); relieve (Kungyang);
careless (Tso); *t'wdd I t'wdi- I t'u e i easy, leisurely (Shi). Gl. 60.
n. *tjwat I tsjwiit I c h o short pillars, supporting rafters of house (Lunyii); loan for f.
(Lao), for m. (Sun).
96
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
X' :£X. ft rrt 5-Jl -*X. M. tX. At ;fJL tt
a.. l.r c. d.. e. f s h. t. 3 k L
D
Jl. ...p .a -'$"" e >(?_ A- A A.
1ft JR. -j( 11JR ;fj}i 32.( 317_ J 1 :/: · '(' {)I Jf-
o.. l.r (.. cL f!... a. lr
c. cL e
:t * M- 328 #-t fr 32:1 350
9 h... i. j k a.. l.r (..

t,. (..
{t 11 33! 332. If-
e t 9 h. i j k l 0 CL
*diwat I iwiit I y li e pleased, glad (.Meng). -. p. id. hole (Shi:); loan for id. inspect
to count, sum up (Tso); for o. to be hked (Shi:), (pleased=) satisfied (Shu).
97, 1929.
I siwiit Ish u 0 speak explain (Lunyii); excuse (ShY); siu·ad I sfwai- I
u e 1 e,:chort (Meng); loan for td. halt, rest over night (Shi); loan form. let loose (Shi),
o. (Shi), Gls. 83, 117, 168.
a-b. *tswad I tswii- Its u e i collect, accumulate (Kungyang); to the highest
(Kuots'e ) .
I dz'wdi- Its u e i small (Tso).
*ts'wad I t(zv.r7i- h'u _a i I t9'wai- I c h'u a i bite, eat (Meng).
Its uat I t s o pmch With the fmgers, a pinch-ful (Li); loan for id. small cap
*tswad I tswai- I t sue i pointed (Chuang).
*t'ad I t'ai- I c h'a i scorpion (Shl). The graph is a drawing (cf. 267 above):
the addition of rad. 142 'insect'.
I kai- I k i e armour (Sh'i!; scale (of animals) (Li); protect (Tso); assist,
rely on (Tso); loan for boundary (Tso); border (Ch'uts'f); inserted
contiguous to _(Tso); great (ShY); enlarge, increase (ShY); solid (Yi); determined,
small (Y1); cut the ft;et (Chuang); loan for *kat 1 kc(t 1 k i a obliquely
-------,,.,,, sudden (lVIeng); loan for J· mustard plant (Meng), for 349 (Shu). Gls. 374,
679, 1089, 1091, 2112. b. is Yin bone (A 1:43,4, sense here uncertain), c. is Yin
(A I:   sense uncertain). The graph is a drawing of a man protected by armour
of shps.
. I kui- I k i great Gl. _932.- e. id. boundary (Shi:), cf. a. above.- f-g.
ltcb, scabby (L1); mterm1ttent fever (Tso). g. is Yin bone (A 4: 10,7; there
mu?h divergence about the interpretation of this character, but the phonetic
he nght 1s undoubtedly our a. here).
,iid I I h_i e to make a creaking sound as of gnashing teeth (Chouli).
I I hIe careless (Meng ap. Shuowen).
I k i e mustard plant (Li); *kad I km:- 1 k i e grass, weeds (Tso).
I ktet- I k i knot (Yili).
97
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
328 a-c. *pwad I pwai- I p a i to bow in obeisance (Shi); to bow one's thanks (Tso);
to bend (sc. a branch) (ShY). Gl. 47. a. is the cmTent form, b. is a variant in Chouli,
c. is Chou I (inscr. 58). The graph has 'hand' and a 'branch'.
329 a. *k'fad I k'jai- I k'i to rest (Shl).
330 a-d. *ngjad I ngjiii- I y i to sow, plant, cultivate (Shi ap. Shuowen); diad I djiii- I
s hi force, influence (Li). Whether this is a case of the same character being applied
to quite another word with kindred sense (toil: force), or the alternation ng-: s- is a
vestige of some Archaic initial consonant combination, is uncertain. The two readings
*ngfad and * sjad of this primary word explain the two initial series among the derivates.
b. is Yin bone (A 6: 15,2), c. is Chou I (inscr. 57), d. is Chou II (inscr. 180). The graph.
shows a kneeling man planting.
e. *ngjad I ngjiii-1 y i to sow, plant (ShY); grov;ing crops (Tso). -f. id. to sow, plant,
cultivate (Shu); art (Tso ); method, rule (Tso); regular (Tso); talent (Lunyii); accomplished,
skill (Shu). Gls. 1265, 1570.
g. *ngiat I ngiet I y e unstable (Chouli). - h. id. pole (Chouli); loan for id. unstable,
unsafe (Chouli); loan for 285 c. vertical post (Kuliang).
i. *ngjad I ngjiii- I y i speak in the sleep (Lie).
j. *1ijat l1izjat 1 j e hot (Shi).
k. I nzfwat I j o to burn (Tso).
I. *sjad I djai- I s hi force (Meng); force of circumstances, conditions (lVIeng).
m. *sjat I sjiit I s i e familiar (Shi). - n-o. id. garment next to the body, undress
(Lunyii, Shi in Shuowen's version); ordinary, of everyday use (Li); familiar, intimate,
be intimate with. (Li); to be familiar, disrespectful (Shu). o. is Chou II (inscr. 180).
331 a. *ngfad I ngjiii- I y i method, rule (Chuang).
332 a. 'jai I ·jai- I y i to bury (sacrifice by burying) (Shi).
333 a-b. *diad I jiii- I y i border (Tso ); posterity, descendants (Tso ). b. is Chou IV
(inscr. 292).
334 a-b. *d'jad I a'jai- I chi boar, swine (Li). b. is Yin bone (A 4: 51,3). The graph
shows the animal pierced by an arrow.
335 a. *tjad I tsjiii- I chi cut out (as clothes, Shi, or as parts of a victim, for sacrifice,
Li); prepare, institute, (Tso); institution, law, statute (Tso); regulate (Tso);
restrain (Shu).
b. *tjad I tsjai- I chi to cut ,9ut, to fashion (a garment) (Tso); robe, cloak (Tso).
c. *t'jad I tS'jiii-1 c h'i and *t'jat I ts'iat I c h'e to trail, drag (Yi).
d. *k[ad I kjai- I k i mad (sc. dog) (Lu).
336 a. *ctjad I ijiii- I s hi to divine by Achillea stalks (Sh'i). The Seal has 'bamboo'
(as a radical for plants generally) and 'magician'.- b. variant of the preceding (Chouli),
-c. id. to bite (Tso); loan for id. reach, come to (Shi). Gl. 76.- d. id. shore, bank of
a river (Tso).
337 a-d. *tsjad I tsjiii- Its i sacrifice (Shi); *tsad I I c h a i name of a state
(Tso). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 41,7), c. is Yin bone (A 2: 38,2), d. is Chou III (inscr. 218).
b. has 'hand' and 'falling drops' (=libation) and 'flesh, meat'; in c. and d. the drops have
disappeared, and there is rad. 113 instead.
98
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
333
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*tsiad I tsfiii- Its i millet (Lii). - f. id. juncture, conjunction (Lunyu); connection,
intercourse (Tso).
g. *t'iad I t'fiii- I c h'i stop (Ch'uts'Y).
b. *tsad I f$iii- I c h a i to suffer, distress (Shi). Gl. 725.
i. *ts'dd I ts'di-1 t s'a i grass-land, steppe (Shu); name of a state (Lunyii); large tortoise
(Lunyii); loan for *sitd I $iii- I s h a i to reduce (Tso; the orig. form for the state
Ts'ai here is shown by bronze inscriptions to have been the left part of this *s(td). Gls.
1272, 1390.
j. *ts' at It$' at I c h'a examine (Lunyti); discern (Li); become discernible (Li).
338 a. *ziad I fiii- I y i to drag, trail (Shi). Gl. 289.
b. *siat lsiiit Is i e to leak (Tso); reduce (Tso); *ziad I fiii- I y i to be dispersed (Tso);
leisurely, comfortable (Tso). Gl. 88.
c. *sfat I sjat I s i e rope, fetters (Lunyii); reins (Tso).
339 *diad I dfiii- Ish 1 generation, epoch (Shi); from generation to generation,
heredttary (Shi); world, worldy, vulgar (Li). b. is Chou II (inscr. 169), c. is Chou IIIIIV
(inscr. 295). For the explanation of the graph cf. 633 a-c. below.
d. *s{ad   I s. hi and.? I di'ia-1 she lend, borrow (Chouli); remit (Kuoyii).
e. *z1ad 1M- I y 1 and *z1at I 1iit I y e to pull (Siin); oar (Ch'uts'i).
f. *ziad iai- I y i oar (Ch'uts'i). - g. id. garrulous (Sun).
b. *siat sfiit Is i e and *zfad I fiii- I y i leak out, ooze (Kuan); spread, distribute (Li);
?e di.spersed, relieved (Shl); dragging, slowly-mowing (ShY); familiar, disrespectful (loan
for 330m., Meng); loan for g. (Shi). Gl. 88.
i. *sfat I sfiit Is i e to bind (Chouli); loan for 330 rr. garment next to the body (Slli).
Gl. 135.- j. id. bridle strap (Yili).
k .. I I i toil, fatigue, (Shi). (Ts'ie yii.n also gives a reading *dfr;d 1
t· I.Y 1, th1s bemg really the readmg of the variant 509 g. ap. Tso in Ode 194). Gl. 566.
I. *s1at I S?iit I s i e cleanse (Yi); leak (Chuang); cf. h. above. - m. id. bind (Ch'uts'i:);
leading-string (Li); cf. i. and j. above.
340 *liad lliiii- lli whetstone (ShY); polish (Tso ); loan for id. oppressive, cruel (Slri);
ev1l (Shi); stern (Lunyti); ugly (Chuang); high (Kuliang); dangerous (Yi); a ford (Shi:);
to wet the dress (Shi); ends of a sash hanging down (Shi); epidemic (Shu); stimulate
99
BUDLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
34 s rK .. - PWl. 342_ r!t
1 ': \ *\ rjJ ft 'A_ '£. ,'i, .!{__
a...
lr c d.. e f 9 h.. i. j k L
1tt t: 343 1[ 344 34S f{:: Aft J4(
1r c. cL e f 9 a. a. a. lr
E\   347 )(_ ;(tj 1_ 348 o)(
1r c d. e f 9 h.. ,_ j k a. lr
c
349 -t- 3fo Ar 3fl t _t1. l ;tj__ 11_
et- !r c cL e f 9 1-L t- j k.
&'
n. 0 a... lr c.
(Shu); demon (Tso); close to (Chuang); hedge (Chouli). Gls. 582, 758, 1298, 1568. The
Seal has 'scorpion' (see 267 and 326) under 'a cliff' (see 45); possibly the primary
graph for e.- b. id. grindstone, grind (Shu). -c. id. exert oneself (Shu). Gl. 129_8. -
d. id. epidemic, calamity (Tso); leper (Li); destroy (Kuan). Gl. 758. - e-f. ul. a
stinging insect (Chuang).
g. *lad llai- 1 1 a i and *ljad 1 11 i and *hit Jldt 11 a coarse grain (Lie).
341 a-c. *b'jad 1 b'jai- I pi worn out (Shi:); to damage, ruin (Tso); vile, despicable
(Tso); throw aside (Li); loan for h. below (Chouli). b. is Yin bone (B shang 10: 2, name),
c. is Yin bone (G 6: ll, name). The graph has 'baton, beat', and 'kerchief' ·with strokes
indicating rifts. - d. id. piece of silk, offering of silk, present (Shu). - e. id. fall
(Kuoyii); bring down, stop (Chouli); to ruin (Kuots'e); become spoiled, ruined
bad (Chouli); exhaust (Kuots'e); loan for id. conceal (Kuots'e, cf. h. below). -f. 2d.
die (Tso); fall down (Tso); kill (Li); destroy (Tso).- g. variant of the preceding (Tso
ap. Shuowen). . . . ·
h. *piad 1 pjai- I pi to cover (Li); screen (Ts?); m dece1;e
covering, umbrageous, luxuriant (Shi); loan for 2d. decide (Tso); deciSion, verdict (Shu);
for 500 d. (Chouli). Gls. 45, 1658.
i. *pjad I pjai- I pi and *pfat I piat I pie a kind of pheasa1_1t (Chouli).
j. *pjat 1 pjat 1 pie turtle (Shi:). - k. variant of the precedmg (Chuang).
1. *p'iat I p'fat I p'i e hasty, irascible (Lie).
m. *b'iat I b'iet I pie tread, march (restless at work) (Chuang).
342 a-e. *gfwad I jiwiii- I wei to guard (Li). b. is Yin bone (A 4: 31,5), c. is Yin
bone (B hia 22: 16), d. is Chou I (inscr. 55), e. is Chou II (inscr. 145). The graph has
'walk', two 'feet' and either 'a square' or a 'circle' - possibly indicating the walled
area guarded by the sentinel. Cf. :¥:, 571 below. - f. id. exaggerate (Kuan).
g. *g'wad 1 ywai- I h u a i overstep, go beyond, speak nonsense (Tso).
343 a. *liu·ad 1 t§iwai-1 c hue i unite, together (Shi); excrescence (Chuang); superfluous,
malplace (Lao). Gl. 976.
100
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMM AT A SERICA REGEN SA
344 a. *diwad I jwai- I j u e i perspicacious (Kuoyii); l/X variant of the same (Yi).
The Seal has 'eye' and 'deep' (466 a. below).
345 a. *ts'iwad I ts'iwai- It s'u e i and *t$'iwad I i$'iwdi- I c h'u e i down, fine hair (Li);
felt (Shi). Gl. 210. The Seal has 'hair' tripled.
b. *ts'iwad I ts'iwai- / t s'u e i and *t'iwad I t§'iwiii- J c h'u e i and *t'z'wan I ts'iwiin- I
c h'u a n hole, cave, pit (Chouli).
c. *ts'fwat I ts'iwdt I ts'ii e brittle, fragile (Kuan). Oftenread ts'uei inMand. through
confusion with the synonymous 296 c. above.
346 a-e. *siwad I sf:wai- Is u e i year (Shi); harvest (Tso). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 36,6),
c. is Yin bone (A 7: 38,2), d. is Chou II (inscr. 132), e. is Chou II (inscr. 180). The
graph seems to be a drawing of some kind of dagger-axe (cf. Group 7) and it may be
the original form for k. below.
t. * xiwud I xiwvi- I hue i beard (Chuang).
g. xwdd I xwai- I hue i rustling of wings (Shi). Gl. 172.
h. *xwdt I xudt I h u 0 splash (Shi). Gl. 172.
i. *'fwi'id I 'f:wvi- I w e i bad weeds (Siin); dirt, filth (Shu).
j. *'iwiit I 'iwvt I y u e and *"iwat I ·fwiit I y ii e sound of vomiting (Li); *xwdd I xwai- I
hue i tinkle (of bells) (Shi); loan for id. ample, deep (sc. chamber) (Shl). Gls. 172,
482, 504.
k. *ksfwad I kfwai- I k u e i to wound, damage (Li). The Archaic initials in this group
are very irregular and enigmatic, cf. 613 below.
347 a *ngfad I ngf:vi- I y i Shuowen says: to mow, thus taking it to be the primary
form of b. (no text). Loan for id. govern, regulate, control, orderly (Shu); loan for c.
white-haired (Shu). Gls. 1245, 1317, 1922. The original graph may have been a
drawing of some kind of grass-cutting scissors. - b .. id. to mow (Shi); cut (Shi:).
c. *ngad I ngai. I a i Artemisia (Shi); white-haired, old (Shi:); beautiful (Meng); requit.e
loan for *ngfad I ngfvi- I y i (cf. a., b.) to mow (Shi); govern, regulate, orderly,
ach1eve order (Shi); end, to end (Shi). Gls. 447, 481, 1304, 1875.
34:8 a. *b'f:w?Fl I b'f:wvi- If e i to bark (Shi). The Seal has 'mouth' and 'dog'.
34:9 a. *kar I kd- I k o tally, piece, item (Shu, Chouli, Tso); side-building (Tso); *kdn 1
krln- I k an sides of a target (Chouli). Gl. 2ll2.
350 a. *nar I nd In o place name (Tso); loan for id. much, ample (Shi); fine, beautiful
(Kuoyii); aupres-de, in regard to (Kuoyii); how, what (Tso). Gl. 188.
351 a-b. *klwar I kud: I k u a fruit (Li); result, effect (Tso); (when it comes to the
result:). really (Meng); in the end (Lu); bring to result (Lunyii); (go to the bitter end:)
determmed, courageous (Lunyii); k u o- l o gourd (Sill); loan for i. below (Chouli),
for m. (Chouli), for n. (Meng, current ed.); loan for *k'lwdr I k'u/i: I k'u o satisfied
(Chuang). b. is Yin bone (A 4:41,5, name). The graph is a drawina.
c. *klwdr I kufi: I k u o k u o -l o a kind of small wasp (Shi). - id. bind, 1nap
up (Shi).
e. *k'lwar I k'ud- I k'u o dust (Ch'uts'i). - f. id. try, test (Ch'uts'i).
g. *glwar I luil: I l o bare, naked (Li). - h. variant of the preceding (Tso). - i. id.
naked (Tso); k u o -1 o gourd (Shi, see a.); id. k u o -l o wasp (Shl, see c.).
101
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR &ASTERN ANTIQUITIES
3S3 !< 0} ± 351 £
1
t[ ff 4- Jfs- it
ct. lr c.. o... lr c cL e f 9 a.. lr
c
_f:Jl_ Iii_ 3S& fJ:_ J.fJ_ 357 fi- 1* Ji J{ 358
d. e. a.. lr a.. ir c d. e. f 9 h..
;tt Jit:_ }l'ft. 4 #t -f ;r-t ;:-£ }t
a.. l.r c d. e. f :1 h. i.. J k L -m.n
0 p
.IiJ, ;J::IL ;t:IL Y:_IL ..J:: 1L
Jl4 /K. ;K
r 5 t v
j. *g'lwm· 1 ywa: 1 h u a ankle (Li). - k. id. hi- h u a oblique, perverse (Chuang,
meaning much debated).
1. *g'lwar 1 ywa: 1 h u a and *g'lwJr I yuij,i: I h u e i and *g'lwan I yuan: I h u a n turn
round (as a wheel) (Li).
m. *klwdn 1 kndn- 1 k u an pour out libation in sacrifice (Shl); pour out and serve
(guests) (Chouli).
n-o ·war 1 ·ua: 1 w o servant girl (Meng ap. Shuowen). o. is Yin bone (A 7: 17,2,
name).
352 a-b. *klwdr 1 kud 1 k u o Shuowen says: earthen vessel (no text). b. is Chou II
(inscr. 143, name). The graph is a drawing.
c. *klwar 1 kua: 1 k u o (variant of 351 c. above, hence the reading) a kind of small
wasp (ShY ap. Shuowen).
353 a-c. *xwar I xun: I h u 0 fire (Shi). b. is Yin bone (A 8: 3, 1}, c. is extracted from
the archaic graph of 480 s. below (Chou II, inscr. 132).
354 a-c. *t'nwar 1 t'ua: 1 t'o tranquil, at ease, sit at ease (ShY). Gl. 659. b. is Yin
bone (A 5: 19,1), c. is Chou I (inscr. 58). The graph 'woman' and 'hand'. ..
d. *nwar 1 nuqi: 1 n e i hungry, starve (Lunyii); loan for rotten (sc. fo_od) (Lunyu).
e. *tljwar 1 rLiwi 1 j u e i tassel, free-hanging end of band (ShY, some verswns)? pennon
(Li). The phonetic at the right has been corrupted into 357 a. below, the archaiC graphs
of 354 and 357 being very similar.
f. *niwi:ir lriwiQ- I w e i implicate (Lie, in a symbolic name). Same corruption of the
phonetic as in the preceding. . . .. .
g. *sniwar 1 swi 1 s u e i strap on carriage for help m (Lunyu); loan for td. to
comfort, to (Sh1); to stop _(from ba:ttle) (T:o);
solemn (Sun); walkmg slowly (Sill); loan for *sn)Wlt1 I I sue 1 and . I XJWH}. I
hue i name of a sacrifice (Li); for *t'nwdr I t'ttd: I t'o keep at a level below the
(sc. the cup in making obeisance) (Li); alt. form for e. above (ShY and Li, some verswns).
Gls. 195, 1027, 1178, 1463.
355 a. *swar 1 sud 1 so raincoat made of straw (only Han _time text ex., _yiian); _it
s thus the primary form of b. below, whence our readmg. Loan for I I
102
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
shu a i (Pek. reading irregular, we should expect a shu e i) diminish, decline decay
(Lunyii); I I c h'u e i reduce, graduate (Tso); *ts'war I ts'uqi I t s'u e. i
(graduated clothes:) mourning clothes (Li).
b. *swc(r I sua Is o raincoat made of straw or rush(Shl); to cover with thatch or stra-w
(Kungyang). - c. variant of the preceding (raincoat) (Lie).
d. I I shu a i rafter (Tso).
e. *ts'war I ts'uqi I t s'u e i (graduated clothes:) mourning clothes, piece of mourning
cloth worn on the breast (Tso), see a. above.
356 a. *xiwar I xfwie: I hue i demolish (Shl); denigrate, revile (Lunyii}; pray in order
to eliminate noxious spirits (Chouli); deteriorate (Li). - b id. blazing fire (Shi).
Gl. 36 .
357 a. "iwar I I wei bend (Li); fall (Chuang); hang down (Li); cast away (Meng);
entrust to (Tso); deliver to (Tso); "iwar I jwie:, jwfe- I wei collect, to store (Chouli);
I "jwie I wei wei- y i, wei- t'o compliant, complaisant (Shi). Gl. 49.
b. ·lwar I I wei long and winding (sc. road) (Shi). Gl. 401.- c. id. rheumatism
or paralysis in the legs (Lii). - d. id. to wither (Shi). - e. id. tortuous movement,
fluttering (of a flag) (Ch'uts'l), cf. b. above. Gls. 49, 401.
f. ·jwi:ir I "jwie- I wei feed (an animal) (Li); loan for the similar 354 d. (Kuoyii).
g. ·war I ·ua, ·,ua- I w o to sprain (Hanfei).
h-i. see group 354 above.
358 a-b. *ts'jtir I ts'i(.;: It s''i this (Shl). b. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 315). The graph has
'man' and 'foot' and it may be the primary form for e. below. - c. id. small pettv
(Shi). ' •
d. *ts'far I I t s'i lower end of plough handle, in which the share is fastened (Chouli).
e. *ts'iar I It s'i trample (Lie).
f. I It s''i female of birds, female (ShY). -g. variant of the preceding (Lii).
h. *ts'1ar I ts'te: It s'i and *ts'iar I ts'iei: It s'i (limpid:) fresh and bright (Shi); sweat
(Meng). Gl. 118. - i. id. (both readings) bright, lustrous (Shl). Gl. 118.
j. *tsiar I tsie: I t s I purple (Lunyii).
k-1.. I tsif},: Its i defame, slander (ShY); have aversion for (Kuan); loan for
*ts1ar I tstf< I t s 'i to measure (Shangtsi"); (measured order:) limit (Kuan); think of
desire_ (Li); *dziar I Is i fault (Li); loan for 555 f. (Siin); form. below (Lie). Gl. 574:
m. *tszar. I tsie Its i property, thing of value (Kuan). - n. id. mustache (Li.i). -
o. variant of the preceding (Tso).
P- *dz'iar It s'i flaw (Shu), defect (Tso); loan for k. defame (Siin).
q. *dz'iar dz'ie- I t s'i bones with meat on (Chouli).
r. *dz'far dz'ie- I t s i carcass, bones of an animal (Li). GI. 470.
s. *dz'far I t s i and *dz'iar I dz'iei- I t s i eye socket (Lie).
t. *tsiwar tswif,! I t s u e i and *tsfi:ir I I t s i beak (Li, in the phrase t s u e i - h u e i,
t s i - h u e i name of a constellation).
u. *dz'ar I d:;'ai I c h'a i to heap, a heap (Shi ap. Shuowen). Gl. 470. - v. id. burnt-
offering (Shu ap. Shuowen).
x. *dz'ar I d:;'ai I c h'a i firewood (Li); burnt-offering (Shu); to hedge in, to block,
obstruct (Chuang); *tsjar I I t s i and *dz'jar I dz'ie- I t s i accumulate, heap (Shi).
Gl. 470.
359 .a-b. *tiiar ltiiie: I e r adverb suffix (Lunyii); final particle (Lunyii); *niar I niei: I
n 1 flowering, luxuriant (Shl); loan for *t!ia I I e r you (Shi); loan for c. (Shi).
b. is Chou III (inscr. 234). Gls. 264, 780.
103
BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEUJII OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
3SJ J[ i t )j_
CL
lr c. cL e f 9 h.. 1. :J k L
n 0
Jco ,Jt r@ t 3C 1 "- 1:; w JJ- 362_ tfl EB EB 1t£J
l.r G cL e a.. lr c d. a. lr c d... a..
tf¥( ${ lBl 3&3 t i   3b"4 jp r Jc;s-
e f 1:J h. a.. lr c. d. e f a. l.r c .
f 1 4 '{- j(( £ ;..t §[ 1£ 7! !.£ 1!:
/.r C d.. e. f a. lr c d e f
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L -m a. lr c. d
c. *1liitr I /tiif(: / e r near (Shl).
d-f. *niar 1 niei: 1 n i mother (Kuangya and Ts'ieyiin, no early text ex.). e. is Chou
III (inscr. 231, name), f. is Chou II/III (inscr. 266, name). -g. id. numerous (Shl).
Gl. 264. - h. id. dead father's tablet and temple (Shu, kin-wen version). Gl. 1265.
i. *niar j niei: j n i ample, luxuriant (Shl ap. Shuowen); in an abbreviated form loan for
*ni<Jt j niet j n i e oblivious (Chuang). Gl. 264.
j. *snfar j j si seal (Tso). Mand. s i is irregular, we should expect as 'i.
k-1. *snjan j sjiin: j s i en autumnal hunt (Tso). k. is the Shuowen form, I. the abbre-
viated current form.
m-n. *miar I I m i to finish (Chouli); *mjc7r / mji(< / m i complete (Shl); extend,
increase (Tso); still more (Lunyii); extensively, long (Shu). n. is Chou III/IV (insnr.
301). Gls. 912, 1971.
o. *mfar / mjiQ, mjia: / m i and *miar I rniei: / m i a rich and full flow (of a river) (Shi).
Gl. 119.
360 a-C. *rniar I I ill i bow with the ends not bound with string and lackered
but capped with bone or ivory (Shi); loan for id. to stop (Slii); cease (Tso). b. is Chou r
(inscr. 88), c. is Chou (inscr. 352, name). The graph has 'bow' and 'ear'. - d. id. wash
(Chouli).
e. *miar / miei / m i fawn (Li).
361 a-c. *t'ien I t'ien I t'i en Heaven (Slii); loan for id. to brand on the forehead (Yi).
b. is Yin bone (A: 3, 7), c. is Chou I {inscr. 63). The graph is a drawing of an anthropo-
morphic deity.
d. *t'm j t'an I t'u n and t'ien / t'ien / t'i en to swallow (Kuots'e).
362 a-c. *d'ien j d'ien j t'i en field, cultivated land (Shl); to hunt (Shi); loan for id.
sound of the drum (Li); *d'ien I d'ien- /tie n to cultivate the land (Shl); loan for
385 I. (Shl). Gl. 1097. b. is Yin bone (A 2: 7,3), c. is Chou I (inscr. 65). The graph is
a drawing.
104
BE:RNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMM AT A SERICA RECENSA
d. *d'ien / d'ien I t'i en and *d'ien / d'ien- /tie n cultivate the field (only Han time
text ex.); loan for a. to hunt (Yi).
e-f. *d'ien I d'ien I t'i en to hunt (Lii); *d'ien / d'ien- j tie n cultivate the field (Shu).
f. is Yin bone (G 9: 7).
*d'ien / d'ien- /tie n Royal domain (Shu); cultivated land, agricultural products
(L1); re,a_-dy for culture (Shl); loan for a. to hunt (Chouli). Shiwen gives
the reading a;ang I Z?Jng- Ish eng (loan for *) in two more senses: area of 64
primary villages (Li); carriage of a minister (Tso). This loan is phonetically hiahly
curious. h. is Chou I (inscr. 97). Gls. 675, 1384. e
36_3 a-d .. *d'ien ( d'ien- /tie n. and *d'ieng / d'ieng- I tin g set forth, present (offer-
mg,e_) (Shl);,_offermgs (Shu); to d1eplay (Shu); to fix, settle (Shu); put down (Shi); *d'ieng
/ d_ung It 111g stagnant (sc. water) (Chouli). Gl. 1974. b. is Yin bone (A 1: 24,3),
c. 1s Chou I (mscr. 112, sense of e. below), d. is Chou II (inscr. 148). The graph shows
a vessel on a support.
e. *d'ieng I 'rliiing- / chen g place name (Tso).
f. *d'iEk I 'a'iak I chi hold in the step, hesitate (Sun).
364 a-:J· *nien /_nien / n i en harvest (Ch'unts'iu); year (Shl). b. is Yin bone (A 1:50,
1), c. IS Chou I (mscr. 57). 'The graph has 'man' carrying 'grain'.
365 a-d. *ts'ien / ts'1:en / t s'i en thousand (Sill). b. is Yin bone (A 8: 5,1), c. is Yin
bone (A 4: 1,7), d. is Chou I (inscr. 65): The graph has 'man' with a stroke on one lt>a.
- e. id. north-south going path betwen fields (Mo). -f.
1d. flounshing, nch (sc. country) (Lie).
366 a-b. *g'iwen / yiwen / h ii an dark-coloured, black (Shi). b. is Chou II (inscr.
133).
c. *g'iwen I yiwen: I h u an to flow (Lunyii).
d. / yiU::n- I h ii an troubled sight, delude, deceive (Meng).
e. g twen / ytwen: I h u an bar passed through ears of a ting vessel in order to lift it
(Yi).
f. *g'ien I yien I hie n bow string (Yili); string of musical instrument (Lunyii). - g.
variant of the preceding (Li).
h. *g'ien / y_ien- /hie n bright (Kuots'e).
i. *g'ien / yien h i en millipede (Chuang).
j. *g'ien I yien- hie n go about boasting (Ch'uts'i').
k. *k'ien I lc'ien k'i en pull, drag, lead (Shi); (animals that are led:) cattle (Tso)· attach
(Lii). '
I. *kwan / kuan: / k u n big fish, N. Pr. (Kuoyii) (variant of 417 i. and 419 a. below).
m. *g'ien I yien /hie n speak quickly (Chuang).
367 *·iw_en / ·iwen / ii an abyss (Shi); deep (Shi); deep sound of the drum (Slii).
b. 1s Chou I (mscr. 58), c. IS Chou III/IV (inscr. 324). The graph has 'water' and a draw-
ing of an abyss. - d. variant of 370 f. below (Chouli).
368 a-b. *k'f:En / k'iEn- I k'i n and *k' lin I k' an j k'i en Shuowen says: solid (no
text) thus taking it to be the primary form of d. The graph has 'hand' and 'slave'.
b. is Chou I (inscr. 81, name).
c. *kien / kien / k i e n hard, solid, slirong (Shi).
105
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
3&8 §B( " 36'9 370 ® [IJ ffi 0
lr c d e f '3 h. a... CL l.r c. cl
AltJ a0 37! 5\ *71 Ml 371 373 r1
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d. *k'ien 1 k'ien 1 k'i en and *k'an I k'an I k'i en solid, firm (Chuang); loan for 366 k.
above (Chuang). Gl. 398. _ . . , . .
e-f. *g'ien 1 yien 1 hie n wise, worthy (Sin); supenor (LI); loan for *g ten I yten·/
hie n the hollow of a wheel nave (Chouli). f. is Chou I (inscr. ll8, name).
g. *kjen 1 kfiJn: 1 kin to bind tight, to press (only Han time text ex.); loan for c. above
(Kuan).
h. *clien I ifen: I she n kidney (Shu).
369 a. *g'jen 1 g'jen 1 (k'i n) lance shaft (Kuots'e); loan for id. pity, pitiable (Shl); modest,
respectful (Meng); dignified (Lunyii); vigorous (Shi); Gls. 748.
In these loan senses Ts'ieyi.in and Sh'iwen read *k1mg I ki<mfll k 1 n g, but this IS very
enicrmatic for in the Shl also in these senses the character rimes in the -en class. The
ch:racter 'also serves as loan for M!, 481 below (Sill), which also ended in-n: *kwcn.
370 a-c. *'ien 1 ·jen 1 yin rest upon (Meng); rely on (Shi:); of,
the best of (Shu); trusting, attached to, devoted (ShY); followmg, contmue (Lunyu);
accord with (Meng); then, therefore (Meng); because of (Li). 826, 1032, 1221. b.
is Yin bone (A 5: 38,3, sense here uncertain), c. is Chou IV (mscr. 286, name). The
·word 'to rest on' is etymologically identical with next 'mat', and the. graph shows
a man resting on a mat. - d. id. mat (Shi). - e. bed time text );
loan for id. generative influence of Heaven and Earth - f. by
(Shi); marriage (Shi). Gl. 493. - g. id. horse of IDIXed grey and white colour (Shi).
Gl. 409. f
h. *'ien 1 'ien 1 yen gullet (Kuots'e); *'ien J 'ien- /yen to swallow loan or
*'ien I ·ten j yin and *'iwen I 'iwen I y ii an beat of the drum (Sh1).
i. *'1:en I 'ien I yen vapour, smoke (Siin).
j. *'em I '<m 1 en kindness, favour (Meng); love (ShY).
371 a. *dfen 1 jen: 1 yin draw the bow (Meng); (Tso); stret?h
to lead (Shi); to guide (Shu); prolong (Shi); try to (L1); for b. (LI). Gl. 1802.
The graph has 'bow' and a stroke which probably dep1cts the strmg.
b. *djen I fen- I yin strap for pulling carriage (Shi:).
c. *djen I I yin earth-worm (Meng). .
d. *d'fen 1 d'fen: I c hen rope by which cattle are led (LI).
106
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAM-MATA SERICA RECENSA
372 a. *d'jen / a'fen: I chen rope by which cattle are led (Chouli), variant of 371 d.
above.
373 a-c. *d'fen I d'ien I c h'e n set forth, arrange (Shi), to display (Lunyii); display,
illustriousness (Shu); diffuse, give (Tso); widely (Shl); (place of display:) path from the
gate to t_!Ie great hall (ShY}; loan for id. old (not new, sc. grain) (Shl), to tarry (Shu);
*d'fen I d'jen- I chen battle array (Lunyii). Gl. 675. b. is Chou IV (inscr. 284),
D. is Chou IV (inscr. 285) - in both these cases a Ts'i family name and enlarged by
rad. 32 'earth'. - d-e. variant of the preceding (Ch'uts'i). e. is Chou III (inscr.
216, name of a feudal country, for which the classics have a. above). - f. variant of
a. in its reading and sense of 'battle array' (Ch'uts'i).
g. *d'ien / q'jen I c h'e n c h'e n- tun agitated, anxious (Chuang).
374 a. *d'jen / cl'fen I c h'e n dust (Shl). The Seal has 'deer' and 'earth'.
375 *tj'en I tsjen I c hen true, real (Chuang).
b. *tjerz, I t§i_en, t#.en: I chen and *d'ien I d'ien- I tie n dry and compact (sc. wood)
(Chouli). Gl. 132.
c. *Uen I tsien, tS(en: I c hen dense, fine-textured (sc. stuff) (Li).
d. I chen black hair (Shi). Gl. 132. -e. variant of the preceding (Tso).
f. *tzen I t1en- I chen press down, put keep down, control (Tso); loan
for_ u. to block, fill (Kuoyii); for *tjen / tjen, tjen: I chen precious thing (Chouli).
g. *t'ien / ts'ien I c h'e n open the eyes wide, glare (Chuang).
I I chen and *d'ien: / d'ien / t'i en rumble (of falling stones) (Kungyang).
1. *rhen I z1en- I s hen careful, Circumspect (Sh'i).
j. *tien I tien /tie n overthrow, fall (Kuliang). - k. id. stumble, fall (Si.in). - I.
id. illness, suffering, affliction (Shi:); madness (Kuots'e).
m. *tien / tien I tie n top of the head (Sh1); (fall on the head:). fall down, be overthrown,
overthrow (Shi); loan for id. concentrate upon, wholly intent on (Chuang); loan for
*d'ien I d'ien I t'i en full, fill (Li); anxious, grieved (Li).
n. *tien I tien It i en top of a mountain (Shi:). - o. id. eye-tooth (Yili).
p. *t'ienj t'ien- I t'i en and *tien I lien-/chen jade pendant covering the ear (Shl)·
*tjen I tjen- /chen a kind of jade (Ch'uts'l). '
q. *d'ien j d'ien I t'i en sound of drum (Shi ap. Shuowen). - r. same as the preceding
(Shi, Mao version). - s. id. beat (Ch'uts'i:).
t. *d'ien I d'ien- I tie n to stop up (Ch'uts'i).
u. *d'ien I d'ien I t'i en to block, fill (Kuots'e); loan for id. dignified (Chuang); sound
of drum (:Meng); for *d'ien I d'ien I t'i en and *t{en I tfen- I chen subdue (Kuliang);
for *d'ien I d'ien: It i en exhausted, distressed (Sill); for *d'fen 1 a' fen 1 c h'e n old,
of long standing (Shi); for a long time (Shi). Gl. 588. - y. variant of the precedincr
'(to block, fill') (Siin). "'
x-y. *tier I tsif)- I c h 1 to place (ShY); set aside, abandon (ShY). y. is Chou IV (inscr.
289).
376 a-b. *aien I ifen- I she n careful, circumspect (inscr. 218), variant of 375 i.
above (Shuowen). b. is Chou III (inscr. 218).
377 a-f. *c'lien I ijen I c h'e n slave, servant (Shl); subject (Li); officer (Shi); minister
(Lunyii). b. is Yin bone (A 4: 32,5), c. is Yin bone (A 4: 15,4), d. is Yin (inscr. 23),
e. is Chou I (inscr. 58), f. is Chou I (inscr. 59). The graph shows an 'eye' turned in a
107
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTlQUITIES
37& :@- 377 & (1_ g tEE 378 u
c f q
y t f f 380  
e f 3 & G c Q e f
yJ: Jt 381 l t ;f 382 f + 1
9 ),_ i a.. l.r c. d.. e f a. lr C d..
t * l J%k 11
e f 9 h. i j k l rnn o p 'f IS
,.
vertical position: (the eye, pars pro toto=) the head bowed down. That 'eye' stands
for 'head' is common, cf. 241
g. I tS:fen- I c hen to wipe (Li).
378 a-e. *tsien 1 tsien- I t s i n advance (Yi); loan for id. butt-end of spear (Chouli);
name of a feudal state (Tso); insert (Chouli). b. is Yin bone (G 13: 1), c. is Chou III
(inscr. 220), d. is Chou IIIITI (inscr. 259), e. is Chou III (inscr. 238) -all names. The
upper part of the graph shows two arrows, perhaps presented as a gift (hence placed
on a support), >>brought forward>>, cf. 379 below (etymologically the same word); arrows
as gifts are recorded in bronze inscriptionR. - f. id. insert (Li). - g. id. pale red (Tso,
as part of name); loan for f. (Siin).
h. Ts'ieytin and Shiwen both read *tsian I tsfan: Its i en, because in Ode 166 there
is a variant ; but it should really be *tsfen I tsfen: I t s i n (being etym. id. w.
381 a.) to cut off (Shi:). Gl. 425.
379 a-d. *tsfen f tsfen- Its in introduce (Shu); to present (Li); advance (Shl);. b. is
Yin bone (A 4: 36,7, rad. 77 inst. of 162), c. is Chou I (inscr. 67), d. is Chou II (mscr.
189). The graph has 'bird' (presented as gift?) and 'foot' or 'walk'.
380 a-d. *dz'ien 1 dz'jen It s'i n place name (Tso); b. is Yin bone (B hia 39: 2), c. is
Chou III (inscr. 220), d. is Chou III (inscr. 229). - e. id. an insect resembling the
cicada (Shi). Gl. 165.
f. *tt?ien 1 tt?ien I c h en hazel (Sh'i). - id. name of a river (Shi); for id.
prolific (Shl). - h. id. arrive, reach (Shi). - i. id. luxuriant, nchly-groWlllg (Sh1);
numerous (Ch'uts'i).
381 a-b. *dz'ien 1 dz'ien: Its in and *tsien I tsfen: I t sin exhaust, entirely (Shi);
all (Shu); extreme (Li). b. is Yin bone (A 1:44,7, name). The graph shows a hand
holdincr a brush and wiping an empty vessel.
c. *dz'dn f dz'ien- 1 t sin ashes, combusted (Shi:). - d. id. Shuowen says: name of a
plant (no text); loan for id. promoted, prominent (sc. servant) (Shi).- e-f. id. gift
at departure (Meng).
tsien 1 tsf.iJn I t sin ford (Shu); moist (Chouli). Phonetic abbreviated.
108
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
382 a-f. *sfen I sjen I s in cyclical character (Shi}; bitter, pungent (Shu); painful
(Shl). b. is Yin bone (E 87: 3), c. is Yin bone (A l: 16,5), d. is Yin (inscr. 7), e. is Chou I
(inscr. 74}, f. is Chou I (inscr. 78).
g. *t?:ien I I she n a kind of demon (Chuang). (Anc. is irregular, we should
expect
h. *t?ien I ficn Ish en numerous (Shi); dra1vn-out, long (Shl); numerous (Shi). Gls. 17,
715.
i-j. I / chen hazel (Tso ap. Shuowen), same as 380 f. above. j. is Chou
II/III (inscr. 269, name).
k-m. *sjen I sjen, I sin new, renew (Shi). l. is Yin bone (A l: 30,5), m. is Chou I
(inscr. 67).- n. id. firewood (Shi).
o-p. *ts' jen I ts'fiJn f t s'i n parents (lVIeng); relatives (Tso); near, close (Li); to love
(l\Ieng); affectionate (Shu); oneself (Shi:). P- is Chou II (inscr. 148). - q-r. variant
of the preceding (Kuangyiin). r. is Chou IIII (inscr. 205).
s. I I c h'en inner coffin (Tso). (Anc. f$'fiJn is irregular, we should expect
1:/fcn).
383 a. *sjen I sfen- I s in Shuowen says: rapid flight (no text).
b. *s jen I sj'en- I s in and *sjwen I sfuen- I s ii n rapid, sudden (Lunyii).
c. *s1en I s(en- I s in interrogate (Sh1); announce (Kuoyii); regulate (Li); to plan (Li);
wrongly used for the similar 490 q. *sjwad, reprimand (Shl, current versions). Gl.
- d-e. id. a kind of medical plant (Tsiyiin, no text). e. is Chou IIIIIV (inscr.
:330, sense here uncertain).
384 a. *sjen I sfen,- I s in truthful, true, sincere (Shl); indeed (Shi); to believe (Shl);
to trust (Tso); good faith (Tso); loan for id. (repeat =) rest two nights in one place
(Sh'i}; loan for 385 a. extend, prolong, continue (Shl); for 385 f. to straighten (Meng).
The Seal has 'man' and 'speak'. Gls. 85, 396, 674, 1014.
385 *sjen I sjen Ish en cyclical character (Shu); stretch (Li), extend, prolong
(Shi); repeat (Shu); again, further (Shu); exhibit (Li); dignified (Lunyii); loan for g.
sing (Chuang). b. is Yin bone (A I: 12,2), c. is Yin bone (A 1: 5,1), d. is Chou I (inscr.
55), e. is Chou II (inscr. 139). - f. id. extend (Li); straighten (Yili); comfortable
(Lunyii).- g. id. chant, drone (Li). -h-i. id. sash (Lunyii). i. is Chou IIIIII (inscr.
241, name).
j-k. *(l'ien I di'ien Ish en spirit (Shl); divine, superhuman (Yi). k is Chou II
(inscr. 184).
1. *djen, I fen- I }'in a small drum (Shl; properly 'the introducer', etym. id. w. 371 a.).
Gl. 1097.
m-n. *d'ien I d'ien- It i en lightning (Shi). n. is Chou II (inscr. 154).
386 a-c. *sjen I sjen I 8 hen body, person. b. is Chou I (inscr. 77), c. is Chou II
(inscr. 174). The graph is a drawing.
d. *d'ien I d'ien I t'i en glad (Lii).
j ;- 387 a. I lien, lien- I lin Shuowen says: will-o' -the-wisp, thus taking it to be the
primary form of next (no text). The graph (seem. below) has yen 'flame' and two
'- feet (dancing?). -b. id. -will-o'-the-wisp (Lie).
r f r c. *lien flfen jli n washed and fretted by water (Shl). Gl. 294. - d. id. robust (Shi -
ap. Shuowen; meaning doubtful), see Gl. 257.
109
BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
3g3 Jl J& Jl 3841% 385 ' l f_ -{f arf?
CL. l.r c d... e. a. a.. lr c cL e. f 9
gf tf -Jf,t 38& 387
i. k L 1nn <t. lr c.- d... a.. lr c.
!-rA- ;a AA 388 A. -1
f B 1-t. ;.. j k l 'Yl'L a.. lr e.- d... e
} 38J t (if! rtl 1i 01 it f f.{(
e. f '? h. i. j k l -m._
d. e
{-:
ltk A

lr c d.
f 9 a.. c
U- $!
0
r
r
e. *lfen (lfen- (1 in to work loose, become unsteady (sc. parts of a wheel) (Chouli). -f.
id. worn thin, fretted (Lunyii). Gl. 294.
g. *lien j lien (1 in rumble of carriages (Ch'uts'i).
h. *lien j lien- / lin walk with difficulty (Ta Tai li). .
i. *lien (lien (lin group of 5 families (Chouli); neighbour (Shi); (near one:) assistant
Shu); loan for b. above (Lie), for e. (Chouli), for g. (Sh'i). - j. id. unicorn (Sh'i). - k.
id. scales of fish or reptile (Li).
1-m. *lien (lien (lien to pity (Li). m. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 332).
388 a-e. *nien j Mien j j en man (Shi). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 50,6), c. is Yin bone
(A 7: 30,2), d. is Yin (inscr. 10), e. is Chou I (inscr. 63). The graph is a drawing.- f-g.
id. kind, good (Shi). g. is Chou II/III (inscr. 251, name).
389 a-f. *pfen ( pien ( pin guest (Shl); loan for h. below (Shu). b. is Yin bone
(A 1: 9,6), c. is Yin bone (A 3: 21,5), d. is Yin bone (A 1: 1,6), e. is Chou I (inscr. 67),
f. is Chou II (inscr. 167). The graph shows 'roof' and 'man', sometimes with addition
of 'foot' or 'cowry' (gift). The meaning of the stroke over the man's head is uncertain.
g. *pien ( pien- j pin guest receiver, ceremonial assistant (Li); to welcome (Li); loan
for id. set forth, arrange (Shi:); loan for h. below (Kuots'e). - h. id. reject (Chuang);
loan for g. (Li). - i. id. put body in coffin (Li); coffin, convey a coffin (Tso).
j. *pfen ( pien 1 pin river bank, shore (Shu); loan for a. (Sh'i, Jrlao version). Gl. 642.
k. *p{en I pfen- 1 p in hair at the temples (Kuoyii).
I. *p'jen ( p'j'en 1 p'i n pell-mell, numerous (Ch'uts'i). Gl. .618. . . .
m-n. *b'fen f b'fen 1 p'i n become wife to (Shi); queen (LI); dead Wife (LI); concubme,
waiting-woman (Tso). n. is Yin bone (4: 31,1). - o. id. knit the brows (Chuang).
p. *b'jen f b'jen 1 p'i n and *b'ien ( b'ien / p'i en pearl-oyster (Shu). Gl. .
q. *b'jen 1 b'ien: 1 pin knee cap (Ta Tai li). - r. variant of the precedmg (Hanfe1).
390 a-b. *b'jen ( b'ien ( p'i n river bank, shore (Shi:); on the brink of, close to (KuoS:U);
urgent (Shi}; loan for id. to "\\Tinkle (sc. the brow) (Meng); repeatedly, frequently (Lw);
110
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
together \Kuoyii). Gl. 966. b. is Chou I (inscr. 63). The graph has a human
figure drawn as m 241 above and W 'to wade', the 'water' element of which is lost
i.n the modern c. make an angry mien, knit the brows (Hanfei). -d.
zd. a water-plant (Marstlea?) (Shi}.
391 a-:-b· *gjwenJ iuen I y n Shuowen says: little, few (no text), in later times used
for even.' b. IS Chou IIII (inscr. 209, sense of e. below).
c .. I ,k1uen: I k ii n __even, (Shi); adjusted (Shi:); uniform (Tso); all (Tso).- d.
td. soldmr s umform (Lu). - e. td. weight of 30 kin (Meng); potter's wheel (Chuana) ·
loan for c. above (Shi:). " '
f. [ yiwen I h ii an open the. big (Ta Tai li). - g. variant of the preceding.
h-1. and sense unknown. 1. ts Chou II/III (inscr. 276, name); adduced here
because 1t shows the Arch. form of f-g. above.
j. *giwen / if:uen I y ii n rind of the bamboo (Li).
392 a-d. / zfuen I s ii n ten days, decade (Shu); everywhere, all round (Shi);
equally distnbuted, _equal (Shi). Gls: 222, 1041. b. is Yin bone (A 1: 7,1), c. is Yin
bone (A 4: 29,6 }, d. Is Chou III/IV (mscr. 306, sense of 'all round')
e. * I f. s "ii n everywhere, all round (Tso ); publish throughout (Tso);
  / zJuen, ZJuen- /sun to cause (Chuang). - f. variant of the preceding
(Hanfei).
g. *dzJwen I zfuen- / s ii accompany in death, bury alive along with, die for (Tso);
devote oneself, wholly given up to (Chuang).- h-i. variant of the precedu· Ig (T ,. ,.. )
· · y· b B h s Ie' un .
1. IS m one ( ia 21: 1, sense here uncertain). ·
j. *ziwen I juen y ii n and *dzjwen I zfuen I s ii n and *sfwen f sfuen 1 s ii n clear land
for ?ulture (Shi). The phonetic has here its form without 'sun'.
k. / s ii sincere (Shu); believe (Lie); respectful (Lunyii); *sjwen 1 siuen
s1uen- / sun fear (LI}. Gl. 222. · '
I. *siwen / / s ii n to drip, tears falling (Kuoyii); loan for id. truly really (Shl)·
loa*n .fovr * I xiwen I h ii an far away (Shi:). Gls. 84, 222. ' '
m. B?:,Ve:" I   / s ii n eye-sight, deluded (Chuang); *sjwen 1 8fuen- j shun
and. z.wen.l vxnven:. I h u an flutter the eyes, scared (Chuang).
n. I BJuen: / s u n bamboo sprouts (Shi; in this sense mostly read s u n in
young bamboo (Shu); cross-beam in a bell frame (Chouli, one version); bamboo
carrmge (Kungyang); Gl. 1989.
o. *sjwen I sjuen I s ii n name of a plant (Shan hai king); N. Pr. (Tso).- p. id. to plan
(Sht); consult (Shu).
q. *siwen I sfuen- / s ii n and *dzjwen I zjuen / s ii n take the first inimical step start
a quarrel with (Kungyang). '
r. I ii an and I sfuen I s ii n ornate, decorated (Lunyii).
s. szwen   / sun cross-beam m a bell-frame (Chouli), cf. n. above. - t. variant
of n. bamboo sprouts' (Chuang).
u. *t'jwen I t'iuen I c h'u n and *siwen I sftten / s ii n a kind of tree (varnish tree?) (Tso).
393 *kiet / kiet I k i (Shi); good (Shi). b. is Yin bone (A 7: 43,2),
c. IS Ym bone (A 2: d. Ym bone (A 5: 16,2), e. is Yin bone (A 5: 17,1), f. is Yin
. (A g. 1s Ym (mscr. 25), .h .. is Chou I (inscr. 55).
1• k Jet I k 1et / k I - J. td. to examine, to question (Shu); reprimand,
loan for k I-c h a o next morning (Tso ); k'i a o-k'i anxious (Chuang).
111
BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
3 G
Q tr c d.. e- f 9 h... 1... j a... lr (... d...
fa] 1{3] c) f 1·&J 5 fiJ §9J w a !
e f 9 h 1- j k L tt1.n o p CJ r S t
353 a <t l 1{1 -Jfi n
l.r c. d e f '3 i. 1 k L
a..
8 f;;IJ 3J4 -- - -
t 1..L v- ;>( lj f .z... a... lr c cL
0 q s
k. *g'iet lg'jetlki straight, unswerving Gl.45!.l.-l-m.
id. a family name (Shi). m. is Chou I (mscr. 90). ,.
n. *kiet 1 lciet j k i e and *kiet J kifJt 1 k i to grasp (Shi'); loan for 504 below (Knots e).
Gl. 381. 1 (Ch )
0
. *kiet 1 lciet 1 k i e name of a medicinal plant (Kuots'e); a -sweel? uang · - P·
id. tie, knot (Shi); to curl (said of a worm) (Li); to end, d1e (Huaman); loan for t.
(Ch'uts'i). . · 1 1 · t (Sh'i')
q. *kiet 1 kiet j k i e and *hit j kat I k i a lift up the skirts, carry m t 1e sur s • .
Gl. 2!.l. 1 f ·a h. h
r-s. *g'iet 1 yiet j hie straighten the neck of a bird) . oan
9
or · I e - u a
complicated, intricate (Chuang). Gl. 71. s. IB Chou III/I .
t. *kied j kiei- j k i hair-knot, chignon (no pre-Han text ex.); *het / klet I k I e name of
a aod with this hair-dress (Chuang).
u. *"kelt kat 1 k i a straw, stalk of grain (Shu). Gl. 1386.
v. *a' at yilt I hi a shrewd (Kuots'e). . . '
x. *k'iit k'at j k'i a solidly, earnestly, diligently (Shu) .. Gl. Hi04.. .. Gl.
y. *g'iet yiet j hie tuck in the order carry m them (Slu}, cf. q. above-
29.- z. variant ofthe precedmg (Sh1 ap. Shiwen).
394 a-d. *'jet 1 ·i_et j y i one (Shi). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 33,7), c. is Yin (inscr. 32}, d. is
Chou I (inscr. 54). The graph is a symbol.
395 a. *'i'et 1 ·jet j y i one (Sh'i); single-hearted, wholly devoted to, uniquely (Shi);
uniformity (Tso).
b. *' iet / 'iet I y e choke (Shi). .. .. .
c-g. *'ied j 'i- j y i excellent, good (Shi}; r:press IS Chou II
(inscr. 188, name}, f. is Chou III/IV (mscr. 317, g. IS (mscr. 3o7). Gls. 368,
1055. - h. id. rotten, spoiled (sc. food) (Lunyu); choke (L_u). . .
i. *'ied 1 ·iei- 1 y i cloudy, wind-blown, clark skies (Shl).- ]· vanant of the precedmg
(Sh'i ap. Shuowen).- k. id. kill (Sh'i). Gl. 822.
396 a. *diet 1 iet 1 y i to flee, escape (Tso); let loose (Tso); relax, licentious ,fault
(Shu); at ea;e (Sh'i}; retire from the world (Lunyti.); Gl. 706. The Seal has hare and
(go =) 'run'.
112
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMAT A SERICA REGEN SA
397 a. *djet I jet I y i ro\V of pantomime (Lunyti).
398 a-c: .. I Ish 'i fruit (Tso); enrich (Shu); full (Tso); fill, stop
up (Sh1}, sohd (Shi),. real, really. (Lunyu); (Meng); id est, this, that (Shi:). Gls.
730, 1159, 1873. b. IS Chou II (mscr. 147), e. IS Chou III (inscr. 228). In the graph
under 'roof' there is 'cowry' (money) and another element of uncertain meaning. '
399 a-c. / -I t s i (this reading, though not in Ts'ieyti.n or Kuangyiin, is revealed
by th:. Shi nmes and _hie- she n g derivates) go to (Shl); attain to (Shu);
fortlnnth, thereupon (Sh1); (if It Is:) even though, even (Shu); loan for id. wick of a candle
<?I. 2090. The same has been applied to a synonymous word *tsjJk 1
t8pk Its I, see 923.below. b. IS Ym bone (A 5: 21,5), c. is Chou I (inscr. 65). The graph
a   kneelmg before a food vessel (see 921 below).
d. I I c h 'i to scrape (Chouli).
e-f. / tsiet I .t e kn?ts _or joints bamboo or other plants (Shi); degree, rank
(Shu), .. regular diVlSIOn (L1); JUncture, 01rcumstance (Lunyii); regulate, discriminate
); to. moderate ); rule, la': (Li); baton, tessera, token of authority (.Meng);
c_apital ?f p1llar (Lunyu); loan for *tstet I t8iet I t s i e and *dz'iet 1 dz'iet 1 t s i e crPst-
like (Shi}. Gl. 511. f. is Chou IV (inscr. 290).
g. I I c h e comb (Sh'i).
400 I ts'ie: It s'i seven (Sh'i). b. is Yin bone (E 5: 3), c. is Yin (inscr. 19},
d. 1s Cho? I 6!). the cross served in later time for 'ten', see group
m_ArchalC times for seven; the Archaic graph for 'ten' was a vertical stroke
e. *t'1et I t.'?!et I c h'! revile (Tso). ·
f. *ts'iet I ts'iet It s'i c cut (Shi'); press, urge, earnest (Lunyii).
401.a. *t8'i.et I ts'iet / t s'i varnish (only Han-time text ex.). The Seal shows a tree
Wltl:, of fluid. - b. id. varnish tree (Shi); black (Chouli).
e. *s1et / s1et I s i knee (Yili).
    Ish 'i fail; lose let go, neglect, err (Tso); loan for b. below (Chuang).
• d1et I 1et I Y I escape (LI); retue (.Meng); ease (Meng); idleness (Lunyii); neglect (Shu).
113
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
c. *diet 1 jet 1 y i gush forth quickly (Chuang); let loose, dissipated, reckless (Shu) (in
the first sense also read *d'iet I d'iet It i e).
d. *diet 1 jet 1 y i and *d'iet I d'iet It i e rush past, overtake (Tso); take by a rush (Tso);
loan for 286 e. (Kuots'e).
e. *t'iet I i'iet I c h'1 beat, flog (Tso). .
f. *d'iet 1 d'jet 1 c h 1 order, regulate (Shu); orderly, regular (Shi'); suc_cessrvely (Shu);
rank, office (Tso ); emoluments, salary (Tso ); pure (Shl). Gl. 317. - g. small satchel
(Li); loan for f. above (Chuang). - h. id. to fly, soar (Chuang).
i. *d'iet 1 d'iet 1 tie gourd stem (Shl). - j. id. stumble (Siin); to rush (Mo). - k. id.
alternate (Sbi); loan for id. rush into (Tso), cf. d. above. Gl. 69.
1. *d'iet 1 d'iet 1 tie and *t'f.et j t'iet I c h'I to winlc, to blink (Kungyang, one version).
403 a-c. *lf.et 1 lfet jl i chestnut (Shi); loan for id. full and rich (sc. ears of grain) (Shi);
solid, compact (Li); dense (Sh1); shivering, cold (Sbi); awed, respectful (Shu); pass.
(sc. steps of a staircase) (Yili); loan for Gls. 873, .ll32, b. 1s
bone (A 2: 19,3 name), c. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 328). The graph IS a drawm.g.- d. td.
fear, tremble (ShY). - e. id. regularly-veined (sc. jade) (Lunyu ap. Shuowen).
404 a-d. *njet 1 1iijet 1 j 1 sun (Shi); day (Shl). b. is Yin bone (A 3: 19,4) c. is Yin
(inscr. 6), d. is Chou I (inscr. 79). The graph is a drawing ..
e. *njet I 1ii'et j n i a lady's clothes nearest to the body (Tso ).
f. *1ijet I Jtifet I j 1 post-horses, relays for speed (Tso).
g. *njet I Jtjet j n i adhere, cleave to (Tso ap. Shuowen). . .
h-i. *niet j niet 1 n i e to block, stop up (inscr. 294). 1. IS Chou 294).-
j. icl. black sediment in muddy water (Lunyu); to block, stop up (Y1h).
405 a-b. *pfet I pf.et j pi necessarily, certainly, must (Shi) .. b. is Chou II (inscr. 179,
sense of j. below). The graph may be the primary form of J. lance shaft (cf. group 7
above). -c. id. ornament at lower end of scabbard (ShY). Gl. 692.
d. *b'fet 1 b'jet 1 pi nonchalant, rude (Shi). -e. id. beat (Lie).- f. id. fat and robust
horse (Shi).
g. *b'f.et I b'jet I pi and *b'iet / b'iet I pie fragrant (Shi).
h. *b'iet I b'iet 1 pi and *b'iet I b'iet I pie nice-smelling (sc. food) (Sbi).
i.   1   1 p i e cut through (Chuang) (so ace. to the Kuo Siang comm.; Si-m&
Piao: 'rapid glance'; different readings in various anc. comm.). .
j. *pfed 1 pji- 1 pi and *pfet I pj"et j pi handle, shaft (of lance etc.) (Tso); lath tied to
bow for keeping it in shape (Yili). . . . .
k. *pied j pji- 1 pi guard against, caution (Sbi); admomsh (Shu); tmlmg, distressed
(Shu); loan for I. below (Shi). Gls. 336, 1604. - I. id. to bubble up (as ":.ater from a
spring) (Shl). Gl. 336.- m. id. secret (Ch'uts'1). - n. id. to shut, close Gl.
o. *tnjet j mfet j m i quiet, silent (only Han time text ex.). - p-q. td. silent, __ qmet
(Shi:); secret (Yi); dense (Shi); near, (Tso ). m i - w u an effort
version). Gls. 95, 908. q. is Chou II (mscr. 202, r. td. (Ch uts.l).-
s. id. Shuowen says: to wipe a vessel clean (no text).- t. td. gentle, mild (Shu, kmwen
version). Gls. 758, 1271.
406 a-d. *piet I pfet j pi (primary form of 405 j. above, hen?e the readin?) lath tied
to bow for strengthening it and keeping it in shape. That this was the pnmary sense
and reading is shown on the one hand by the graph, which is a drawing of a bow with
lath, on the other by it's being used in the bone inscr. as loan for Shuowen says:
114
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
41J4 EJ 8 G 0 18 tE _L 1_0 y1_ 40S
l.r c. d. e f 9 h. i. 1 a. lr c cl
.;, .q,   ® 't
f '3 h. i j k l m.n 0 p 9 -r 5 t
·40( 77 rt n ,a, 107 11 :J
e
lr c d e f a. l.r c. cL e f 9 h.
i= ;}' $f- 408 fl fW ;<__ 409 j'Z
i k L -m a. tr c c1.. a.. 1r c cL
'strong', and Ts'ieyiin says: 'a strong bow', which agrees with this. But the reading
g'iang in Ts'ieyun must be due to a confusion with b. is Yin bone (A 4: 4,4), c. is
Yin bone (B shang 26: 6, sense of ), d. is Yin (inscr. 32, name).
e-f. *b'iet I b'iet I pi support, aid (Shu); assistant (Shu). The radical is 'a mat',
a support. f. is Chou II (inscr. ISO, sense here uncertain).
407 a-c. *pjet I pjet /pi band-net (for catching birds) (Shi); wooden fork (for taking
meat out of pot) (Li); wooden writing slip (Li); loan for id. finish, complete (Shu); all,
entirely (Shi); name of a constellation (Fork) (ShY); pi-fa to rush (Shi, Han version).
Gl. 366. b. is Yin bone (A 1: 29,4), c. is Chou I (inscr. 77, name). The graph is a drawing.
- d. variant of the preceding in the sense of 'net' (Kuoyii). - e-h. id. finish
(inscr. 58). f. is Yin bone (A 2: 30, 1), g. is Yin bone (A 5: 14,4), b. is Chou I (inscr. 58).-
i. icl. shoot (Ch'uts'i). - j. id. interlaced branches, wattle (Li). - k. id. seem of a
cap (Yili).- I. id. prohibit, keep people off (Tso).- m. id. knee-cover (Shi:).
408 a-c. *p'jet I p'jet / p'i mate, one of a pair (Tso); correspond to, peer (Sh1); single, one
(esp. horse) (Kungyang; also man, hence p'i- f u 'single man' =ordinary, vulgar
man, Meng). b. is Chou I (inscr. 55), c. is Chou I (inscr. 86).- d. variant of"the preceding
(Kuots'e).
409 a-b. *g'iwet / yiwet I h ii e cave, pit (Sh'i); hole (:Meng); loan for 507 b. awry (Shi,
Ts'i version). Gl. 572. b. is extracted from the Arch. graph for 1027 below (Chou III,
inscr. 229). The graph is a drawing.
c. * xiwet I xiwet I hue empty space (Ch'uts'i).
d. *giwet I inet I y ii rapid flight (of bird) (Sh'i); loan for 507 b. awry (Sh'i, Han version).
Gl. 572.
410 a-c. *xiwet I xiwet I h ii e blood (Shl). b. is Yin bone (A 4: 33,2), c. is Chou I
(inscr. 63). The graph is a drawing of a sacrificial vessel with content.
d. * xiwet I- I h ii (this reading is deduced from a rime in Shi, Wen wang yu sheng,
Han version ap. Han Ying, where this word rimes with [!!;. *p'jet, on the one band, from
its phonetic a. above on the other) water channel, moat (Sh'i); character then applied
to a synonymous word * XitNJk, which properly has !!X, for phonetic, see group 930
below.
115
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
410 fsn_ yNl iftu. irzP 411 .!J., 472_ M 413 f
Q_ lr C d_ 6 f 9 h_ CL Q.. lr
a..
fR .ff 1£ j£ ;ff_ f (±) fll o£ jj_ #.f
f ski 3 k L p '? cl e
111.. 0
111 ff ! 4/!J t i lt 41{,
s t a. lr a.. lr c. d.. e
;W"-
lr a. c
'l'ft   }fZ
e f 9 h.. t j k L
m
e. *shvet 1 sjuet 1 s u sollicitude, pity, sorr?w, an:ci.ety (Shi); care about
Gls. 1271, 2012, 2037. - f-h. td. solhCitude, care .about oan or
*swat 1
81
wt 1 s
11
rub, brush (Li). g. is Chou I (inscr. 79), h. IS Chou II (mscr. 182).
411 a. *$i'et 1 $ist 1 s e lute (Shi); loan for id. bright, fresh-looking (Shi); rustling of the
wind (Ch'uts'I). Gl. 153.
412 a-b. *pied 1 piei- 1 pi and *piet 1 piet 1 pie a lock (Li).; to shut,
close (Tso); obstruct (Shu); loan for j. above (lath) (Sh1). Gl. 1593. b. 1s Chou II
(inscr. 138). The graph shows a door With a lock.
4
13 a-c. *tied 1 tsi- 1 chi arrive, come to (Shl); highest point, (Tso); (perfect=)
adequate (Sun). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 16,5), c. is Chou I (mscr. 65) •.
d *tied 1 ti- 1 c h i (cause to come:) transmit, convey (Shi); offer (Tso ); about
· (Shi)· bring forward (Shu); bring to the utmost (Lunyii); hand ?ver (sc.
dete;mine the solstice (Shu); goal (Yi); examine thoroughly (Li); well-made ( 1). s.
846 1220. - e. id. heavily weighed down (Shi).
f. ltfet 1 chi beat, a stroke (Shi). Gl. 1131. - id. sickle (Shi); (grain as cut
>vith the sickle:) ear of grain (Shu). Gl. 1385. .. r")•
h. *tiel 1 t fet 1 c h y and *tiet 1 tiet 1 t i e to stop up (Sh1); block-headed (Lun) u '
*d'iet f d'iet 1 tie tie -huang threshold (Tso).
i. *tiel 1 tsiet 1 chi foot fetters (Chouli); loan for h. . .. _ .
j-1. -*sjet 1 shy chamber (ShY);. mansion, palace (Sh1); house, fallllly (Sh1). k. IS
Yin bone (A 1: 36,3), 1. is Chou I (mscr. 79). ,. .. , ..
m. *d'iet 1 d'iet 1 tie laugh (Shl); bite (Yi); in the former sense Ts 1eyun and ShiWen
aive an alt. reading ? / xii- / hi.
n.
0
*d'iet 1 d'iet 1 tie ant-hill (Sh1); mound (l\ieng). .
o-p. *d'iet 1 d'iet 1 tie and *d'fet 1 d'fet 1 chi nephew, mece (Tso). p. is Yin bone
(A 1: 25,3). · (T ) r s id
q. *d'iet 1 d'iet 1 tie band of hemp or cloth worn at mourmng so ·- - · ·
high age, old (Shi). s. is Yin bone (B h1a 20: 14).
'· 1 · Shuowen savs·. come, arrive (no text). b. is Chou I (inscr.
414 a-b. *1!jet 1 -/tz{et J i J
88, sense here uncertain). The Seal has 'come' doubled.
116
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMM AT A SERICA REGEN SA
415 a-c. *t{ed I ii-I chI to slip (Sh1); loan for *tied I tiei-/ t i stem of a fruit (Li);
for d. chagrined (Shi, one version). Gl. 81. b. is Yin bone (A 2: 30, name), c. is Chou I
(inscr. 89, name).
d. *tied 1 tsi- I chI and *t'f'ed I t'i- 1 c h'i angry (Li).
e. *tied/ tiei- I t i sneeze (Li); loan for d. chagrined (Shi, one version). Gl. 81.
416 a. *k:m I kan- Ike n refractory, obstinate, resist (Yi). The graph (see j.) sho,vs a
man with a (big=) staring eye.
b. *kan I kJn Ike n root (Tso); trunk (Tso).
c. *k';;n I k';m: / k' en sincere (Lii).
d. *g'an / yan: I hen disobedient, refractory (Kuoyii). - e. id. malign (Shu); oppose
(Kuoyii); quarrelsome (Meng); to hate (Tso); contest (Li).
f. *g'm I yan- I hen hate (Tso); displeased (Kuoyii); quarrelsome (Tso).
g. *g';;n I yan I hen scar (Lie).
b. *ngfan I ngian / yin raised border, dyke (Ch'uts'i).
i-j. *g'sn / yan: I hie n obstacle, limit (Kuots'e). j. is Chou II (inscr. 132, name).
k. *ngjcn I ngfen I yin silver (Shu); loan for h. (Siin).
I. *ngEn / ng(tn: I yen eye (Yi); loan for *ngan I ngan: /en protrude as a knob (Chouli).
m. *k'an I k'an: I k'e n cleave, split, damage (Chouli).
417 a-b. *kwan / kzt,Jn I k'u n (Mand. k'u n in this and the following is irregular, >ve
should expect a k u n) elder brother (Shi); descendants (Kuoyii); afterwards (Tso);
numerous, swarming (sc. insects) (Li). b. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 322, name). - c. id.
K'un-lun name of a mountain (Shu). - d. id. a kind of precious stone (Shu).
e. *kzmn / kuan: I k u n high, resounding (sc. tone of a bell) (Chouli). - f. id. cord
(Shl).- g. id. well. proportioned (sc. nave, so as to turn smoothly) (Chouli ap. Shuowen).
h. *kwan / kuan I k u n k u n- y ii red metal (Lie). Kun-yii may be the name of some
'Western people, and the metal produced by it named after the tribe, with addition
of rad. 167. - i. id. eggs of fish (Kuoyii); a fabulous big fish (Chuang).- j. id. a big
l{ind of fowl (Ch'uts'Y).
k. *g'u•m I yu;m: /hun chaos, chaotic (Lao); abundantly flowing (Meng; some comm.
read *kwan / kttJn: I k u n in this sense); loan for *kwan I kuan / k u n Kun-yi tribes
of the North-West (Shi).
I. *g'wan / yum: I hun and *kwan I hum I k u n blaze, enlighten (Tso).
418 a-d. *kwan I kuan: / k u n royal robe embroidered with dragons, blazoned (Shl).
c. is Chou II (inscr. 155), d. is Chou II (inscr. 159). The graph is a drawing of a.
ceremonial robe. - e. id. to bank up the roots of a plant (Tso).
419 a-b. *kwan I kztan / k u n big fish (same as 417 i. above); N. Pr. (Shu). b. is pre-
Han (inscr. 401, name).
420 a-b. *k'wan I k'·uan- I k'u n obstruct (Yi); distress, exhaust (Tso); anxiety (Shu);
fatigue (Li). b. is Yin bone (0.61). The graph has 'tree' and 'enclosure'.
C •. *k'wm I k'ttan: / k'u n sincere (Ch'uts'i). - d. id. to beat, to pound (Meng). - e.
td. threshold (Li); loan for id. of equal length (Yili); to glance off (sc. arrow from target)
(Yili). - f. id. to bind, string toget.her (Kuoyii); often written with 00 as phonetic.
421 a. *k'wan I k'uan I k'u n earth (Yi). The Seal has 'earth' and 'stretch'.
422 a. *k'won I k'nan / k'u n earth (Yi), primary form of the preceding.
117
BUl,LETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
CL lr c d. e f 9
h. 1. j k L CL lr
@'ll'
--;5:
4/9 120 f11 ')'!!] ffkl j€142! ;t;f 42Z tJ \85
c:1
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c d. e CL lr a lr c d e f CL
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\11)1( tJI\ 42J 424 ff 42) 00
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CL l.r c cl a. a. <.L L- c.
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/§[!... )91.. :sm. ...:e. .. -§j]..
c d c.
f j h. i..

b. *kiwan I kiwen: I k ii an small watering channels in fields (Chouli). - c. variant of
the preceding (Lii).
d. *xiwan I I h ii n instruct, explain (Shi}; (to be instructed:) obey (Sill); follow,
comply with (Shu). Gl. 1542. The phonetic in this character is not Jll c h'u an 'stream'
but our a. above.
423 a. *k'wan I k'um I k'u n shave the head (Tso). The Seal has 'hair' and 'amputate'.
424 a. *k'wan I k''ltan: I k'u n alley between buildings (in palace) (ShY). Gl. 889.
425 a-b. *g'wan I y1wn- I hun pig-sty, latrine (Yili). b. is Chou II (inscr. 180). The
graph has 'pig' and 'enclosure'. - c. id. suffer, grief (Kuots'e); disturb, be troubled
by (Tso ); to disgrace (Li). - d. id. troubled, disorderly (Ch'uts'Y).
426 a-b. *'wm I '1tan I wen Shuowen says: kind (no text), thus taking it to be the
primary graph for c.; b. is pre-Han (inscr. 457, name). The graph shows a vessel with
something in it.- c. id. warm (Li); mild, gentle (Shi); (to warm up =)go over again,
inculcate (sc. earlier knowledge) (Lunyii}; loan for h. dense (Shi, Ts'i version). Gl.
323. - d. id. closed travelling car in which one could lie down (Hanfei).
e. *'iwan I 'inan- I y ii n hate, anger (Shi); grieved (Li).
f. *'iwan l'iuan:, 'iuan- I y ii n hemp or silk floss (Lunyii); confused, numerous (Ch'uts'i);
loan for id. hidden, mysterious (Yi); *'iwm I 'i1wn I y ii n generative influences of.
Heaven and Earth (Yi); *'wan I 'uan I wen yello·wish-red, brown (Li).
g. *'jwJn I 'fum: I y ii n to pack, store up (Lunyii).
h. *'wan I ·um I wen an aquatic plant (Tso); *'iwm I fuan:, 'ftwn- I y ii n to hoard,
accumulate (Tso). Gl. 323.
i. *'iwan l'i1tan:, 'fum- I y ii n accumulate, block up (Shi}; oppressive, sultry (Shl).
Gls. 323, 799, 988.
427 a-c. *d'wan I d'uan I t'u n accumulate (Yi); bring together soldiers as a garrison,
to station soldiers (Tso); loan for id. hill (Chuang); *tfwm 1 li_11ea I c hun difficult (Yi).
b. is Chou II (inscr. 133, sense of n. below), c. is Chou II (inscr. 139, sense of n.).
d. *d'wm I d'uan I t'u n sorro-wful, anxious (Ch'uts'i). Gl. 962. - e. id. young pig
(Chuang). - f. id. confused, stupid (Chuang; various readings and interpr. in the
commentaries). - g. id. war-chariot (Tso).
118
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMM.4TA SERICA RECENSA
h. *d'u:m I d'uan: I tun h u n - t u n Chaos (Chuang); *d'wan I d'uan I t'u n and
*d'w;m I d'nJn: I tun confused, stupid (Lao).
i. *d'wan I d'uan- It u n dull (Kuoyii).
j. *twan I tum- It u n bow down to the earth (sc. the head) (Tso); loan for id. raise,
lift (Siin); sudden (Lie); hill (Shi:); worn, dull, spoiled (sc. edge) (Tso); to exhaust (Tso),
to ruin (Kuoyii). Gl. 177.
k. *tiwan I tiuen I c h u n and *d'wJn I d'-uan I t'u n thick (sc. darkness, as in the
grave) (Tso).
1. *t'iwan I f'i1d!n I c h'u n a kind of tree (varnish tree?) (Shu).
m. *tfw;m 1, t:iiuen I c hun and *diwm I ijuen I c h'u n a whole slice (of meat) (Yili);
loan for *tiw;:m I t8iuen I c hun sincere, diligent (Li).
n-o. *afwan I iiuen I c h'u n silken (Lunyii); pure (Yi); unmixed (Lunyii); entire (Shu);
all (Chouli); great (ShY, Shu); a complete (Li; here wrongly read dz'fwiin by ShYwen
because Cheng Hiian glosses it by *tiwm I tsiuen:, tsjuen- 1 c hun border (of a
mat, a garment etc.) (Shu); *d'wm I d'uan I t'u n and *d'wm I d'u;m: It u n tie
together, envelop (Shi:); loan for *tsfag I tsi I t s i black, which has properly .:;t for
phonetic (see that group) - this and a. above being similar in ancient script. o. is
Chou IV (inscr. 290, name). Gls. 59, 708, 1071, 1913, 2089.
428 a-c. *d'wan I d'um I t'u n young pig (Lunyii); loan for *d'wan I d'uan:, d'1tJn- I
tun drag the feet in walking (not lifting them) (Li). b. is Yin bone (A 3: 23,6}, c. is
Chou I (inscr. 74). The Seal has 'pig' and 'flesh' (in c. also a 'hand').
d. *d'u•m I d'1tan:, d'uan- It u n withdraw (Shu), to skulk (Shi). Gl. 999.
429 a. *d'wan I d'1tan I t'u n Shuowen says: buttocks, thus taking it to be the primary
form of b. (no text). - b-e. id. buttocks (Kuoyii).
d. *tian I tien- It i en the rear (of an army) (Tso); protect (ShY); loan for id. to sigh
(Shl); *d'im I d'ien- It i en palace, hall (no pre-Han text ex.).
430 a-h. *tswan I tsuan Its u n a kind of vase (Shl); loan for id. to honour (Shu);
honorable, of high rank (Lunyii). b. is Yin bone (A 5: 4,6), c. is Yin bone (A 5: 4,4),
d. is Yin (inscr. 23), e. is Yin (inscr. 3), f. is Chou I (inscr. 54), g. is Chou II (inscr. 69),
h. is pre-Han (inscr. 430). The graph shows two hands holding a vase; the role of the
additional radical 170 in some forms is obscure. - i. id. wine-cup, wine-vessel (Tso).
j. *tswan I tsuJn: Its u n many together (Shi ap. Shuowen); loan for id. respect (Siin);
loan fork. (Tso).- k. id. chat (Shi).- 1. id. having a purpose, regulated, moderate
(Li); to regulate, have in hand (Kuots'e).
m. *tswan I tsuan I t sun a kind of trousers (only Han time text examples); loan for
l. to moderate (Sun).
n. *dz'wan I dz'uan I t s'u n, t u n (Pek. t u n is irregular) to squat (Chuang); heap up,
lay one upon the other (Tso); *ts'fw;m I ts'fnen I t s'ii n make postures (in dancing)
(Shi); hesitate (Chuang). Gl. 422.
-o. *dz'wan dz'uan- I t sun metal cap on butt-end of a weapon or a shaft (Li).
p. *dz'wan dz'1tan:, dz'u;m- Its u n name of a fish (Shi).
q. *t,sfwan tsjuen I t s u n follow, go along (a road) (Shl); according as (Shu); according
to (Tso).
431 a-b. *ts'wm / ts'uan- It s'u n thumb (Kungyang); inch (Meng). b. is extracted
from the archaic graph for !;:'f (Chou II, inscr. 161). The graph shows a hand with the
thumb marked by a stroke. In the compounds this character serves in the sense of
'hand'.
c. *ts'w<m I ts'um: It s'u n cut, chop (Yili). - d. id. to measure, consider (Shi).
119
T
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
427 t i't 1t ft )t, 1t t ;ft. JJt
lr c de f 9 h.. L :J k L 111..n.
0
423 );{ 11J Jk 1i-1f 430 M  
Q._ L- c d a.. lr c. cl a. lr- c cl e..
fl aw $f ;! 13! i 1-J
f '.l h.. i j k L m.-n 0 p '1 c.
lt 432. 4 :fi ;fit 5-it 433 1;f J-1( Jt
cL Q. lr c. cl c. d. e.. f
432 a. *dz'w;m J dz'u<Jn / t s'u n dwell on, be among (Shi); exist (Meng); remain, survive
(Tso); preserve, maintain (Tso).
b. *dz'im / dz'ien- / t s i en and *dz'wan f dz'1wn- / t sun grass, herb (Tso, Siang 4,
ap. Shi:wen); loan for *dz'i;m- f dz'ien- f t s i en repeat, increase (Tso).
c. *dz'i;m / dz'ien- f t s i en a fence, to fence in (Tso). - d. id. repeat, a second time
(Yi).
433 a. *swan/ snan- /sun humble (Yi); yield (Shu). Gl. 1242.
b. *siwm / sfuen: f s ii n cross-beam in a bell-frame (Li).
c-d. *tsjwan f i8fuen f t s u n ceremonial assistant (Li); loan for g. (Lunyii ap. Cheng
Hiian).
e. *sjwan / sfwiin- f s ii an snare catching the feet of animals (Yi Chou shu).
f. *sjwan f sjwiin: f s ii an select (Shi}; pick out the faults of, criticize (Tso); a short
while (Lii); a kind of weight (Shu, one version); *siwan / sfwdn- / s ii an to promote
(Li); *sjwan f sjwiin: f s ii an and *swan f swin: /sua n to count, enumerate, measure
(Shi). Gls. 68, 267, 1434, 2062.
g. *df"iwan / d}'fwiin: f chua n create (Yi); invent, plan (Lunyii); take, hold (Li);
loan for f. above (select) (Li).
h. *#'iwan / d}'jwiin- f chua n provide food (Chouli); provisions, food (Lunyii),
viands (Li).
i. *dr'iwan f #'jwiin:, d;'jwdn- I chua n and *ts'jwan f ts'jwan f t s'ii an discourse
upon, eulogize (Li); loan for h. provide (Ch'uts'i).
434 a-c. *swm f snan f sun grandson, granddaughter, descendant (Shi}; loan for
e. below (Lunyii). b. is Yin bone (B hia 14: 7), c. is Chou I (inscr. 58). The graph has
'child' and 'silk'. - d. id. a kind of fragrant plant (Ch'uts'i).
e. *swan f snan- f sun withdraw (Shu); docile (Shu). - f-g. variant of the preceding
(Shu ap. Shuowen). g. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 320).
435 a. *swan f suan: / sun diminish (Yi); damage (Lunyii). Since the part to the right
cannot be phonetic, the explanation of the graph is uncertain.
436 a. *sw;m f suan f sun slight meal of cooked rice (Chouli); cooked rice (Shi:); rice
mixed with water (Li). The Seal has 'evening' and 'eat'.
120
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
431- 18 \ Il ;"J! lJ 4'3S 43& 437 'f
a.. lr e cl e..f '3 a. a. a. lr c.
!lt iJ\. 1f 1t :i ·\i )$ t
de.- -f '3 h l. j k l 11"ln o p q ..- 5
438 A- 1 1Jt tt 439 44o % 44! r)
t a. lr- C d.. e f a. CL a.. lr c.
trj FJt1 ,.,, Q 442_
d. e. f 9 h. i a.
437 a-d. *pw<m / pu,an /pen ardent, brave (Shu); *b'fwan / b'fuJn f fen great (ShY};
*pflir f pjie- / p i brilliant, ornate (Shi). Loan for h. (Li), for m. swell up (Kuliang),
for n. (Li). Gls. 137, 489, 1482, 1591. b. is Yin bone (A 6:43,2, sense here uncertain},
c. is Chou I (inscr. 63, sense of some kind of sacrifice), d. is Chou I (inscr. 86, sense of
great, fine). The graph may refer to the meaning 'ornate' and depict a flowering plant,
cf. 44 b. 'flower' above. For the addition of radical 154, cf. i-j. below.
e. *p'wm / p'uan, p'1tan- / p'e n spirt (Chuang). - f. id. blow out, spit out (1\'Iu T'ien
tsi chuan).
g. *b'w:m / b'uan: / p en to guard, as a dog (Hanfei).
h. *pfwJn / pfugn- /fen overthrow, fall (Tso ); move (Tso).
i-1. *pjwan / pfu;m f fen to steam rice (inscr. 246); Shuowen gives both variants i.
and j ., which shows that is a superfetation element, and that a. and b, c, d. above
,-
1
are really the same character. k. is Chou II/III (inscr. 246), I. is Chou II/III (inscr.
272).
\.J ", *b'jwJn / b'ju:m /fen tumulus (Li); raised bank (Shi:); great (Shi); compliant (Kuan);
*b'iwan / b'fuan: /fen fat soil (Shu); swell up (Tso). Gl. 746.
n. *b'jwan / b'ju:m: /fen full of annoyance (Kuoyi.i.); full of dissatisfied eagerness
(Lunyu); ardour (Tso ).
o. *b'£wan / b'jum /fen bank of river (Shi); gush forth (Kungyang). - p. id. sheep-
shaped demon (Kuoyii). - q. id. well-set (sc. fruits) (Shi); hemp seeds (Li). - r.
id. gelded pig (Yi).
s. *b'iw<m / b'iu:m, b'ju;m: /fen a kind of war chariot (Mo).
t. *b'jwJn I b'fuan / fen and *p'jwan / p'juan If en bit-plaque (Shi).
438 a-c. *pwan / puan /pen run (Shi); elope (Shi); (rushing:) ardent (Shi). Gl. 137.
b. is Chou I (inscr. 63), c. is Chou I (inscr. 65). The graph has 'man' and several 'feet':
loan fiir 437 a. 'ardent' (Shi} -d. variant of the preceding (Siin); the graph has three
oxen.
e. *pjw:m I pfn;m / fen to steam rice (Shi). Gl. 911.
f. *b'iwan I b'jugn / fen big drum (Shu).
439 a. *pw:m / pu:m: I pen basket (Tso). The Seal has not IE field but a drawing of
a basket with a lid.
I
r
121
; ;
1 ,,
'
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
440 a. *pw;m 1 puan: I pen root (Shi); trunk (Tso); origin, fundament (Tso); wooden
tablet (Li). The Seal has 'tree' with the base marked by a stroke.
441 a-c. *mwan 1 muan I men gate, door (ShY); to attack a gate (Tso). b. is Yin
bone (A 4: 15, 7), c. is Chou I (inscr. 67). The graph is a drawing.
d. *mwan 1 muan-1 men sad (Yi); dull, stupid (Lao); *mu·an I mtwn I men tmcon-
sciously (Chuang).
e. *mwan I mnan I m en lay the hand on, hold (Shi).
f. *miwan 1 miuan I we n to hear (Shi); to smell (Shu); *miwan I rniuan- I we n to be
heard (Shl); fame (Shi).
g-h. *mfw'Cm I miuan- I wen ask, make inquiries (Shi); loan for f. fame (Shl). Gls.
765, 799. h. is Yin bone (B hia 9: 10).
i. *mi. an 1 mfi'n j min and *miwan / mium I we n certain tribes of the South (Chouli).
442 a. *mwan 1 mttan j men red millet (Shi). Seal has 'hemp' and 'grain', explana-
tion uncertain.
443 a-c. *ki:m 1 kim 1 kin axe (Tso); loan for *kim/ kim- /kin perspicacious
(Shi). b. is extracted from the archaic graph for :¥r (Chou I, inscr. 67), c. is pre-Han
(inscr. 420, name). The graph is a drawing. - d. id. axe (Chuang).
e. *kian I kfan- I kin strap on horse's breast (Tso); loan for id. to ridicule (Tso).
f. *g'ian I g'jan / k'i n cress (Shi).
g. *g'ian I g'f;;n: I kin near; *g'jm / g'jan- I kin be near to (Shi).
h. *;dm / xian / hi n dawn (Yili). - i. id rejoice (Tso); delicious (Shi'). - j. vari!Lnt
of the preceding (Mo). - k. variant of the preceding (Meng).
1. *g' jar 1 g' j 1 k'i fief of I 000 li square, imperial domain (Tso); k'i - f u minister of
war (Shu); *ngim I ngfan I yin raised border (Huainan). Cf. 547 I. below.
m. *g'iar 1 g'jf)i I k'i tall (ShY); *k'an / k'an: I k'e n intense, extreme (Li);
n. *g'iar I g'jci j k'i small sacrificial table on which heart and tongue of the v10t1m were
placed (Li). - o. id. pray, beg (Shl); announce (Shi); loan for l. minister of war (Shi);
loan for 553 i. great (Shl and Li, certain versions). - p-s. id. dragon banner (Shl).
q. is Yin (inscr. 25, name), r. is Chou I (inscr. 65), s. is Chou II (inscr. 133). -t-v.
id. flag (s. a. the preceding) (inscr. Yin bone I 47: 9); loan for id. pray, demand (s. as
o. above) (Chuang). u. is Yin bone (I 47: 9), v. is Chou II (inscr. 164, sense of 'pray').
x. *xi;;n I xi;;n- I hi n blaze, burn (Tso).
y. *xitin I xivn I hie n lift (Tso).
444 a. *kim I kjan: I kin (half a gourd:) nuptial cup (Li).
445 a. *kian I kjan I kin sinew (Meng).
446 a-b. *xim j xi an- 1 hi n and *xien / xien- I hi n smear with blood in sacrifice
(l\Ieng); anoint (Kuoyii); loan for id. crevice, opening (Tso); beginning, symptom (Kuoyii);
tendency, inclination for (Tso); loan for 461 a. (Chouli). b. is Chou II (inscr. 164). In
inscription, as in many more, the character is used as an adjective followed by
s h 0 u 'longevity'' with a sense analogous to that of m in the expression m of
the classics. Cf. groups 567 and 585.
447 a. *xi an / xian- I hi n and *xi en I xien- /hi n smear with blood (Li), same word
as the preceding. The Seal has 'blood' and 'ox cut in half'.
122
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAIIHfATA SERICA RECENSA
44-3 If
g
(( j;f _fjf fr jl[_ EJT frA trf :t;f Atf 1;1-
Q Lr c cL e t 9
h. i.
:J
k L 1TL n 0
$ tr 1h rv f;f i; u JAJ\ ttf\ 444 !-44s-M 446f

p q
I .s
( LL 1Y X y a. [;.
CL lr
447 448 ff}:_ Fz f\ 44J   J1l 4SO
t
a a. b- c d. e a.. !r a.. t, c. d.
w t

:; "
4S! 1$l iffiA 4S2. ;JZ
e f 9
h. i J
k L
a.. l.r c a..
/I !:'
448 a-d. *'j;m /'ion I yin great, ample (Shu); many (Sh1); a kind of sacrifice (Yili);
loan for id. hit the mark, determine exactly (Shu); grieved (Shl); name of a city and
dynasty (Shi); for *'ian I 'ian: I yin sound of thunder (Shi); *'en I '(in/yen dark-red
(Tso). Gls. 65, 766, 1367, 1448, 1754. b. is Chou I (inscr. 54), c. is Chou I (inscr. 65),
d. is Chou I (74).
e. *'f;m I '[Jn I yin grieved (Shi).
449 a. *'{Jn / 'jan:/ yin conceal (Lunyii); (a screen:) low wall (Tso); grieved, suffering
(Sh'i); *'ian I 'ian- I yin to lean on (Meng); loan for b. 'to correct' (Shu). Gl. 65.
b. *'i;;n / 'jan: / yin bevel (Siin).
" · 450 a-g. *dim/ fen I yin and *dj;;r I i / y i cyclical character (Tso); respectful (Shu).
b. is Yin bone (A 3: 3,1), c. is Yin bone (A 3: 7,4), d. is Yin bone (A 3: 7,2), e. is Yin
(inscr. 26), f. is Chou I (inscr. 74), g. is Chou I (inscr. 77).
h-i. *dian / fen/ yin small of the back, region of the reins (Yi). i. is Chou III (inscr.
229).
.J. *dfan ( fen: I yin earth-worm (Sun).
'k-1. *dian / fan: /yen to flow out, extend (Kuoyii). 1. is Yin bone (H 2: 26,8, name).
,., 451 a-b. *dian/ fen- /yin descendants, posterity (Shl); follow (Shu). b. is Chou
III (inscr. 229). - c. id. take a mouthful of wine and rinse the mouth (Li).
452 a. *t'j;;n / t'jen- I c h'e n fever (Shi); sickness (lVIeng). The Seal has rad. 104 (sick-
ness) and 'fire'.
453 a-b. *tjJn / t§jen: I chen thick hair (Shi ap. Shuowen). Gl. 132. b. is pre-Han
(inscr. 414, name). The graph has 'man' and three strokes depicting his hairiness. -
c. £d. calm gaze which hides an inner anger, keep one's temper (Tso).
d. *tian I tsfen, tsfen: I chen path between fields (Shi); boundary dykes (Chuang);
lo_an for *lfan / tsfen- I chen to offer up, present in sacrifice (Li).
e. tfan I tsfen: I c hen and *tjan /fiiin: I chan to twist (Meng); *ajan (iian: I shan
an?- *d'fan I a'jiin: I chan twisted (Chouli, so the Cheng Chung comm.).
f. *tf;m / t§jen: /chen unlined garment (Lunyii); loan for i. fine, precious (sc. dress)
(Meng). - g-h. id. crossboard at back of carriage (Chouli); carriage (Tso); name of
123
l
!
BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
453 !.:1; * n J't If ,f}J tt 45"1
a... L- c.. d. e.. f 9 h. i. j k L m... 1'\.
4SS Jk {l9 fl §ffi :I<_ J#-c jjJZ f iR
a. c. lr c cl c.. f 9 h i J k l -m. 1'\..
:M-e f J/i 4f(; JJ 1JJ 1JJ
r s t u v a. lr c cL e..
h
a constellation (Li); loan for id. depressed, anxious thought (Ch'uts'Y). h. is Chou II
(inscr. 194).
i. *tim ltilin I chen precious thing, precious (Tso).
j. *t'fan I t!jen- I c h'e n fever (Kuoyii); suffer (Shi). Gl. 588.
k. *d'ian I d'ien: I t'i en (Pek. t'i en is irregular, we should expect a tie n) cease
(Tso ), cause to cease (ShY); extinguish, ruin, destroy (Shl); loan for 476 d. 'good' (ShY).
Gls. 124, 799, 815, 989.
l. *d'ien I d'i'en- I chen and *tian I then: I chen examine (Chuang).
m. *t'iat I t'iet I t'i e t'a o - t'i e glutton (Tso ).
n. *nian I 1lian: I n i en and *nian I nien: In i en and *d'ian I d'ien: I tie n tread,
trample (Chuang).
454 a. *t'im I td'ian:, t§'f:m-, td'ien- I c h'e n (Anc.   is irregular) cut the teeth
(Chouli).
455 a-g. *ctf<m I ijen I c h'e n cyclical character (Tso); heavenly body (Shu); part
of the zodiac (Tso); time (ShY); timely (Shi); season (Shu); seasonal (Shi); morning, day
(Li). Gls. 310, 596, 1215. b. is Yin bone (E 7: 4), c. is Yin bone (A 7: 27,2), d. is Yin
(inscr. 25), e. is Yin (inscr. 32), f. is Chou I (inscr. 59), g. is Chou I (inscr. 70).
h. *dian I .iiiJn I c h'e n and *d'fan I d.i'jen I c h'e n part of the constellation Scorpio
(Kuoyii); morning (Shi). - i-j. variant of the preceding (Shuowen). j. is Chou II
(inscr. 161, name).
k. *rlian I ifen I c h'e n roof (Kuoyii).
I. *dian I ijen: Ish en sacrificial meat (Tso). - m. id. clam, oyster (Li).
n-o. *tfrm I tsfen- I chen boy or girl (only Han time text ex.). o. is Chou II (inscr.
175, name). - p. id. shake (Shi); dust off (Li); move (Li); lift (Kuoyii); save, help (Yi);
move into order, arrange, to marshal (troops) (Sill); to stop (Chuang); (shake:) scared
(Kuots'e); throw open (granaries) (Tso); succour (Shu ap. Meng); bring together, join
(Li); from (Shi); loan for I I chen numerous (Sill); majestic (Shi); loan
for 453 f. (Li). Gls. IS, 462, 1095.
q. *tian I t/;fen- I c hen and *sian I dfen I she n pregnant (Tso).
r. *lian I t . .Jfen- I chen endow, succour (Mo). - s. id. clap of thunder (Shi); shake
(Shi); fear (Shi); awe-inspiring (Shi); become pregnant (Shl). Gls. 867, 1083, 1199.
124
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
t. *t'ian I t'jen: I c h'e n and *t'iar I t'i I c h'i laugh (Chuang).
u. *d'fw;m I di'f1ten / c h'u n lip (Tso). - v. id. borders of a river (Sill).
456 a. *itfan I 1/.ijen-l j en edge of a blade (Shu); knife (Meng). The Seal has 'knife' with
the edge marked by a stroke. -b. id. a measure (Lunyii); to measure (Tso); loan for
j. (Lie).
c. *1/{an I Mien: I j en endure (Shi'); cruel (Shi).
d. *Jijan I niien-1 j en full (Shi). - e. id. tough, strong (as a sinew) (Kuan). - f. id.
speak hesitatingly (Lunyii). - g. id. piece of wood inserted in order to stop a wheel
(Ch'uts''i); loan for id. measure of 8 c h'i (Meng); solid (Kuan); soft, slack (Siin).
h. *nf;:m 1 tijen In in and *1iiJn I nifen I j en twist into a cord (Ch'uts'i); to thread
(a needle) (Li) .
i. *ni.at l1ljet I ni glue (Kuots'e).
j. *1ijm l1lijen- I j en to know (Kuanyin).
457 a-b. *mjan I mien I min and *mien I mfen I min people (Shi); loan for x.
below in min-man (Shi, Han version). Gl. 741. This word rimes as *mien in Shi
king, but various derivates clearly indicate *mfan, so there must have been alt. readings.
b. is Chou I (inscr. 65).
c. *mfan /mien, mien: I min to ruin, destroy (Tso); troubled, confused, disorderly
(Shu). Gls. 965, 2028.
d. *mian I mien I min a kind of precious stone (Li).
e. mian I mien I mien shut the eyes (Shanhaiking); *mian I mien: I mien befool (Lie).
f. *mian I mien: I mien and *mwan I muan I men and *xmwan I xum I hun blinded,
confused (Chuang, one version); desolate, distracted (Lii); also wr. "With j. as Phonetic.
g-i. *miwcn I mfwen: I min strong (Shuowen, same as y. below). h. is Chou II (inscr.
139), i. is Chou II (inscr. 180).
j-1. * xmwfin I xuan f h u n dusk, evening, darkness (Shl); marriage (Shl); wife (Shi');
relatives by marriage (Shi); benighted, blinded, mentally dark (Shi); to die, be killed
(Shu); eunuch (ShY); to die shortly after birth (Tso); loan for c. destroy (Shu). Gls.
493, 1063, 1313, 1425, 1514. l. is Yin bone (0 715).- m. id. take a wife, marriage (Yi);
relatives by marriage (Shu).- n. id. disorderly (Shi'); stupid (Kuots'e); secretive (Siin).
- o. id. darkened in mind, stupid (Meng).- p. id. confused, uncertain (Chuang).-
q. irl. gate-keeper, door-keeper (Tso).
r-s. *rnjan I mien I min and *xmwm I X'UJn I hun suffering, distress (Shi).
t. *mfan I mien I min lay the hand on (Lii). - u. id. a kind of precious stone (Chouli),
cf. d. above.- v. variant of the preceding (Li).
x. *rnian I mf9n I min cord (Shi); wrap round, envelop, cover (Shi'); unconscious (Chu-
ang); min-man (string-like=) continuous (Shi, Ts'i version, Gl. 741); *mfan I
mfen: I min cumulate (Chuang).
y. *rniwt:n I mjwen: I min violent (Shu); *mf;m I mfen, mfen: I min and * xmwm I
xuan I h u 11 sorry, melancholy (Chuang).
z. *rniwt:n I mfwen: I min grieved, commiserating (Tso).
458 a. *kjwan I kfuan I k ii n troop, army (Shi); camp, encamp (Tso). The Seal has
'covering' and 'chariot'.
b. *g'wan I yuan I h u n sound of running water (Siin); chaotic (Chuang); *g'lt'i}}L I yuan: I
hun muddled, confused (Lao).
c. *giwan I jiuan- I y ii n vapour, halo (Lii). - d. id. revolve, turn round (Yi); move
(Chuang); longitudinal (Kuoyii). - e. id. bring supply of food to (Tso).
f-g. *gfwan I iiuan- I y u n and * xiwan I xiu·vn- I h u an to work leather (Chouli).
125
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
457 K yf\ JK Kt
CL lr c d. e f 9 h.. ,_ J k l
11
"L
  458 t J
r q ,.. .s t 1.L tr )<. ':1 :z. a. lr
1 \3, ;Zf tl 1: 4fJ ;- *
f 9 h. i j k l 111.'YL a.. 1.r c cl
!J Z' 4G0 £, -9_t ii it t:)t
k l a. lr c cl e. f 9
n o
i.
h. * xiwm I xinan I hun (Pek. hun is we should expect a h tin) strong-
smelling vegetables, onion, garlic etc. . ·a r ht b . ht (Y')
i. *x,iwar f xfwf},i I hue i shake, wave (Lr). - J. t ··

' ness ..
1
· b . ht
k. * xiW91' I x,jwf},i I hue i flame, brightnes.s (Yi); I J1ltJn- I y u n ng ness
(Chouli)· loan for f. (Li); for c. halo (Chouli). . . . d
I
· '; · · 1 h · b · ht (Mer
1
g) - m id clothes-peg (Lr). - n. td. a km of
. * XJWf},t u e 1 ng . . . .
pheasant (Sh'i). Gl. 502.
459 a-c. *lciwan 1 kfu;m 1 k ii n lord, prince (ShY); princess (Shi_). b. is Yin bone (B hia
27: 13), c. Chou I (inscr. 67). Explanation of graph uncertam,. cf. 1251
d-e. *g'iwm 1 g'jtwn 1 k'ii n flock, herd class, group (Yr); all (Shr), sociable
(Lunyti). e. is Chou IV (inscr. 284). -f. td. skirt (Chuang).
g. *g'iwan f g''f.·uan- / k tin district (Tso). .
h. 1 xium I hun vapour, odour (Lr).
i. *kiwen 1 kiwen f k tin fallow-deer .. . . d
j-k. *k'jwsn 1 k'jwen 1 k'ii n and 1 f y u n brg head (Shuowen, use as
nersonal name in Tso). k. is Chou II (.mscr. 181, name).
r d (Shi). Gl. 543. The Pek.
1. *g''f.wsn 1 g'fwen: f k u n, k i u n g distress, embarrasse
k i u n g is irregular.
460 a. *giwan 1 jjuan 1 y u n cloud (Kuots'e), cloudy (Lti); loan for id. say: has  
(Shi); particle (Shi); to move (Kuan); loan for f. ample numerous (Shi),
for 458 d. (Lii). Gls. 546, 973. -b. id. cloud (Shl).- c. td. famrly name (Tso).
d. *g'f.wan f jium: I y ii n to lose (Kuots'e).
e. *g'f.wan j jiuan f y ii n to weed (Shi). . . . . . . .. h
f. *giU'an 1 jjnan f y ii n fragrant plant (Lr); *g1wan / nuan- I Y u n ample, ric
(sc. flowers) (Shi); numerous (Chuang); loan for e. \Lunyu).
g. *g'wan f yuan f hun spiritual soul (as opp. to p o) (Tso).
461 a-c. xiwan I xinan I h tin to smoke, steai_U (Shi); aflax_ne (Sh'i); loan for id.  
(Sh'i). Gl. 894. b. is Chou II (inscr. 154), c. 1s Chou II (rnscr. 180). are h
same word stem, with a fundamental sense of 'fume, smell, fragranc: · The
may depict a bag of fragrant herbs or spices? - d. td. to sm<;>ke (Hanfer). -e. t. · a
fragrant herb (Tso); to be pungent, to sting (Yi); loan for td. peaceful, harmomous
126
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
4?1 i At 4tt Jl!
Lr c cL e f :1 h.. i. j a. L- c. cL
;_!_ 4&3 !   t 464 l a11!
f a. lr c ci e f a. lr c d. e. f
jj: 1t t! ·)·! it t! or 11:
9 h. 1. J k L m.. 11- o p 5 t 1T
4t5" M tM * Jl1$ M 4(C
0
Q.. c ci e f c.
(Chuang); h ii n- s ii indiscriminately, all together (Shi, certain versions). Gl. 56-!. -
f. id. merit (Tso ). - g. id. h ii n- y ii- name of a Northern tribe (Meng). - h. id.
purple, brmvn (Shu). - i. id. mutton soup (Li).
j. *xiwan I xiwvn I h ii an ocarina (Sh'i).
462 a. *t'fwan I tli'jwiin I c h'u an stream, river (ShY). The Anc. Chin. reading ts'fwr¥n
(and hence the modern derivate c h'u an) is an irregular form; the Shi rimes show
that the word originally belonged to the an class: *t'jwan. The primary graph was a
drawing, cf. 940 below.
b. *t'iwan / t'iaen / c h'u n ornate band on axle-cap of wheel (Chouli ap. Shuowen).
c. *c'l'iwan I di'iuen- /shun follow (Chouli); obey (Tso), accord with (Shi); submissive,
docile (Shi:). Gl. 1150.
d. *dzjwm I zjnen I s tin and *cl'fwan I I c h'u n silk cord (Li); loan for 465 f.
(Siin).
e. *dziwan I zfuen Is ii n perambulate, make a visiting and inspection tour (Shu). -
f. id. docile (Lie); gradually (Yi).
463 a-b. *t'jwan I #'inen / c h'u n spring time (Shi); loan for d. (Chouli). b. is Yi
bone (B shang 31: 6).
c. *t'iwan I ts'fuen: I c h'u n troubled, agitated (Tso ap. Shuowen); loan for id. stupid
(Li).- d. id. wriggle, move (Shi); loan for c. agitated (Tso). Gl. 463.
e. *t'jw;m I t'i_uen I c h'u n Cedrela (Chuang).
f. *dfw<m I .'ifuen- Ish u n a tuft of free.hanging, disorderly hair (Li).
464 a-d. *af..wan I iiuen I c h'u n Shuowen says: well-cooked, fully-prepared (sc. sacrifi-
cial dish) (no text). b. is Yin bone (A 4: 34,6, sense here uncertain), c. is Chou II (inscr.
172, sense of p.), d. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 298, sense of p. 'vessel'). The graph consists
of hi a n g 'to offer' and y a n g 'mutton'. The abbreviated modern form has coincided
with 716 below.
e. *cliwJn I ii.tten I c h'u n to flow (Chuang); to soak (Kuoyii); salty and poor land (Tso);
loan for id. a pair (Tso); ample (Kuoyii); *tfU'an I t8ju&n I c hun moisten (Chouli);
moist, fat (Li); loan for *ti.wan / I c hun a measure of breadth (of cloth) (Chouli).
f. *ctf..wan I iiuen I c h'u n clear and unadulterated, pure (Chuang); generous (Lao).
127
( )
I
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF' FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
g-i. *djwrm I ijuen I c h'u n a kind of bell broader in the upper part (bulb-shaped)
than at the rim (Kuoyii); *d'w<lr I d'uqi:,   It u e i metal cap on butt-end of a
weapon-shaft (Shl). i. is Chou IV (inscr. 284, sense of p. below, 'vessel').
j-k. *djw;m I ii,uen I c h'u n quail (ShY); *d'wdn I d'ufm I t'u an eagle (Shi). k. is Chou
(inscr. 371 ).
I. *tfw<ln I t..;juen I c hun inculcate, repeat (Shi); loan for id. to favour, assist (Kuoyii).
Gl. 962.
m. *ilfw;m I 1iijuen I j u n ox 7 feet high (Shi). Gl. 507.
n. *tw:m I tuan It u n and *tjwan I tSftten I c hun ample (Shu); treat amply, generously
(Shu). Gls. 1277, 1297, 1308.
o. *twan I tum It u n agitated, anxious (Chuang).
p-q. *twan I tum It u n solid, thick (Li); earnest (Tso); generous (Tso); staunch (Shi);
strong, versed in (Tso); lie thick on (Shi); to mass (sc. troops) (Shi); to direct (Meng);
break (Chuang); *twar I tut)i- I t u e i a kind of sacrificial vessel (Chouli); *d'U'Ctn j
d'1tdn / t'u an numerous (Shi); *d'wan I I tun hun-tun chaos (Tso).
*twar I tut)i It u e i carve, engrave (Shi, same as 543 d.). Gls. 112, 177, 390, 882, 1162.
q. is Chou IV (inscr. 290).
r. *t'w<ln I t'uan I t'u n bright, enlighten (Kuoyii ap. Shuowen); torch for burning oracle
bones (Chouli; in this sense Shiwen records a great variety of readings); dim light (sc.
of a star) (Tso); loan for *t'wan I t'um I t'u n and *t'war I t'ut)i I t'u e i ample, complete
(ShY). Gl. 390.
s. *t'wan I t'uan I t'u n sun rising (Ch'uts'i).
t. *t'w<m I t'uan I t'u n and *d'wan I d'ttan I t'u n to groan (Shi); loan for I. above
(Chuang). Gl. 209.
u. *d'war I d'uM- It u e i hate, detest (Shu). Gl. 1646. - v. id. discontented, detest
(Meng).
465 a. *Cl'fw,m I di'i,nen: I shun and *d'w;m I d'1tan: It u n shield (Sh!). :Both Ts'ieyiin
and Shiwen really distinguish the former reading as meaning 'shield' and the latter as
used for N. Pr. (Tso), but modern usage in :rviand. is to read tun in both cases.
b. *fl'iwan I di'i,1ten: I shun bench (Chuang, so ace. to the Si-ma cornm.); shield (Tso).
c. *ct'jwJn I di'i,uen:, di'juen- Ish u n and *dziwan I zi,uen Is ii n lay the hand on (Mo).
d. *t'iwan I t'juen J c h'u n funderal car (Li).
e. *d'wan J d'u<Jn:, d'u<ln- I tun withdraw (Shi); evasive (Meng).
f. *dzjw;m I zfuen Is ii n follow (Shu); go along (Tso); along (Tso); orderly (Lunyii); all
round (Li); loan for c. (Li).
g. *d'wJt J d'uat J t u fat (Tso).
466 a. *sjwan I sfuen- I s ii n Shuowen says: deep, thus taking it to be the primary form
of b. below (no text).- b. id. deep (Shi); to deepen (Shu). Here the phonetic has been
corrupted into 344 a. above.
c. *dzjw<ln I zjuan J s ii n a kind of precious stone (Shu). Gl. 1255. (Shiwen alt. reads
*dzfwctn I zfwan I s ii a n through confusion with 236 d.).
! 467 a-b. *snfwm I si,ui'n: I sun hawk, falcon (Shi). b. is Chou (inscr. 355, name).
The graph is a drawing.
c. * Jtfwan I itifuen: I j u n downy (Shu ap. Shuowen).
d. *t1ijw<Jn J tSiuen: I c hun a water-level (the instrument) (1\ifeng); law, regulate (Shu);
rule, model (Yi).
128
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMM AT A SERICA RECENSA
4C1 * 4&8 fL \
91
t 81? M_.;Z}L. ifl
a. lr,- c d. o. lr c d. e f 9 h. i. J.
$L o}L it ;! 1k
k l m n o p 4 r .s t X. ':1 :z. a.(
J#:- JJV.k At 4,9 ft 47()-$[
l.r' CI d_' e I f I I h! 0.... l.r
c d. a. lr c.
 
e f h.
j
)468 a-c. *zi:van / iuen: I y ii n sincere, true (Shi); truly (Shl); earnestly (Shu); to trust
(Shu); promise (Shu ap. Tso). Gls. 1277, 1800. b. is Yin bone (A 7: 19,1), c. is Chou
III/IV 326). - d-f. variant of the preceding. e. is Yin bone (A 4: 28,5), f. is
I (mscr. 65). -.g. .. Hie n-y ii n name of a Northern tribe (Shi). - h-i.
variant of the precedmg. 1. IS Chou II (inscr. 172). - j. id. some kind of pointed
weapon (Shu ap. Shuowen).- k-1. id. advance (Yi ap. Shuowen). I. is Chou II (inscr.
189, sense of g. above).
m. *rt'i1Dm I dz'iuen: J shu n lick (Hanfei).
n-o. *dfwan I ftciin: I yii an name of a river (Shu). o. is Chou III (inscr. 224, name).
p. *ts'iwan / ts'juen / t s'ii n Shuowen says: 'to run' and 'to squat' (no text).- q. id.
retire, cease (Kuoyii).
r. *ts'f.wan / ts'f.uen It s'ii n draw back (Kuan); *siwan 1 siuen- 1 s ii n rapid (Li) Gl
1069. - - . .
s. *tS:{wan I   t s'ii n and *tsjwan I tsfuen- Its ii n hare (Kuots'e).
t. *tstwm I tszuen- t s ii n talented, eminent, great (Shu). Gls. 1210, 1304.
u. *ts(w<ln I t s ii n and *tswJn J tsuan- I t s u n to burn, apply fire to (Chouli).
v, *ts111'an I t s ii n t'i e n t s ii n inspector of the fields (Shi:). - x. id. remains
of a meal (L1); loan for 436 above (Kungyang). - y. id. fine horse (Mu t'ien tsi chuan)·
loa1: for id._ quickly (Shi'); for t. great, make great, prolong (Shi). Gls. 561, 1069. '
z. I Silien- / s ii n (Li). Gl. _1210. - a'. id. to ladle out, take from (Tso);
, d1g out (Meng); deep (Sh1); profound, Wise (Shu); loan for id. to fry (Kuoyii). Gl. 1302.
b · *dz'wan / dz'1tan / t s'u n kick (Kungyang); to squat (Chuang).
c', *ts'jwan I ts'fwiin It s'ii an change (Tso); (changing:) seriatim, in due order (Tso)
d'. *su.xin I swin Is u an an animal of uncertain species (Mu t'ien tsi chuan) (by ]ate;
comm. stated to be the lion, but that is unlil\:ely - the lion was hardly known in China
in Chou time).- e'. id. sour (Shu).
f'. I e i push (Tso) (so Ts'ieyiin and Shlwen; Kuangyiin also reads
ls JW&n / ts 1UJn / t s ii n and *tswan I tsu<ln- 1 t sun).
g'-h'. *tsw;;r I tsurji Its u e i genitalia of a baby (Lao ap. Shuowen).
469 a. *..;in•m I / s h_u n (Shl). - b. variant of the preceding (Shi: ap.
Shuowen).- c. to blink (Lw). -d. variant of the preceding, to v;i.nk, move the
eyes (Chuang). Smce the right part cannot be phonetic, the explanation of this
character is uncertain.
9
129
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
l
1
' , r . 470 a. *ltwm 1 ljuen 11 u n Shuowen says: to think, ponder, thus taking it to be the
primary form of b. below (no text). . .. .
b. *liwm llf:uen 1 1 u n and *lw;m lluan, lum- / l u _n (Lun:yu); d1sc?urse about
Tso); examine (l\1eng); loan for c. _(ShY): p:mCiple _(LI); for J. Gl. 853.
c. *liwm 1 ljuen 11 u n class, category (.Shu), natural band,
1
elation ("Meng); loan for j. (Yili). -d. npples .(Shi); mdiscn_?Imately, together
(Shl). Gls. 280, 564, 1504.- e. id. woof (LI); twist a cord (Shl); cord,(LI); envelo"P,
comprise (Yi). _f. id. wheel (Shl); loan for id. vertical, from North to South (Chouli);
great, vast (Li). , ,_
g *liwan ll
1
'uen 11 u n and *lwan lluan: /I u n discontented, displeased (Ch uts 1).
h:_i.- *luJJn j luan j 1 u n K'un-lun name of a mountain (Shu). - j. id. select (Kuo:yii).
471 a-e. *pjwm 1 p'fn;m j f e n divide (Li); separate (Chu.ang); .dist_ribute (Li);
(Li); *b'iwm 1 b'fuan- If en part (Tso); share, lot, .duty (LI_). b. IS bone (A 5. 45,, ),
c. is Chou II (inscr. 145). The graph shows ?leavmg somethmg.
d. *pf:wan 1 pfuan: If en peeled grain (Shu); flour (L1).
! e-f. *piwan I pium If en to fly, _'l()ar (Chuang).
g. *p'fw;;n I p'i_uan:, p'i_1tan- If en anger, angry (Tso). . . . .
h. *p'iwan 1 p'ju<Jn 1 fen mixed (JI.'leng); confused (Tso); numerous (Y1); kerchief. (L!),
ample (Shu). Gls. 676, 1990. - i. id. fragrant (Shl); loan for 437 m. (Kuan). - J.
mixed (sc. sleet and snow) (ShY). Gl. 676.
k. *b'jw<rn I b'i_1tan: If en hill (Chuang). . . ,.
1. *b''fwan 1 b'ium, b'i_n;;n: I fen to grasp, JO_m hands .
m. *b'fwan 1 b'f1tJn 1 fen elm (Shl). - md1catwns m sky (Tso) ..
o. *b'iwJIL 1 b'i1Wl- 1 fen cut grain put m sheaves (Kuan). _ .
p. *b'i,
1
oan 1 b'fu;;n j fen big (Shi, cf. 437 a.); loan for I pwan /pan distribute,
give (Li); rank (Shu, in this sense Shuowen 6? mst. 181); loan for 190 c.
(Meng). Gl. 715. - q. variant of the precedmg: distnbute   , .
r *b'iwan 1 b't'u;;n 1 fen hemp (Chouli); loan for id. and *p jWJn / p tuan If en to
. trouble (Shu). Gl. 2028. Upper part of character is an abbreviation of Rad. 200,
s-t. *b';oan 1 b'um 1 p'e n vessel, bowl, basin (Li). t. is III 257).
u. *pian j pf:!Jn 1 p in of equal quality or quantity (sc. two things) (Lunyu ap. Shuowen).
v. *b'im 1 b'ien I p'i n poor (Shi). . . ..
x. *p' En I p' an- I p'a n beautiful eyes, with black and white well defmed (Shl). Gl. 167-
472 a. *piwJn 1 pfu;m- If en manure, dirt (Tso); cleanse (Tso).
473 a. *pjwmL 1 pfu;m- 1 fen spread the wings, fly up .(Shi); start rise.
to rush (Shl); make an effort, energetic (Shi); eager, exCited (Tso); stimulate (L1); shake
(Yi). Gl. 1280.
474 a-b. *b'f.wJn 1 b'fum 1 fen to burn (ShY); destroy (Tso). b. is Yin bone (B hia,
9: 2). The graph has 'forest' and 'fire'. . ..
c. *pjm 1 pfen 1 pin of equal quality or (sc. two thmgs) (Lunyu). Cf. 471
u. above. The phonetic is our a. here abbrevmted.
475 a-g. *mjwJn 1 rnf1wn 1 wen drawn lines, design \Yi); striped ornam_ents,
ornate (ShY); written character (Tso ); literary document, (Lunyu); accomplished
(Shi); civil (as opp. to military) (Shl); embellish .(Lunyu: the Sung school
mfuJn- but not so Ts'ieyiin or ShYwen); loan for J. (Shu). Gls. 1068, 1755. b. IS Ym
130
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
111 n- ) ( \_ 1J1 .a, ?in- f1 ;t -tJ1 -rn il1
c d. e f B h. i -:l k L 111.. n o
: 15-l' 1( @)] JY;J 472. 473 $ 474 :t;t
t tL 1r X y ct. a. a.. lr
f' * 1\ 1\ tz f- f .G-,
p q
)t} 47S j;_
,..
.s
c a ,,_
lr c d e f 9 h_ 1. j k l
;;t f,tJ 47C " /1!{: 177 li.v Jt
0 p 5 t a. J., c d ct. lr c.
bone (A 1: 18,4), c. is Yin bone (A 4: 38,2), d. is Yin bone (A 1: ll,l), e. is Yin
(inscr. 3), f. is Yin (inscr. 15), g. is Chou I (inscr. 69). The graph shows a man with
tattooing on the breast. Already in Yin time, however, there are abbreviated forms
like d. above.
h. *rni1vJn / mium:, mfum- /wen wipe off (Ch'uts'i).
i. *mfwm I mfuan- I wen name of a river (Shu); loan for a word 'dirty' (Ch'uts'l) not
i11corporated in Ts'ieyiin or Kuangyiin (Tsiyiin reads rnnJn I m en).
j. *mfwm I miuJn- I wen entangle, confuse (Shu).
k-1. *miwJn I rninan I wen mosquito (Chuang).
m. *mfm I mfen I min violent (Shu ap. Shuowen). - n. id. autumnal (heaven);
austere, stern, severe (Sh'i). Gl. 571. - o-p. ia. precious stone (Li) (Ts'ieyiin, reading
it takes this character to be a variant of 546 b. below). p. is Chou I (inscr. 6.'5,
sense of a. above) .
q-r. *1nfwcn (mtwen: I min distress (ShY); pity, pitiable (Sh'i); exert oneself (Shu).
r. is Chou (inscr. 381, name). Gls. 95, 1902. - s. id. grieved (l\1eng).
t-u. *mlj;m I l{en- /lin regret (Yi); niggardly (Lunyii). u. is Yin bone (B lila 13: 15,
name).
476 a-c. *tian I tien: It i en statute, standard text, code (Shl); rule, norm (Shu); use
as norm (Shu); to regulate, to direct (Shu); constantly (Shu); preside over (Shu); loan
for *t'i;;n I t'ien: I t'i en solid (Chouli). Gls. 1661, 1787. b. is Chou I (inscr. 97), c. is
Chou II (inscr. 151). The graph shows 'documents' (845 below) on a 'stand'.
d. *t'i;m I t'ien: I t'i en abundant, ample (Shu); rich, prosperous (Tso); excessive (Shu);
good (Li); loan for a. ruler (Shu). Gl. 1595.
477 a-c. *tsim / tsien- Its i en grass, fodder (Chuang); straw mat (Ch'uts''i); (to
place on a bedding of straw:) 1:et fmth, present (Shl); loan for *az'i;;n / dz'ien- I t s i en
repeat, repeatedly (Shl). Gl. 987. b. is Chou IV (inscr. 286), c. is Chou III/IV (inscr.
330). The graph is a drawing of an animal (sacrifice or preEent of game?) placed on
'herbs, straw'.
478 a-e. *siiin lsien Is i en before (Shi); preceding, former (Sh'i); advance (Shu);
*sian lsien- / s i en go before, lead (Shi). Gl. 1383. b. is Yin bone (A 6: 56,3), c.
is Yin bone (A 2: 15,2), d. is Yin (insCI. 10), e. is Chou I (inscr. 57). The graph has
'man' and 'foot'.
131
BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
f. *.si;m I sim: Is i en glossy (Shu). GL 1225. - g. id. barefooted (Tso). -:- h. id.
bright and well-polished metal (Kuoyii); the angles of a bell with oval opening (Chouli).
i. *si:m I sim: Is i en and *siar I siei: I s i place name (Tso). - j. id. (both readings)
wash (Shi).
k. I .'Jicn Ish en run in crowds (Ch'uts'l}. Gl. 17. - 1-m. id. go to and fro,
Kuangyiin (no early text ex.). m. is Chou III (inscr. 225, sense of a. above).- n. id.
numerous (Sh1), cf. k. above. Gl. 17. - o. id. and I I s hen numerous (Shi:).
479 a-d. *k'iwan I k'iwm: I k'ii an dog (Shl). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 26,6}, c. is Yin
bone (A 4: 17 ,5); d. is Chou II (inscr. 161). The graph is a drawing.
e. *kiwcm I lci1oen: I k ii an small watering channels in fields (Shu); valley (Shu).
480 a-b. *ken I kan I k i en. This is the primary form of c. below 'distress, difficulty'
(hence the reading}, as proved by the form b. in the inscr. Yin bone E 159 3. The graph
shows a man (prisoner?) with back-bouncl""hands. It is practically identical with
huang yellow (707 below). - c-d. id. distress, difficulty (Shu); hard and
difficult (Shl); hard-gotten (Shu). Gl. 1315. d. is Yin bone (A 5: 40, 7). To the back-
bound man (prisonern has been added a 'drum' (triumphal music of victory?}, which
has been corrupted into fl in the modern character.
e-i. *lcm I ktin I k i en this is a variant of the preceding (hence the reading): distress,
difficulty (inscr. Yin bone B hia 24: 2); loan for *g'fcn I g'ien I k'i n clay (Shuowen,
no early text ex.); time, season (Kuan). f. is Yin bone (B hia 24: 2), g. is Yin (inscr.
10, sense here uncertain), h. is Chou II (inscr. 150, sense of p. below), i. is Chou II (inscr.
164, sense of p.). The graph shows the same back-bound man, now placed over 'fire'.
The latter element, written as in form h., has been misunderstood and given rise to
the modern element ± at the bottom.
j-1. *lcc:n I kiln I k i en distress, difficulty (Chouli). k is Chou II (inscr. 172), I. is
Chou II (i11scr. 180). This is the same word and, in principle, the same graph as e-el.
above, the triumphal 'drum' being drawn more elaborately.
m. *g'ic:n I g'fen- I kin barely (Kuoyii). - n. id. to plaster (Shl); to inter, bury
Sh!). - o. id. die of starvation (Tso ). - p. id. a kind of precious stone (Tso). - q.
id. see a superior, have audience (Shl); see, show (Shu).- r-s. id. famine (esp. want
of vegetables) (Sh!). Cf. o. above. s. is Chou II (inscr. 132).
t. *kian I k[an: I kin (in praxis reduced so as to coincide with e.) violet (used as a
vegetable) (ShY); m u -kin Hibiscus (Li). *kim I kim- I kin aconite (Kuoyii).
u. *kian I kimz: I kin attentive (Shu); cautious, careful (Sh'i).
v. *g'im I g'Jiln I k'i n sad (Kungyang); sincere, energetic (Lie). - x. id. toil, diligent,
devoted (ShY).- y. variant of the preceding (Ta Tai li).- z. variant of m. above (Li).
481 a-b. *kwcn I kwtin I k u an a kind of fish (Sh1); loan forid. widower (Sh'i). Gl. 259.
b. is Chou II (inscr. 180). The graph has 'fish' and 'eye'. -c. id .. distress (Shu).
482 a-c. *kfc:n I kjen lki n head-kerchief (Shi:); towel (Tso); covering (Chonli). b. is
Yin bone (A 7: 5,3), c. is Chou II (inscr. 153). The graph is a dra'.ving.
483 a-b. *'icn I 'fen I yin to dam up (Shu ap. Shuowen). b. is Yin bone (A 7: 14,4,
sense of g. below). Perhaps the graph is the primary form for g. slwwing a vessel with
high foot. -c. id. to dam up (Shu). - d. id. stop up (Tso); mound (Tso). -e. id.
block, stop up, obstruct (Tso ). - f. id. a curved or angular piece of extra wall as
132
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
478 5t f t Jt j}l ;}t 1Jt 1JL 1t g)l
a. lr c. d. e f 9 h.. -i. :i k L
47J :k t { t \B)( 480 ( 1 !
i lr c d.. e a. lr c d. e.. f 9 h.
(!- !! ii 11 5{ 11. J{ll if t I I '1'1 lh 1iJ, tiJJ
j k L m n o p 'l r s t v... v )(. 'j
48!     tl Iff<-- 4&1 rtJ rtl m 483 t- Jt t¥J 11:
a_ lr C a. \r c a.. lr c d. e f
J<t 184 11: 48) rii 11\ @ fl Jf
h_ a. a.. lr c d. e. f :J h..
protection to gate in city wall (Slli); crooked (Chuang); loan for d-e. above (Chuang).
Gl. 239. - g. id. sacrifice (Shi). Gl. 690.
[ex h. *'ian I 'ien I yen smoke (Chouli).
484 a. I .'fiEn Ish en great crowd, a flock (Shi). Gl. 17. The Seal has 'live'
(living creatures) doubled.
485 a. *lc'iw<n I k'jwen I k'ii n round granary (Sh1). The Seal has 'enclosure' and 'grain'.
b. *g'iwm I g'iwen: I k ii n a kind of bamboo (Shu); *k'jwEn I k'fwen 1 k'ii n Cassia
(Ch'uts'i).
c. *g'z'wm I g'jwen: I k ii n mushroom (Chuang); loan for b. (Lii).
d. *kiwc:n I kiwen I k ii n fallow-deer (Shi). - e. variant of the preceding (Tso), the
ab?reviated; loan for *lc'iwcn I k'iwen: I k'ii n bind (Tso); loan for 459 d. (Tso).
f. *klwJn I k1uan-1 k ii n (same as next, hence the reading) collect, harvest (Kuoyii). -
g. id. pick, gather (l\Io); phonetic abbreviated in the same way as e. above. - h.
variant of 420 f. above (Kuoyii).
486 a. *kwat I kuat I k u bone (Tso). The Seal has 'cut the meat from bones' (18 a.
above) and 'flesh, meat'. ·
b. *kwat I kuat I k u and *g'wat I ;•uat I h u and *g'wst I ywlit I h u a k u- k i u name
of a bird (Tso, used as an official's title).
c. *g'wat I yuJt I h u dig out (Kuo;yii); muddle (L1i); *k'wat I k'uJt I k'u with force
(Chuang).
d. *g'wet I ywc(t I h u a disturb, trouble (shu); crafty (Tso).
e. *g'wct I ywc(t I h u a slippery, smooth (Chouli); *kwat I kuat I k 11 confuse, disturb,
trouble (Chuang).
487 a. *ngwJt I nguat I w u cut the feet (Chuang). The Seal has two legs and a stroke
crossing their upper part. - b. id. shake, move (Shl). - c. id. tree trunk without
branches (Tso); shaken, unsafe, endangered (Shu). Gl. 2118. - d. variant of the
preceding (Shu ap. Shuowen). - e. id. variant of c. unsafe (Yi). Gl. 2118.
133
,,
l
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
18( j1 1A 487 JL :fJC.. ¥L 48& 'L.  
& c ci e a... l.r c d._ e f a..
4j() :}¥ ¥- 1$. o.¥- 5Zf J<f 4- i4
/.';' 1-i __x;'- /:"
1f
a.. 1r c d. e. f 9 h. i J. k L 1Y1.. ,_
# if 497 1-92 :;.__ fJ_ ;9._
0 p 1 a. L- c d.. e. .f. a.. lr
Jtf ·)t 494 ffi._ J1\ 1i £ 4JS tt
cl
c d. c d e L-
f. *ngiwdt I ngiwvt I y ii e and *ngw,,t I nguJt I w u cross-bar at end of carriage pole
(Lunyti).
488 a. *t'wJt I t'uat I t'u perverse, refractory (Yi ap. Shuowen).
489 a. *t'wat I t'tlJt I t'u and *d'wgt I d'twt I t'u dig through, break through (Tso);
1)rotrude (Lii); bursting forth, brusquely, suddenly (Shi). The Seal has 'hole' and 'dog'.
490 a. *tswJt I tsuat I t s u soldier (Tso); group of men (Li) or families or states (Li);
*tsfwJt I tsittet I t s u finish (Shi); die (Tso); utterly (Shi); loan for I It s'u
brusque (Meng); for c. high-pointed (Shi), for k. (Shi), for n. (Shl), for d. (Li). Gls.
.522, 550, 922. The Seal has :;& garment with a stroke on the skirt.
b. *dz'wat I dz'uJt I t s u grasp by the hair (Kuots'e); collide, combat (Kuoyii).
c. *dz'iwat I dz'iuet Its u and *ts:[wgt I tsfuet Its u high-pointed (Han texts); loan for
n. (Sh'i). Gl. 550.
d. *ts'wad I ts'w],i- It s'u e i second, assistant (Chouli). - e. id. to taste (Li). - f. id.
dip into a fluid (Kuots'e). - g. id. burn (Stin).
h. *tsf:wad I tswi- I t sue i to drink to the full, drunk (Shi).
i. *ts'iwad I ts'wi-1 t s'u e i kingfisher (Tso); rump of a bird (Li).
j. *dz'iwad I dz'wi· It s'u e i distressed (l\ieng). The Mand. t s'u e i is irregular we
should expect a t sue i. - k. id. suffering, fatigue, distress (Shi).- I. id. exhausted,
weary (Siin). - rn. id. collect, assemble (Shl); assemblage, crowd (:Yieng); loan for d.
above (Chouli), fork. above (Siin). Gl. 191.
n. *swad I su4i- Is u e i break (Lie).
o. *siu·ad I swi-1 sue i candid (sc. gaze) (1\Teng). - p. id. pure (Yi); loan for n. (Siin).
q. *siwad 1 swi-1 sue i and *swad I suiJi- I sue i and *dz'(wat I dz'fuet I t s ti repri-
mand (Shl); insult (Ch'uts'!). Gl. 342.
491 a. *b'wgt I b' ll'Jt I p o and *b'wad I b'tuJi- / p e i comet (Tso); loan for b. (Lunyii
ap. Shuowen).
b. *b'wat I b'ttiJt I p o quarrel (Chuang); sudden (Chuang); quickly changing (sc. mien,
ace. to Cheng Htian = respectful) (Lunyii); loan for id. powdery (sc. soil) (Chouli);
Gl. 847.
134:
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
c. *b'u•at I b'wt I p'o (The Pek. aspirate is irregular) to burst forth, grow vigorously
(l\Ieng).
d. *b'wat I b'uat I p o and *b'wgd I b'urf,i- I p e i disordered, silly (Shi); rebellious (Tso);
contradictory, unreasonable (Li); damage, reduce (Chuang); *b'wat / b'ugt I p o ample,
abundant (Tso).
e. *b'wat I b'uat I p o and *b'wJd I p e i confused talk (1\To).
f. *pjwat I pfugt I f u rope (Li).
492 a. *mwat I mtwt I m o Shuowen says: to dive, thus taking it to be the primary
form of b. below (no text).
b. *mwat lrnuJt ( m o, me i (Pek. me i is a colloquial form, the literary reading is
m o) to dive (Chuang); disappear, die (Tso); make an end of, destroy (Li); to finish,
come to the end of (Lunyii); exhaust, exhausting (Shi:); (have a final goal:) covet
(Kuoyii). Gl. 745.
c. *mwJt I rnzwt I m o to die (Tso). - d. id. a kind of jade (1\Tu t'ien tsi: chuan).
493 a. *tjat I tsjet I c h 1 substance, solid part (Yi); essential (Lunyii); natural qualities
(Li); natural, simple, honest (Shi); good faith (Tso); affirm (Li); give pledge (Shi:); just,
exactly (Li); directly (Li); verify (Li); written contract (Chouli); (solid lump:) wooden
block (Kuliang); chopping-utensil (Kuots'e); centre of target (Siin); *tjad I ti- I c h 1
gage, hostage (Tso); gift (Tso). Gls. 802, 951.
b. *fiat I tsiet I c h 1 chopping-utensil (Kungyang).
c. *tiJd I ti- I chI stumble (Tso).
d. *t'fad I t'i- I c h'1 and *t iad I tsi- I c h 1 annoyance (Shu); angry (Li).
494 a-c. *dz'iat I dz'iet I t s i sickness, pain (Shi); sufferance (Kuan); defect (l\ieng);
injure (Shi); aggrieved, to hate (Lunyii); be anxious (Kuan); violent (Shi); evil (Shu);
hurried (Lunyii); urgent, active, energetic (Shl). Gl. 815. b. is Yin bone (B hia 35: 2),
c. is Chou II (inscr. 180). The graph has 'man' and 'arrow'. - d. id. Tribulus
terrestris (Yi).
e. *dz'jat I dz'iet Its i and *dz'fad I dz'i- I t s 1 jealous (Ch'uts'i).
495 a. *"iwat I "juat I y ii Shuowen says: a fragrant herb, thus taking it to be the
primary graph of b. (no text). -b. id. thickly-wooded (Shi); to block up (Tso); heart
oppressed, depressed (Ch'uts'I); anxious (Meng); a fragrant herb (Li); strong-smelling
(Li); vapour (Lii); a kind of plum (Shi). Gl. 323.
496 a-e. *'t'jwat I ts'j1iet I c h'u go out, come out (Shl); bring out (Shi); expel (Tso);
*l'iwJd I ts'wi- I c h'u e i bring out, take out (Sh'i). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 28,6), c. is
Chou I (inscr. 59), d. is Chou II (inscr. 132), e. is Chou II (inscr. 139). The graph shows
a 'foot' going out from an area indicated by a curved stroke.
f. *t'fwat I t'juet I c h'u expel (Tso); degrade (Shu); abandon (Tso); reduce (Tso);
expurgate (Shu).
g. *tjwat tjuet I c h u bend (Siin); loan for f. dPgrade (Li).
h. *twat tuat It u scold (Kuots'e).
i. *tiwat tsfwiit I c h o stupid, inept (Shu).
j. *tswat i$wrlt I c h u a and I t9iwiit I c h o to sprout (Shi:); grow strong and
fat (sc. sheep) (Nieng).
k. *k'iwat I k'juat I k'ii bend (Tso); subdue (Shi); loan for id. exhaust (Siin); loan for
:301 h. in the phr. k'ii e- t i (Li). Gl. 918. The small seal as radical, abbreviated
in the modern character.- 1-rn. id. stop speaking (Kuots'e); cease (Li); turn, bend
135
I I
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
1:JC tt; ® att :}j:j ill £ 1X
a.
lr c cl e. f 9 h i.. j k L tn. n
0
JJ.j! Jt pji 497 ;t -*;l i2h $L VIL %1-L 498
P q ,- 5 a. /;. C d._ e.. f :J h_ i_ CL
:e: ;-! Af: 493 m C\t i{?. ffi
lr c cL e.- f. '3 h.. Ct.. lr c a... l.r c.
!lh R51 )f) tJI11Jf7 m {JI] a1f] J<Jf] ·\-ftl ;jf; e)b t
e f 9 h.. 1. :1 k L 11'1.. n. 0 p 9
. s
'Li); oppress (Lii); subjugate, submit (Siin); loan for f. above (Kuots'e). - n. variant
of s. below (Sun).
o. *kwat I Tc1t<Jt I k u and *g'wJt I yuat I h u dirt, to sully (Ch'uts'Y); loan for id. exhaust
(Siin).
p. *k'wat k'uat l{'u dig in the ground, underground (Tso ); rise (as dust) (Ch'uts'i:).
q. *k'wat k'uat k'u cave, hole (Tso).
r. *g'iwat g'·iu<Jt k ii strong, intense, immoderate (Ch'uts'i).
s. *g'fwJt g'j,1wt k ii and *g'iwat J g'fwvt I k ii e dig out (earth) (Shi).
497 a-b. *rt'iwat I di'juet Ish u glutinous millet (inscr. 364). b. is Chou (inscr. 364).
The graph is a drawing. - c. id. glutinous millet (Li); loan for g. (Kuots'e). - d. id.
road, path (Li); art, device (Tso). - e-f. id. follow (Li); follow the proper way (Shl);
transmit, carry forward (Lunyii); proceed (inscr. 54), then, thereupon (ShY, Lu version).
Gls. 78, 962. f. is Chou I (inscr. 54). - g. id. needle (Kuan); to leaq (as a needle
the thread) (Kuoyti).
h. *t'iwat I t'iuet I c h'u alarmed, anxious (Meng).
i. *sfwCJt I sjzdJt Is ii entice (Kuots'e).
498 a-d. *sljw<Jt I $iuet Ish u a i and *sliw}d I shu a i go along, follow (Shi:);
to lead (Shl); leader (Tso); (following =)immediately (Lunyii); loan for id. all (Shi:).
*liwat lliuet ll ii edge, border (Li); norm, grade, limit leather band (Tso).
Gls. 642, 1089, 1279, 1406. b. is Yin bone (A 1: 11,5), c. is Chou I (inscr. 65), d. is
Chou II (inscr. 180). Shuowen gives a sense 'net for catching birds', of which there
are, however, no text examples. If this sense is reliable, the graph may be a drawing
of a net, applied by loan to the meanings above.
e-f. *slfwt I I shu a i (follow:) following, thereupon (inscr. 54). f. is Chou I
(inscr. 54).
*slfwat I I so (the Pek. reading is very curious) s i- so cricket (Sh1).
- h *liw<Jt I lf.nel I 1 ii fat round intestines (Li).
499 a-c. *sliw:Jt I Ish u ai to lead (an army) (Tso); to direct, arrange (Tso);
follow the lead, obey, imitate (Li); *sljw<Jd I Ish u a i leader (of an army) (Tso),
officer (Tso). Etym. same word as 498 a. above. b. is Chou I (inscr. 86), c. is Chou II
(inscr. 134).
136
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
500 a-c. *pjwJt I pf1tJt If u not (esp. not able to, not willing to) (Shl); loan for id.
gust of wind (Shl); loan for h. eliminate (Sh!); for m. offensive (Shu). Gls. 865, 1545.
b. is Yin bone (A 1: 25,3), c. is Chou I (inscr. 56). The graph was possibly the primary
form of e. below 'rope', showing a rope tying two objects together? - d. id. a hangings
or screen covering the back entrance of a carriage (Shi). - e. id. rope (Shl).
f-g. *p'fwat I p'judt If u to chop (Tso). g. is Chou III (inscr. 238).- h. id. to brush
off, wipe off (Li); shake (Tso); beat off (Li); loan fork. to cover (Ch'uts'i), for m. (Siu),
for 406 e. assist (1\feng).- i. id. fang- f u indistinct, appear like, resemble (Ch'uts'I).
- j. variant of the preceding (Ch'uts''i).
k. *p'fw"'t I p'juJt I f u shrubby, dense (Kuoyii); *pfwJt I pjuJt I f u clear away dense
vegetation (Sh!); screens of a carriage (Sh1); loan for id. large (Shi); head ornament (Yi);
happiness; loan for e. (Tso), for 491 b. (Chuang). Gls. 45, 261, 847, 865.
I. *b'fwJt I b'jztCJt If u great (Shi:); resist, oppose (Li); turn away (Li); loan for 406 e.
(Siin). Gls. 847, 1237. - m. id. oppose, offend, offensive (Shu). - n. id. path on
slope of a mountain (Ch'uts''i).
o. *b'fwJt I b'fnJt If u and *b'jwJd I b'jwl),i- If e i grieved, annoyed (Chuang).
p. *b'w,Jt I b'uJt I p o and *p' fwJt I p'fuZit I f u annoyed looks (Meng).
q. *pfwad I I f e i to bubble up (Shi); *pfw;Jt I pj1t<Jt If u to gush forth (as a
spring) (Sh'i).
r. *p'fw<Jd I   If e i bake in the sun (Lie). - s-t. id. expend largely (Lunyii);
squander (Tso); loan form. (Li); for r. (Ch'uts'1). t. is Chou I (inscr. 67).
501 a-b. *pjwat I pfuat If u knee covers (inscr. 65). b. is Chou I (inscr. 65).
c. *pfwJd I pjw(;Ji- I f e i and *pwad I pwai- I p a i covering, umbrageous, luxuriant
(Shi); loan for *pfwat I pf.ttiJt If u knee covers (Shi), see a. above. Gl. 45.
d. *b'wdd I b'wai- I p e i· streamer (Sh!); flutter (Shl).
e. *p'wdd I   I p'e i (and several other readings) annoyed (Shi, Han version). Gl. 726.
f. *p'wad I p'wdi- I p'e i amply flowing (sc. rain) (Meng); abundant (Kungyang); loan
for id. run forwards (Ch'uts'Y); angry (Kungyang); obscured, darkened (Yi); *pwdd I
pwai- I p e i marshy jungle (Meng); loan for *pwad I pwai- I p e i uprooted (Shi);
fall down, collapse (Lunyii). Gl. 944.
*p'iwtid I p'f.wvi- ! f e i lung (Shi); loan for *p'wad I p'wdi- I p'e i and *b'wdd I
b'wai- I p c i dense, luxuriant (sc. foliage) (Shi).
502 a-b. *bfwat(?) I j1tet j y ii Shuowen says: writing stylus or pencil (no text); loan
for id. following, thereupon (Sili); a particle (Shi). Gl. 762. b. is pre-Han (inscr. 451,
name). The graph is a drawing.
c. *blfwat lliuet 11 ii law, rule (Yi); follow a model (Li); row (Shl), rank (Li); (regulate:)
to comb (the hair) (Siin); (regulator:) pitch-pipe (Shu). Gls. 627, 1261.
d. *plf<Jt I pfet I p i writing pencil (Li).
503 a-g. *mfwJt I mju<Jt I w u don't (Shi:); loan for id. eagerly (Li); for 1. careless (Shu).
Gls. 95, 1445. b. is Yin bone (A 7: 35,2 sense of: don't), c. is Yin bone (A 1: 27,3, sense
of: don't), d. is Yin bone (A 4: 54,4, sense of h. below), e. is Yin bone (A 6: 22,2, sense
of h.), f. is Yin bone (A 6: 54,3, sense of h.), g. is Chou I (inscr. 65, sense of: don't).
Originally there were two distinct characters for the word a. (forms b. and c.), and the
word h. (forms d. e, f.) but they were sometimes confused already in Yin time. -
h-i. id. thing, object, article (Sh!); colour of cattle (Shi); quality (Sh1); divide ace.
to quality, to sort, classify (Tso); class, sort (Tso); variegated pennon (Chouli). i. is
Yin bone (I 6: 4).
137
,'I
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF F'A.R EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
)OJ m ff\ ffj »$ t$ 3$ R$ f)1-f. ¥ S03 7/J 0
a.. lr c d. e f 9 a.. lr c d. a. l.r
# f 1J)j ,f2' !f) o}jj ·l:t2,
c. de f 9 h 1. J k l
504 -1 sos G ( ( l
0. d.
0 p
SOC fi S07
lr c. a.. lr c.

d.. e f h. l. j k L
rn. "l"\ 0
c
j. *miwat j1nj1wt 1 w u Shuowen says: an edible plant (no text); loan for * xmwat I
1 h u confused, dim (Chuang). - k. variant of c;, (Tso, one version).
1. *xmwCJt f x,uat I h u careless (Chuang); confused (Kuots e); sudden (Tso ); destroy
(Shi:). - m. id. writing tablet (Li).
n. *miwan j mfum: 1 wen cut the throat (Li). - o. icl. corner of lips, shut the lips
(Chouli).
P· * xmwat I xnat I h u confused, stupefied (Li).
q-r. *mjwm 1 minan: I wen and mjan j mfen: I min shut the lips (Chuang).
504 a-c. *kct j kilt I k i a a kind of lance (inscr. 181); sounding-box (Shu); norm, to
normalize (Shu). Gls. 1340, 1650. b. is Chou I (inscr. 67), c. is Chou II (inscr. 181).
The graph has 'dagger-axe' and 'flesh', the latter misunderstood and corrupted in
the modern character. This archaic graph has often been interpreted as .!j&, hardly
plausible.
505 a-e. *'jEt j ·jet I y i cyclical character (Tso); loan for id. guts of a fish (Li). b. is
Yin bone (A 1: 20,7), c. is Yin bone (A 1: 3,1), d. is Yin (inscr. 6), e. is Chou I (inscr. 59).
506 a. *t?i<t I I s h 1 louse (Chuang).
507 a. *gfwet I juet I y ii Shuowen says: to pierce (no text); loan for 1. (Siin). - b-d.
icl. go awrv, perversed (Shl); follow (Shu); then, thereupon, a particle (Shi:). Gls. 78,
572. c. is Chou I (inscr. 65), d. is Chou II (inscr. 140). -e. id. black horse which is
white-breeched (Shi). - f. id. kingfisher (Tso).
g. *kjwct kjuet j k ii orange (Shu).
h. *kjw<t kjuet j k ii and *giw<t j jttet I y ii well-rope (Li).
i. *g'iw<t g'iuet 1 k ii headless demon (only Han-time text ex.); vapours round the sun
(Lii). - j. id. be scared and run away (Li).
k. *kwet f kwat f k u a scrape (Chouli).
l. *kiwat 1 kiwet I k ii e treacherous, crafty, deceive (Lunyii). - m. variant of the
preceding (Chuang). - n. id. lock on a trunk or box (Chuang).
o. *kiwat j kiwet j k ii e and *gfwet I iuet I y ii to flow (Ch'uts'i).
p. * xiwed 1 xfwi- 1 hue i and * xiwat I x,iwet 1 hue scared look (Sun).
138
BERNHARD KA.RLGREN: GRAMMATA. SERICA RECENSA
508 a. *'ad I · (Ji- I a i to love (Sh'i); to grudgtl (Shi). - b. id. (Ch'uts'i). - c. id. to
screen, conceal (Ch'uts'i) Gl. 115.
d. *'ad / · iJi- I a i and *' iad I   I y i indistinct (Li); loan for *'Jd 1 'di- 1 a i to pant
lose the breath (Sh'i). Gl. 115. '
509 a-b. *d'ad I d'(ji- / t a i and *diad I i- I y i Shuowen says: come to reach to
thus taking it to be the primary form of c. below (no text); b. is Chou III/IV (inscr:
295, sense of h. below: set of bells). The graph shows a hand gripping a tail (see 583
below).
c-d. *d'ad l ..d'(ji- 1. t a i and *d'iad I d'iei- / t i come to (Lunyii), reach (Shu); come
(Sh1); when (Tso); loan for *d'iJd f d'iei-f t i peaceful (Li); for e. (Li) d.
IS Chou III/IV (mscr. 327). Gl. 2035.
e. *t' ad I t' rJ.i· / t'a i dark (Ch'uts'i).
f. I   I t i_ t'a n g · t i cherry tree (Shi); loan for *d'!:ad I d'iei- 1 t i and *d'ad 1
d (H- I t a 1 reachmg the highest degree, perfect (etym. same as c.) (Shi). Gl. 67.
In the modern characters have corrupted our phonetic a.
mto. :l.', a confusiOn due to the extreme similarity of the two elements in the
archaic scnpt; cf. o-p. below, where there are alternative forms, one corrupted and
one correct.
g. I i- / Y i to exercise, practise (Tso); toil (Sh'i); harass (Tso); loan for id. remnant,
surv1vmg branch (on a tree) (Shi). Gl. 566.
h-1. *siad I s_i. Is! extensive (Shi:); spread out, display (Shi); a ))display>>, a row of
bells \?houh); (display of merchandize:) shop (Lunyii), market (Tso); unrestrained
(Lunyu); la:: (Shu); to pardon (Shu); loan for id. then, thereupon (Sh'i); kill (Sh'i); for g.
(L1). Gls. 7.87, 1269, 1613, 1819. i. Chou I (inscr. 65), j. is Chou II (inscr.
139), k Chou II (I,nscr. 180),. 1. is Chou III (inscr. 234, rad. 167 instead of rad. 168,
sense of row of bells ). - ?I· t,d. then, thereupon (same as the preceding in this sense)
(Shu ap. Shuowen). - n. Shuo wen says: name of a plant (no text); loan for id
comfortable (Siin). ·
o-p. *diad I i- I y i and *siad I si- I s 1 a shallow, preliminary grave (Yili).
510 a. *k'wad I / k'u a i (the Pek. reading ought to be k'u e i, but it is read k'u a i
th:ough confusiOn With ;!ll!, with which it is cognate but not identical) clod of earth
(L1). The Seal has 'pit' and 'earth'.
139
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
b. *ksd I kai- I k i e come, reach to (Shi:); limit (Shi); (limit =) moderate oneself (Shi:).
Gls. 521, 597.
511 a-g. *(twab )) twJd / tulfi- / t u e i respond, in response (Shi); reply (Tso); corres-
pond to, suitable (Shl); counterpart (Shi). b. is Yin bone (A 4: 36,4), c. is Yin (inscr.
8), d. is Yin (inscr. 14), e. is Chou I (inscr. 63), f. is Chou I (inscr. 86), g. is Chou II
(inscr. 139).
h. *twad I t1tqi- I t u e i and *tiwad I twi- I c hue i front side of a carriage box (Chouli).
i. *d'fwad I a'wi- I c hue i cause resentment (Shi); dissatisfied (Tso).
512 a. *t'wad / t'u(?i- I t'u e i retire, withdraw (Shi:).
513 a. *dz'wad I dz'u(Ji: Its u e i crime, offense (Shl). - b. variant of the preceding
(Ch'uts'i).
"""
514 a-c. *p'wad I p'wf,i- I p'e i counterpart, be the equal or counterpart of (Shi:);
to be worthy of (Shi:). GI. 825. b. is Chou II (inscr. 180), c. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 319).
The graph has 'wine vessel' to the left; the right part was probably originally a drawing
of a kneeling person, see 714 below.
515 a-b. *kfCJd I kjQi- / k i Shuowen says: to belch (no text). b. is Chou III (inscr.
235, name). The graph is a short-form for c-f. below. - c-f. id. to complete a repast
(Li); to complete, finish (Shu); exhaust (Tso ); all, entirely (Shi:); particle of perfect
tense (Shi); since, after (Shi); loan for 517 e. (Li). Gl. 1410. d. is Yin bone (A 8: 10,3),
e. is Yin (inscr. 28), f. is Chou I (inscr. 70). The graph shows a kneeling person and a
food vessel (see 921 below). ·
g. *kiad I I k i Shuowen says: rich vegetation (no text); loan for *g'iEd / g'ji- lki
to come (Tso).
h. *xiad I I hi and *xic:d / xji- /hi and g'jsd / g'ji- I k i to plaster (Shu); collect
(Shi); to rest (Shl). Gl. 102.
i. *kJd I kqi-1 k a i and *xf;;d / xfr;<i- I hi to scour, wash, scrub (Chouli).
j-k. *bd 1 k(!,i- I k a i strickle for grain measures, to striclde (Li); measure (Li); norm
(Chuang); a kind of vessel (Chouli); loan for id. moved, feeling (Chuang). - 1. id.
throw water on, wash (Shi).
m. *k'Jd I k'qi- I k'a i sigh (Shi). - n. id. disappointed, sad (Li); sigh (Ch'uts'i).
o. *g'f:Ed I g'ji- I k i arrive, attain (Shu); together with, and (Shu); loan for id. martial
(Li). GL 1394.
516 a-b. *ngf:ad I J y i Shuowen says: enraged boar (no text). b. is Chou II
(inscr. 180, name). - c. id. bold, resolute (Shu). - d. id. Xantoxylum (Li).
517 a-b. *k'fad I k'i Shuowen says: cloudy vapours (no text); this is obviously
the primary graph of c. below in this reading and sense. b. is Chou III (inscr. 234, sense
of f. below 'to pray'). The graph is a drawing.
c. *xi.ad 1 I hi to present food (Tso ap. Shuowen); loan for *k'iad I k'jr<i- I k'i
as a. above) air (Lie); breath (Lunyii); vapour (Tso); temperament, disposition
(Lunyii); vital principle (Li).
d. *xiad 1 I hi and *k'Jd / k't!i- I k'a i sigh (Shi); *k'ad J k'r!i- I k'a i angry (Tso);
loan for k. (Li).
e. *xi.ad I I hi gift of animals (Lunyii) or grain (Kuoyii); animals (Tso).
140
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
S!t 1<- f 577 '\
\1.\ 't ttL tt tL yt
L- c cL
l\ 1t ;:t 11 .fit
l.r c. d. e. f 9 h.. { J
1!9 f79 ®   S/,9 5f1j
k L rn.'h. 0 r CL lr c. d. e .f 9
»J t1 1( 1t l 3LO 1(fl
/.r c cL e f 9 h.. L j k L -m. a. lr
f"l! 1f ))f Q2%? SlJ
lrc cl a.. u.. l.r c. d.. e f
f. *k'jgt I k'iat I k'i pray, beg, ask (Lunyii). This character is merely a modern modifica-
tion of a. above, which was loaned for a *k'iat 'to pray' already in archaic time, as in
inscr. 234, see a. above.
g. *kiat I kiat / k i speak with difficulty, stutter (Kuan). - h. id. finish, cease (Shu);
only (Shu); loan fork. (Shu). Gls. 1395, 2043, 2102.
i. I xiat /hi to caper, sprightly (Chuang). - j. id. water drying up (Yi); loan
for k. (Shi:). Gl. 915. - k-1. id. come to (Shl). I. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 327).
m. *ngiat I I y i and * xiCJt I xiat I h i great, powerful (Shi). GI. 848. - n. id.
variant of the preceding (ap. Shuowen).
o. *g'wat I yuJt / h u and *g'iat I yiet /hie bite (Li).
p. *kjad I I k i cut (Chouli).
518 a-d. *sfad I si- Is i four (Shi). (The final dental has left traces far down in time:
Tsiyiin mentions a dialectal reading sf;Jt in Shensi). The oldest graph for this word was
four horizontal strokes (e. g. Chou I, inscr. 65). But then another graph appeared:
b. is Chou II/III (inscr. 261), c. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 295), d. is Chou (inscr. 373).- e.
id. team of four horses (Shi); loan for a. above (Li).- f. id. ladle (Li).- g. id. drivel
from the nose (Shi:).
519 a-f. *liad I lji- I I i sharp (Lm1}rii); profit, profitable, favourable (Shi); nourishment
(Li); keen on profit, covet (Li); sharp-witted (Meng). a. is the current form, b. a variant
given in Shuowen; both go back to archaic forms: c. is Yin bone (A 2: 18,2), is Yin
bone (A 2: 3, 1), e. is Chou II (inscr. 137), f. is Chou II (inscr. 193). a, c, e. have 'grain'
and 'knife', b, d, f. have 'grain' and the archaic form for o/1 ( llo/J ), see group 503 above.
g. *liJr lliei I I i and *liJr llji fl i to plough (Lunyii, so ace. to some comm.; ace. to
others: 'brindled'); a plough (Kuan).
h-i. *liar I lji 11 i pear tree, pear (Li); loan for id. to cut (Siin); loan for j. (Sii:n).
j. *liCJr I liei ll i black and brown (sc. ox) (Kuots'e ). - k. id. numerous, all (Shi:, Shu);
black (Shu and Lii: Shi kiin Ian 6); old (Kuoyii). Gls. 430, 1372.
I. *l1CJr I lji I l i t s i-l i Tribulus terrestris (Yi).
, m. *liJr fliei J I i Chenopodium (Li).
520 a. *lfad I lji- I I i sound of dripping water (only Han time text ex.); loan for id.
come (Shi); to direct, command (Li); to treat (sc. the people) (Lunyii).- b. id. go and
inspect (Yi); control (Meng). - c. variant of the preceding.
141
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF' FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
S14 t 515 &1 li-t fi?;Z II M 52( \ 11
a.. a. lr c. cL e f :J a. 1r c. d. e.
lf- ;:.!_ ;!_ 5Z7 11 !$.

1t %tt
f 9 h. L j k l "YI"'. 11. o a. lr c d... e
528-* 537-*. f * f l t
ct. ct. lr a.. lr c. CL t, c:. d. e f
*-- tt 1 *r ltf_ vr-" Jt ·Jj__ ;ik
9 h.. t. j k L 111.n o.. 1r c
521 a-b. *piad I pji- I pi give (Shi:). b. is Chou II (inscr. 177). Gls. 1800, 1913. The
graph shows two hands presenting something (a vessel or a basket?).
c. *b'iad / b'ji- /pi nose (Meng).
d. *p'fad / p'fiii- / p'i and *p'iad I p'iei- / p'i to move, float (as a boat; as a pennon}
(Shi); loan for *p'iad I p'iei- f p'i in great crowds, luxuriant (sc. rushes) (ShY).
522 a. *rniad / rnji- f rn e i a kind of demon (Chouli). Same word as 531 h. below.
523 a-b. *gfwad f f wei stomach (Li). b. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 312, sense of
d. below). The graph (cf. e. below) has 'flesh' and a drawing of a stomach with con-
tents.- e. id. younger sister (Kungyang).- d-e. id. say, tell, call (Sill). e. is Chou
III/IV (inscr. 331). -f. id. porcupine (only Han time text ex.).
g. *k'iwsd f k'jwi- I k'u e i and *k'wsd f k'wai- f k'u a i sigh (Lunyii).
524 a. *gfwad I jwQi- I wei, h u e i (Pek. hue i is irregular). Shuowen says: porcupine
(= 523 f. above, no text); loan for id. category, class (Yi).
525 a-b. *'iwad f   I wei dominate, comptroller (Tso).
c. *'iwad f   I wei and *'fwat I · j1wt I y ii singe, repress (sc. sickness by strong
medicine) (Hanfei).
d. *'iwJd I 'jw(.!i· I we i to comfort, soothe (Sh'i); be quiet (Shi). Gl. 704. -e. id. net (Li).
f. *'iwad   wei and *'fwat f 'fuJt I y ii some kind of Artemisia (Shi); to screen.
(Sh!); ample, rich (sc. beauty) (Yi). Gl. 363.
g. *'fwad I 'jwr;i- I wei to lay on (Tso).
526 a-c. *dziwJd I zwi- f sue i Shuowen says: to follow, agree with, thus taking it tCJ.
be the primary graph of d. below (no text). b. is Chou I (inscr. 63, sense of g. below),
c. is Chou I (inscr. 86, sense of g.). The graph reminds of the drawing of . -d-e.
id. advance (Yi), progress (Shi); achieve (Sh'i); completely (Li); continue, prolong (Sh'i);
accompany, follow (Li); then, thereupon (Sh!); suburban road and district (Shu); path
between waters (Chouli); channel (Chouli); loan for j. (Shi); for o. (Ch'uts'i). Gls. 184,
190, 362, 1019. e. is pre-Han (inscr. 421, name).
f. *d'wad f d'u{fi- f t u e i troop (Tso); *d'jwJd I rl'wi- f c hue i fall down (Chouli);
throw down (Li); loan for m. path (Mu t'ien tsi: chuan).
142
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
g. *d'iwiid / ct'wi- I c hue i fall (Lunyii); throw down (Shu).
h. *dzfwad I zwi- f sue i a kind of pear tree (Shi). - i. id. to drill fire (Lnnyii); torch
(Tso). - j. id. jade insignium carried at belt (Shi:). - k. id. ear of grain (Shi:). Gl.
871. - I. id. grave-clothes presented as gift (Tso). - m. id. underground tunnel
(Tso); channel (Tso); defile (Tso); path (Shi:); loan for id. turn round, revolve (Chuang);
a section on a bell (Chouli); loan for g. (Siin), for o. (Chouli). Gl. 981. - n. id. plumes
tied to a banner (Chouli).
o. *sfwad I swi- I s u e i deep, distant (Ch'uts'i:); long-drawn, long (Li).
527 a. *dziwJd / zwi- f sue i and *dziwad I ziwai- /sue i broom (Li); comet (Tso).
l\Iodern readings h u e i and s a o have no ancient foundation. The Seal shows a
hand and two broom-like objects. - b. variant of a. broom (Chuang).
c. *xiwad f xiwei. I hue i to chirp (as insects) (Shi); to jingle (as bells); resound (Sh!);
loan for id. small (Shi). Gl. 53.
d. *g'iwad f yiwei- I hue i clever (Lunyli). - e. variant of the preceding (Kuoyi.i).
The archaic initials in this group are problematic.
528 a. *si1Md I swi- I s u e i evil forces, noxious influences (Tso ).
529 a. *liwad lljwi-ll e i class, category (Yi); (determine the category:) discriminate
(Lunyii); (of the same category:) resemble, similar, equal (Tso); good (Sh!); name of
a sacrifice (Sh'i). Gls. 830, 845, 1256. The Seal has 'head', 'rice' and 'dog'.
b. *lwad jlu1?i- fl e i knot on a thread, defect (Lao); perverse (Tso).
530 a-c. *p'iwad I   If e i and *p'wJt / p'uat / p'o new light of the moon, 3rd
day of the moon (Shu). b. is Chou II (inscr. 132, name), c. is Chou II (inscr. 187, name).
The graph has 'moon' and 'come out'.
531 a-f. *mfwad I f w e i cyclical character (Tso); loan for id. not yet (Shl).
b. is Yin bone (A 3: 6,1), c. is Yin bone (B shang 8: 14), d. is Yin bone (A 2: 9,3), e. is
Yin (inscr. 20), f. is Chou I (inscr. 70). - g. id. taste (Yili).
h. *mfad I mji- I me i a kind of demon (Tso); same word as 522 a. above. - i-j. id.
sleep (Shi); lie down to sleep (Shi). j. is Yin bone (A 2: 5,2).
k-m. *mwad I muqi- I me i younger sister (Sh!). I. is Yin bone (A 2: 40,7, mostly
used in the sense of n. below), m. is Chou I (inscr. 65, sense of n.)- n-o. id. dusk,
dark (Sh!); blindly (Tso); (obscured=) bewildered (Shu); loan for q. (music) (Li).
o. is Chou I/II (inscr. 204). - p. id. place name (Sh!); name of a star, a faint light (Yi).
q. * mw<Jd f muqi- I me i madder-dyed (sc. leather) (Sh!) (Kuangyiin reads muat I m o,
taking the phonetic to be :5K); loan for id. and *mwsd I mwi'ii- I m a i a kind of music
of the Eastern barbarians (Chouli).
532 a. *liad I liei- 11 i and liJt fliet ll i e to do violence (Siin); transgress, offense
(Shi); guilt (Shu); disobedient (Tso); perverse (Lunyii); loan for *liad I liei- 11 i to
come to (Shi); to settle (Sh!); to dry (Li); l an g-l i disorderly, thrown about (lVIeng).
Gls. 582, 947, 1616. The Seal has 'door' and 'dog'.
b. *liad fliei- 11 i afflicted, grieved (Ch'uts'i:).
c. *lfwad lljwi- ll e i tear (Ch'uts'i).
533 a-d. *g'iwJd I yiwei- f hue i a kind of cicada or cricket (Chuang, one version);
loan for id. kind, good (Shi); affectionate (Tso); love (Sh'i); to favour (Shi); compliant,
obedient (Shi:); loan for id. a kind of lance (Shu). Gls. 1072, 1281. b. is Yin bone (A
143
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
S33 $ .l,   534 AA
1
} 535 {_
a. lr c d.. e f 9 h.. i a... l.r a. Lr
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a.. lr c cl e f
2:7,6, sense here uncertain), c. is Yin bone (A3:33,7, sense uncertain), d. is Chou I
(inscr. 86). The graph is a drawin? of th_e insect. -.e. id; a of or
(Chuang), same word as a. -f. 2d. a kmd of Orchis (Ch uts i). - g. 2d. mtelhgent,
clever (Kuoyii).
h. *dzfwJd I zwi- I s u e i ear of grain (Shi). . . .
i. *sjwad 1 siu;iii- Is u e i loose stuff (Li). We have here the same
of phonetically not cognate initials as in group 527 above. The archaic nntmls are
obscure.
534 a. *k'wEd 1 k'wc'ii- I k'u a i Ts'ieyiin says: cut off (no text). - b. id .. a. rush
(Tso). The phonetic is corrupted in the modern character. In the Seal it iS still mtact.
535 a-b. *k'icd I k'ji- I k'i throw away, abandon (Shi:). b. is Chou II (inscr. 147).
536 a-c. *k'icd I k'ji- I k'i vessel (Shu); instrument (Tso); article (Tso); capacity (Shu);
talent (Lunyii). b. is Chou I (inscr. 91), c. is Chou I (inscr. 101). The graph has four
'mouths' and 'dog'.
537 a. *ngiEd 1 ngji-1 y i cut the nose (as punishment) (Shu); destroy,
Gl. 1470. The Seal has 'nose' and 'knife'. The word is cognate to but not identJcal
·with 285 e.
538 a-d. *kiwcd I kjwi- I k i (the Mand. k i is irregular; we should expect a k u e i)
youngest (of brothers etc.), young (ShY); last of a series (Tso); small (Yili); thin (Kuan).
b. is Yin bone (A 5: 40,5), c. is Yin (inscr. 50), d. is Chou I (inscr. 96). The graph has
'grain' and 'child'.
e. *g'i'wcd 1 g'jwi- I k i agitated (Ch'uts'i); shaking movement (Shi). Gl. 191.
539 a. *giwcd 1 jwi- 1 wei place of mnk (Shl); position as ruler (Tso). The Seal has
'man' and 'stand'.
540 a. *g'ftvcd 1 g'jwi- I k u e i basket (Lunyii ap. Shumven). Cf. i. below. The original
graph must have been a drawing.
14:4
BERNHARD KA.RLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
b. *kiu•Jd I kjwei-1 k u e i precious (Yi); dear, expensive (Tso); eminent (Tso).
c. *kwad I ku(ji- I k u e i disturbed, anxious (Ch'uts'i).
d. *g'wad I ytu]i- I hue i break through the banks, flow out (sc. a river) (Kuoyii);
scatter, be scattered (Tso); turbulent, violent (Shl); energetic (Shl); loan for 524 (class,
group =) numerous (Shi:). Gls. 101, 579. - e. id. variegated (Li).
f. * xwad I xu(Ji- I h u e i wash the face (Li).
g. *g'fwad I g'jwi- I k u e i box (Shu); loan for id. fail, defective, deficient (Shl). - h.
variant of the preceding ('box') (Hanfei). - i. id. basket (Lunyii); loan for 510 a .
above (Li).
j. *g'fwcd I g'jwi- I k u e i and *k'wcd I k'wai- I k'u a i basket (Lunyii).
k. *g'fwc:d I g'jwi- I k u e i leather embroidery (Kuoyii).- I. id. present of food (lVIeng);
meal (Yi); food (Shi:). ·
m-n. *gfwc:d I itvi I y i (Pek. y i is irregular, we should expect a wei) leave, reject
(Sh1); leave over, remains (Shi:); transmit (Tso); remiss (Shu); *gjwcd I j1d- I y i to
present (1\feng). Gls. 724, 996, 1589. n. is Chou II (inscr. 132).
o. * xwcd 1 xwai 1 h u a i natural, easy, gentle (Chuang); sometimes read *d'wJr 1 d'ttiji 1
t'u e i through confusion with 544 a.
p. *ngwc:d I ngwai- I w a i deaf (Kuoyii).
q. *giwcd I fwi, fwi: I we i low wall (Chouli).
541 a. *k'ar I k'qi I k'a i to open (Shl); (open up for=) set free (Shu). Gl. 1907. The
Seal shows two hands lifting a bar from a door.
. \ 542 a. *g'wJr I yucf,i I hue i revolve (Shi); go round by (Tso); deviate, corrupt (Shi).
The Seal shows a spiral.- b. variant of the preceding (Lie).- c. id. revolve, go every-
·where (Lii).- d. id. go to and fro (Chuang).- e. id. go up against a stream (Sh1).-
f. id. intestinal worm (Kuanyin).
543 a-c. *twJr I tw]i I t u e i Shuowen says: small mound, thus taking it to be the
primary form of :it (no text). b. is Yin bone (A 4: 2,2, sense of Bjjj), c. is Chou I (inscr.
54, sense of Bl!i). The figure b-e. recurs in 157 officer, official, 559 master, 570 a bride
going in ceremony to her new home, 196 g. reprove, 289 govern and thus seems to refer
to some ceremonial object.
d-g. *tiwar I twi I c hue i pursue (Shi); overtake, catch up (Tso); to escort (Shi:);
recollect, retrospective (Shi'); loan for *twar I tu(fi It u e i engrave, carve (Shi:); knob
of a bell (Meng); a heap, piled up (in m ou-t u e i name of a cap) (Yili). Gl. 807. e.
is Yin bone (A 5: 26, 7, rad. 77 inst. of 162), f. is Chou I (inscr. 63), g. is Chou I (inscr. 70).
h. *d'fwar I d'wie- / c hue i rope, suspend a rope (Tso). - i. id. swelling of the feet
(Tso).
544 a. *d'wJr I d'uqi I t'u e i collapse, fagged-out (Shi:); soft (Yi). Gl. 13. - b. id. bald
(Chouli). Radical is t'u 'bald' to the left, and a. above abbreviated phonetic. -b. id.
collapse (Li); give way, obey, conform to (Li); destroying wind, tornado (ShY).
·. 545 a. *lwar lluiji: 11 e i heaped stones (Ch'uts'1). The Seal has 'stone' tripled.
546 a. *mwJr I mttiji I m e i stem, branch, twig (Shl); a gag (Sh'i); board (Shi); a riding
sv;itch (Tso); the 'nipples' on bronze bells (Chouli); a lOth of a t s'u n inch (Chouli);
Gls. 386, 1159. The Seal has 'wood' and 'baton'.- b. id. a kind of pearl (Hanfei). The
phonetic is a. abbreviated.
10 145
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
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547 a-b. *kiar I I k i small (Shi); minutiae, first signs (Shu); near (Shi); imminent
(Shi); nearly, almost (Tso); shu k i possibly (Tso), it is to be hoped (Meng); occasion,
time (Tso); examine (Li); *kjJr I kjf,!i: I k i few, several (Tso); a while (Sill); bow many,
quantity (Shi:); loan for I g'jei I k'i border (on garment) (Li). Gls. 668, 1307,
1320, 1624. b. is Chou II (inscr. 185, name).
c. *kiJr 1 kjei I k i mechanism, clever device (Chuang); a spring, moving force (Li). -
d. id. pearl that is not round (Shu); apparatus (Shu). -e. id. stones in river obstructing
current (Meng).
f. *k{Jr 1 kjf,!i 1 k i auspicious (Lie); *kjJr I kjei- I k i a stimulating drink after bath (Li).
g. *kjJr I kjei: I k i the stem in an ear of grain (Lii).- h. id. louse (Hanfei).
i. *kiJr I kjf,!i I k i vilify, blame, ridicule, criticize (Tso); examine, inspect (Meng). -
j. id. bit, bridle (Cb'uts'i). - k. id. famine, esp. want of grain (Shi:). .
I. *g'iJr I g'jei I k'i royal domain (Shi:); loan for id. the place inside the door, threshold
(Sili).
548 a. *k'jar I k'jei: I k'i how (Sbl); *k'Jr I k'l]i: I k'a i joyous, happy (ShY). Gl. 265.
This latter reading is etym. the same word as b. and c. below, and since the graph ( cf.
h. below) seems to be a drawing of some kind of drum (cf. 50), it is probably the primary
form of *k'ar 'triumphal music'.
b. 1 k' qi: I k'a i pleasant (Shi).- c. id. triumphal music (Chouli); triumphal (Tso);
happy (Shi); complacent (Tso).- d. id. high and dry (sc. place) (Tso).
e. *k';n·l k'qi:, k'rf,i-1 k'ai coat of mail (Kuan).
f. *k'ar I k'qi, k'qi: I k'a i to open (Kuan).
g-h. *g'ar 1 yqi 1 h a i (Yiip'ien; not recorded in Ts'ieyiin or Kuangyiin, so the reading
is unsafe) to run (Yiip'ien, no text ex.). h. is Chou II (inscr. 202, name).
i. *ngjar I ngjei: I y i ant (Ch'uts''i).
j. *kjsr I kji· I k i to long for (Tso ).
549 a. *xiar I xif<i I hi thin (sc. hair, feathers) (Shu); rare, few (Lunyii); pause, cease
(Lunyii).- b. id. grief (Kungyang).- c. id. first light of the sun (Shi); to dry (Shi).-
d. irl. to sob, moan (Ch'uts'i).
e-f. *xiar I xjr:i, I hi swine (Chuang).
g. *xf,Jr I xir;i I hi look for, hope for (Lii).
146
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMM AT A SERICA REGEN SA
550 a-e. *'iJr I 'jei I y i garment, clot.hes (Shi); ·jar I 'jr;.i- I y i to wear (Shi:); loan for
f. l:an accord with (Shu); for a. Yin (Shu, one version). Gls. 1625, 1627;
b. IS Ym bone (A 3:27,7, name), c. IS Yin bone (B hia 34: 1, name), c. is Chou I
(inscr. 65), d. is Chou I (inscr. 58, sense here uncertain). The graph is a drawing (sleeves
and skirts).
f. *"jar I I y i upon (Shi); depend on accord with (Shi); firmly settled (Shi);
loan for luxunant, ample, grand (Shi); *'1ar I 'j!,!i: 1 y i metaphor (Li); loan for g.
below (Yil1); for 449 a. suffering (Shu). Gls. 837, 902, 1830.
g. *'fgr I 'jei: I y i a screen ornated with axes (Shu).
h-:-i: *'ar I 'di /a i to pity (Sh'i); sad (ShY); alas (Shl); wail (Tso); hateful, ugly (Chuang).
1. IS Chou I (mscr. 58).
j. *'jJr I ·jei: I y i sobs at end of lamentation (Li).
551 *dj,n· I i I y i barbarian (esp. tribes to the East of ttncient China) (Shi:); loan
.. level, even ,CShY); eq:ral (Li); just (IVIeng); ordinary (Tso); simple (Li); peaceful
be at rest (Shu); pac1fy (Shl); easy (Shi); pleased (Shi:); extend, expose, display
n:le, law (Shu ap. l\feng, same ·word as 1237 c.); custom, institution (Shi:); hurt
(1'1); lnll, destroy (Tso); to squat (Lunyii). Gls. 41, 401, 519, 824, 1819. b. is Yin bone
(J\I 150), c. is Chou IIII (inscr. 209). The graph has either (b.) 'man' and 'arrow' or
(c. and. i: below) something wound round the shaft. -d. irl. set out,
out (Yd1). - e. zd. s1ster-m-law (Shi).
f. *djJr I i I y i and *t'iar I t'iei- I t'i mucus from the nose (Li).
g. *dfg.r { i I.Y i injure, to wound h-i. id. precipitous (Ts'ieyiin, no text
ex.). 1. Is Ym bone (0 1225, name).- J. name of a tree (Shl).
k. *d'iJr / d'iei I t'i sprout, shoot (Shl); a kind of spurious grain (lVIeng); *di;1r 1 i 1 y i
to mow (Chouli). -
552 a-e. *tfJr I I c h 1 fine-tasting (sc. food, wine) (Shi); fine, beautiful, excellent
(Shl); (flavour:) content, meaning, basic idea (Yi). b. is Yin bone (A 4: 35,7), sense here
un;ertain), c. is !in bone (B hia 1: 4, sense uncertain), d. is Chou I (inscr. 103, name),
e. IS Chou III The gr:aph has 'man' and 'mouth'. - f. id. finger (Tso);
toe (Tso); to pomt, mdiCate (Shi); aim (Shu); loan for l. effectuate (Shi Shu). Gls. 820
1498. ' '
g. *tjar I tsi I c h 1 fat, grease (Shi).
h. *g'ic:r I g'ji I k'i pickled fish (Yili).
i-j. *k'iar I k'iei: I k'i bow dmvn (the head) to the ground (Chouli). j. is Chou I (inscr.
58). '
k. *ngiar I ngiei- I y i come to (IVIo).
I. *(fc:r I g'ji I k'i old (Shl); loan for id. severe, violent (Tso); for *fjJr I 1 chI to
brmg about, to settle (Shl); for p. (Tso). Gl. 820.
m. z I .k'i d?rsal of a fish (Li). - n. variant of the preceding (Yili).
o. hJr I I k I calcu!ate (Li); consult, inquire (Shu); examine (Shu);
accord with, agree With (LI); loan for reach to (Chuang); a kind of lance (Kuovii)·
for i. (ShY). • '
p. *djar Iii- I s h 1 enjoy (Sh'i).
q. *sjar I .Si Ish 1 a plant (some kind of Achillea? Ptarmica sibirica?) the of
which were used in divination (Sbi:).
553 a-::-g· I dz:i· l.s h 1 sign, signify, show (Shl); inform (Tso). Loan for h. (Li),
for jJire (Chouh). b. Is Ym bone (A 1: 1,1), c. is Yin bone (A 2: 5,3), d. is Yin bone (A 3:
147
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
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22,7), e. is extracted from the archaic graph (Yin, inscr. 22), f. is extracted from
another archaic form for the same word (Chou I, inscr. 65), g. is extracted from yet
another form for the same word (Chou II, inscr. 132). The graph possibly designs the
staJks used in divination, laid out in different patterns! Of. the character 175 a. above,
'calculate', which has our a. here doubled.
h. *cliar Iii:, ii- Ish 1 look, see, regard (Shi); cause to see, show (Sill); equal to (Meng);
proclaim (Tso ).
i. *g'ic:r I g'ji I k'i place name (Tso); loan for id. great, large (ShY); numerous (Sill). Gl. 39.
554 a. *tsfar I tsi: I t s i Shouwen says: to stop (no text). - b-e. id. elder sister
(Shi). - d-e. id. a high number, million (Shi). e. is Chou II (inscr. 132).
f. *t.'}iar I t.'}i: Its I bed mat (Tso). - g. id. slice of dried meat with bone in it (Yi).
h-i. *d-?'iar I d;'i: Ish i Diospyros, persimmon (Li).
j. *tsiar I tsiei I t s i to pickle (Chuang). The cha1acter has two phonetics, see 555 k.
below.
Ts'ieyiin places b-d. in rime 'J'r, which gives Arch. *far, confirmed by Sh.1 rimes. For a,
f-i. it gives rime Jl:, which would mean Arch. *jgg, This is probably due to confusion
with $' 963 (djag), the Seal form of which. is very similar to that of our 554 a.
555 a-b. *ts'far I ts'i- It s'1 to arrange in order (Tso); order, sequel (Tso); next in order,
second (Shu); take a position, to halt, to lodge (Tso ); lodging place, hut (Tso ); place,
position (Tso); loan for id. haste, hurry (Lunyii). b. is Chou III (inscr. 219, name).-
c. id. well arranged, convenient (Shi); to second, assist (Shi:). Gl. 468. - d. id. expose
(textiles) on market (Chouli).
e. *tsfar I tsi Its i consult (Shi'), to sigh (Shu); ohl (Shu); alas (Sh1); enclitic particle on
interrogatives (Shu). Gl. 1230.
f. *tsfar I tsi- I t s I unrestrained, license (Meng).
g. *tscjar I tsi I t s i sacrificial grain (Tso); *dz'iJt I dz'iei- Its i a kind of liquor (Li);
loan for j. below (Lie).
14:8
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
h. *tsjJI' I tsi I t s i property, means of living (Shi); provisions, materials (Tso ); avail
oneself of, take, use (Li); receive (Li); possess, rely on (Meng); furnish, give (Kuots'e);
loan for e. sigh (Li). Gl. 930.
i. *dz'iar I dz'i It s'I to thatch (a roof) (Shi); Tribulus terrestris (Shi); to pile up (Shi).
Gl. 691. - j. id. rice or millet cake (Chouli).
k. *tsiar I tsiei Its i to pickle (Chuang).
I. *tsiar I tsi I t s i consult, plan (Tso).
m. dz'jar I dz'i It s'i provisions, store of grain (Shi ap. Sh.uowen). - n. id. a great
number of plants (Ch'uts''i).
556 a. *dzjiJr I zi: I s 1 rhinoceros (Shi).
557 a. *siar I si Is 1 egoistic (Hanfei ap. Sh.uowen). - b. id. private (Shi'); egoistic
(Li); brother-in-law (Shi).
558 a-c. *sjar I si: I s i die, death (Sh1). b. is Yin bone (A 5: 41,3), c. is Chou I (inscr. 65).
559 a-e. *$lJ1'1 .'}i I s hi multitude (Shi:); all (Shu); army (Shi); population of a district,
a district (Shu); capital (Shi); chief, director (Shu); comt assessor (Shu); master (Sh.i);
matron (Shi); take as master, imitate (Meng); take as norm (Shu); Gls. 1244, 1305,
1318, 1335, 2056. b. is Yin bone (A 2: 17,6), c. is Yin (inscr. 19), d. is Yin (inscr. 32),
e. is Chou I (inscr. 70). The left element is the same as in 157, 543, 570, 196, 28D.
560 a-d. *liiar I :H: Ish 'i arrow (Shl); loan for id. set forth, display (Shi'); to marshal
(Shl); to swear (Shl); make a solemn declaration (Sill, Shu); dung (Chuang). Gls. 783,
1043, 1409. b. is Yin bone (A 4: 51,3), c. is Yin (inscr. 39), d. is Chou I (inscr. 88).
The graph is a drawing.
e-h. *d'far I d'i: I chi pheasant (Sh1); loan for id. a measure of length (Tso ). f. is
Yin bone (A 7: 24,1), g. is Yin bone (A 2: 11,6), h.. is Chou IIIIIV (inscr. 325). In g.
there is a wrapping round the arrow, see 551 a. above.
i-j. I sjen: I she n base of tooth (Li); loan for id. how much more, a jortiori (Shl).
k-1. *t:jw;cm I sfuen- Is h. u n to blink, wink (Kungyang). I. is Yin bone (I 47: 8, sense
here uncertain).
m. *t'iar I t'iei-1 t'i and *d'iar I cl'i: I chi and *dziar I zi: Is i: clear off weeds (Li).
561 a-b. *:ijJr I :ii I s hi: corpse (Tso ); lie as a corpse (Lunyii); the >>corpse>>, i.e. the
representative of the dead at a sacrifice (Sill); set forth (Sh'i); to preside (Tso); sit
motionless (Sh!); expose a corpse (Tso); to array (an army) in formation (Tso). Gls.
43, 488. b. is Chou I (inscr. 54, sense of The archaic graph. is practically identical
with that of }1.. - c. id. corpse (Chouli).
d. *siar I si: Is h. i dung (Chuang); *xi<Jr I rJi I hi to groan (Shi) (Sh.uowen has Rad.
30 inst. of 119).
e. *sfar I si I s h 1 name of a bird (Shi).
562 a. *liJr I lji: I l i sandal (Chuang); to tread (Shi); path (Sill); loan for id. dignity
(Shi).
563 a. *niar I 1ii In i near, close (Shl-ts1); I niei- In i to stop, obstruct (l\Iena).
b. *niar I 1zi In i ashamed (Meng).
0
c. *nfar I Jti:, 'lti- In i (Shiwen has several more readings) a stopper for carriages (Yi).
149
i
I
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
ssJ gt: :;z
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d. *niar I niei / n i mud, mire (Shu); *niar / niei- / n i impeded, obstructed (LJmyii);
*nicJr I niei: I n i moistened by dew (Shi); luxuriant (Shi:). Gl. 880.
1
e. *nfr1r l1tit;;: / n i flutter (as a flag) (Ch'uts'i:); yi-n i luxuriant (Shi:, Lu version).
Gls. 188, 880.
f. *njrJt / Jtj_i't I n i close-standing, familiar, intimate (Tso ); familiarity (Shu); (closest
relative:) dead father (Shu); (close-sticking:) glue (Chouli). Gl. 1492.
564 a-d. *1/.jn· / Jtii- I e r two (Shi). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 16,5), c. is Yin (inscr. 12),
d. is Chou I (inscr. 65). The graph is a symbol. - e-f. variant of the preceding.
f. is Chou II (inscr. 132). - g-h. id. double (Shl); repeat (Lunyii); in two minds,
doubtful (Shi); double-hearted, divided in allegiance (Shi); second, assistant (Li); to be
a peer of (Tso). Gl. 181. h. is Chou II (inscr. 150). - i. id. a sour date-tree (Meng).
j. *njar / 1ii- In i fat, slippery (Ch'uts'i).
565 a. *1Jim· I pji: /pi ladle, spoon (ShY); head of arrow (Tso). The original graph
must have been a drawing. - b. variant of the 1lreceding: spoon (Yili).
566 a-f. *pj_Jr I pji:, pji- 11l i (primary form of n. below, hence the reading) deceased
mother (inscr. 12 and 461, inscr. Yin bone A 1: 36,2 etc.). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 36,2),
c. is Yin bone (A 1: 38,4), d. is Yin (inscr. 12), e. is pre-Han (inscr. 461), f. is Chou
IIIIIV (inscr. 301, enlarged by rad. 113). The archaic form is practically identical
·with that of A, though mostly turned to the right.
g-h. *piar / pji: I pi compare (ShY); equal, similar (Li); *pfar I pji- /pi and *b'-far I
b'ji- I pi combine, unite (ShY); assemble (Shl); go together with (Shi); follow (Lunyii);
concordant (Shi:); partisan, be a partisan (Lunyii); aid (Yi); on behalf of accord
with (Li); several together, successive (Li); come to (Shu); when (Kuoyii); close, dense,
tight (ShY); back end of an arrow (Chouli); loan for *b'jar / b'ji I p'i k a o · p'i tigerskin
150
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
(Tso); s hi- p'i (probably transcr. of a foreign word) dress-hook (Kuots'e); loan for k.
below (Chouli). Gls. 831, 1467. h. is Chou II (inscr. 143, name- if this is not M. =
i-j. *b'j_an I b'j_iJn: / p'i n and *b'jar I b'ji: /pi female of animals (Shi). j. is Yin bone
(F 4: 2; in the oracle inscriptions there is often rad. 123 or rad. 152 inst. of rad. 93).
1\Iand. p'i n is irregular, we should expect a pin.
k. *p'j_ar I p'ji: I p'i and *p'jar / p'jil},: I p'i prepare (Tso); all, complete (Tso); regulate
(Kuoyii).
1. *p'iar I p'ji: / p'i and *p'jiir I p'jil},: I p'i and *pjJr I pji: /pi sore on the head
(Chouli). - m. variant of 565 a-b. 'spoon' above (Li).
n-o. *piar / pji:, pji- I pi deceased mother (Shi:). o. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 308).
p. *piar I pfi· /pi cover (Chouli); protect (Tso).
q. *piar I pji: /pi unripe grain, chaff (Tso); petty (Chuang). - r. variant of the
preceding (Chuang).
s. *p'j_Jr I p'ji: I p'i and *b'jar / b'ji: I pi to be separated (Shi); *b'jar I b'ji I p'i ugly
(Huainan).
t. *p'far I p'ji / p'i inferior silk stuff (Chou shu ap. comm. on Hou Han shu); *p'jar /
p'ji I p'i and *p'frlr I p'ji(.! I p'i and *£. ·ar I piei I pi error (Li); *b'iiir I b'jif) I p'i and
*b'jJr I b'ji-1 pi braid (Shi); silk ba d in border, border (Li). Gl. 143.
u. *b'j_;w I b'ji / p'i to make ample, str ngthen (Shi); to support, aid (Chuang); boastful
(Shi). Gls. 517, 929.
v-x. *b'jar I b'ji I p'i a kind of vessel (inscr. 367). x. is Chou (inscr. 367).
y. *b'i.ar I b'ji- I pi terraces one above the other, as a stair (only Han time text ex.),
cf. c'. below.
z. *b'iar I b'ji / p'i a kind of herb (no pre-Han text ex.); *pjar I pji, pji- /pi to cover
(Chuang).
a'. *p'iar / p'iei / p'i to beat, slap (Tso); *b'iat / b'iet /pie to knock against (Chuang).
b'. *b'i;;r I b'iei: /pi fence, railing (Chouli). - c'. id. palace staircase (Kuots'e).
d'. *p'fi'ir I p'jil},: I p'i to blame, speak bad of (Chuang).
e'. *b'iar I b'ji I p'i Shuowen says: navel, thus taking it to be the primary form of f.
below in this sense (no text).
f'   *b'iar I b'ji / p'i ox's stomach (Chuang); loan for id. abundant, large, to enlarge
(Shl); *b'iar I b'iei / p'i navel (only Han time text examples).
h'. *b'j;n / b'ji I p'i a wild animal, possibly some kind of panther or leopard (Shi').
Gl. 1034.
567 a-c. *miar / mji I me i eyebrow (Shi:); loan for 585 *miwar I mjwr:.i: I wei vigor-
ous (sc. old age) (Shi). Gl. 374. (Cf. 446 and 585). b. is Yin bone (B hia 25: 7, sense
here uncertain), c. is Chou I (inscr. 54, sense of g. below). The graph is a drawing.
d-e. *mjar I mji- I me i love, lovable (Shi); flatter, curry favour with (Lunyii). e. is
Yin bone (A 6: 28,6, name).
f. *miar I mji / me i lintel of door or window (Yili); front beam (Li). - g-h. id. margin
of a stream (Shi). h. is Yin bone (B sha11g 14: 9).
568 a-c. *rniar I mji: I me i beautiful, fine (Shi). b. is Yin bone (A 2: 18,2), c. is
pre-Han (inscr. 450, name). The graph shows a man (317) with a head adornment
in the form of ram's horns (of. 732).
569 a-c. *kiwar I kjw(.!i: I k u e i spirit, ghost, demon (Shi:). b. is Yin bone (A 4: 18,3),
c. is Chou IV (inscr. 287, enlarged by rad. 113). The graph is a drawing.
d. *kuw / kw]i / k u e i great (Si.in); remarkable, extraordinary (Chouli). - e. id. a
kind of precious stone (Shi).
151
',\:
"'
BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
SC7 /0 $J M§ f Sb8 }, * } S(9 %, a
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i 1 k L YTLn. or 'l,
f. *k'wJr I k'1u!i / k'u e i spoon (only Han time text examples); (spoon-shaped, used as
spoon:) a kind of mussel or oyster (Yili); loan for id. great (Sun); principal, chief (Li);
mound (Kuoyii ).
g. *k'wiJr / k'1tiji- I k'u e i and *k'wcr / k'wai-1 k'u a i clod (Tso); lump, piece (Chuang);
loan for id. alone (Ch'uts'i); for d. (Kuliang). Cf. 510 a.
h. *g'war / yu1Ji: I hue i sick, deformed (sc. tree) (Shi ap. Shuowen). Gls. 13, 599.
i. *g'wJr I yuqi I hue i and *g'wcr / ywai I h u a i Sophora (Tso).
j. *ngwar / ngnrJi, nguqi: /wei high and rocky (Sh!).
k. *ngjwJr lngjwl},i, ngjwr;:,i- I wei high (Chouli).
1-m. *kjwr;r / kjwi- / k u e i ashamed (Sh1). m. is Chou IV (inscr. 287). - n-p.
variant of the preceding (Siin). o. is Chou II/III (inscr. 265, name), p. is Chou II/III
(inscr. 272, name).
q. *kfwc;r / kjwi, lcjwi- / k u e i and *g'war / yw!i- I hue i chrysalis of the silkworm
(Hanfei).
r. *g'fwc;r / g'jwi- I k u e i to present (Meng).
s. *ngiwar I ngjwr;:,i I wei high, majestic (Lunyii).
570 a-f. *kiwar I I k u e i return (Shi); go to (Shi); to bring to (Shl); go as a
bride to the new home (Sh!). b. is Yin bone (A 4: 6,8), c. is Yin bone (B shang 30: 5),
d. is Chou I (inscr. 54), e. is Chou I (inscr. 57), f. is Chou II (inscr. 172). The left part
of the graph recurs in 157, 543, 559 above.
g. *k'iwsr I k'jwi, k'jwi: I k'u e i isolated, alone (as a lone peak) (Chuang)-
571 a-c. *gjw;;r I jwf},i I wei Slmo wen says: go in opposite directions, thus taking it
to be the primary form of d_ below (no text); loan for id. dressed hides, leather (Tso).
b. is Yin bone (E 77:4, sense of 342 a. above), c. is Chou (inscr. 334, name). The graph
shows two feet walking in opposite directions on either side of a circle (wall?); was it
the primary graph for g.? - d-e. id. go against, disobey (Shi); oppose (Tso); go
away, leave (Shi); deviate from (Li); err, fault (Tso); perverse (Shu). Gls. ll90, 1235,
1862. e. is pre-Han (inscr. 447).
f. *gjwar / /wei extraordinary, great (Chuang).
g. *gjwar / fwl},i I wei sunound, encircle (Li); circumscription (Shl). - h-i. id. toilet
bag for carrying perfumes (Ch'uts'i); front part of a skirt (Kuoyii). i_ is Chou II
(inscr. 159).
152
BERN HARD KARLGREN: GRAMilfAT A SERICA REGEN SA
j. *givm· / / wei blaze, bright (Sh'i). - k. id. remarkable (Chuang).
1. *'i(ir I I y i beautiful (Kuots'e).
m. *gjum I I wei woof (Tso); weave (Chuang); *gjwar I fwl}i: /wei bind (Ta
Tai li).
n. *giwar jw(<i: I wei reed, rush (Sh'i).
0
• *gjwJr jwt;<i /wei small gate in the interior of the palace or mansion (Li); gate (Tso).
p. *gjwJr jwl},i: I wei right, correct (Tso). - q. id. brilliant (sc. flowers) (Shi).
r. *xiwar xjwe.i I hue i queen's ritual robe (Li); knee covers (Mu t'ien tsi: chuan).
s. *xiw;Jr xjwl}i- I hue i avoid, taboo (Tso).
572 a. *xiwar I xjwe.i: /hue i snake-brood (Sh1); loan for id. sound of thunder (Sill);
loan for *xwar I X1Ufi I hue i and *xwcr I xwai I h u a i exhausted, weary (Shi:).
Gls. 13, 505.
573 a-c. *'iwar I 'jwl}i- /wei fear (Shi). b. is Yin bone (F 1: 2), c. is Chou I (inscr _
65). The graph shows a demon (see 569 a-c. above) holding an object, the interpreta-
tion of which is uncertain.
d. *'fwar / 'jwr;:,i: I wei and *'war I   I wei sinuous, contorted mow1tain (Chuang)-
e. *'war I 'uiji I wei to fondle (Lie). - f. id. glowing coals in brazier (Kuots'e).
g. *'wat· I ·u,Ji: /wei many, much (Kuan).
h. *'war I '1u]i I wei a bend, a nook (Tso).
574 a-c. *'jwar I 'jwQi I wei terrifying (Shi); terrified (Shi); to overawe (Shu); majesty,
dignity (Sh!); to fear, loathe (Shl). Gls. 1000, 1878. b. is Chou II (inscr. 174), e. is
Chou II (inscr. 146)- The graph has 'woman' and some kind of weapon, cf. 1257 i. below.
d. *'wsr I 'wr1i I w a i cliffy, high (Ch'uts'i:).
575 a-d. *tiwar I tdwi I c hue i a kind of dove (Sill, one version ap. Shiwen); loan for
d'. below (Chuang). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 46,2, sense of i. below, particle), c. is Yin (inscr.
10, sense of i.), d. is Chou I (inscr. 57, sense of i.). The graph is a drawing. - e-f.
id. name of a bird (Sh1). - g. id. awl (Tso). - h. id. horse of mL'\:ed grey and white
colour (Shi).
i-1. *diwar I iwi I wei only (Shi:); a particle (Yi); *djwat·l jwi: I wei say yes (Tso);
loan for *ts'iwar I ts'wi: It s'u e i go out and in, run to and fro ( = e'. below) (Shl).
Gl. 260. j. is Yin bone (A 5: 39,8), k. is Yin (inscr. 25), I. is Chou I (inscr. 54).
m. *djwJr I jwi / wei (Anc. Chin. jwi is irregular, we should expect a jwi) curtain (Shi).
n. *diwar I iwi I wei think (Sh1); namely, it is (copula) (Shu); only (Meng), cf. i. above.
- o-p. id. to tie, bind together (Shi:); guiding rope of a net (Tso); guiding principle,
rule (Kuan); loan for id. but, only (Sun); a particle (Shi); to be (Shi:). Gls. 516, 968.
p. is Chou II (inscr. 157, enlarged by rad. 29).
q. *diwar / iwi- /wei and *ljwJr / ljwi: /I e i and ? / if!.u- I y u a kind of monkey-
like animal (Chouli).
r. *d'jw;;r I a'wi I c h'u e i hammer, to hammer (Kuots'e). - s-t. id. Shuowen says:
protruding forehead (no text); in the famous inscr. 180 it is a verb, but the sense is
difficult to define. t. is Chou II (inscr. 180).
u. *afwar I iwi I shu e i who (Sh!). Gl. 341.
V-x. *sjwJr I swi Is u e i Shuowen says: a kind of lizard (no text); loan for id. although
(Shi). x. is Chou III (inscr. 229).
y.   I a'i- I c h 1 young (Meng).
z. *twar I tuiji It u e i mound (Ch'uts'1); loan for id. throw away (Kuots'e).
153
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BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
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a'. *t'war I t'1u]i I t'u e i and *t'jwar I t:Pwi I c h'u e i push (Tso); push away (Shi);
extend (lYieng); compute (Kuan); change, succeed (Yi).
b' -c'. *d'war I d'uqi: I t u e i Shuowen says: high, precipitous (no text). c. is Yin bone
(0 1034, name).
d'. *dz'war I dz'urJi I t s'u e i high, rocky (Shi).
e' -f'. *ts'iw;;r / ts'wi: It s'u e i move, run (only Han time text ex.); place name (Tso).
f. is pre-Han (inscr. 454, name).
g'. *diwar / jwi: /wei (this is the reading given by Shiwen after Tsi-lin, and certainly
the correct one, as shown by the composition of the character; but in the scholastic
litPrature the fan-ts'ie spelling character * swi has been corrupted into the similar ;j,
sjdu, and so the word is now generally read y a o, which is obviously wrong) note of
the female pheasant (Shl).
h'. *diwar / jwi- / wei gadfly (Kuoyii).
i'. *t'war t'uqi I t'u e i and *l'jw;;r / t:J'wi / c h'u e i Leonurus (Shl).
r. *ts'uJJr ts'u{fi It s'u e i urge, repress (Shi ap. Shuowen). Gl. 113.
k'. *ts'war ts'1u]i: / t s'u e i deep (Shi). GL liS.
I'. *dz'war dz'uqi f t s'u e i to break (Kuoyii); repress (Shi); draw back (Yi; ace. to some:
to grieve); cut fodder (Shi). Gls. U3, 696.
576 a-c. *sjwar I :Jwi: Ish u e i water (Shi:). b. is Yin bone (A 4: 13,5), c. is Chou II
(inscr. 169). The graph is a drawing of running ·water.
577 a-c. *liwar I ljwi: I lei (Tsiyiin, and cf. d. below), *lwar I lnqi /I e i (Ts'ieyiin)
small entrenchment or raised path between fields, primary form of d. below (Ts'ieyiin
says: the interstice between fields). Shuowen gives this as the archaic graph for n.
below 'thunder', but this is obviously a loan application, since the fields and paths are
clearly drawn. b. is Chou I (inscr. 56, name), c. is Chou III (inscr. 234, name).
d. *ljwar J ljwi: I lei entrenchments (Tso); loan for r. (Siin). - e. id. creepers, lianas
(Kuan).
f. *linw I ljwi I I e i to ·wind around, be attached to (Shi); bind, in bonds (Tso); string
(Chuang); continuous (Li); loan for id. despondent, exhausted (Li).
g. *liwar I ljwi: I I e i a creeping plant (Sill). - h-i. id. eulogy (Lunyii ap. Shuowen).
j. *lwJr flw]i, l1ttf,i: I lei damage, exhaust (Huainan); wooden image (Lie).
k. *lw<Jr I lu(fi: I lei small cave, hole (Chuang).
154:
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRA1lfMATA SERICA RECENSA
577
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ll.'\JI ffiffi :: owEIJ a JR Jl!st a1
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sso 587 :1c J$ 582 JJr f83 £ 9/i 5Ji X{
1T X
lr c a. a. lr c. cl e
1-m. *lwar I lluJi I lei vase, jar (Shi). m. is Chou (inscr. 360, rad. 167 instead of 121 ).
-n-o. id. thunder (Sh1). o. is an abbreviated form of n.
p. *liwar I ljwi I lei and *lwar I l1ti}i- I lei exhausted, despondent, tired (Lao).
q. *lwdr I lua I l o basket (Meng).
r. *liw<Jr I ljwi I lei bind (Meng), abbreviation (cf. o.) of f_ above; string (Chuang);
loan for *liwar I I lei augment, accumulate (Kuliang); for *liwifr I ljwif,- I
lei embarrass, implicate (Tso); for *lwdr I lud: I l o naked (Li).
s. *liw<Jr I ljwi I l e i rope, bonds (Lunyii).
t. *lwdr I luil I l o mule (Lii).
578 a. *ljwar I ljwi: I I e i and *lwar I lnt}i- I lei plough stem, a plough (Meng).
b. *liwar I ljwi: I lei eulogy (Lunyii); prayer (Lunyii), cf. 577 h. above.
579 a-b. *piwar I pjwt;.i If e i it is not (Shi); not (Shi); without (Tso); (not so:) "Tong
(Yi); loan for g. (Siin). b. is Chou II (inscr. 132). Possibly this was an original drawing
for 580 (homophonous: *piwar) 'to fly', showing two wings.
c. *piwar I If e i square basket (lYieng); loa9 for id. not (Shl); loan for i. (ShY);
fork (Li); for 51- (*piwm) (Chouli). Gls. 151, 357.
d. *pjw<Jr I If e i wooden door, door-leaf (Tso).
e. *piwar I pjwr;i: If e i lath for keeping a bow from warping, a support (Siin); strengthen,
assist, help (Shu); loan for c. 'not' (Shu). Gls. 1609, 1900. - f. id. round basket (Shu).
g. *pjwar I pjwf)i- I f e i slander (Chuang).
h. *p'iwar I pj'wr;i: I f e i painful effort (Lunyii).
i. *p'jwar I If e i ornate (Shi), elegant (Li). Gls. 151, 616.
j. *p'fwar I If e i heavy snow-fall (Sill). - k. id. to run without stopping (sc.
horses) (Shl); *piw<Jr I pjwei If e i outer horse of a team (Tso, only as N. Pr.).
I. *p'jwar I p'jwr,:.i: / f e i name of a plant (radishn (Shi); of little value, insignificant (Li);
frugal (Lunyii); *p'jwar I p'jwr,:J If e i fragrant (Ch'uts'l); *b'jwar I If e i straw-
sandal (Li).
m. *b'jwar I b'jwt;.i- If e i cut the feet (Shu). - n. id. hidden, obscure (Li). - o. id.
straw sandal (Tso), cf. l. above. - p. id. kingfisher (Ch'uts'i).
q. *b'ium I If e i calf of leg (Yi); keep between the legs (Shi); (to leg it=) to
follow on foot (Shi); loan for id. weaken, decay (Sh'i); Gls. 432, 637.
155
BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
r. *b'iwar J   J f e i and *pi war J / f e i an evil-smelling insect which damage>
crops (Tso); loan for 580 (Mo).
s. *b'iwar J   b'jwr:i- / f e i conceal (Ch'uts'1).
t. *b'wJr / b'u(f,i J p'e i go to and fro (Chuang).
u. *piar / pji / p e i grieve, sad (Shi:).
v. *b'c;r J b'rii J p'a i dwarf (Sun). - x. id. push (Li); push away (Chuang); to dam up
(J\feng).
580 a. *pjw;n I / f e i to fly (Shi:).
581 a-e. *p'jwJr I   / f e i and *p'war J p'U(fi- I p'e i consort, wife (Tso); match,
opponent (Tso). b. is Yin bone (A 4: 24,1), c. is Chou IV (inscr. 284). The graph has
'woman' and 'child in womb', see 967 below.
582 a. *b'iwur J b'jwQi I f e i fat (Shi:).
583 a-b. *miwar I I wei tail (Sh1); copulate (Shu), loan for c. (Sh1). GI. 106.
b. is extracted from the archaic graph for 596 b. (Chou, inscr. 359). The graph is a
drawing of a tail at the back-side of a man. - c. id. fine, nice (Sill, Han version ap.
Sh1wen). Gl. 344. - d. id. flowing water (Shi:, Han version ap. Sh1wen). Gl. llu.
e. * xmiwar I I hue i burn (Shi: ap. Shuowen). Gl. 36.
584 a-c. I / wei Shuowen sa,ys: minute, small, thus taking it to
be the primary form of d. below (no text). b. is Chou II (inscr. 147, na,me), Chou II/III
(inscr. 278, name). - d-e. id. minute, small (Shi:), reduced (ShY); hide (Tso); hidden,
obscure, mysterious (Yi); (eliminating:) it is not that ... (Shi:), but for (Shl). Gl. 608.
e. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 328). - f. id.a,n edible plant (Shi:). - g. varia,nt (Chouli).
h. *xmi:tviJr j /hue i rope (Yi); loan for id. good, admirable (Shi); a flag
signalize, display (Shu). Gl. 1247.
585 a. *rniwJr / mjwr;.i: J we i vigorous (Shl); make efforts (Li); *1nwan I muan I m e n
river-gorge (Shi:). Gl. 752. Possibly this character is a violent corruption of the archaic
forms of :Jj:, group 446 above, and perhaps we have to read, in the inscriptions there
quoted, fi *miwJr rliog 1 wei s h o u 'vigorous old age', analogous to the m
of the classics. Cf. groups 446 and 567.
586 a. *kiar / kiei j k i hair-pin (Sill). The Seal has 'bamboo' and a dra>ving of two·
hair-pins.
587 a. j kiei, kiei: / k i to divine by tortoise-shell (Shu ap. Shuowen). The Seal
has 'mouth' and 'divination'.
588 a-b. *k'iar j k'iei: / k'i (primary form of c. below, hence the reading) to open (Shu
ap. Yup'ien). b. is Yin bone (A 5: 21,3, sense here uncertain). The graph has 'door'
and (mouth=) 'opening'. - c-g. id. to open (Sill); begin, lead the way (Sill); enlarge
(Shi:); uncover (Lunyii); enlighten (Shu); instruct (Shu); loan for id. kneel (Shi); horse
with white forefoot (Tso). Gl. 1695. d. is Yin bone (B hia 12: 4), e. is Yin bone (A
1: 43,5), f. is Chou II (inscr. 146), g. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 318).
h-i. *k'iar / k'iei: j k'i and ? j k'ieng: j k'i n g joint (in body) (Chuang). i. is Chou I/Il
(inscr. 213, name).
156
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
a. lr c

d.. e f <J h_ CL a.. a..
s\ It 1$: )8J [
CL L- c d. e. t 9 h 1.. j k a.. lr c d.
't SJO c_t !K- 1t. ft. A&
c. d. e f s h.. ,_ j k L
·rn 11. 0 p s
j-k. *k'iar j k'iei: j k'i rain ceasing, clearing sky (inscr. Yin bone A 6: 9,1). k. is Yin
bone (A 6: 9, I).
589 a. *'iar j 'iei- I y i a quiver (Kuoyii ap. Shuowen). The graph has 'box' and 'arrow'.
- b-d. id. a particle (inscr. 324). c. is Chou I (inscr. 97, name), d. is Chou III/IV
(inscr. 324). Cognate to 604 a. below.
e. *'iar j'iei I y i brown (Chouli, one version); loan for b. (Tso).
f. *'iiJr j iei, iei- j y i screen, shade, cover (Kuoyii). Gl. 822.
g.   / 'iei j y i some kind of goose (Shi:); phoenix (Ch'uts'i:); loan for e. (Chouli).
590 a-b. *tiiJr / tiei: / t i root, foundation, base (Shi:); loan for *tiar / tiei It i Western
tribes (Shi:); name of a constellation (Li). Gl. 515. b. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 324).
c. *tiar j tiei: / t i bottom (Lie); stop, obstruct (Tso); *fiar j t(;i: / c h 1 come to (Sh'i);
regulate (Tso); loan for o. to smoothe (Shu); variant of n. settle (Shi). Gl. 820.
d. *tiJr tiei, tiei:, tiei- / t i root, base (Lao).
e. *tiJr tiei I t i to lower (Chuang).
f. *tiar tiei: I t i ornate bow (Meng). - g. id. push away (Ta Tai li).
h. *tiJr tiei / t i ram (Sh1).
i. *tz:ar tiei: / t i lodge (Ch'uts'1); loan for id. a kind of screen (Chouli); for d. (Chouli).
j. *d'iar I d'iei I t'i and *tiar j tiei: j t i scold (Mo).
k. *tiar / ti / chI hard and horny skin (on hands and feet) (Chuang).
I. *d'iar I a'i I c h'1 islet (Shl); sometimes wrongly used for 867 d. (Tso, certain editions),
Gl. 682 a. - m. id. ant egg (Li).
n. *fjJr j t/;i: /chI whetstone (Shanhaiking); loan for id. come to (Ch'uts'i:); bring
about (Tso), settle (Shu). Gls. 820, 1252. Cf. 552 l. - o. id. whetstone (Shi:); regulate
(Kuoyii).
p. *tjar j t/;i j chi: to reverence (Shi); often erroneously confused with i!i.IC 867 i. 'only'.
Gls. 1383, 1934.
q-r. */li<n· j ii:, ii- j s h 1 to see (Chouli). The form r., though common, is really erro-
neous, for the phonetic If: belongs to the archaic -g class.
s. *t'i<n / ts'i j c h'1 c h'1-h i u owl (Shi); c h'I-y a o a bird of lmknmvn species (Sh1;
later comm. take this also to mean 'owl', but that goes against the earliest comm.).
For this Phonetic 'vith Rad. 104 see Gr. 867 below.
157
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
SJl fl7 f { :W #JJ )JJ !11 591
a.. lr c d_ e f 9 k i j k L mn
t- ) t #-l rt tftt 593
a. lr c d e f 9 h_ i j k L a_ lr c
Jj_ i AJt ;tjf oJt ${= 1Ji ;1 1i
d._ -e f 5 h_ i j k L mn 0" p q IS
f f ;i  
t u
a...I
591 a-c. *d'i,Jr / d'iei: / t i younger brother (Shl); junior (l\Ieng); loan for id. pleased
(Shi:); *d'iar / d'iei- / t i respectful towards elder brothers, fraternal (.Meng). b. is
Chou I (inscr. 58), c. is Chou II/III (inscr. 278).
d. *d'icH I d'iei:, d'iei- It i younger secondary wife (Shl).
e. *d'i<Jr I d'iei- It i order, sequel (Tso).
f. *d'iJr / d'iei- I t'i (the Pek. aspirate is irregular) respectful towards elder brothers,
fraternal (l\Ieng); loan for a. pleased (Shi:, certain versions). Gl. 265.
g. *d'i<Jr I d'iei I t'i a shoot, sprout (Yi); a kind of panic grass (Chuang). -h. id. thick
silk (Lie).- i. id. spurious grain (Chuang, one version ap. Sh1wen). - j. id. cormorant
(Shi).
k. *d'i<Jr I d'iei- / t i and *t'iJr I t'iei I t'i look at from the side, look askance, glance
at (Li).
I. *t'i;n· I t'iei I t'i wooden steps, staircase (Kuo:yu); slippery (Ch'uts'i:).
m. *t'iar j t'iei:, t'iei- I t'i weep, tears (Shl).
n. *d'fgt I cl'il!t I c h 'i order, series, arrange (Shu ap. Shuowen).
592 a-d. *ts'in· / ts'iei / t s'i consort, wife (Shl); *ts'iJr I ts'iei- j t s'i give for wife
(Shu). b. is Yin bone (D 3), c. is pre-Han (inscr. 458). d. is pre-Han (inscr. 448). The
upper part in the character c. is 7J)f (593). But this is not simply phonetic, for 1Jf-
dz'iar 'equal' ts'i:Jr 'consort' are cognate words, the consort being the one wife
who is socially the equal (the ))mate)>) of the husband. The element at the top (in b.,
c. and d. and k. below), which recurs in *dz'iar 'equal' in next group, is a drawing of
the hair-pins characteristic of the married woman.
e. *ts'i<Jr / ts'iei / t s'i sad, grieved (Li). - f. id. cold, chilly (Sh'i); dense, luxuriant
(Shi). - g-h. id. ample, rich, luxuriant (foliage), dense (ShY). Gls. 616, ll06. h. is
Chou III/IV (inscr. 327; this is really a combination of f. and g. which both mean
'dense'). - i. variant of the preceding (ShY ap. Shuowen).
j-k. *tsiJr j tsiei, tsiei- It s i (variant of 593 r. belo\v, hence the reading, Tsiyiin.)
ascend (inscr. 325). k. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 325).
I. *siJr I siei I s i bird's nest (Sh'i); to roost, to rest (Sh1); couch (l\feng). Gls. 335, 452,
1066.
593 a-e. *dz'iJr I dz'iei It s'i uniform, equal, be equal with (Shi); of equal length
(Sh'i); regulate (Yi), determine (Shu); quick-witted (ShY); respectful (Li); loan for
158
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMM"ATA SERICA RECENSA
*tsjJr j tsi j t s 'i hemmed lower edge of garment (Lunyu); for f. (Tso); for h. (Chouli),
for I. (Li), for p. (Li), for t. (Li), for v. (ShY), for y. reverent (Shl). Gls. 44, 583, 669,
1191. b. is Yin bone (A 2: 15,3, name), c. is Chou II (inscr. 182, name), d. is Chou III
(inscr. 220, name), e. is Chou IV (inscr. 285, name). The graph is a drawing of the
hair-pins of the married >voman the 'equal', the 'match' of the husband, see group
592 a-d. above.
f. *dz'iar j dz'iei j t s'i navel (Tso). - g. id. tree-grub (Shi).
h. *dz'in· I dz'iei- j t s i to cut (Chu Ch'u wen); *tsirtr I tsit; j t s 1 (cut in halves:) bond,
deed, consisting of two halves (Chouli).
i. *dz'igr j dz'iei- / t s i to carry a vessel to the lips (Shu).
j. *dz'iar j dz'iei, dz'iei- j t s i angr:y (Sh1).
k. *dz'i,!r j dz'iei, dz'iei:, dz'iei- Its i disease (Li).
I. *dz'iar j dz'iei: / t s i Capsella bursa pastoris (Sh1); loan for 5.55 i. (Sh'i ap. Shuowen).
m. *dz'i<Jr / dz'iei- I t s i and *tsi9r / tsiei- / t s i sheaf, bundle (Sh'i).
n. *tsiJr j tsiei, tsiei:, tsiei- j t s i push (Tso).
o. *tsi<Jr / tsiei- Its i to ford, cross a stream (Sh'i); (to help over:) to help, save (Shu);
to benefit (Tso); contribute to (Tso); achieve (Tso); increase (Tso); to stop, cease (Sh'i);
*tsiar j tsiei: f t s i fine-looking, beautiful (Sh'i); dignified (Sh'i); numerous (Sh1); loan
for n. above (Kuoyti). Gls. 146, 263, 1123.
p-q. *tsior / tsiei, tsiei-1 t s i ascend (ShY); steep (Sh1); raise, promote (Tso). q. is
Chou III (inscr. 234, rad. 162 inst. of 157). - r. id. ascend (Shu); rising vapours,
rainbow (Sh1); overthrow, collapse (Shu). Gl. 1498.
s. *tsiiJr I tsiei- j t s i clearing sky (Shu).
t. *tsiar I tsiei I t s i pickled food (Li, one version ap. Sh1wen).
u. *tsi<Jr / tsiei I t s i and *tsj:Jr j tsi j t s 'i property, means (Chouli); furnish, give,
bestow (Yili); loan for id. to sigh (Yi); loan for f. above (Lie), for h. (Chouli).
v-x. *tsi9r / lsi/ t s i sacrificial grain (Chouli). x. is Chou III (inscr. 1\Iengwei, sti 7).
y. *tsET / lfir1i I c h a i purify oneself, purified (Yi).
z-a'. *dz'Er / d:p'di j ch'a i class, category, equals (Tso). a'. is Chou (inscr. 395).
594 a-e. *siar jsiei Is i West (Shl). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 48,5), c. is Yin bone (A 4: 6,1),
d. is Yin (inscr. 27), e. is Chou I (inscr. 108). The graph is possibly the primary form
of f. below, being a drawing of a bird's nest. - f. id. to roost (Shi, one version, s. a.
592 1.); keep still (Lunyii). Gl. 335.
g-h. *si:Jr I siei: j s i and *sian j sien: / s i.ee n wash (Tso); washed clean, pure (Sh'i),
same w. as 478 j.; loan for id. respectful (Li); frightened (Chuang); *sEr /filii: j s h a i
sprinkle, cleanse (Shl); Gl. 123. h. is Yin bone (K 109, name).
i. *:ii.m / I s h en smile (Lunyi.l).
595 a-c. *siar j siei / s i Shuowen says: to tarry (no text). b. is Yin bone (A 2: 23,1,
sense here uncertain), c. is Chou I (inscr. 78, name).
d-f. *d'i9r j rt'i I c h'i to tarry (inscr. 145), same word as 596 d. below. e. is Chou I
(inscr. 80, name), e. is Chou II (inscr. 145).
g. *d'fJr j d'i- I c h 1 to sow late (ShY); young grain (Shi), young, childish (Shi).- h-i.
id. to sew, embroider (inscr. 180). i. is Chou II (inscr. 180).
596 a-b. *si:Jr j siei / s i rhinoceros (Tso); loan for id. melon seeds (Shi'). b. is Chou
(inscr. 359, name). The graph has 'ox' and 'tail'.
c. *d'i<Jr / ct'i j c h'i raised path from the gate to the hall of a palace (Hanfei).
d. / d'i j c h'i to tarry (Sh'i); walk slowl:y (Sh1); slow, long, (Sh1); *d'i<Jr I cl'i- I c h 1
wait (Sun). Gls. 335, 401, 435. - e. variant of 595 g. above (Chuang).
159
BULLETIN OJ? THE MUSEUM OF PAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
r:11- 2§ & & ltS 1$ >1 tit
lr c cl e. f 9 h.. t a. lr
sJ( It fi kt 5J7 t
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d e f
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e
j
597 a-c. *liar lliei: I l i ritual vase (inscr. 392). b. is Yin bone (An-yang fa kiie pao
kao 4, p. 666, sense here uncertain), c. is Chou (inscr. 392). The graph is a drawing
of a vase containing some object of uncertain interpretation. - d. id. propriety (Shi:);
ceremony, rite (Shi), ritual (Sh'i). - e-g. id. spirits which have fermented only over
night, new sweet spirits (Shi). f. is Chou II (inscr. 176), g. is Chou II (inscr. 193).- h.
id. name of a fish (tench? mullet?) (Sh'i).
i. *t'liar I t'iei: I t'i body (Tso); limb (Shi); embody (Yi); form, shape (Sh!); category,
class (Li); indication in divination (Shi). Gl. 179.
598 a-c. *miJr I miei: lm i rice (Tso). b. is Yin bone (B shang 25: 7), c. is Chou
(inscr. 394). The graph is a drawing. -d. id. get something in the eye, troubled sight
(Chuang).
e. *ntiar I rniei I m i go astray (Shl); delude (Shu).
*mi<Jr / mji I m i a kind of deer (Tso); loan for 567 g. margin of a river (Shi); for
567 a. eyebrow (Sun); for m. below (Ch'uts''i). g. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 325).
h. *ntjiir I mjif): / m i achieve (Shu). Gl. 1600. - i-j. id. variant of the prec3ding
(inscr. 286). j. is Chou IV (inscr. 286).
k-1. *mfiir / m i extensively (Sh'i; same word as 359 m.). Gl. 1201.
m. *miar l1nji / m i a fragrant plant (Kuan).
599 a. *kcr I kiii I k i e all (Sh'i); always, everywhere (Tso ); in accord (Shi); complete,
plentiful (Sh'i). Gl. 440. -b. id. (a Pek. alt. reading hie is irregular) together (Shi);
plentiful (Sh'i); numerous (Shi); Gl. 440. -c. id. in unison (Sh'i); cold (Sh!). Gl. 7.- d.
id. steps, stairs (Sh'i).
e. *k' Er I k' iii: I k'i e model (Li).
f. *g' E1' I yrii I hie and *ka I kiii I k i e cold (Sh'i). Gls. 234, 656.
g. *g'sr I yeti I hie (one of the Ts'ieyiin mss. has ;'ai, but its placing in rime shows
that tllis is a slip) in harmony (Shu).
h. *lat / kiit I k ia wooden box, l)eaten to mark time in music (Li), cf. 504. Gl. 1340.
600 a-b. *g',u·t:r / ywai I h u a i bosom, to cherish (inscr. 58). b. is Chou I (inscr.
58). - c. id. breast, bosom (Tso); carry on the breast (Lunyii); embrace (Shu); keep
in the bosom (Tso); to cherish in the mind, thiul.;: of (Shi); be anxious about (Sh'i); to
comfort (Shi); to love, yearn (Shi'). Gls. 405, 771, 1156, 2087.
160
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
coo :f_ m J:t Jjt &01 )t(1 f   co.z fL n -tJL A!L
c d e d Q c d
(03 i }t (0411 ?f\ 1R off bOS Jt X X X
e. f o_ lr c a.. tr c cL a.. lr c cL
liJ coc 11 8 ff! rtf tit
e f '3 h. i j k a.. lr c d.. e f fL.
1tf h:t 1tt C07 \liz N: fi{t !l
i :1 k l a.. lr c cL e f k. t. j k
A
L m. "-
d. *g'wt:r I ywili- I h u a i and *kwcr I kwc'ii- I k u a i and *g'u·ar 1 yu(ri: 1 h u e i destroy
(Tso); ruin, be ruined (Shi). Gl. 599.
e. *bvar lku(Ji I k u e i remarkable (Chuang).
601 a-c. *g'wt:r I yu11ti I h u a i name of a river (Shi). b. is Yin bone (A 2: 16,3), c. is
Chou I (inscr. 84). The graph has 'water' and 'bird'.
d. *g'war I ;nuJi: / h u e i Shuowen says: vessel (no text); loan for id. name of a marsh
(Shu).
602 a-b. *kicr I kji: I k i stool, small table (Sh'i); k i-k i stud-adorned (Sh!). b. is
extracted from the archaic graph for Jl[. (Chou II, inscr. 132). The graph is a drawina.-
c. id. small table (Li), stool (Tso ). "'
d. *kjsr I kji / k i flesh (Li). -e. variant of the preceding (Lie). -f. id. famine (Shu)·
be hungry (Shi). '
603a-b. *kisr ( kji-,lki hope (Tso); place name (Tso). (-g class) is not phonetic,
for our word nmes m the -r class in Ch'uts'i. - c. id. fine horse (Lunyii).
604 a-c. *'icr / 'i / y i this (Sh'i); a particle (Shl); N. Pr. (.Meng); y i-w e i sow bucr
(Sh'i). Gl. 859. b. is Yin bone (I 9:2, name), c. is Chou II (inscr. 144, name). The graph
has 'man' and 'govern'. - d. id. forced laugh (Ch'uts'!).
605 a-d. *kiwcr / kj1oi: I k u e i cyclical character (Tso). b. is Yin bone (A 3: 19,1),
c. is Yin (inscr. 2), d. is Chou I (inscr. 70).
e. *g'fwsr / g'fwi: I k'u e i to measure, examine, estimate (Sh'i); dispose, manage (Shu);
rule (l\Ieng). The Pek. aspirate is irregular. Gl. 1248.
f. *g'jws1· I g'fwi I k'u e i a kind of lance (Shu). Gl. 1995. - g. id. an edible plant,
probably a Malva (Sh'i); loan for e. estimate (Sh!). - h. id. sturdy (Sh'i). - i-j.
*k'iwar / k'hcei I k'u e i diverging, extraordinary (Yi). j. is Chou II (inscr. 175 name).
k. *k'iwJt / k'iu·et / k'ii e (to shut up:) finish, end (Li); to be at rest (Shl); empty (Chuang).
11
161
BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
606 a-b. *kdm I kd1n I k an sweet (Shi). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 52,5, name). The graph
has 'mouth' with something in it. - c. id. cook, prepare (food) (Sun). - d-f. id.
harmony, loyalty (inscr. 54). e. is Yin (inscr. 10), f. is Chou I (inscr. 54).
g. *g'dm j yam j han elated through wine, tipsy (Shu).
h. *g'i.am 1 g'jiim j k'i en pinch (Kuots'e). - i. id. pinched together (Chuang). - j.
id. wooden gag (Kungyang).
k. *kam I k(!m- j k an purple (Lunyu).
I. *g'iam j g' i.am k'i en gag (Sun).
607 a-c. *kdm j ka1n: I k an dare (Shi). b. is Chou I (inscr. 58), c. is Chou I (inscr. 63).
d. *k'drnjk'a1n-lk'an place name (Tso); loan for xamj xam:lhien and *xaml
xam: j hie n and *xam I xam: I han roaring, enraged (sc. tiger) (ShY). Gl. 1050.
e. k'dm I k'dm- I k'a n to watch (Meng).
f-g. *k'am I k'am: I k'a n and *ngiam j ngi,Jm I yin and *t'am I t'am: I t'a n Shuowen
says: precipitous (no text). g. is Chou II (inscr. 157, sense of m.).
h-j. *ngjam lngjvm I yen stern, majestic, gr11'\re (Shi); severe, strictly (Shu); respect,
reverent (Shi); urgent (Meng). i. is Chou II (inscr. 146), j. is Chou II (inscr. 184).
k. *ngf.:am j ngf.:vm: j y e n dignified (Shi).
I. *nga1n 1 ngam 1 yen rocky, lofty (Sh!); precipitous, dangerous (Tso); cavern in rocks
(Ch'uts'l).
m. *xiam I xiam: I hie n hie n- y ii n name of a Northern tribe (Shi).
608 a. *g'arn I yam j hie n a bit (Chuang); carry in the mouth, carry (Sh1). The Seal
has 'metal' and 'walk'.
609 a-b. *klam I kam, ka1n- I k i en see, look at (Shl); inspect (Shi); observe (Kuoyii);
superintend (Tso); klam I kam- I k i en to mirror (Shu). Gl. 763. b. is Chou II (inscr.
164). The graph has 'man', 'eye' and 'vessel' =to look at oneself, to mirror oneself in
a bowl with water.
c. *klamlkam-lkien to mirror (Shi); mirror (Tso); *g'amlyam-lhan big bowl,
basin (Chouli). Gl. 1735.
d. *klam I kam I ki en a kind of whetstone (Kuots'e).
e. 'Fg'lam j ya1n: I hie n hard soil (Kuan). - f. variant of the preceding (Chouli).
g. *g'lam I yam: I hie n and *g'ldm I ydm: I h a n railing (Ch'uts'1); cage (Chuang);
loan for id. rumble of carriages (Sh1); straight-jetted (sc. water) (Shi).
h. *gldrn I ldm- ll an excess, licentious (Lunyii ap. Shuowen). )
i. *gldm flam: I l a n pick, tal{e (Ch'uts'1). . - .
j. *glam lldm- jl a n overflow (:Meng); go to excess (Shi); err (Tso); put somethmg mto nf) f)
water (Kuoyii); juicy (Li); loan for *glam lldm: ll an join, unite (Li); *g'ldm I yam- / ', }
han bath tub (Chuang), cf. c. above; loan for c. mirror (Lu).
k. *gldm I ldm I l a n indigo (Shi); loan for id. tattered (Tso ).
I. *gldm jldm: I 1 a n see (Kuots'e ).
m. *xldm I xlim: I han shout (Kuots'e).
n. *?I jii1n I yen salt (Shu); loan for 1247 a. (Li).
o. *gldm I ldm: ll an take (Chuang).
610 a. *sam 1 $am 1 shan to mow (Shi); sickle (Kuoyii). The Seal has 'grass, herbs'
and 'baton, beat'.
611 a. *tsr'hn 1 t§am: I chan cut off, cut down (Sh1). The Seal has 'axe' and 'carriage'.
b. *sam J 9am Ish an cut off (Li).
162
BERNHARD KARUiREN: GRAillMATA SERICA. RECENSA
({}J jl§" fzlt.t f!lAo ..J.g!k , -1f
-""-'- ?it .D1L II21- 5J[L. 'AZ- --t X ll!2. 4=- :/fill. %a rJ:s9L .IllZ. 1 YL
lr c d. e f g 1-L i ;;' k L m.n. o
(!O 1. til fA #ZJ[ f6_ tf st lfJf -\f (72. t ;f! 11  
a.
a. !r c cL e f 9 h.. a... lr c cL
il C!J fi_ ;fit 1fi: 1ft b74
c d. e f 9 h. i j' k L
1t at as- :t it ;t
e
lr c cl e. a.. tr c d.
c. *dz'am I dz'a1n It s'a n ashamed (Tso).
d. *dz'am I dz'dm- I chan (Pek. chan is irregular, we should expect a t san)
rash (Shu); suddenly, in a moment (Tso). Gl. 1469.- e. variant of the preceding (Lie).
' f. *tsja1n I tsi,am I chien moisten (Shl); dip down into (Shu); imbue, influence (Shu);
*dz'iam / dz'fiim: Its i en (drop-wise:) gradually, increasingly (Yi); advance (Shu);
*dz'am / dr'am I c h'a n high and craggy (Shi). Gls. 1393, 1469, 1546.
g. *ts'iam I ts'jam- / t s'i en moat (Tso); dig out (Chuang).
h. *dz'fam I dz'fiirn: / t s i en entwine (Shu ap. Shuowen).
612 a. *dz' elm/ d;p'iim I c h'a n and *dz'am / d?'am I c h'a n crafty (Shi:). Gl. 604.
b. *dz' lim I d.f' am I c h'a n Magnolia (Lie).
c. *dz'am / d;p'am I c h'a n and *dz'iim I d?'am: I chan uneven, unequal, disorder (Tso);
*ts'am I t9'am-j c h'a n and *dz'iim / d;p'arn- j chan mixed, disparate (Li).
d. *dz'amld-?'ii1njch'an and *dz'amldlamjch'an and *dz'amld?'arn-jchan
slander (Tso ).
e. *dz'am I d;p'am, d1'am- I c h'a n, chan sharp (Mo).
613 a. *k'sjam? I ts'iam / t s'i en all (Shu).
b. *k'siam? / ts'jiim, ts'iiirn: / t s'i en and *gsiam? j sjiirn j s i en insincere, ingratiating,
glib-tongued (Shu). The readings, however, are doubtful; possibly b. is merely a variant
of f. in the sense 'ingratiating', see Gl. 1428. - c. variant of the preceding (Shu ap.
Shuowen).
d. *klfam I kjam: / k i en and *kljc1rn j kfvm: I k i en a measure, a control (Siin);
accumulate (Meng).
e. *g'liam I g'jiim: / k i en restrict, frugal (Tso ); restricted, moderate (Men g).
f. *xliam I xi.am: I hie n and *xlia1n; xi.vm: ; hie n precipitous, a perilous defile
(Shi); danger (Li); to endanger (Shu); leaning towards, ingratiating (Chuang); Gls.
1420, 1428. - variant of the preceding (Lie).
h. *ngljarn j ngi,am- I yen verify (Kuots'e).
i-j. *kljiim I ki,vm- j k i en sword (Tso). j. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 307).
k. *glfam fliiirn, liiirn:, ljiim- I lie n long-muzzled dog (ShY).
I. *gljarn llfiirn:, ljiim- I lien gather (ShY); accumulate (Shi); to exact, levy (lVIeng);
*gliam lli.iim- j 1 i en dress a corpse, enshroud (Tso).
m. *gljam I li,am, ljiim: I I i en a creeping-plant (ShY).
163
I
/
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
614 a. *'jam I 'jam: I yen cover, spreading out over, extensively (Shi:); loan for id.
eunuch (Li). Gl. 827.
b. *'jam I 'ja1n: I yen and *'jam I ·jvm: I yen to cover (Meng); take by surprise
(Tso); put a stop to (Tso).
c. *'jam I 'jam __ s!-!bmerge, soak (Li); loan for id. tarry, delay (Tso).
d. *'jam I ·jam, 'jam: I yen and *'j/im I 'jvm: I yen palace door-keeper, eunuch (Meng).
e. *·am I ·q.m: I an and *'jam, I 'jii1n: I yen dark (Sun).
615 a. *'jam I ·jam: I y en and *karn I ktj.m I k an cover (Mu t'ien tsi chuan); (covered
way with but little opening above:) narrow pass (Tso); with narrow opening (sc. vessel)
(Chouli). The Seal has 'join' and 'two hands'.
b. *'jam I 'jiim: I yen to cover, shut (Li); seize by surprise (Li), cf. 614 b. above.
c. *'jam l'fam: I yen and *'{lim I '{vm: I yen thickening, gathering (sc. clouds) (ShY).
d. *',rm I ·arn,: /an (out of the dark:) brusquely, suddenly (Siin).
616 a-b.· *'{am I '{am, 'jam- I yen satiate, satisfy (Kuoyii). b. is Chou I (inscr. 58).
The graph has 'dog', 'meat' and 'mouth'.
c. *'jam I ·jam- I yen satiate, replete (Shu); fed up, tired of (Shi:); abundant, fine (Shi:);
*'jam I 'jam I yen contented, tranquil (Shi:); (satisfied with:) to accord with (Kuoyii);
*'am I 'ibn: I yen cover (Li); *'jap I 'jiip I y e to press (Chouli); suppress, pacify
(Tso); pressed-down, flat (Li); y e. y i moist (Shi); loan for h. (Li). Gls. 48, 316, 1122.
d. *'jam l'fiirn, '{am· I yen satiated (Tso).
e. *'jam l'fam I yen peaceful (Shi ap. Shuowen).
f. *'jam J '{am: I yen wild mulberry tree (Shi).
g. *'jam I 'jam: I y en and *'jap l'fap I y e put the finger on, grasp (Chuang, one
version).
h. *'ap I ·ap I y a press down, press upon (Tso).
617 a-b. *djam I jiam I yen and *djam I {am- I yen (Anc. Chin. fjan is irregular)
blaze, blazl.iii (Sh'i); id. and *d'd111 I d'dm I t'a n brilliant, magnificent (Chuang). b. is
Chou I (inscr. 69, name). The graph has 'fire' doubled.
c. *djwn I jam:, jam- I yen to flame up (Shu).
d. *djam I jiim: / yen sharp, pierce (Li); cut (Siin); to pare (Yi); loan for id. rising high
(Li); brilliant (Ch'uts'i). - e. variant of the preceding (Yi ap. Shiwen).
f. *djam I jam: I yen jade tessera with pointed top (Shu).
g. *t'iam I ts'jii111 I c h'a n carriage curtain, fringe, flounce (Li).
h. *dzjam I zjam I s i en to heat, to warm (Yili).
i. *.sjam I sjiirn: I shan the time of a short glance, a moment (Kungyang ap. Shuowen).
j. *t'am I t'am: I t'a n a kind of rush (Sh'i).
k. *d'a1n I d'dm I t'a n aflame (ShY); burning with grief (Shi). -I. id. speak (ShY).
m. *d'dm I d'am- It an and *d'am I d'am I t'a n tranquil (Sun).
n. *d'a1n I d'dm: It an devour (Sun).
o. *d'drn I d'drn:, d'dm- It an insipid (Li).
p. *d'dm I d'dm I t'a n and *diam I jam I yen (bait, to bait =) provoke, elicit (ShY).
Gl. 603.
618 a-b. *tiam I tSjiim I chan prognosticate (Shi). b. is Yin bone (A 4: 25, 1). The
graph has 'mouth' (speak) and 'divination'.
c. *tfwn, I tiam I chan to moisten (Ch'uts'i); loan for g. (Li).- d. id. to moisten, soak
through (Shi).
e. *diam I jiim I yen on the point of collapse (sc. a wall) (Ch'uts'Y).
164
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
(/C ftlf\. 1t
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d e f j h. i j k L rn. n..
f. *t'iam I t'iam I c h'a n look, observe (Li).
g. *riam I t'iam, t'iam- I c h'a n to spy (Tso).
h. *t'jam I ts'jam I c h'a n discordant (notes) (Li); *t'iap I t'iep I t'i e submit, peaceful
(Kung a yang).
i. *siam I S{arn, 8fiim- I chan (the Pek. chan is irregular, we should expect a shan)
thatch (Tso).
j. *siam I siam, siam. Ish an and *tiam I tiem- It i en ague (Tso); distress (Li).
k. *tiam I tiern· It i en earthen stand for cups (Lunyii); corner of the room, depository
.
I. *timn I tiem:, tiem- I tie n flaw (in a gem), defect (Shi:). - m. variant of the preceding
(ShY ap. Shuowen).
n. *tiam tiem: It i en black spot, blot (Ch'uts'i:).
o. *niam niem In i en to take in the fingers, pick up (Lie, one version).
p. *t'iap t'iep I t'i e to taste (Kuliang ap. Yiip'ien). - q. id. submit (Kungyang, one
version, cf. h.).
619 a. *tiam I tsjiim I chan garrulous (Chuang); loan for c. (Shi), for f. (Lii), for 618 a.
(Ch'uts'i:). Gl. 1174. - b. id. speak, chat (Sun). - c. id. see, look at (Shi).
d. *t'iarn I ts'iam- I c h'a n overcoat (Kuan); loan for *t'jarn I ts'fam I c h'a n cut out,
cut loose (Chouli). ·
e. *t'iarn I t8'jam f c h'a n apron (Shl); shake, move (sc. skirts) (Lunyii).
f. *a{am I ijam- I shan to supply (Li); sufficient (Meng).
g. *djam I jam I y e n eaves (Li); loan for id. temple gate (Kuoyii).
h. *td1n I tam It an carry on the shoulder (Kuoyii).- i-j. id. jar (Lie). j. is Chou III
(inscr. 228 ).
k. *tr'iln I tam It an carry on the shoulder (Kuots'e); *tarn I tam-It an burden (Tso);
!!jam I ijam- I shan to function as (Yili).
I. *tam I tam: It an gall (Siin).
m. *d'dm I d'drn:, d'drn- It an calm (Ch'uts'i').- n. id. calm (Lao); loan for f. (Sun).
620 a-b. *tsfam I tsjiim Its i en Shuowen says: to cut (no text), thus tahlng it to be
the primary form for f. below. b. is Yin bone (A 4: 10,3, sense here uncertain). The
graph has two 'men' and 'dagger-axe'.
165
,,
I
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
c. *siam lsiiim s i en Shuowen says: wild onion (no text). - d. id. small (Ta Tai li).
e. *sjarn 1 sjiim s i en fine, thin silk (Shu); thin, slender, sharp-pointed (Chouli);
*tsjam 1 tsfiim t s i en to prick, incise (Li). Gl. 1361.
f. *tsiwn 1 tsfJim t s i en destroy (Shi:). - g. id. moisten, enrich, benefit (Lu); loan
for f. (Kungyang).
h. *sam 1 Ish an delicate hands (Sh1 ap. Shuowen). Gl. 270.
621 a. * siarn I siam I s i e n sharp (Mo ).
b. *d'iam 1 rl'iern 1 t'i en calm, tranqmllity (Shu). a. is abbreviated phonetic.
622 a-d. *rijam l1!ijiim: 1 j an advance, go, gradually (Ch'uts'i). c. is Yin bone (A 8:
14,2, name), d. is Chou II (inscr. 182, name).
e. *r!jam lriijiim I jan to chew (Sun). .
f-g. *njam 1 /zijiim: 1 j a n and *niam I niem: I n i.e n slender, graceful (only Han time
text ex.). g. is Yin bone (D 2, sense here . .
h-i. *1ijam l1lijiim 1 j an broad hem on robe (Y1h); lady's robe (L1). .
j. *r/iam lt1ijiirn, riiiarn- 1 j an beard, whiskers (Chuang). - k. vanant of the preceding
(Chuang).
I. *n;nn I nrj,m I n a n a kind of tree (Chuang). . .
m-n. *t'nam 1 t'dm 1 t'a n and *narn I narn In an long-drawn and hangmg ears (LI,
used as N. Pr.).
623 a. *riiam 1 1iiiiiln:, 1iijarn- I j an to dye (Chouli); to dip (Tso); loan for id. soft,
flexible (Shi).
624 a-b. *k'idm 1 k'jvrn- 1 k'i en (open the mouth:) yawn (Li). b. is extracted from
the archaic graph for 301 b. above (Chou I, inscr. 88). .
c. *g'jam 1 g'jihn- 1 k i en and *g'jarn I g'ir!m- I k i en Eur!ale fer.?x (Ohouh).
d. 1 k'frm: 1 k'a n pit (Yi); loan for ttl. sound of beatmg (Sh1). Gl. 422.
625 a-c. *b'jwiirn 1 b'iwvm If an every, all (Shi); (in every case=) wheneve;
generally (Tso); common (Meng). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 4.3,6, sense ?f h. below ),
c. is Chou I (inscr. 67). The graph was a drawmg of a sail, thu: '
form of d. below. It could be used (as m Ym bone A 1: 43,6) for h. Plltm wmd,
because *b'iwiiitn 'sail' and *pi'/1m 'wind' are cognate words, variations of the same
stem. Cha;acter then loaned for the homophonous *b'iwiim 'every'.- d. id. sail
(only Han time text examples). . . . .
e. *b'iwiim J b'fwvrn: 1 fan horizontal wooden cross-piece m front of
f. *p'jwiim 1 p'iwvm- If an and *b'ium I b'iung If eng float about (Sh1); w1dely,
universally (Lunyli). . .. .
g. *b'urn 1 b'ung 1 p'e n g and *b'jilm I b'jung I fen g luxuriant, bushy, (Shl);
furred (Sh!). GL 750.
h. *pium 1 pjtmg 1 f e n g wind (Shi); air, tune (Shl); manners, customs (Tso); to be
heat (Shu); loan for *pjurn 1 pjung- If eng criticize (Shi); loan for o. below (Chouh).
Gls. 647, 757. - i. variant of the preceding ('wind') (Chouli).
j-m. *b'jurn 1 b'itmg-1 fen g phoenix (Shi). k is Yin bone, (0 7; 9), l. is Yin ?one
(A 6: 51,6), m. is Yin bone (A 8: 14,1), all in the sense h. wmd; m there IS an
element of uncertain analysis substituted to our phonet1c a. of the senes.
n. *pfiim I pjung If eng a kind of tree (Liquidambar?) (Ch'uts'i).
o. *piiim I pitmg- I fen g to recite (Chouli).
p. *b'fum I b'jtwg I fen g easy-flowing (sc. sound) (Tso).
166
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMAT A SERICA REGEN SA
(JO ,, )i t.& C2! ·l·i- C2.i # it A
lr c d. e f 9 h.. a.. lr a.. lr c
fl o¥} #t l {<flt 1ft fit. # Jtf13- Jfft C13 * C21- J( p
d. e f 9 h.. i j k L     a.. a.. lr
lZ Jl\ CiS fL fJL ]JL f[ ffil Jt
lr c cL e f 9 h.. 1; J k L
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tJfl fffil ;)il Ci( JE., sfe. SE.. te. £,
0
p a.. lr c. d.. e.
626 a. *b'iwiim I b'jwvm: If an offend against, oppose (Lunyii); to pass over (Chouli);
encounter (Tso ); interfere with (Tso ). - b. irl. (variant of 625 e. above, hence the
reading) horizontal wooden cross-piece in front of carriage (Chouli, one version).
c. *p'jwiim I p'jwvm- If an overflow, inundate (Meng); sprinkle (Li); *b'jwiirn 1 b'jwvm- I
fan disperse (Tso); be thrown about, float about (Ch'uts'!).
d. *b'jwiim I b'jwvm: If an a mould (Yi); rule, law (Shu). - e. id. Shuowen says:
name of a plant (no text); loan for id. bee (Li); for b. (Li), for d. mould (Li).
627 a. *kliarn I kiem, kiern- I k i en combine (Yi); at the same time (Shu); together,
double (Meng); loan for d. dissatisfied (Shu). Gl. 1953. The graph (see h. below) shows
two arrows grasped in one hand.
b. *kliam I kiem I k i e n rush, sedge (Shi).
c. *k'liam I k'iem: I k'i en and *g'liam / yiem: I hie n hold in the mouth (Ta Tai li);
1
loan for d. satisfied (Siin), for e. (Kuliang).
d. *k'liam I k'iem: I k'i en dissatisfied (Li); *k'liap I k'iep I k'i e satisfied (:Meng).
e. *k'liam I k'iem: I k'i en and *k'am I k'clm:, k'iim- I k'i en deficient, modest (Siin).
f. *k'liam I k'iem I k'i en modest (Yi); loan for d. satisfied (Li).
g-h. *gliam I liem I I i en Shuowen says: thin ice (or: shallow water) (no text);
*gnjam(?) I In i en to glue, stick to (Chouli). h. is Chou I (inscr. 94, name).
i. *gliam I liem I lien and *gljam I ljiim I 1 i en break, snap (by over-heating) (Ohouli
ap. Showen).
j. *g'liam I yiern I hie n doubt, doubtful (Li).
k. *g'liam I yiem: I hie n some kind of rodent (Mo).
I. *gljam I ljiirn I l i en angle, angular (Li); loan for irl. discriminating, punctilious (Shu);
integrity, modest (Lunyii); loan for i. (Chouli). - m. id. (whetstone:) sharp, keen
(sc. soldier) (Hanfei). - n. id. sickle (:Mo).
628 a. *t'dp I t'ap I t'a Shuowen says: to fly (no text).
b. *d'dp I d'dp I t'a (the Pek. aspirate is irregular) trample, kick (Kuots'e); the right
part is often erroneously written
629 a-d. *kap I kap I k i a cyclical character (Shu); shell (Yi); buffcoat (Shi); loan for
g. familiar (Sill). Gls. 192, 1908. b. is Yin bone (A 1: 4,3), c. is Yin (inscr. 3), d. is
. Chou I (inscr. 55).
167
BULLETIN OF THE klUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
(J) * if Jf fk $ C:Jb l_ 11L :{ 0!_ (37 l
a.... lr c d. e t 9 a.. lr C cl a.. lr
1l Jl &i @' i A l C38 1f' Jj\ ·jf1f C3;J :M
c e f 9 1-t_ i j a.. lr c cL a....

ot C10 !_ C1! i__ t- C:4i t
lr c d e. f a. Ct. Lr c d
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d e f 9 h i. j k L n 0 p s

t
v X
d. *tfap I tsfap I c he despondent, to fear (Li).
e. I :ijiip I she catch (Kuoyti), hold (Tso); grasp, gather up (as skirts) (Lunyu);
to hand things to, assist (Shl}; act for another (Meng); combine (two offices) (Lunyti);
borrow (Tso); scare (Tso); pinch between (Lunyu); loan for 635 g. above (Kuoyu).
Gl. 888.
639 a. *g'iap I yiep I hie with united forces (only Han time text examples). The
Seal has 'strength' tripled. - b. id. in harmony, together, conform (Shu). - c.
variant of the preceding (Chouli). The Seal has 'mouth' and 'ten'.
d. *xi rip I xfvp I hie to break (Kungyang, one version).- e. id. sides (of body) (Shi);
ribs (Tso); to throng, constrain (Tso ); h i e k i e n lift the shoulders (1\Ieng). - f. id.
shut (sc. mouth) (Chuang).
640 a. *ngfrrp I ngfnp I y e horizontal board of a bell stand or frame (ShY); loan for id.
initiate (Kuoyu); work (Meng); action (Yi); deed (Shu); profession (Tso); fortune,
inheritance (Tso ); strong (ShY); terrible (Shi). Gls. 852, 1199.
641 a. *b'itvc'ip I b'jwJJ]J If a to lack (Tso); exhaust (l\Ieng); neglect (Chuang); loan for
id. a shelter (at bow-shooting) (Chouli).
b. p'fwr77n I p'fu·mn- I fan to float (Chuang, one version).
c. *pian'L I pj_arn- I pi en and *pJm I pang- I p eng to lower a coffin into the grave
(Chouli).
d. * pfmn I pfiirn: I pie n and *pjiirn I pfvm: I pie n diminish (Shi). Gl. 1065.
642 a-b. *k'jab I k'jwo- I k'u go away, leave (Shi); *k'jab I k'fwo: I k'ti put away,
eliminate (Shl). b. is Yin bone (A 6: 37,3). As seen in m., there is t.he figure of a man
with a ball between his legs; possibly = 'to castrate', this meaning being only one
variant of the fundamental meaning 'to take away, remove'.
c. *k'fab I k'iwo, k'iwo- I k'u breathe with open mouth (Chuang).
d. *k'jab I k'jwo I k'u strong, robust (ShY). - e. id. sleeve (Sh'i).
170
\
f
"
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMM AT A SERICA REGEN SA
f. *k'jab I k'ju.·o:, k'iwo- I k'ti wheat gruel (Sun).
g. *k'jab I k'f.wo I k'u and *k'jrlp I k'fvp I k'i e to open the side (Chuang); right wing
of an army (Tso); loan for *k'jab I k'jwo I k'u enclose (Sun).
h-i. *kirlp I kjvp I k i e rob, plunder (Tso); to force (Sun). i. is a vulgar variant.
j. *k'fr1p I k'jvp I k'i e afraid (Tso).
k. *pfwcip I pjwvp If a law (Shu); model, imitate (Li); style, fashion (Tso).- 1-m.
variant of t.he preceding (Chouli). m. is Chou.I (inscr. 65). The meaning of the additional
upper element is doubtful, but a. as phonetic is probable, in spite of the initial.
n-o. *g'dp I yap I h o join, unite (Yi); (a >>closer>>): door leaf (Stin); loan for id.
(Chuang); why not (Lun:yii). In the form z. below we can see that 4; a. is really the
phonetic, and hence that o. is a corrupted variant.
p. *g'ap I ?'riP I h o to shut (Yi); *xap I xap I hi a laugh (Chuang).
q-r. *g'dp I yap I h o to thatch, to cover (Tso); *kdb ( > kdd >) I kdi- I k a i to cover,
conceal (Shu); a cover (of a car) (Chouli); loan for id. namely, for, because (Sh1); loan
for n. (why not) (Li). Gls. 533, 734.
s. *g'dp I ydp I h o wooden leaf of door (Tso); to shut (Yi); loan for n. (why not) (Kuan),
for q. namely (Chouli).
t. *k'dp I k'dp I k'o cup, bowl (Tso).
u. *k'dp I k'dp I k'o and *k'ap I k'r,lp I k'o promptly, suddenly (Ch'uts'1).
v. *k'dp I k'ap I k'o and *k'db ( > k'rid >) I k'di- I k'a i and '? I k'dt I k'o a beating or
knocking sound (Ch'uts''i).
x. *gjap I jjiip I y e carry food to (sc. labourers in the fields) (Shl).
y-z. sense and reading unknown, occurs in inscr. 229; adduced here in order to show
the archaic form of n. above. z. is Chou III (inscr. 229).
643 a-f. *g'arn I yc]rn I han envelop, contain (Shi:); cuirass (Meng); *g' Ern I yclm /
hi en (part of) place name (Tso ). a. and b. are alternative modern graphs; c. is Yin
bone (A 2: name), d. is Yin bone (B hia 22: 5, name), e. is Chou II (inscr. 172,
sense of p?J ), f. is Chou (inscr. 360, name). The graph i::; a drawing of some kind of
<<container>> (a quiver?) wit.h an arrow.
g. *g' :nn I yrJm I han soak, overflow (Kuan); loan for 671 g. reduce (Shi). Gl. 601.
h. *g'am I yrJm: I h an han-tan lotus flower (Shi:).
644 a. *ngJJn I ngqm I an stupid, hesitating (Sun).
645 a. *t'arn I t'rJrn I t'a n to covet (Sh'i). A,- kjJin can hardly be phonetic, so thi::; is
probably a compound ideogram.
b. *t'Jm I t'rJm: I t'a n numerous (Sh'i). Gl. 1120.
646 a. *d';nn I d' iJm I t'a n extend, spread (Shi); *dfnn I jam: I yen pointed, ;;harp
(Sh!).
b. *d',Jm I d' iJrn I t'a n deep, 11byss (Ch'uts'l). - c. id. speak (Chuang); loan for id.
great, comfortable (Ta Tai li).
d. *d' Jm I d' rjrn I t'a n and I dz'jam I t s'i en and *dzjE1n I zfiim I s i en to
heat (Li); to roast or boil soft (Chouli).
e. *d',nn I cl' rJm I t'a n and *dzjdrn I zj,nn Is in and *zfdm I jJm I yin knob or ring
on sword handle (Chuang).
f. *d'Jm I d'rJm: It an keep in the mouth (Chuang ap. Ts'ieytin). - g. id. sacrifice
at end of mourning (Li).
h. *t' Jtn I t' rJrn I t'a n hold, grasp (Chouli).
171
BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEUM OF' FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
C43 fil !Jr (fJ (Vt 00 W 1J (44 b4j i ot C4b '-
a... a. 1r c d... e f 3 h.. CL a.. lr
1f 1l f. (47
[,. c cl e f 9 h_ i J k L a.. lr C d.
;}$- -f$- J} (48 -:: ::= t19 _% }!f CSO «J
e f g h.. a. lr c a.. lr c. a.. lr c
i. *djarn I jam J yin and *dziam I ziam /sin name of a fish (Sun).
j-k. *d'i<emL I d'iem: It i en bamboo mat is Chou II (inscr. 194). - I. id.
horse with hairy legs (Shi:).
647 a-b. *ts'arn 1 ts' l)m 1 t s'a n three, a triad (Yi); accumulate (Shu); (combine, com-
pare:) examine (Sun); loan for id. straight (Lunyti 15: 6); *siam I sjam Ish en name
of a constellation (part of Orion, the >>triad staD>) (ShY}; I / t s'e n uneven,
irregular (ShY}; used for 648 (Chuang). b. is Chou II (inscr. 132). Was the original
graph a drawing of Orion?
c-d. *ts' <nn 1 ts' qm I t s'a n three horses in a team (ShY); outside horses of a team (ShY);
the 3rd man on a war chariot (Tso). d. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 325).
e. *ts'am 1 I ts'a n grieved, afflicted (Shi:). Thisisthesamewordas660e. 'grieved',
and, like that char. (in Shl}, it can be loan for id. a particle (Tso ); char. also erroneously
used for 11341. *ts'6g 1 ts'au- J t s'a o grieved (ShY, most versions). Gl. 348.
f. *sarn fsqm: Is an rice gruel with meat (Chouli).
f J s hen and f I c h'e n long, tall (sc. tree) (Ch'uts'i).
h. *ssrn 1 I shan grasp (Shi); *ssm f f shan delicate, tender (sc. fingers)
(ShY). Gl. 270.
648 a-c. *sam I sa1n I san three (Shi:); *sarn fsdm- /san thrice (Lunyii). Gl. 1171.
The Anc. Chin. reading sam is irregular; we should expect a sqm, since the ShY rimes
clearly indicate Arch. *sJJn. b. is Yin bone (A 1: 7,2), c. is Chou I (inscr. 56). The graph
is a symbol.
649 a-c. *n;Jm J n4m In an man, male (Shl); baron (Tso). b. is Yin bone (A 8: 7,1},
c. is Chou I (inscr. 70). The graph has 'strength' (928) and 'field'.
650 a-c. *nnn J nq,rn J nan South (Shi). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 13,2), c. is Chou I (inscr.
57).
651 a-e. *kiarn I kjam I kin now, present (Shi). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 11,4), c. is Chou
I (inscr. 56), d. is Chou I (inscr. 65), e. is Chou II (inscr. 151).
f. *g'iJm I g'j;nn- I kin single shroud (Yili). . .
*kjJm I kjJrn J kin collar or lapel of coat (ShY); *g'jam / g'1Jm- / k 1 n sash string,
string for fastening garments, to tie (Li); loan for f. (Li), for h. (Li).
h. *k'jam I k'iam f k'i n coverlet (Shi).
i. *k'jJm J k'jarn: f k'i n and *ngjJm J ngjam: /yin pit (Yili).
172
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMAT A SERICA REGEN SA
a lr c d. e f 9 i j k L n o
rt ri t
Jk- A '$:
p 9 I S t
$
a.' h
1
c
1
d
1
e.! f'
:± t 1<1 a_i:
u \T x ':1 Z.
-g-- t1t est 1-
h.! {_I j I k
1
L' G c.. cl e. f
it t;_ ;fx_ (53  
j k L c d e f :1 h._ i
:J
j-m. *g'jam J g'jJm J k'i n bird (Tso); animal (Yi); catch, capture (Tso). k. is Chou
I (inscr. 60, name), 1. is Chou II (inscr. 172}, m. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 326); ink. and
I. the radical is 'bird net' (see 407 b. above), in m. this is corrupted into some animal-
like shape. - n. id. catch (Kuoyii}. - o. id. a marsh plant (Shi). - p. id. strap
(Yili). - q. id. lute (Shi).
fY r. *g'iam I g'jarn f k'i n and *g'jsm / g'iiim I k'i en black (Tso).
s. *ngjJm f ngj;nn J yin sigh, moan (Kuots'e); drawn-out aD.d sad song (Siin).
t. *ngjJm J ngjam: J yin and / ts'jam / t s'i n high river b11rlk (Chuang); ? / df'j;nn
J c h'e n small and high hill (Meng).
u. *t'iam / t'jJm: f c h'e n walk hesitatingly (Chuang).
v. *k'am f k'lJm I k'a n to kill (Shu ap. Shuowen).
x. *'jarn f ·jam f yin (primary form of a'., hence the reading). Shuowen says: cloudy
(no text). The radical is 'cloud'.
y-z. *'jam J 'iam I yin Northern slope of a height (Shl); shade, darkness (Shi'}; cloudy
(Shi); dark cosmogonic principle (Tso); conceal (Shi'}; *'jam j 'jam- J yin to shelter
(Shi:). Gls. 984, 1520. z. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 326).
a'. *'iam / 'iarn I yin cloudy (Ta Tai li).
b'-c'. *'jam f 'jam- I yin shade (Tso).
d'-g'. *'icm J 'iiim: J yen Shuowen says: bitter wine (no text). e. is Yin bone (0 1316,
sense of i n, f'. is Chou IV (inscr. 289, name), g'. is pre-Han (inscr. 407, sense of i''?).
h'. *'arn / · (tm J an (and several other readings) low voice (Chouli).
i'-j'. *'jJrn J ·jam: f yin to drink, variant of fiX (inscr. 224). j. is Chou III (inscr. 224).
k'. *ngarn f ngqm: I an beautiful (ShY, Han version). Gl. 353.
1'. *g'am I yr]m f han hold in the mouth (Tso); to bear (e. g. resentment) (Shu); contain
(Yi). *g'am I yqm- J han put in the mouth (Tso).
m'. *g'Jm f yqrn f han hold in the mouth (Sun).
n'. I y(lm: /han jaw (Kungyang); emaciated, pale (sc. face) (Ch'uts'Y); *ngJm /
ng£]m: Jan nod the head (Tso).
652 a-c. *kjarn f kjmn f kin metal, bronze (ShY). b. is Chou I (inscr. 59}, c. is Chou
I (inscr. 60). - d. id. collar or lapel of coat (Shi: ap. Han stone classics).
e. *kiam f kiam: J kin silk woven in coloured pattern, brocade (Shl).
f. *k'iam / k'jJrn J k'i n intense (Shi:); respectfully attentive (Shu); solemn (Shi). Gls.
1912, 1946.
173
II
I
I
II
. I
\
\
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
g. *g'fam j g'jnn: I kin obstruct, shut (Lii); loan for *ngi<'nn I ngjJm I yin and *k'i,am
  I k'i n precipitous (Kuliang).
h-i. *ngiarn I ngjam: I yin Shuowen says: to walk rapidly with bent head (no text).
i. is Chou II (inscr. 142, name).
j. *ngarn I ngf!m: Ian nod the head (Tso ap. Shuowen).
k. *k'jam / k'iam I k'i n precipitous (Kungyang).
1. I xiam I h in set forth, display (Chouli).
653 a-b. *'jam j'i,am /yin sound, tone (Sh!); loan for 651 b' (Tso). b. is Chou II/III
inscr. 275, name). The graph may be a drawing of a mouth blowing a flute, cf. 251
g . - c. id. mild, peaceful (Tso ).
d. *'j<Jm l'i;nn I yin and *'am 1'4m I an dumb (Kuan); silent (Mo); *'jam I 'jam- I
yin (and several other readings) pent up (Chuang).
e. *'j<Jm l'irrm I yin dumb (Li). - f-g. icl. place name (Ytip'ien, no text ex.). g. is
Chou II (inscr. 180, name).
h. *'am I · (tm- Ian dark (Kuoyti).
i. *'am/ 'r]1n:, 'fJ,m- I an dark (Li).
j. *xiarn I xiJJm I h in smell and enjoy the fragrance of sacrifices (Shi'}; enjoy, desire
(Shi); to be elated (Sh'i).
654 a. *'ja1n I 'jam: I yin drink (Sh!); *'jam I 'jam- I yin give to drink (Shi). The
Seal has 'eat' and 'open the mouth'.
655 a-d. *glfam lliam 11 i n forest, grove (Shi); (forest-like =) numerous (Sh'i}. b.
is Yin bone (A 2: 8,1), c. is Yin (inscr. ll, name), d. is Chou II (inscr. 169). The graph
has 'tree' doubled. - e. id. to pour (Kuots'e). - f-1!· icl. long rain (3 days or more)
(Tso). g. is Yin bone (A4:9,s).- h. id. a kind of precious stone (Shu).
i. *glam / l1]m I l an covetous (Ch'uts'l}. - j. id. covetous, rapacious (Tso).
k. *kljnn I lcjJm- I kin prohibit (Tso ); loan for icl. a support for a ritual vessel (Li);
loan for 651 f. above (Stin).
I. *kliam I kjam I kin overlap of a robe (Ch'uts'i).
m. *g'liam I g'jJm:, g'fam- I kin shut the mouth (Ch'uts''i).
656 a. *dimn I jam I y i n walk (only Han time text ex.). The graph (see c--d. below)
is a drawing of a man carrying something, perhaps a carrying-pole.
b-d. *d'iam I /{'jwm I c h'e n to sink (Sh'i); submerged (Kuots'e); deep (Chuang); put
poison (cf. e. below) in a liquid (Chouli); *cl'iJm I r/'iam I c h'e n and *cl'i<nn I a'fam- I
chen sacrifice in which the gifts are sunk in water (Chouli); *:Jiam I (;i:Jm: Ish en
name of a state (Tso ); *t'jarn I tS'jJm: I c h'e n juice (Li). Gl. 1546. c. is Yin bone
(N 4:61, p. 149, name), d. is Chou I (inscr. 58, name).
e. *d'jam I d'ianL- I chen poisoned wine (Tso). -f. id. (bird with poisonous wings,
which were soaked in wine:) to poison (Kuoyii}.
g. *tiam I tsjam:, tsinn- I chen pillow (Shi), to use as a pillow (Lunyii).
h. *(ljam j if:am Is hen, c h'e n rely; on, trustworthy (Shi); sincerity (Shu); truly (Shu).
Gl. 1452.
i. *tam I tq1n: It an to beat, pierce (Lie).
j. *tam I ti}rn, tqm: I tan look downwards (Yi).
k. *t;nn I tam: 1 tan (Anc. Chin. tam is irregular, we should expect a tr}m) silk pendants
on ceremonial cap (Tso).
I. *tam I t{pn I tan addicted to music and pleasure generally, to take pleasure (Siu).
174
BERNIIARD KARL(;REN: GRAMM AT A SERICA REGEN SA
a. a. l.r c cL e f 9 h. i j
Cf"& tG 51L.. :t f ;f;t tt ;f;t §;t A;t :It;t
a. & c cL e. f g
h. L j k L rnn o
&57 1 yi_ 'f8 ! §i tt ;ft 1! !t { 5i
f.r a. lr <:- d. e f 5 h. 1.. j k L
3ft J!. CJJ
CL
11'1. '11. 0 p
9
m. *cl'am / cl'f!m: I tan hanging (sc. hair) (Shi). GL 128.
n. *tam I tqm: It an dregs (Ch'uts'i:).
o. *t'am I t'cJ,m: I t'a n minced meat and blood pickled with brine (Shi).
657 a. *djam I jJm I yin Shuowen says: to covet (no text). - b. icl. to soak (Chouli);
loan for id. excess (Shu); licentious (Shu); to liberate, let loose (Shu); great (Shi); irre-
gular (Tso).
658 a. *(ljam I iiam:, ifJm- Ish en excessive, very (Shi'). The graph may be the original
form for b. furnace (see d., k., m.).
b. *diam I ijam I c h'e n a small furnace (Shi:). - c-d. icl. reliable, to trust (Shi).
d. is Chou (inscr. 344, name).
e. *tj;nn I tjJrn- I c h en to strike (Kuots'e ).
f. *tjam / tjmi I chen chopping-block (Chouli).
g. *t'iam I t'jJm: I c h'e n walk hesitatingly (Chuang).
h. *tj<Jm I / c h en to ladle out, serve (Ch'uts'i); to deliberate (Kuoyii).
i. *d'iam I di'fam: I s hen and *diJm I #Jm: I s hen mulberry fruit (Shi}.
j-k. *tam I tijm It an Shuowen says: pleasure (no text). k. is Chou IIII (inscr. 212,
name).
1-m. *tam I tc]im It an sunk in, steeped in (sc. pleasure}, rejoice (Sill); *d'em I d'clm: I
chan soaking (sc. dew) (Shi); deep (Ch'uts'i:); *tsfem I tsjiim I t s i en to soak (Li).
m. is Chou II (inscr. 180).
n. *t'Jm I t'ij,m: I t'an and *cl'Jm I d'qm: It an dark (Chuang); loan fori. (Sh'i).
o. *sam I s£}m: Is an rice gruel with meat (Sun).
p. *k'am I k' l]m I k'a n able to bear, equal to (Sill).- q. id. to vanquish, kill (Shu); loan
for p. (Shu).
r. *lc'arn I k'qml k'an       andngam lngifm I an rocky (Chuang).
659 a. *t'fam I t'iam- I c h'e n protrude suddenly, obtrude oneself (Kungyang). The
Seal has 'gate' and 'horse'.
660 a-b. *tsfam I tsjam I t sin Shuowen says: sharp (no text). b. is Chou II (inscr.
147, sense of c. below). This may be the primary form for g. hairpin.
175
BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
c-d. *ts'am I ts'ljm: It s'a n particle denoting perfect tense (Shi ap. Shuowen). d. is
Chou II (inscr. 194, sense of 1). - e. id. grieved (Shi); loan for id. particle denoting
perfect tense (Shi).
f. *ts':Jmlts'1]m:jts'an have in mouth (Huainan); *tsapltsqpltsa bite (Chuang).
g. *tsam I tsqrn / t san and I tt;iam / chen hairpin (Sun); loan for *tt;iam j
f chen quick, rapid (Yi).
h. *ts;nn f tsq.m f t s a n nail without head, fastening pin (Li).
i. *dz'arn f dz'r[mL t s'a n silkworm (Shi).
j. f chen accuse, calumniate (Shi). Gls. 601, 958.
k. *dzjam / zf:am sin and *dz'i:Em I dz'jiim I t s'i en large boiler (Shi).
I. *tsianL f tsiem- t s i en err, error (Shi}; untruthful, falsehood (Shi); disorder (Shi);
usurp (Li). Gls. 601, 958.
m. *tsjsm I tsiarn I t s i en extinguish (Tso ).
n. *dz'jc;nL f dz'jam It s'i en go in water, wade (Kuoyii); to lie at the bottom of water
(Shi); sink in, be soaked in (so. pleasure) (Shu); :aaz'icm / dz'jiim, dz'jiim-/ t s i en to
hide, secretly (Tso). Gls. 1099, 1546. ·
o. *tsap I tsrJp / t sa sting and suck (as a mosquito) (Lie).
661 a-b. *ts'jam f ts'jnn It s'i n (primary form of c. below, hence the reading) (to
sweep over:) inv11de (inscr. Yin bone I 39: 11). b. is Yin bone (I 39: ll). The graph
has 'hand' and 'broom'. (1087).- c-d. id. (sweep over:) il1v11de (Shi:); enroach upon,
usurp (Chouli). d. is Chou (inscr. 343, name).
e. *ts'jam /   I t s'i n and *tsfam / tsiarn f t sin and *sjsm f siam f s i en thread
(Shi).
f-j. *ts'j;nn f ts'jam: / t s'i n lie down to sleep (Shi); living apartments in a palace (Li);
back apartment of an ancestral temple (Shi). g. is Yin bone (A 1: 30,5), h. is Yin bone
(I 23: 13), i. is Yin (ins cr. 4), j. is Chou II (inscr. Hl3); in all these the phonetic is reduced
to the 'broom' only.
k. *ts'jam f ts'jam: ;'t s'i n and *ts'icm / ts'jiim / t s'i en and *tsjc;m I tsjiim I t s i e n
incise, engrave (Kungyang).
I. *ts'jam / ts'jarn f t s'i n and   I   / c h'e n gallop (Shi).
m. *tsj;nn f t sin overflow (Shi); to soak (Shi); gradually, step by step (Yi);
lake (Chouli).
n. *tsiam / tsjJm, tsjnn- / t sin a halo, vapour as prognostic (Tso). - o. variant of
m. above (Lti).
662 a. *dzjam / zjam /sin, s ii n a measure (8 ch'i) (Shi); loan for id. to warm up
(sc. food) (Kuoyii); renew, resume, continue (Tso); employ (Tso).
663 a-b. *siam I sjnn /sin heart (Shi). b. is Chou II (inscr. 139). The graph is a
drawing.
664 a-b. f f she n dense trees, thicket, grove (only Han time text ex.).
b. is Yin bone (B hia 3: 2, sense here uncertain). The graph has 'tree' tripled.
665 a. *:ham I siam: I she n examine, discriminate (Lunyii); minutely (Shu); loan for
id. a bundle (of feathers) (Chouli).
b. *t'jJm / ts'ja1n: I c h'e n a liquid (Tso).
666 a-b. *sjJm f sjJnL f she n deep (Shi:, Ode 305, ace. to Tuan Yu-ts'ai; but the correct
form there is 598 k., q1wd vide. Gl. 1201.)
176
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
teo fJt ·1/BL aP-. H. ;fJj- ,t;Yf. J,j{.£ ,fd_
"J /1· 1:-J t=:l s 'CJ ra 56 ti t3 1 a .Ai9 1 g g
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a. a. lr a.. lr a. lr a.. lr c. d.
;At tR ((7 ±: 1 I I I 11: i l _k±: r+t Jr:L #f #.1'±.
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0
r
s t
c-d. *sjJm I sjam Ish en deep (Shi); *siam I sjJm- Ish en depth (Chouli). d. is Chou
III/IV (inscr. 327).
e. *t'jam jl'jam I c h'e n precious object (Shi).
f. *t'am It' qm I t'a n to put the hand into and test (Lunyii); explore (Yi); draw upon
oneself (Shu). Gl. 1933.
667 a-e. I {tijam I j en cyclical character (Tso ); great (Shi); loan for s. (soft =)
insinuating (Shu). Gls. 72, 1278. b. is Yin bone (A 1: 1, I), c. is Yin (inscr. 30), d. is
Chou I (inscr. 59), e. is Chou I (inscr. 79).
f-h. *JijJm j1iijam f j en carry, to load (Shi); support, sustain, endure (Tso); strong,
reliable (Chouli); *nj<Jm I nii:am- I j en burden (Meng); charge, office (Shu); entrust
(Tso); have confidence in (Lunyii). Loan for s. (soft=) insinuating (Shu). Gls. 72,
1278. g. is Chou I (inscr. 79}, h. is Chou I (inscr. 131 b).
i-j. *rliam I 1izjam- I j en Shuowen says: pregnant. j. is Chou I (inscr. 97, name).-
k. variant of the preceding (Han time text examples).
1. *1ij<Jm j1iijam / j en and I njam / n in weave (Tso). - m. variant of the
preceding (Mo).
n-o. *1tj<Jm J nifam:, l'iijam- I j en skirts of robe, flaps (Tso); bed mat (Li); hooks
connecting on top of coffin (Li); lapel (Lunyii).
p. *1/.jam jJi.zjJm: f j en thoroughly cooked, overdone (Lunyu). - q-r. id. think
(inscr. 306). r. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 306). - s. id. a kind of big beans (Shi); loan for
id. soft (Shi).
t. *nf;cnn j1ijam- /1 in (Pek. lin is irregular, we should expect n in) to rent (Tso).
668 a-b. *pljarn / pjJm: / pi n g and *bljam fliam: fl in rations (Li); *pljam f pjam: /
ping receive (Tso); ask for instructions (Tso). a. is the correct form, b. is vulgar.
Pek. ping is irregular, we should expect a pin. The Seal has a drawing of double i
walls with roof (=granary) and 'grain'.
c. *blfam jljam: /1 in granary (Shi); loan for id. shake (Tso); for a. 'rations' above ,
(Kuan). - d. id. full of fear, respectful (Sun).
12 177
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
go
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669 a-d. *p'ljnn I p'iJm: I p'i n sort, kind, class (Shu); degree (Li). b. is Yin bone
(A 5:35, 3), c. is Yin bone (A 5: 35,4), d. is Chou I (inscr. 68). For the graph cf. 122 above.
e-g. *blfdm 1 liam ll in approach, go to (Sh'i); look down on, oversee (Sh'i); )>approacher)>
(a war engine) (Shl); *bljm1 I li.Jm· ll in ceremonial wailing (Tso). Gl. 814. f. is Chou
I (inscr. 65), g. is Chou II (inscr. 180). The radicals are 'man' and 'eye'.
670 a-c. *ni,nn I niem- In i en think of (Shi); loan for g. announce (Shu). Gl. 1485.
b. is Chou I (inscr. 58), c. is Chou II (inscr. 139).
d. *1'tjnn liiifarn: I j en harvest, year (Tso). - e. id. cooked (Li).
f. *£Jif;nn I.Sj,nn: 1 she n to flee, escape (Li). - g. id. remonstrate (Tso); report (Shi).
Gl. 404.
h.. *niJp I niep / n i e fill, stop up, obstruct (Shu).
671 a-d. *g' ern 1 yi'irn I h i e n all (Shi); unite (Shi); complete (Shl); everTwhere (Kuoyi.i);
name of a hexagram (Yi); loan fori. (Li). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 43,5), c. is Yin (inscr. 12),
d. is Chou I (inscr. 67), loan for e. (Shu). Gls. 116:3, 1846. The graph has 'mouth' and
smne kind of 'battle-axe' (cf. 1257 i.)- an 'assembly', troop of warriors under one com-
mand l - e. id. harmony (Shu).- f. id. salt, salty (Shu).
g-h. *kEnL I kr1m: I k i e and *g'r:;Tn I ylim: I hie n abridge, moderate (Li). h. is
Chou III (inscr. 280, name). Gl. 601.
i-j. *knn I krlm I k i en rope (Chuang); to tie (Chuang). j. is Chua II (inscr. 180).
k. *knn I krlm I k i en and *'Ern I 'r'im: I y en (and several other readings) a black
blot (Chuang).
l. *kJJn 1 krj1n: I k an to move (Yi); to touch (Sh'i); loan for p. ('l'so ).
m. *x.cnn 1 zrjJn- I han and *k'Jm-1 k'rJm: I k'a n emaciated (Ch'uts''i).
n. *finn 1 t/;f;nn I chen needle (Li); (to prick) criticise (Tso). - o. id. needle (Tso).
p. *g'nn I yr]m- I han dissatisfied (Li); resent (Tso).
672 a-b. *g'cm I yrlm- I hie n Shuowen says: small pit (no text). b. is Chou II !inscr.
184, sense of c.). The graph shows a man falling into a pitfall. - c. id. (fall a.
pitfall:) fall down, fall into (Tso); throw down   d. id. variant of the precedmg
(Chuang).
178
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
*k'JJn 1 k'r]m: 1 k'a n pit (Chuang).- f. id. (empty=) insufficient, wanting, inferior
e. (:rlleng); despondent, grieved (Ch'uts''i); loan fo.r e. (Tso). . .
g-h. *g',Jm 1 yrJm: I han Shuowen says: turbid water (no text). h. IS pre-Han (mscr,
432 name).
i. *d;mn j cl'ifm: I t'a n (the Pek. aspirate is irregular) recess or smaller pit in bottom
of cave or cellar (Yi). This is a compound ideogram: 'hole' and 'pit'; but a. helps also,
to a certain extent, in the sound. This i. is abbreviated phonetic (cf. 1073 a. abbrev.
phonetic in 107:3 d.) in:
j. *d' ,nn j d' rJ m: I t a n h a n - t a n lotus flower (Sh!).
k. *d' lim 1 d'dm:, d'drn- I tan eat, swallow (Kuoyi.i).
}, *t'ic;m I t'iiim: I c h'a n flatter (Lunyii).
m. idinn 1 iiim I y e 11 gate over street or lane (Sun). - n. id. eaves (Ch'uts''i).
o. *di 1 fiim- I e n brightness (only Han time text ex.). *dzicm. I ziam I s i e n to
boil (sc. meat) (Li); *dzjJrn I zf,im Is in sacrifice of boiled meat (Li). - p. variant
of I. above (Li).
673 a. *ngon I ngtim I yen and *ngjJm I ngfJm I yin precipitous, dangerous (Shu).
So ace. to the orthodox Pseudo-K'ung version; but probably the correct reading had
Rad. 46 inst. of Rad. 112, and this ·word *1/jap I 1iiiap I j e was a variant of 638 c.
garrulous. Gl. 1720.
674 a-b. *gjwn I jinng I h i u n g (.Hand. hi u 11 g is irregular, we should expect a
j u n g or y u n g) a bear (Sh'i). b. is Chou III (inscr. 2:39). The original graph wa8
probably a drawing, cf. 885.
[
675 a-d. *g'<J]J I y(tp I h o join, unite (Shi:); collect (Lu11yii); harmony (Shl); a mate
_ (Shl); answer (Tso); agree with (l\1eng); to close, shut (Kuots'e). b. is Yin bone (A 7: :36,1),
· c. is Yin (inscr. 53, name), d. is Chou II (inscr. 150). The graph shows a lid closing a
(mouth =) opening. - e-g. id. reach, attain, go to (i11scr. 27). f. is Yin bone (H 2: 25,6),
g. is Yin (inscr. 27).
h. *kap I krJp I k o oyster, mussel (Li). - i. id. small gate (l\Io).
j. *kr:;p I lciip I k i a. and *kelp I k{jp I k o knee-cover (Sh'i).
k. *kcp I krlp I k i a and *kfr'ip I kfvp I k i e and *g'fi'ip I g'jvp I k i e stumble (Li).
I. *kEpI l:rlp I k i a leather jerkin worn under clothes and serving as a cuirass (Kuan);
resistant, firm (Sftn).
m. *g'Ep I yi'ip I hi a permeate, imbue (Meng); loan for id. accord with, concordant
(Shl); unite, assemble (Shl); accomplish (Sh'i). - n. id. sacrifice to ancestors unitedly,
colleetively (Li).
o. *k{iip I kf.np / k i e rectangular collar (of court robe) (Li).
P· *k{,lp I kfJp I k i (vulg. k e i) furnish, supply, give (Tso); sufficient (l\Ieng); voluble
(Lun,\ii).
q. *xf,ip I zf.,ip I hi united, harmonious (Sh'i); conform to (Sh'i); draw in (Shl); loan for
t. roar {Shl). Gl. 1±67 a.-r. id. draw together (Lao, one version). -s. id. to contract
(Chuang); loan for id. scared (Lao).- t. id. Shuowen says: roar of rushing water (no
text but abbrev. form sec q. above); league together (Shl). Gls. 574, 1143.- u. ·id. to
stop Rncl still (Kuan).
676 a. *l,ip I ti]p It a respond to (Shu); answer (Sh'i). The Seal ha:; 'bamboo' and 'join'.
- b. Yariant of the preceding (Shl); loan for c. (Chuang).
c. *t'Jp / t'rJp I t'a and *t'ap I t'dp I t'a detached, distracted (Chuang).
179
BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
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677 a. *d' ap f d' qp f t a to babble, long-drawn talk (Shi); loan for id. join, unite (Ch'uts''i);
gluttonous (Kuoyii). The Seal has 'speak' and 'water' (sc. to flow). - b. id. garrulous
(Siin).
678 a-d. *d''dp f d'rJp It a (reach to, be with:) together with, and (inscr. 54 etc.), same
word as e. below. b. is Yin bone (A 2: 5, 7), c. is Yin bone (A 2: 45,2), d. is Chou I (inscr.
. 54). - e. id. reach to (Li ap. Han stone classics).
f. *t' 'dp I t' ftp I t' a to drink (Li).
679 a-c. *tsJp I tsftp Its a a round, a circle (Chuang). c. is Chou II (inscr. 182, possibly
in the sense of aili ).
680 a. *s'dp f sftp I s a the whistling or soughing of the wind (Ch'uts''i).
681 a-c. *g'iap f g'f.ap f k i come to, reach (Shi:); and (Sill); when (Meng); loan for g.
(Shu). Gl. 1480. b. is Yin bone (A 3: 19,2), c. is Chou III (inscr. 226). The graph shows
a 'hand' grasping a 'man'.
d-f. *kjap I kjJp I k i Shuowen says: walk rapidly, hasten (no text) e. is Chou I (inscr.
97, sense of a. above), f. is Chou II/III (inscr. 253, sense of a.). - g. id. urgent, urgency
(Shi:); hasty (Tso); distress (Tso). The phonetic is slightly deformed in the modern graph.
- h. id. draw water (Yi); pull towards oneself (Chouli); loan for id. eagerly (Li). Gl.
1480. - i. id. degree, grade of quality (Li); steps of staircase (Li).
j. *xiap / xi.JP f hi inhale (Chuang); loan for id. move (Ch'uts'i).
k. *ngjap f ngi.JP f y i dangerous (Chuang). - I. id. high (Ch'uts'i:); endangered (lVIeng).
m-n. *g'jep I g'jap f k i e Shuowen says: packing frame carried on the back (no text).
n. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 327, sense here uncertain). - o. id. box carried on the back
(Han time text examples).
682 a-b. *gjap f jjJp I y i and *gjc:p I jiap I y e shine, gleam (Sh1). The Seal has 'fire'
and 'flower', b. also 'sun'.
683 a-e. *'jap I 'i.JP I y i city, town (Shi:); loan for id. to sob (Ch'uts'1); for f. (Sun).
b. is Yin bone (A 2: 13,2), c. is Yin (inscr. 52), d. is Chou I (inscr. 126), e. is Chou II
180
'
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMAT A SERICA REGEN SA
cgJ t r ?     tt ae, (84 t &8S Wl
a. lr c d. e f '3 h.. i. a.. a.
f? tt t-· $ t l 68& +
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c.
t 1t }t G87 n- 688 ]f lff tl ;f-:Jt
cL e f a. a.. lr c cL e f j h.. ,:.
1!. &90 7§1 i'?J (J! _,__ '1: t j(_t
a.. c d.. e f 9 h.. a.. [, c d.
(inscr. 132). - f. id. working the soil, forceful (Chuang; various readings); troubled,
grieved (Ta Tai li). - g. id. to ladle out (Sh1); loan for id. suppress (Siin); loan for 688
g. to bow (Siin). - h. id. moist, to moisten (Sh'i).
i. *'iap I 'iap / y i and *'ap j·q.p I o short of breath (Siin).
684 a. *tjap I tjJp I c h 'i to hobble, bind the front feet of a horse (Chuang) .
685 a-e. *ti.CJP I tsi.CJP / c h 'i seize, hold, grasp, take (Shi); shut, obstruct (Tso); intimate
(Li); loan for h. terrifying (Sh1). Gl. 1084. b. is Yin bone (A 5: 36,4), c. is Yin (inscr.
28), d. is Chou II (inscr. 147), e. is Chou II (inscr. 172). The graph shows a man with
manacles.
f. *tjap I tiap I c h 'i rope, tether (Shi:); bind (Tso).
g. *d'jJp I a'jiip I c h 1 hibernate (as snakes or insects) (Yi); to cluster (as insects) (Sh1).
Gl. 22.
h. *tjc:p I tsjap f c he and *niap / niep I n i e and *tjap I tSjap I c h 'i scared stiff,
stupefied (Chuang).
i. *tsjJp I tsjap f t s i growing vegetation (Kuoyii).
j. *ti.Jb / ti- I c h 1 slow and heavy, unwilling to go (sc. horse) (Chuang).
k-1. *tjab f tsi- I c h 1 catch, seize (Shu); hold, to present (Li). Gl. 1497. The word
has early passed over into the -d class () tjad), for it occurs as loan for 413 d. and e.
(Chouli). I. is Yin bone (A 6: 29,5).
m. *tjJb f tsi- / c h 1 ceremonial gift (Shu). - n. id. bird of prey (Ch'uts'i); seize a
prey (Li).
o. *tiJrn I tiern- f tie n throw down (Chuang); in water (Shu); overwhelm (Tso).
686 a-d. *ajap I if.ap Ish i ten (Shi). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 5,5), c. is Yin (inscr. 10)
d. is Chou I (inscr. 54). whereas- denotes 'one', the first of the singulars, I denotes
't!'n', the first of the decades. - e. id. troop of ten men (Tso); ten objects (1\feng).
*tiap / tSfiip I chi juice, sap (Li); melting snow (Li).
687 a. *ajap f iiap Ish 1 pick, gather (Tso); archer's armlet (Shi); *g'jap / g'jvp I k i e
alternate (Li); loan for 634 to wade (Li).
181
BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEUM OF F'AR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
688 a. *ts'iap I ts'f;;p / t s'i and *tsfiJP I tsfiJP Its i whisper (Shi ap. Shuowen). The
Seal has 'mouth' and 'ear'.
b. *ts'jap I ts'j;;p It s'i to hem (a garment) (Yili); (connect:) a sequel, a connected row
of, continuous (Shi); loan for *ts'fiJp I ts'iap I t s'i and *tsjap I tsjap Its i to babble
(Sbi). Gl. 618.
c. *ts'jap I ts'f;;p It s'i to thatch a roof (Chouli); cover, repair (Tso).
d. *dz'iiJP I dz'f:.ap I t s i collect, bring together, hold together (Shi:); harmonious (Sill);
I I chi gather up (Li). Gl. 899.
e. *t#;ap / t#;ap I c b 1 to collect, to store (Sh'i); to fold up (as wings) (Shi); concordant
(Sbl); to stop (Tso). Gl. 693. - f. id. crowded together (Sbl). Gl. 21.
g. *tsf.ap I tsf:.:tp I t s i and *lff.:ap I lf!iap I c h 1 to cluster together, to crowd (Shi); *'jC!p
l'iap I y i to bow, salute (Shi). Gl. 21.
h. *tsi.EP I tsf.iip j t s i e oar (Sbl); dense grove (Lii). - i. variant of the preceding ('oar')
(Kuan).
689 a. *dzjap I zj,lp I s i additional robe over anO'iber (Li); to cover (Li); repeat (Tso );
follow, accord with (Li); loan for id. surprise attack (Tso); receive (Tso). The Seal
has 'garment' and 'dragon'.
690 a. *dzjap I zf:.ap I s i to practise flying (Li); to practise, excercise (Lunyii); be familiar
with (Shu); repeatedly (Shu), in repeated gusts (sc. wind) (Shi). Cf. 689. G .. 94. The
graph (cf. e. below) has 'wing' and 'sun'. - b. variant of the preceding (Chuang). -
c. id. peg, pin (Chuang). - d-e. id. Shuowen says: horse with hairy legs (no text).
e. is Yin bone (A 4: 47,5, sense here uncertain).
f. *zjap I f.ap I y i and ? I fi.ip I y i gleaming (Sbi). Gl. 389.
g. *d'iap I d'iep It i e double, lined (garment) (Li).
h. *lisp I tf;iap I c be to fear (Chuang).
691 a-c. *dz'iJP ( dz'j;;p Its i come together and settle (sc. birds) (Shi); assemble
(Tso); collect (Sh1); united, harmonious (Tso); accomplish (Sill). Gl. 1917. b. is Yin
bone (A 5: 37 ,7), c. is Chou II (inscr. 180). The graph has 'bird' and 'tree'.
d. *dz'Jp I dz'iJp Its a various kinds brought together, mixed (Shi); variegated (Li).
Loan for 679 (Lii). The word is cognate to the preceding.
692 a. I sjap Ish i and   I lf!'fap j c h'l to flap (sc. the ears) (Shi). loan for
*k'fiJP / k'jJp I k'i dry, scorched (Shi). GI. 205. Vulg. loan for 693 a.
b. *dzfiJP I zjap I s i low, wet ground (Shi); river side (Tso).
693 a-e. *sf;;p I sjap I s h 1 damp, wet (sc. soil) (Yi). b. is Yin bone (B shang 13: 6),
c. is Yin bone (A 2: 3,4), d. is Chou IIII (inscr. 205), e. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 326). The
graph seems to show (besides 'water' to the left) layers of earth with water drops in
between (distorted into 'silk' in e.), sometimes with addition of 'earth' (d., e.).
694 a-d. *glf.Jp llf;;p /Ji to stand (Sbi); set up, raise (Sh'i); ascend (throne) (Tso);
loan for f. (Shl). Gl. 1087. b. is Yin bone (A 7: 16,1), c. is Yin (inscr. 46, name), d. is
Chou II (inscr. 134, sense of {IT). The graph is a drawing of a standing man. - e.
id. splint hat (Shi'). - f. id. grains of rice (lVIeng); live on grain (Shu).
g. *gljap ll'iJP I I i and *g'liop / g'fap I k i pen for animals (Meng).
h. *lc'liap I k'jJp I k'i weep (Shi). - i. id. juice (Yili).
j-k. *gbp llrJp 11 a Shuowen says: rumble of stones (no text). k. is Chou I (inscr.
96, sense here uncertain). - 1. id. to break (Kungyang, one version).
182
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMAT A SERICA REGEN SA
CJt F# 'JJ )f_ :1#l! ill)!} C94 j:_ Ji i _t % #
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)SI ;1] Ji [ tL c;;s A 1\ ;\ 1\ r*J ()J rAl ff\1
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695 a-d. *Jif;;p / Jlijap I j u enter (Sill); to bring in, to present (Tso); take to heart
(Shi). Gl. 816. b. is Yin bone (A 1: 9,7), c. is Yin (inscr. 48), d. is Chou I (inscr. 59).
The graph shows some sharp-pointed object (a wedge? an arrow-point?).
e-g. *nrip I nijp I n a (same as h. below, hence the reading) to bring in (Meng);
) nwad I nu(fi- / n e i interior, inside, inner, in (Shi). loan for a. enter (Shu, orthodox
version). Gl. 1223. f. is Chou I (inscr. 56), g. is Chou I (inscr. 63).
h. *nap I ntjp / n a to bring in, convey to, present (ShY); insert (Li). - i. id. inner
reins of the outside horses in a team of four horses (Shi).
In the following words it is uncertain whether there was originally a final -p, which
became -t by dissimilation at an early date: j. *nwap ) *nwJt etc. (just as *nwab )
*nwad through dissimilation), or i*J was chosen as phonetic in them all at a time when
its *nwab bad already passed over to *nwJd. In the latter case the dental finals in j.
*nwat etc. is original. We must leave this question open.
j. *nwat I mtat /no slow of speech (Lunyii).
k-m. *1ijwat I 'Miwiit I and *niwat / rijwat I ? and *nwat j nwat j ? and *moiJt 1 nuCJt
In o slow of speech (Li). m. is Yin bone (A 1: 36,6, sense here uncertain).
n. *1ijwad I Mjwai- I j u e i peg, pin, tenon (Chuang). - o. id. bend of river, or junc-
ture of two rivers (Shu). - p. variant of s. below (Meng). - q. id. Shuowen says:
plants sprouting (no text). loan foro. (Shl), for s. (Chuang). Gl. 910.
r. *1ijwad /Miwai- I j u e i and *Jijwiit I itif:wiit I j o hot, burn (Li). - s. id. mosquito,
gnat (Siin).
696 a-d. *njEp l1ljap In i e Shuowen says: that by which you frighten people (no
text). In the bone inscriptions the primary graph is used as a synonym of 685 a. above
and probably depicts the manacles of a prisoner. c. is Yin bone (A 4: 17 ,3), d. is Yin
bone (A 5: 13,6).
697 a. *lcdng I kdng / k an g hill, ridge (Sbi). - b-d. id. hard, strong (Shi); odd
(number) (Li); loan for f. (Shi). c. is Yin bone (I 48: 4), d. is Chou II (inscr. 147). -
e. id. guiding rope of a net (Shu); regulator, regulate (Shi:); rule, law (Tso). - f-g.
id. bull (Kungyang). g. is Yin bone (A 2: 17,8 name).
h. *kdng / kdng, kdng- j k an g steel (Lie).
183
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BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
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698 a. *kang I kang I k an g neck, throat (only Han time text ex.); name of a constella-
tion (Li); loan for id. lift high (Chuang); *k'ang I k'ang- I k'a n g overbearing (Yi);
excessive (Tso); screen, protect, defend (Tso); loan for b. obstruct, oppose (Tso); for
c. equal (Li).
b. *k'ang I k'ang-l k'ang to set up (Sill); lift (Li); to obstruct, oppose (Lao); protect
Kuoyii). - c. id. equal, companion, mate (Tso); loan for id. high (sc. gate )(ShY); proud
(Hanfei); for b. oppose (Kuots'e).
d. *k'ang 1 k'ang:, k'ang- 1 k'a n g grieved (Kuots'e).
e. *g'ang I yang I h an g to go by boat (ShY).
f. *g'anglyang:lhang hang-hie moisture of the dew(Ch'uts'i).
g. *g'ang I yang I hang stretch the neck (ShY). Gl. 71.
h. *k' ang I lc'vng I k'e n g pit (Ch'uts''i). - i. id. pit, hole (Chuang).
699 a. *ngang I ngang I an g high (Shi), loan for id. I, me (Shi); *ngiang I ngfang: I
yang look up (Sh'i); loan for d. (Kuoyii). Gls. 879, 914.
b. *ngang I ngang I a n g lift high (Ch'uts'i).
c. *ngjang I ngjang: I yang lift the face, look up (Shi).
d. *ngiang I ngjvng I yin g to meet (Tso); *ngjang I ngjvng- I yin g go to meet,
receive (Sill).
700 a-b. *d'iing I d'ang I t'a n g exaggerate (Chuang); great (Chouli); loan for id. path
in the temple (Shi); dodder (Shi); t'a n g - t i cherry tree (Sh'i). b. is Yin bone (A 4: 29,5,
name). - c. id. dam, dyke (Kuoyii). - d. id. cup (Siin). - e. id. cicada (ShY).
701 a-c. *d'ang I d'ang- It an g cave-dwelling (no pre-Han text ex.); loan for id.
surpass (Kuliang). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 30,7), c. is Chou II (inscr. 150). The graph
has 'roof' and 'stone' (795).
702 a. *tsang I tsdng- Its an g to bury, inter (Lunyii). The Seal has 'die, dead' and
'grass' (doubled).
703 a-b. *ts'ang I ts'ang It s'a n g granary (Shi); loan for e. (Li), form. (Shi); t s'a n g-
k eng oriole (Shi). Gl. 412. b. is Chou II (inscr. 184).
c. *ts'ang / ts'iing It s'a n g and   I   I c h'u an g cold (Yi Chou shu).
184
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
d. *ts'iing I ts'ang It s'a n g name of a river (Shu); loan for c. (Lie). - e. id. green
(Shi); azure (Shi).
f. *ts'ang I ts'ang I t s'a n g crane (Ch'uts'i); loan for *ts'jang I ts'iang It s'i an g to
tinkle (Sh'i). Gl. 450.
g. *ts'jang I ts'jang, ts'jang: I t s'i an g to rush (Chuang);   I   I c h'u an g
to beat (Kuots'e ).
h. *ts'iang I ts'jang I t s'i an g to tinkle (Shi) (cf. f. above). Gl. 450. - i. id. sharp-
pointed stick (Kuoyii).
j. *ts'iang I ts'jang It s'i an g move in a stately way (Shl); to dance (Shu). Gls. 266,
1344. - k. variant of the preceding (Shu ap. Shuowen).
1.   I   I c h'u an g to wound (Li); loan for   I   I c h'u an g
start work (Shu); commence, create (Lunyii); loan for n. (Li). Gl. 1332.
m.   I   I c h'u an g grieved (Li).
n.   I   I c h'u an g boil, tumour (Kuots'e).
704 a. *sang I sang Is an g mulberry tree (Sh'i). The Seal has 'tree' and three 'hands'.
b. *sang I sang: Is an g forehead (Tso).
705 a-d. *sang I sring I sang mourning, burial (Shi); *sang I sang- Is an g to lose
(ShY); destroy (Shu). b. is Chou I (inscr. 65), c. is Chou II (inscr. 180), d. is Chou III
(inscr. 234).
! 706 a-e. *kwang I lcwdng I k u an g light, bright (Shi:); brilliant, glory (Shi); loan for
707 m. fully, extensively (Shu). Gls. 899, 1209. b. is Yin bone (A 5: 32,7, name?),
c. is Yin (inscr. 10, sense here uncertain), d. is Chou I (inscr. 64), e. is Chou I (inscr. 70).
The graph has a kneeling 'man' and 'fire'. - f. id. rushing water (Siin); violent, fierce
(Shi). Gls. 101, 1038.
g. *k'wdng I k'wdng- I k'u an g fine floss silk (Chuang). /
h. *kwang I kwang I k u an g and *kwiing I kwvng I kung ,11mple (Kuoyii). ,
i. *kwiing I kwvng I k u an g (Mand. k u an g is irregular, we should expect kung)
drinking horn, a kind of ritual vessel (Sill).
j. *xwang I xwang: I huang flurried (Li); confused (Lao).
707 a-b. *g'wang I ywang I huang yellow (Sill). b. is Chou I (inscr. 79). The graph
is practically identical with k i en distress (480 above), explanation uncertain. -
c-d. id. half-circle shaped jade insignium (Chouli). - e-f. id. lake, pool (Tso);
great, vast (Siin). f. is Yin bone (A 2: 5,7, name). - g. id. tongue in a flute, flute,
reed-organ (Sh'i).
h-k. *kwang I kwang: I k u an g wide, broad, large (Sh'i); enlarge (Shi); *kwring I
kwang- I k u an g a cohort (Tso), a group of chariots (Tso); distance from east to west
(Chouli). i. is Chou II (inscr. 172), j. is Chou II (inscr. 174), k. is Chou II (inscr. 197).
1. *kwiing I kwvng I k u an g (Mand. k u an g is irregular, we should expect kung)
drinking horn, a kind of ritual vessel (Chouli) (variant of 706 i. above).
m. *g'wiing I ywvng I hung, hen g (Mand. hen g is irregular) crosswise (Tso);
transversal, latitudinal (Ch'uts'i); perverse, unjust (Meng); *lcwdng I kwang- I k u an g
intense, full (sc. sound) (Li); fully, extensively (Shu). Gl. 1209.
n. *k'wang I k'wdng- I k'u an g grave pit (Li); wilds, uncultivated tracts (Meng). -
o. id. bright (Chuang); desolate, waste (Shi); vacant (Shu); omit, neglect (Li); wide
(Lao). - p-q. id. fine floss silk (Shu), same as 706 g. above; quilted (sc. garment)
(Tso ). q. is Chou I III (inscr. 213, name).
185
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF' FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
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r. *k'vxing 1 k'wang:, k'wang- 1 k'u an g and *k'ang I k'ang: I k'a n g wide off, far
away (Shi ap. Shuowen). Gl. 125.
s. *kwiing I kwvng: I kung rustic, rude (Kuanyin).
t. *k'wak I k'wak I k'u o extend (:Meng).
708 a-c. *g'wdng lywang j huang august, sovereign (Shi); to (Sill);
ficent, brilliant (Shi); yellow-and-white spotted (Shi:); to regulate (Sh1); ceremomal cap
(Li); anxious, dissatisfied (1\J:eng); loan for i. (Shi), for l. (Shu). Gls_. 391, 39_3, 661, 744,
1075, 1141. b. is Chou I (inscr. 69), c. is Chou I (inscr. 86). - d. 1d .. walk Irresolutely,
hesitate (Chuang). - e. variant of the preceding (Kuoyii). - f. stagnant water
(Ta Tai li). - g. id. brilliant (Shi:). - h. id. bamboo thicket     - i.
leisure (Shi). - j. id. moat (Yi). - k. id. cake (Ch'uts'i). - I. 1d. female phoemx
(Shl). .
m. *g'wdng lywdng j h u a 11 g and *g'wang I ywvng I hung locust (L1). .
n.   1 )'wvng 1 h u 11 g and *xwc'ing I xwvng /hung to resound (as weepmg, or
bells) (Shl). Gl. 1085.
709 a. *mwang j mwang: j man g grass, weeds (:Meng); jungle (Tso); luxuriant (growth)
(Ch'uts'i); coarse (Chuang). The Seal bas 'dog' and 'grass' (doubled).
710 a. *kjang 1 kfang I k ian g boundary (Cbouli). The Seal shows. t.;o 'fields' delimited
by three boundary lines. - b. variant of _the preceding (Ta Tm h). ..
c. *kfang 1 kiang j k ian g and *g'fang I g'1ang I k'i an g prostrate, fall (Lu); over-
throw (Chuang).
d. *kfrLng I kiang / k ian g ginger (Lunyu). . . ,.
e-g. *g'jang 1 g'jang j k'i an g strong, violent (Shi:); *g'1ang lg'zang: I k 1 an g (Mand.
k:'i an g here is irregular, we should expect a k i an g) make an effort (Meng ); comp:l
(1\Ieng); * kiang I kjang j k i a n g k i a n g - k i a n g fierce (Shi). Gls. 137, 1119. f. IS
Chou I (inscr. 65, sense of a. above), g. is Chou II (inscr. 139). , .
h-i. *kiang 1 kjang 1 k ian g boundary, limit (Sh!), s. w. a. above; loan for *g 1ang /
g'iang: 1 k: ian g hard (sc. soil) (Chouli). i. is Chou III (mscr. 229).
711 a-b. *kjang 1 kjang 1 k ian g family name (Shi); loan, for e., (Shi: Ts'i
version). Gl. 137. b. is Chou I (inscr. 69). The graph has woman and sheep ·
186
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMM AT A SERICA REGEN SA
712 a-d. *k'jang I k'iang / k'i an g Western tribes (Shl); loan for id. a particle (Ch'uts'i).
b. is Yin bone (P 154; the identification of the char., which has been doubted by some
authors, is certain in this instance; the phrase runs: k'i an g s h 1 j en "ten k'iang men"),
c. is Yin bone (A 1: 9,6), d. is Chou III (inscr. 220, name). The graph has 'man' and
'sheep', sometimes (c.) also a third element of uncertain interpretation. - e. id.
beetle (Chuang).
713 a-b. *g'jang I g'jang I k'i an g Shuowen says: a kind of insect (no text; was it a
variant of 712 e. above?); loan for id. strong (1\:feng); *g'jang I g'jrLng: I k ian g, k'i an g
(the Pek. aspirate is irregular) make an effort (Tso), compel (Li).
c. *kjang I lcjang: I k ian g string, cord (Li). - d. id. bands by which infants are
wrapped and carried on the back (Lunyli).
714 a-b. * xiang I xiang I hi an g Sbuowen says: fragrance of grain. There are no
text examples of this; bnt since it occurs in the sense of j. below 'feast' in inscr. 270,
and since it recurs as a drawing of a vessel in d-b. below, it is obviously etymologically
the same word: fragrant food, feast. b. is Chou II/III (inscr. 270, sense of j. below).
c-h. * xiang I xiang- I hi an g to face, turn towards (Li); draw towards (Shl); (face
side:) 'Window (Li); (the >)facing>) side =) south (Sh1); (the time ))turning towards)) the
speaker:) a little while ago (Lunyii); loan for * xiang I xiang I hi an g village (Lunyii);
district (Chouli); region, tract (Shi); * xiang I xiang: I hi an g to feast (Siin). d. is
Yin bone (A 4: 22,6, sense of j.), e. is Yin bone (A 4: 22,3, sense of j.). f. is Yin (inscr.
20, sense of j.), g. is Chou I (inscr. 58, sense of j.), h. is Chou II (inscr. 134, sense of
'turn towards'). Thus the graph, which shows two men sitting turned towards one
another at a food vessel, serves both for xiang: 'feast' and XirLng- 'to face'.
i. * xiang I xiang- I hi an g to face, approach (Shu); loan for j. to enjoy (Shu), for
n. (Yi).
j. * xiang I XirLng: I hi an g feast (Li); enjoy a feast (Shl); to present food or drink at
a feast or a sacrifice (Sbi:); receive and enjoy such an offering (Li).
k. *xiang I yjang:, xiang- I hi an g and ? I siang:, :iiang- Ish an g a short time (Tso
ap. Shuowen), recently (Lii); loan for i. (Chuang).
I. * xiang I xiang I h i a n g beef soup (Li). - m. id. smell of grain (Li).
n. *xiang I xiang: I hi an g echo (Lie).
o-p. *k'jiing I k'jvng / k'i n g minister (Shl). p. is Chou I (inscr. 70, sense of 'minister').
Thus one and the same Archaic graph serves for #m hiang and 91W k'ing.
715 a-d. * xiang I xirLng- I hi an g window facing North (Shi); turn towards (Chuang);
formerly (Chuang), cf. the preceding group. b. is Yin bone (A 2: 20,5, name), c. is Yin
(inscr. 5, name), d. is Chou II (inscr. 174, name). The graph is a drawing of a house
with a window.
e. ? I Ish a n g carry food to field labourers (1\Ieng).
716 a-d. * xiang I xiang: I hi a 11 g sacrificial offering (Shl); feast (Tso); enjoy (Tso);
*xJing I xung I h eng penetrate (Yi); loan for (Shi). a. and b. are primarily identical,
two Yariants of the same char.; the usage to -..nite a. for hi an g and b. fm hen g
is modern; in T'ang time the two forms were still used prorniscue. c. is Yin bone
(A 6: 63,5), d. is Chou I (inscr. 65). The graph shows a building, possibly a temple.
717 a. * xiang I xiang I h i an g fragrance (Shi).
187
BULLETIN OP THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
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718 a-b. *'ia1UJ j'jang f yang centre, end (Shi); loan for id. and
*'f:ang I ·jv1UJ f yin g brilliant (Sill); tinkling of bells (Sill). Gls. 458, 480. b. is Chou II
(inscr. 157). The graph shows a man with a carrying-pole, supported in its centre,
cf. 656 above.
c. *''fang 'fang: I yang and *''a1UJ I ·ang Ian g bend the body (Chuang).
d. *'jang 'fang:, 'fang- f yang disconcerted, discontented (Kuots'e ).
e. *''jang jang yang calamity (Tso); damage, destroy (Meng).
f. *'fang 'fang: yang strap on breast of horse or ox (Tso); loan for d. (Shi'). Gl. 646.
g. *'iang 'jang y a n g to flow, a great and deep flow (Shi').
h. *'jang 'iang yang and *'ang I ·ang Ian g female of mandarin duck (Shi').
i. *'ang I 'dng- fang a kind of liquor (Li); full, ample (Meng). - j. id. (basin, tub,
tub-like:) obese, swollen (Chuang).
k. *'fang I 'ivng I yin g flower, blossom (Shl); loan for id. a kind of precious stone
(Shi'); brilliant (Shl); ornament (Sill). Gls. 224, 273, 458.
719 a-d. *t'jang f t'jang- f c h'a n g aromatic spirits (Shi'); loan for 721 m. below (Sill).
b. is Yin bone (A 1: 9,7), c. is Yin bone (I 43: 5), d. is Chou I (inscr. 65). The graph
is a drawing of a bowl.
720 a-d. *djang f fa1UJ f yang South side (inscr. Yin bone A 4: 10,2). b. is Yin bone
(A 4: 10,2), c. is Chou I (inscr. 59, possibly sense of m'. below), d. is Chou I (inscr. 98,
sense of j. below).
*djang f ia1UJ f yang South slope of a height (Shl); North bank of a river (Shi');
light, brightness (Shi); the sun (Shi:); the light cosmogonic principle (Tso); elated (Shi').
Gls. 199, 351. f. is Chou I (inscr. 100, sense of j.), g. is Chou II (inscr. 157). -h. id.
sunshine, bright (Shu).
i. *djang f jang- I yang to roast, to heat (Chuang); cruel (Yi Chou shu).
j-o. *dia1UJ /fang I yang lift, raise (Shi); (throw up:) to winnow (Shi); to display,
extol (Shi); to stir (Shi'); raise the voice (Shi'); loan for id. forehead (Shi); distinguished (Li);
battle-axe (Shi:); hawk (Shl). Gls. 201, 241, 785, 1134. k. is Chou I (inscr. 59), l. is Chou I
(inscr. 69), m. is Chou I (inscr. 78), n. is Chou I (inscr. 91), o. is Chou I (inscr. 105); the
radical in these latter is. 786 below inst. of rad. 64.- p. id. tossed up by the wind
(Ch'uts'i); loan for id. lift the voice (Shu); promote (Shu); stately, lordly (Tso). Gls.
1325, 1349. - q-r. id. poplar (Shi). r. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 324).- s. id. sore, ulcer
(Tso).- t. id. metal frontlet of a horse (Shi); ornament on shield (Li).
188
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMAT A SERICA RECENSA
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u. *t'fang I t'jang- I c h'a n g kill the sprouting grass by turning the soil with plough
(Ta Tai li). - v. id. penetrate everywhere, spread out (Yi); full (Li); long (Shi); ample,
luxuriant (Meng); loan for 719 a. above (Li).
x. *d'jang I d'fang I c h'a n g arena (Shi:). - y. id. intestines (Shl).
z-b'. *t'd1UJ / t'ang f t'a n g hot liquid (Lunyii); reckless (Shi); *siang I siang f shan g
amply-flowing (sc. a river) (Shi); Gls. 329, 655. a'. is Chou I (inscr. 88, name), b'. is
Chou II/III (inscr. 258, name).
c'-d'. *d'dng I d'd1UJ I t'a n g sweets, cake (only Han time text ex.). d'. is Chou I
(inscr. 105, sense here uncertain) .
e'. *'d'ang I d'ang: I tang carefree, extravagant (Sun); siang 1 siang 1 shan g (to
move:) straight and rapidly, directly (Li).
f'. *d'ang I d'ang- f tang veined stone (only Han time text ex.); loan for id. exceed
(Chuang).
g'-h'. *Siang I sia1UJ Ish an g expel evil spirits (Li).
i'. *siang I siang Ish an g and *ts'iang I ts'jang It s'i an g Shuowen says: to wound,
hurt (no text).
j'. *siang I sjang Ish an g to wound, hurt, damage (Tso); afflict (Shi). The right part
of the char. is said to be an abbreviated form of the preceding. - k'. id. to die in child-
hood (Tso). - 1'. id. goblet (Tso).
m'. *d'ang I d'ang: It an g a kind of precious stone (Li ap. Shuowen).- n'. id. eliminate
(Yi, ace. to some comm.); shake (Tso); *t'ang I t'ang- I t'a n g push forward (Lunyii).
o'. *d'dng I d'ang: jtang big bamboo (Shu).
p'. *d'dng I d'ang: I tang great, immense (Shi); extensively (Shu); large-minded
(Lunyii); even, smooth (Shi'); move (Li); shake (Shu); draw off (sc. water) (Chouli);
destroy (Kuoyii); license, reckless (Lunyii); *d'dng I d'ang-lt an g throw out, purify
from (Li). Gls. 329, 912.
i 721 a-e. *d'jang I a' fang I c h'a n g long, tall (Shi); a long time (Shi); always (Lunyii);
*d'iang I a' fang- I chang length, measure of length (Li); *tiang 1 liang: 1 chang
grow tall (Meng); increase (Shi); grown-up, elder, senior (Shl); superior (Shl); chief (Shu);
preside (Shi). b. is Yin bone (A 2: 8,3, name), c. is Yin bone (B shang 19: 6), d. is Chou
III (inscr. 220, enlarged by rad. 117) e. is pre-Han (inscr. 423, name). Does the graph
show a man with long hair or a tall, plume-like
189
I
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BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF' FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
72711
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ter it. b. is Yin bone (A 4: 45,3, sense here uncertain), c. is Yin bone (A 7: 3, 1, sense
uncertain). Was this the primary form for r. Cf. 1260 b. below.- d-e. id. a
kind of axe (Sh1). e. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 310, name).
f. *tsiang / tsjang I t s i an g bring (Sill); to offer (Sh'i); take (Tso ); employ (Tso ); perform
(Shi); arrange (Shi); hold on to (Shu); attend to, nurse, to support (Shi); take upon
oneself (Lunyii); push forward (Shi); advance (Shi); march (Shl); course (of a river) (Sill);
go, pass (sc. time) (Siin); escort (Shi); (undertake:) be on the point of, about to (Shi);
intend to (Tso); perhaps (Lunyii); or else (Ch'uts'1); loan for id. great (Shi); strong
(Shi); *tsjang I tsjang- Its iang to lead (Meng); a leader (Tso); loan for *ts'jang I
ts'jang It s'i an g beg, ask (Shi); tinkle (Shi); for a'. (Shu). Gls. 15, 212, 403, 660,
747, 761, 798, 839, 1085, lll2, 1476, 1508, 1667, 1781. The graph has 'hand' (>>thumh>
variant) and 'meat' (=bring in sacrifice).
g-i. *dz'jang / dz'jang It s'i an g kill (Oh'unts'iu); injure (Shi). h. is Yin bone (0 1219,
name?), i. is Chou I (in.'lcr. 67, sense of f'. below). - j-k. id. wall (Sh'i). The radical
to the right is a store house for grain. k. is Chou II (inscr. 182, sense of 926 below).-
1. variant of the preceding (Chuang); the phonetic is replaced by rad. 32. - m. variant
of the same word (Kuots'e); the phonetic replaced by rad. 53.
n. *l$iang / / c h u an g strong, robust, great (Shi).
o-p. I I chuang Shuowen says: adorn (no text); p. is Chou TIIIIV
(inscr. 294, name).- q. id. dignified, grave (Lunyii); meeting-place of six roads (Tso).
r. *d?'iang / d?'iang I c h'u an g couch, bed (Shi).
s. *d?'iang ( d?'iang- /chuang form, shape (Kuyii); appearance (Tso); depict, describe
(Chuang); record of merits (Tso); conditions, circumstances (Kuots'e).
t. *tsang ( tsdng Its an g ewe (Shi); loan for id. luxuriant (sc. foliage) (Shi). Gl. 746.
u. *tsjang I tsjang: / t siang help (Tso); encourage (Tso). The radical should properly
be R. 55.
v. *tsjang ( tsjang Its ian g rice-water, drink (Shi).- x. id. name of a plant used for
making mats (Hanfei).
y. *tsjang I tsiang- / t siang minced food in brine (Lunyi.i).
z. *ts'jang ( ts'jang ( t s'i an g tinkle, as horse's bells (Sh'i), cf. f. above.
a'-e'. *siang I siang ( shang cook, boil (inscr. 28 and 85). b'. is Yin (inscr. 28), c'.
is Chou I (inscr. 85), d'. is Chou I (inscr. 88), e'. is Chou I (inscr. 107).
f'. *tsdng I tsang / t s an g good (Shi).
192
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
g'. *dz'ang ( dz'dng It s'a n g conceal (Yi); to store (Yi); *dz'ctng ( dz'ctng- ( t sang a
store, treasure (Shi); intestines (Ohouli). loan for f' (Shi). Gl. 1722.
h'. *tsang / tsdng Its an g stolen goods (Lie).
i'. I ( chuang pack, load, baggaae (Kuots'e).
j'. *dz'jang ( dz'jang / t s'i an g female court official (T;o); the phonetic is j. above
abbreviated.
728 *dziang / zjang: (.siang_ (Shi); ivory (Shi); (cut figure:) figure
(J:1); to repr:sent (Tso); 1m1tate (L1); 1mage, shape (Yi); appearance (Shu); depict (Shu);
(Sh1); em?lem (Shu). Gl. 1267. b. is Yin bone (B hia 5: II), c. is Chou
I (mscr. 88), d. IS Chou II (mscr. 188). The graph is a drawing.- e. id. image resemble
depict (Yi). - f. id. acorn (Chuang). ' ' '
729 a. *dz'jang ( dz'jang- / t siang carpenter (Chouli). The Seal ha.s 'box' and 'axe'.
730 a. *snjang I sjang ( siang (strip off:) remove (Shl); achieve (Shu); rise upwards
to rear horses) (Sh'i); rise above (Shu). Gls. 215, 437, 1312, 1897. -b. id. belt.:
sash (Ch uts'i); horse's belly-band (Kuoyii).
c. / siang- Ish an!? bring fo_od to (sc. workers in the field) (Shi).
d. 111ang_( IIZ?ang. I J an g mould, cultivated sml (Shu); territory (Meng); mound,
heap (L1); abundant, rich (Lie).
e. *(tjang / Jlifang ( j a n_g steal pull away (sc. trees) (Sill); thrust forward (sc.
expel (L1); thrust as1de (Shi); loan for i. withdraw (Li); *1ijang j Miang,
nztang: ( J an g oppose, disturb (Chuang). Gl. 680. "
f. *1ljang ( Mjang I j an g heavy with dew (Sh'i). -g. id. sacrifice to expel evil influences
(Tso).
**?l.iang (   ( j g rich growth (of grain) (Shi); abundant (Shi). Gl. 1086.
1. /qang ( / _J an g (Tso); cede (Lunyii); yield, give way (Shi); modest
(Shu).- J. td. mmce and mix (Li).
k. *ndng ( nctng: /nang in past time, formerly (Tso).
I. *nang I ruing / n a n g sack, bag (Shi).
731 _a-:-c·   sjang- / s i n g at, see (Sh'i); (look to:) assist (Shi); assistant,
m_n"IISter (Sh1); aid (Shu); a. kind tim?-beatin_g instrument (Li); *siang 1 siang, siang- 1
s 1 an g quality (Shi); *s]ang ( s1ang (siang mutually (Shi). Gls. 807,
955, 2075. b. IS "Ym bone (A 2: 17 ,4, sense here uncertain), c. is Chou (inscr. 396, name).
The graph has 'eye' and 'tree'.
d. *siang ( siang: /siang think, imagine (Chouli).
e. *siang f. siang to boil (Shi). Gl. 42. -f. id. box (of a carriage) (Shi:); side
room (Yll1).
g. ( Ish u an g hoar-frost (Shi). - h. id. widow (Lie).
732 a-d- *zi_ang_( jang I yang sheep, ram (Shl); loan for f. (Tso). b. is Yin bone
(E 86: 3), c. IS "Ym 1: 12,4), _d. is I (inscr. 67). The graph is a drawing.- e.
!d. feign, (Hanfei). - f. td. walk rrresolutely, hesitate (Ch'uts'i).
g. :z1ang ( I yang sickness (Ch'uts'l); defect, shortcoming (Kuots'e).
h. Z£ang ( Jang ( y an g a great expanse of water (Chuang); tp flow with much water
(Shi:); vast, grand (Shi); loan for f. (lVIeng).
i. .*:fang I fang /Yang and *dzfang I zjang /siang disease (Sill); suffer (Sh'i); *ziang (
1ang: I yang ulcer (Chouli).
13 193
BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
73! ;f\3 t@ )i€l tf:l 73l -t- r 'f 11- ft
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j. *ziang f jang: I yang nourish, feed (Tso ); bring up, develop (Shl); loan id. conceal
(Ta Tai li); long (sc. day) (Ta Tai li); longing, grieved (Sh1); *ziang / Z?ang- /yang
to keep, support (sc. parents) (Lunyii); loan for r. (Sun). Gls. 127, 136. .
k-1. *zjang j jang- f yang long (like a river) (Shi, Han version ap. Shuowen). l. IS
Chou III/IV (inscr. 294). Gl. 32.
m. *dzjang f zjang / s i an g school (:Meng). --: n-o. id . . happy omen,
felicitous (Shi); a lucky day (Shl). Gl. 776. o. IS Chou IV (mscr. 291).- p. go to
and fro (Shl); fly backwards and forwards (Lunyii); (to soar:) walk with elbows kept
as outstretched wings (Li).- q. id. scrutinize fully, explain details (Sh1); loan for n.
(Tso).
r. *ziang /fang: I yang itch (Li).
s-t. *zjang f jang- / yang name of a river (Shu); variant of k. (Shl ap. comm. on
Wensiian). Gl. 32. t. is Chou IV (inscr. 283).
733 a-b. *.'liang j /shu an g clever, active (Tso); bright (Shu); loan for id.
different (Tso); deviate, aberr (Sh1); go astray (Tso); defective, faulty (Shi:); depraved
(Lao); loan for 731 g. hoarfrost-coloured (sc. horse) (Tso). Gls. 181, 1614. b. is Chou II
(inscr. 147). The graph seems to show a dancing man, cf. 103 above.
734 a-e. *siang f Ish an g discuss, debate (Li); t? trade (Tso); name of a
note (Li); name of place and dynasty (Shi); endow, give (Shu). Gl. 2100. b. IS 1' m
bone (A 1: 11,2, name), c. is Yin bone (A2: 2,6, name), d. is Chou I (inscr. 62, _sense
of 'to give'), e. is Yin (inscr. 10, sense of 'to give'). The graph seems to be the pnmary
form for *dfang: 'to give' (cf. 725 n.), being so used in the bronze inscriptions, and
sho·wing a food vessel ( cf. 855) and (mostly) a 'mouth'. - f-i. id. Shumven says:
to trade, thus taking it to be the same as the preceding in this sense (no text). In the
inscriptions it always means 'to give', cf. the preceding. g. is Yin (inscr. 27), h. is Chou I
(inscr. 55), i. is Chou I (inscr. 67).
735 a-d. *liang /liang Ilia n g good (Shl). b. is Yin bone (A 2: 21,3, name), c. is
Chou I (inscr. 97), d. is Chou III (inscr. 223).- e. id. grain, provisions (Shi: ap. Shlwen).
f. *liang I liang I l ian g and *lang / lang- I l an g skilful (Chuang).
g. *lang I lfing- I 1 an g wilderness (Chuang).
b.. *ldng I lang: I l an g bright (Shl).
194:
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMA.TA SERICA RECENSA
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i-j. *lfing fldng fl an g a kind of tree (inscr. 147). j. is Chou II (inscr. 147).
k. *lang flang jl a n g name of a river (Shu); *king jldng- jl an g excessive, reckless,
dissolute (Shi:); to flow (Ch'uts'l). Gl. 80.
1-m. *ldn{J I ldng fl an g wolf (Shl). m. is Yin bone (A 6: 58,4, sense here uncertain).
n. *lamg jldng jl an g a kind of precious stone (Shu); to tinkle, as jade (Ch'uts'i:);
loan for *lang I liing- I lang licentious (Kuan).
o. *liing jlang I lang noxious weed in cornfield (Shi:).- p. id. bamboo shoot (Yi).- q.
id. mantis (Li). - r. id. place name (Tso); double roof, one roof above the other (Yi
Chou shu).
s. *ldng jldng, lang- fl an g spacious and empty (Chuang).
t. *lang I lang I lang side-building, side-gallery (Kuoyii).
736 a-b. *liang jljang: Ilia n g two, a pair (Shl); a troop (Tso); *liang I liang:,
liang- I l i a n g arrange, decorate (Tso ); *liang fljang- jl i an g chariot; loan for d.
(Chuang). b. is Chou I (inscr. 59).
c. *liang /liang- Ilia n g variant of the preceding in the sense of 'chariot' (l\io).
d. *liang I liang: I 1 ian g wan g-1 ian g a kind of demon (Kuoyii).
737 a-c. *liang J ljang- jl i a n g a measure (Lunyii); *liang (liang I l ian g to
measure (Tso). b. is Chou II (inscr. 139, name), c. is Chou (inscr. 368, name). The
lower part is c hung 'heavy' (1188), probably some kind of weighing-machine, the
upper a drawing of some object laid upon it.
d-e. *liang jljang jl ian g grain, provisions (Shi). e. is Chou (inscr. 376, name).
738 a. *liang /liang I liang beam (Chuang); bridge (Shl); dam (Shl); end of a carriage
pole (Shl); pole (Shl). Gl. 682. - b-d. id. millet, sorghum, grain (Shi:). c. is Chou II
(inscr. 158), d. is Chou II/III (inscr. 258).
739 a-h. *gjwang I ji.wang /wang king (Shl); *gjwang / jiwang. I wang to goYern
(Shl); loan fork. (Shi:). Gl. 933. b. is Yin bone (A 1: 9,7), c. is Yin bone (A 1: 40,5),
d. is Yin bone (A 1: l,s), e. is Yin (inscr. 4), f. is Yin (inscr. 27), g. is Chou I (inscr. 54),
h. is Chou I (inscr. 65).
i-j. *gi11'ang / jiu·ang: I wang (primary form of k. below, hence the reading) to go to
(inscr. Yin bone A 1: 29,2). j. is Yin bone (A 1: 29,2). The radical at the top is rad.
77 'foot'. - k. id. to go to (Shl); the past (Yi); bygone, former (Shu). Gl. 1940. The
character is enlarged by rad. 60, and the J1: at the top is reduced to a dot, thus making
the right and fundamental part coincide, in modern form, with :=J:: c h u.
195
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
I. *g{wrLng / jiu·an{J- / w a n g to go (Tso ); loan for *gjwrLng I jiwrLng: I w a n g frighten
(Tso ); *lcjwang I kjwang: I k u an g and *g'jwan{J I g'f:wang: I k u an g deceive (Sill).
m-n. *k'jwang I Tc'ju·rLng / k'u an g square basket (Sill); (square, regular:) correct
(Shl:); regulate (Sh1); assist, succour (Shu); loan for id. crooked (Chouli); to fear (Li).
Gls. 454, 670. n. is Chou II (inscr. 158). It is seen that the original phonetic was not
a., as in the modern form, but i.
o-p. *g'i1oang j g'jwang j k'u an g mad, foolish (Sh1); reckless, rash (Shi); ardent,
extravagant (Lunyii); loan fork. (Shu). Gl. 1505. p. is Yin bone (B shang 14: 8, probably
sense of i.). Here again the original phonetic was not a. but i. above.
q. *'i1.cang j ·jwrLn{J: I wang bent, crooked (Li); depraved, unjust (Lunyii); (bend
down:) condescend (Kuots'e).
r-s. *'todng j ·wang 1 wang pool (Tso); vast (Kuoyii). b. is pre-Han (inscr. 425,
name). Here again the original phonetic was not a. but i. above.
t. *'wang ;·wang J wang emaciated (Tso).
u. *k'iwang I k'{wrLng J k'u an g eye-socket (Lie)._- v. id. square basket (Sh1) (see m.
above); bed (Chuang). ·
x. *kjwang / kjn·ang- I k u an g deceive (Li).
y. *g'jwang jg'jwang: J k u an g quickly, hasten away (Ch'uts''i).
740 a-f. *pjwang I pfwang If an g square (Shi:); quarter, region, place (Shl); on all
sides, everywhere (Shu); take a place, occupy (Shi); sacrifice to the spirits of the four
quarters (Shi); side by side (Sh1); on the side (Yili); two boats side by side .and lashed
together, raft (Sh1); put side by side, compare (Lunyii); square tablet (L1); loan for
irZ. begin (Sh'i); just, then (Shl); method (Yi); rule, norm, pattern (Shl); orderly, regular
(Shi:); loan for *b'wang j b'tcang 1 p'a n g tossed about (Tso); for i. neglect (Shu). Gls.
551, 685, 840, 900, 1183, 1234, 1238, 1294. b. is Yin bone (A 1: 41,7), c. is Yin bone
(A 4:24, 1), d. is Yin (inscr. 10), e. is Chou I (inscr. 56), f. is Chou I (inscr. 86). The
graph is practically identical with 656 above, showing a man with a carrying-pole on
the shoulder; the same carrying-pole in 718. Explanation uncertain.
g-h. *pjwang J piu•ang-/ fang and *pwang / pwang- I pang boat (Li ap. Shuowen,
also inscr. 327). h. is Chou IIIIIV (inscr. 327).
i. *pitcang j pj1.vang- If an g loosen, let go (:M:eng); neglect (Lunyii);
licentious (I'ileng); banish (Shu); e.:-.-pel (Li); extend to (Meng); *plwang / p1wang: If an g
imitate (Li); conform to (Chouli).
j. *pf:wang I pjwang: j fang just then, at that time . .
k. *pjwang I pjwang j f a n g a kind of tree (Chuang); *Plr'ing I PIWVng- I p l n g a
handle (Yili).
I. *pi1mng I piu:ang / fang a kind of strong ox (Mut'ien tsi chuan). .
m-n. *pjwang 1 pjwang: I fa n g pottery (Chouli); 2nd form really a
o-p. *pitoang / pju-ang /fang place name (inscr. 241); loan for t. (Kuhang). p. is
Chou II/III (inscr. 241).
q. *p'fwang p'jwang injure (Tso ); oppose (Tso).
r. *p'jwang p'jtDang: j fang twist, spin (Tso); tie (Kuoyii).
s. *p'iwang p'jwang / fang fragrant (Ch'uts'i).
t. *p'fwang p'fwang- j f an g enquire, scrutinize (Shi). Gl. 1110.
u. *p'fwang p'jwang: j f an g f an g- f u resemble, seem (Ch'uts''i). - v. variant
of the preceding (Kuoyii).
x. *b'iwang j b'jwrLng j fang dyke (Li). - y. id. side-room, room (Shl); food-stand
(Shi:). Gl. 1167. - z. id. embankment, dyke (Shi:); protect against, guard against (Tso);
1vithstand, be a match for (Shl). Gl. 322. - a'. variant of the preceding (Lil). -
b'. id. bream (Shi).
196
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
740
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c'. *p'wdng j p'wang j p'a n g heavy snow-fall (Shi).
d'. variant of 1'. below (Siin).
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e'. *b'wang / b'wang j p'a n g irresolute walk, hesitating (Chuang) loan for u. (Ch'uts'i:).
f'-i'. *b'wang j b'wan{J I p'a n g side (Tso); on all sides (Shu); wide (Sun); *pang j
pJJng I p eng bang! (onomat.) (Shi). Gls. 218, 1234. g. is Yin bone (A 2: 3,2), h. is
Chou III/IV (inscr. 302), i. is pre-Han (inscr. 430, name).
j'. *pc1ng I pDn{f I pen g the side of temple gate (Shi); sacrifice there (Li).
k'. *pwang I pwang- j pang slander (Tso).
1'. *p'wang / p'wang j p'a n g voluminous flow (of rain, tears etc.) (Shl).
m'. *b'wrin{J j b'wan{J I p'a n g and *b'wang I b'wang- I pang at side of (Chouli);
assist (Li); loan for £'. bang! above (Shl). Gl. 218.
n'. *b'wang I b'wang I p'a n g and *b'ang I b'vng / p'e n g bang! (onomat.) (Shi ap.
Shuowen).
o'. *b'wang I b'wang- I pang walk alongside of (Chouli).
p'-q'. *pang j pDn{f- I pen g oar (Ch'uts'Y). q. is Chou II (inscr. 132).
r'-s'. *pang I pvng j pen g and *b'wang I b'wang I p'a n g name of a plant (Erya,
no text ex.). s'. is Chou I (inscr. 74, name).
741 a-b. *pjwang I pjwang I fang Shuowen says: box (no text). In the oracle inscrip-
tions it is regularly used as name of a sacrifice (gifts offered in a box? or same as 740
j'. above?). b. is Yin bone (A 5: 3,1).
742 a-f. *mjwang I mjwang / w a n g disappear (Shi); exile (Shi); die (Shu); destroy
(Meng); not have, not exist (ShY); not (Kuoyii); loan fori. (Tso). The usage to read this
character w u when meaning   is modern and has no ancient support. b. is Yin bone
(A 1: 51,1), c. is Yin bone (A 2: 3,5), d. is Yin bone (A 6: 48,6), e. is Chou I (inscr. 72),
f. is Chou I (inscr. 77).
g-h. *mjwang I mfwang- /wang lawless (Tso); extravagant (Chuang); foolish (Meng);
rude (Tso); reckless, false (Li); loan for a. not (Li). h. is Chou II (inscr. 180).
i-j. *rnjwang I mjwang, mjwang- j wang forget (Shi). · j. is Chou III (inscr. 220).
k. *mjwang j mfwang I w a n g and *rnwang I mwang I m a n g beard of grain, sharp
point (Chouli); loan for *rnwang I mwang I man g great, extensive (Shi); tired (Meng);
for *mwang 1 rnwang 1m an g and xmwang 1 xwang, xux'lng: 1 huang confused,
obscure (Chuang).
1. *rnjwang / mjwang: / wang net (Yi); catch (Meng); to snare, entangle (Meng); con-
fusion, disorder (Shi); deceive (Shi); befool (Lunyii); to tie, interlace (Ch'uts'f); loan for
id. not, be without (Shi). Gl. 1059.
197
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
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m-n. *m'jwang I 1njwang- I wang moon facing the sun, full moon (Shu); look from
afar, look towards (ShY); admire (Shi:); hope (1\Ieng); consider, estimate (Li); name of a
sacrifice (to mountains and rivers) (Shu). n. is Chou II (inscr. 179).
o. *rnwang I ntwing I m an g flurried (Lie). - p. id. hurried (Chuang).
q. *mrlng (1nvng I rue n g blind (Lao); loan for ru. look towards (Chouli).
r. *rnt'ing I nung I men g population (Chouli). Gl. 176. *nulng should regularly have
given Anc. nmng, and the msng is irregular. ·
s-t. *1niing I mvng I m e n g gadfly, horsefly (Chuang); loan for id. Fritillaria (Shl).
u. *mcing I 7nEng I men g population, people (Shl) ( = r. above).
v-x:. *xrnu•ang I zu·ang I huang expanse of water (Yi ap. Shuowen). x. is pre-Han
(inscr. 434, name). - y. id. diaphragm (Tso). - z. id. blood (Tso).
a'. *mfwang I miwang: I wang net (Shi:), same as I. - b'. dejected (Ch'uts'1).
c'. *1njwang I mfu·ang I w an g sharp point of a weapon (Lie).
d'. *1nwdng l1nwdng I man g confused (Lie).
e'. *zmwang I xwdng I huang weed-covered, incult (l\Ieng); waste, desolate (Shl);
famine (Chouli); to cover (Shi:); vast, distant (Kuoyii); great, extensive (ShY); excessive
(Shl); throw away, neglect (Shu); senile (Shu). Gls. 287, 1077, 1506.
f'. * xmuxing I xwdng, zwang: I h u a 11 g words said in the sleep, nonsense, lies (Lii).
g'. * xrnwang I xwang: I huang confused (Li).
h'-i'. *mwang lmwang I m ang to soak and colour silk (Chouli).
743 a-c. *miwang I mj1Dang- I wang (same as 742 m. above, hence the reading)
to face, regard, look to (inscr. Yin bone A 5: 20,7, and inscr. 10). b. is Yin bone (A 5:
20,7), c. is Yin (inscr. 10). The graph has a standing figure and 'eye'.- d-f. id.
variant of 742 m. above (as indicated in Shuowen) moon facing the sun, full moon
(inscr. 28 and 74). e. is Yin (inscr. 28), f. is Chou I (inscr. 74). - g-h. id. Shuowen
says: to blame, criticize (no text); in Han texts 742 ru. occurs in this sense, evidently
as loan for our present character. h. is Chou I (inscr. 77, sense of 742 i).
744 a-b. *mfwang I miwang: I wang Shuowen says: net (no text); in current praxis
the graph has been enlarged into 742 1. or a. above. b. is Yin bone (A 6: 38,2, sense
here uncertain). The graph is a drawing. - c. id. w a n g - 1 ian g a kind of demon
(Kuoyii).
198
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
745 a-b. *k?ing I kvng Ike n g change (Tso); *kiing I kvng- Ike n g again, still
more (Tso). b. is Chou II (inscr. 132).
c. *kiing I kvng: Ike n g choke (Chuang). - d. id. fishbone in the throat (Kuoyii).
- e. id. a medical plant (Chuang); loan for id. suffering, distress (Shl); exorcise, prevent
disaster by magic (Chouli); obstruct (Kuan); strong (Ch'uts'1); wooden figure, doll
(Kuots'e). - f. id. '.veil-rope (Tso); for obscure reasons this character has been loaned
for *pji'ng I pfiing: I ping felly on a wheel (Chouli).
746 a-f. *kclng I kvng Ike n g cyclical character (Shi:); loan for id. road (Tso); t s'a n g-
ken g oriole (Shi:); loan for g. (Shi:); for 745 a. in the sense of 'repair' (Li). b. is Yin
bone (A l: 6,1), c. is Yin bone (A 3: 10,3), d. is Yin (inscr. 33), e. is Chou I (inscr. 73),
f. is Chou I (inscr. 84).
g. *kiing I kvng, kvng- Ike n g continue, succeed (Shu).
h-j. *k'ang I k'ang I k'a n g empty husk (Kuliang); loan for id. prosperous (Shl);
tranquil, at ease, repose (Sh'i); joyful, to enjoy (Sh1); to exalt (Li); for id. crossroads
(5 roads meeting) (Lie). i. is Yin bone (A 2: 39,2), j. is Chou I (inscr. 70). Gl. 710.
k-1. id. empty (only Han time text ex.). l. is Chou II (inscr. 139, name).
m. *lc'ang I k'dng: I k'a n g dejected, sorry (Ch'uts'i:).
n. *k'dng (lc'dng I k'a n g husk of grain (Chuang). - o. variant of the preceding (Chuang
one version).
747 a. *knng I kvng Ike n g soup (Shl). The Seal consists of k a o 'lamb' and me 1
'fine'.
748 a-d. *g'ang I yvng I hi n g street, road (Sh'i); w u hi n g the 5 elements (Shu);
walk, go (Shi:); current (Shi:); be possible, succeed (Tso); act, practise (Shl); *g'clng I
yang- I hi n g; go round (Tso); inspect (Li); action (Yi); *g'ang I yang I hang rank,
row (Shi:); loan for *g'ang f yang, ycing- I h an g strong, vigorous (Lunyii). Gls. 12,
272, 302, 386,606,778. b. is Yin bone (A 6: 9,7), c. is Yin bone (A l: 40,5), d. is Chou I
(inscr. 57). The graph is said to be a drawing of meeting streets; half of this graph ser-
ves as short-form for 'to walk', e. g. in 871 and in 919 l. below.
e. *g' /ing I yvng: I hi n g Limnantheruum nymphoides (Shi).
f. *g'rlng ( yvng I hen g wooden lid (to vessels) (Yili); *g'dng I yang I hang foot
fetters (Chuang).
g. *g' clng I )'Vng I hen g top gem in girdle pendant (Shi:).
h-i. *g'ilng I yang I hen g beam of a balance or steelyard (Shu); arbiter (Shu); cross-
piece (Shi); yoke of carriage (Sill); crosspiece of cap (Tso); crosswise (Meng); even (Li);
*g'w1Tng I ywvng I hung to plow crosswise (Shi); transversal, horizontal (Li). i. is
Chou II (inscr. 180).
j. *g'ang I yvng I hen g t u- hen g a fragrant plant, Asarum (Ch'uts'i).
749 a-c. *g'ang I yvng: I hi n g apricot tree, apricot (Li). b. is Yin bone (H 2: 18,11),
c. is Yin bone (A 4: 16,3), in both cases sense uncertain. The graph has 'tree' and either
'mouth' or a circle which may depict a fruit.
750 a-d. *b' 1tng I b' vng I p'e n g place name (ShY); N. Pr. (Lunyii); *b'wang I b'wdng I
p'a n g forceful, overbearing (Yi); ]YlJJang I pwdng I pang bang! (onomat.) (Sh1).
Gl. 218. b. is Yin bone (A 4: 7,2, possibly in the sense of e. below), c. is Yin (inscr. 1,
name), d. is pre-Han (inscr. 403, name).
e. *piing I pvng I pen g the side of the temple gate (Sill ap. Shuowen), s. w. as 740 j'.
199
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF' FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
.1
k L CL
751 a. *p'ang I p'·nng I p'e n g to boil (Tso), see group 716 above.
0
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752 a. *kjling / kivng: I king boundary, limit, frontier, border (Tso); *kjang I kivng- I
king end, in the end (Li).
b. *kjiing I kfvng: king boundary (Meng).
c. *kfr7ng I kjnng- k i n g mirror (Ta Tai li).
d. *g'jang I g'jang: k ian g rice just taken out of washing water (Meng a,p. Shuowen).
753 a-b. *k'jling / k'fJing- / k'i n g happy, rejoice (Sill); felicita,te (Tso); reward (l\feng);
loan for (Li). Gls. 673, 1030. b. is Chou II (inscr. 151).
754 a-d. *g'jJing I g'jvng- I king strong, vigorously (Shi); to contest, strive, qua,rrel-
some (ShY); busy, zealous (Tso). b. is Yin bone (A 5: 41,5, sense here uncertain), c. is
Chou I (inscr. 78, name), d. is Chou II (inscr. 184).
755 a-c. *kljit'fl{! I kjvng I k in g mound, hill (Shi:); capita,! city (Shi); great (Shi);
big granary (Kuan). Gl. 528. b. is Yin bone (A 4: 45,5), c. is Chou I (inscr. 70). The
gmph sho>vs a high building.
d. *kljang 1 kjv'flg: / king bright (Tso); great (Shi:); shadow, to measure by the shadow
(Sh'i); loan for irl. a kind of coat (Yili); loan for h. (Shi:). Gls. 125, 138, 703.
e. *g'liiing I g'jvng I k'i n g strong, powerful (Tso). - f. id. whale (Tso ). - g. id.
to black-brand (face of criminal) (Shu).
h. *kljwang I kjwvng: I k i u n g far away (Shi). Gl. 125.
i. *glfang /liang- /liang search (Li).- j. id. brightness (Shu); (enlighten:) instruct,
guide, assist (Shu); loan for m. (Meng). Gls. 1281, 1836.
k. *gljang /liang- fl i an g and *gljak fliak /1 ii e plunder, rob (Tso ); beat (Li).
1. *gljang / liang 11 i a n g chilly, cold (Shl); loan for id. slight, defective (Tso ); a kind
of drink (Chouli); loan for j. bright (Shi:); fork. rapacious (Shi); for m. sincere (Shi).
Gls. 786, 985.
m. *gljang I liang- 11 ian g sincere (Lunyii); to trust (Shi); truly (Shi); stubborn (Lunyii).
200
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMM AT A SERICA REGEN SA
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756 a. *'jang I 'inng: /yin g shadow (Chouli).
757 a-f. *pjang / pjwvng: /ping cyclical character (Tso). b. is Yin bone (A 7: 29,2),
c. is Yin bone (A 1: 3,7), d. is Yin (inscr. 43), e. is Chou I (inscr. 82), f. is Chou II
(inscr. 159).
g. *piJing I piwvng:, pjwnng- /ping grieved (Shi).
h. *p'f:rlng I piwvng- / p in g a handle (Shi:).
i. *pfiing / pjwvng: f ping bright (Yi). - j. id. place name (Tso); loan for id. happy,
bright (Chuang).
k. *b'jdng I b'jtvvng- I ping sickness, disease (Lunyii); extreme illness, crisis (Shu);
suffer, distress (Shu); aggrieved, annoyed (Tso ); disgrace (Li).
758 a-c. *piling I p'f:wvng: I pi n g hold, grasp (Shi); a handful (Shi:); a certain
quantity of grain (Lunyii). b. is Yin bone (B hia 21: 13), c. is Chou II (inscr. 146).
The graph shows a 'hand' grasping a stalk of 'grain'.
d. *piiing I pjwvng- I p in g a handle (Chuang), s. w. as 7 57 h. above.
759 a-b. *piang I p'f:wvng I ping weapon (Shi); soldier (Chouli). b. is Chou III/IV
(inscr. 307). The graph has 'two hands' and 'axe'.
760 a-d. *mjdng / mjw1mg I min g light (Shi), bright (Shi); intelligent (Shi); enlighten-
ment, discernment (Shu); eye-sight (Meng); seeing, perception (Shu); (making clear=)
agreement, contract (Sh'i). Gls. 492, 1310. b. is Yin bone (A 7: 32,4), c. is Yin bone
(B hia 20: 16), d. is Chou I (inscr. 67). The Yin graph has 'sun' and 'moon'. The Chou
graph has substituted 'window' to the 'sun'. But curiously enough the modern graph
has reverted to the original composition.
e-f. *rnjr7ng lmiwvng I men g covenant (Shi). The Pek. reading is irregular (the char.
is used sometimes for in the place name M:eng-tsin, and then of course the reading
m eng is correct; but in the sense of 'covenant' we should expect a min g). f. is
Chou I (inscr. 127).
g. *mi'ing I mEn{! I men g sprout (Li); loan for 742 u. people (Kuots'e). Anc. Chin.
msng is irregular, we should expect a rnvng.
761 a-d. *miling / miwvng: / min (Pek. min is irregular, we should expect a
min g) vessel, dish, bowl (Tso). b. is Yin bone (A 4: 15,2, sense here uncertain), c.
is Yin {il1Scr. 53, name), d. is pre-Han (inscr. 458). The graph is a drawing.
201
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
e-f. *mrlng I mvng- I men g eldest (of brothers etc.) (Sh1); first (of three months) (Li);
great (Kuan); principal (Shu). Gl. 1622. f. is Chou II (inscr. 172).
g. *milng I mvng: I m eng fierce (Lunyii); stern (Tso).
762 a-b. *miring I miwJJng- J min g and (an alternative Archaic reading clearly
indicated by several Sh1 rimes) order, command, charge (Shi:); investiture (Tso); name,
designation (Tso); denomination (Shn); Heaven's will (Lunyii); life (Yi). Gl. 1550.
b. is Chou I (inscr. 78). The graph has 'to order' (823 below) and 'mouth'.
763 a-b. *kiwang I kiwvng: I k i u n g a N. Pr. (Shu).
764 a-f. *giwiing j jiumng: I y u n g long (Sh'i); constant, eternal (Sill); drawn out (Shl);
distant (Shi:); loan for g. (Shu). Gls. 285, 1291. b. is Yin bone (A 4: 11,3), c. is Chou I
(inscr. K'ia 5: 20), d. is Chou I (ins cr. 69), e. is Chou I (inscr. 89), f. is Chou II (inscr.
163). The form b. has 'man' and 'walk' (748 ¥brev.), c-e. also a line indicating
'water' (short-form of shu e i 'water', see 634); thus the graph seems to be the primary
form for j. 'wade'.
g-h. *gjwiing I jiwJJng- j y u n g (draw out long:) to chant (L1). h. is Chou I (inscr.
123, name). - i. variant of the preceding (Shu). - j-k. id. go down in water,
(Sh'i). Gl. 31. k. is Yin bone (A 1: 19,5, name).
765 a-e. *;dwrlng I xiwvng I hi u n g elder brother (Shi:); senior (Li); loan for f. distres-
sed (Shi, one version), for g. moreover (Shi). Gl. 412. b. is Yin bone (A 1: 39,3), c. is
Yin bone (A 6: 13,3), d. is Yin (inscr. 45), e. is Chou III (inscr. 225). The graph has
'man' and 'mouth', or possibly, the upper part draws a head.
f. * xiwang I xfwa11g: I h u an g disappointed, distressed (Ch'uts''i); confused, vague
(Lao) (in the latter sense also read * xwang I xwang: I b u all g).
g. *xi wang I xiwang- I h u a n g increase (Shi); how much the more (Lao); moreover
(Tso); to give, bestow (Li); compare with, be equal to (Siin); loan for f. distressed (Sb1).
Gls. 412, 971. In Pek. irregularly read k'u an g in the sense 'moreover'. Often written
with rad. = instead of rad. 85. - h. id. give, confer on (Sh'i). - i. id. a kind of
insect (Chuang).
766 a-c. *klak I kiik 1 k o each (Shi:). b. is Yin bone (A 5: 24,6, sense of x. below),
c. is Chou I (inscr. 67, sense of x.). The graph has 'foot' and 'mouth', possibly
being the primary graph for x. below.
d. *klak 1 kdk I k o armpit (Li ap. Sh!wen); *klrlk I kvk I k o hind-leg, haunch (Yili). -
e. id. armpit-seem (of a coat) (Li). - f. id. shelf (Li); (shelf-wise:) one above the
other, in strict order or series (sc. building frames) (Shi). Gl. 498.
g. *k'ldk I k'dk I k'o respect, reverent (Sbi).
h-i. *g'ldk I yak I h o badger (or marmot?) (Shi); by confusion with £'8 applied_
*mr/k I nwk I m o a Northern tribe (lYieng); *mrlg I rna- I m a name of a. sacrifiCe
(Chouli). i. is Chou I (inscr. 98, name). - j. variant of the preceding in its first sense
(l\Iu t'ien ts1 chuan).
k-m. *glak 1 ldk ll o name of a river (Shi). l. is Yin bone (M 108), m. is Chou II
157). - n. id. burn (Chuang). - o. id. silk thread (Yi Chou shu); cord, bndle
(Chuang). - p. id. a kind of acid soy made of rice or millet (Li). - q. _id. Shuow:n
says: a kind of bird (no text); loan for o. (Chuang), for s. (Shi). - r. td. raw skm,
bide (Lii). - s. id. white horse with black mane (Sb1). - t. id. an acquatic bird
(l\1u t'ien ts1 chuan).
202
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMM AT A SERICA REGEN SA
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u. *gldk flak I 1 o and *gliak jliek I l i small stones, trifling (Lao).
v. *gljak I liak j1 ii e trace out, measure the area of, to plan, regulate, define (Shu);
boundary, frontier (Tso); run over, traverse (Tso); summarily (Kungyang); sketch,
summary, outline (Meng); (treat summarily:) neglect (Kuoyii); remiss, hurried (Tso);
(passing through:) road, way (Tso); plan, method (Tso); loan for id. sharp (Shl); loan
for 755 k rob (Kuoyii). Gl. 1355.
x-y. *ldak I kvk I k o go to (inscr. 58). y. is Chou I (inscr. 58). - z-a'. id. spread
out, reach to (Shu); arrive (Shi); ascend (Shu); raise (Shu); reach the utmost point,
exhaust, perfectly penetrate (Shu); comprehend, discerning (Shu); to correct (Lunyii);
a rule (Li); resist (Kuoyii); *g'liik I yvk I h o obstruct, resist (Li). Gls. 1325, 1481,
1489, 1590, 1727, 1803, 1877. a'. is Chou I (inscr. 97, name).
b'. *klrlk I kJJk I k o deer's horn (Li).
c'. I kJJk I k o bones (Li); *klilk I knk I k o and *kldk I kak I k o and *k'lag I k'a-
j k'i a haunch (of a victim) (Yili).- d'-f'. *k'Uik I k'vk I k'o guest, visitor (Shi),
stranger (Yi). e'. is Yin bone (A 4: 30,4), f. is Chou II (inscr. 192).
g'. *g'lak J )'Vk I h o water drying off land (Ch'uts'I).
h'-i'. *nglrik I ngok I o insisting, authoritative (Li); dispute, contest (Mo); attack
(Chuang). i. is Chou IIII (inscr. 213, name). - j'. id. obstreperous (Shu). Gl. 1330.
k'. *gldg j hw- 11 u to contribute, to present (Tso); bribe (Tso); loan for n'. chariot
(Sh1).- I'-m'. id. road (Shi); loan for id. srreat (Shl); for n'. chariot (Sh1); fort'.
(Siin). m'. is Chon I/II (inscr. 205).
n'. *gldg lluo- I 1 u big chariot (Shu); *g'ldk j yvk I h o wooden cross-piece for attaching
strings on pole of small carriage drawn by man (Yili); *ngl:lg I ngn- I y a go to
meat (Tso).
o'. *k'lrik I k'ulc I k'o spit out, vomit (Lie). - p'. variant of g. above (Tso ap. Shuowen).
q'. *gldk I lak I l o shed the leaves (Shl); drop, fall, perish (Kuoyii); die (Shl); destroy
(Chuang); drip sacrificial blood on (Tso); loan for o. (Chuang). Gl. 1ll0.
r'. *gldg jl1w- 11 u a kind of precious stone (Ch'uts'I). - s'. id. a kind of bamboo
(Shu ap. Shuowen). - t'. id. dew (Shl); (leak:) disclose, let appear (Tso) (in this latter
sense read lou in Pek.); (disclosing the bones:) emaciated (Tso). - u'. id. variant
· of the preceding (Lii). - v'. id. heron, egret (Shl). - x'. id. a kind of bamboo (see
s. above) (Shu).
767 a. *zdk I zak I h o moat (Shi:); canal, ditch (:M:eng); valley (Tso).
203
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
768 a-c. *ngak I ngak I o fear (Li). b. is Chou II (inscr. 171, name), c. is Chou II
(inscr. 173, name).
d. *ngak I ngak I o and *ngag I nguo- I w u resist, oppose (Chuang).
769 a. *sdk! I sakI shu o first day of the moon (Shi); beginning (Li); North (Shi).
Gl. 1.226. phonetic history of thi_s word obscure; both its rime in Li (Li yiin)
and 1ts denvates reveal an Arch. *sak, and 1t is therefore irregular that Anc. Chin.
has we should expect a sdk.
b. *sag I suo- I s u inform, complain (Shi); 1 I fiEk I s e fear (Yi). - c. variant of ltiF
(Kuan).
d. *sag I suo- I s u go upwards against (Shi); adverse (Shi); loan for iVf accuse
770 a. *sdk Is o twist a rope (Shi); loan for id. rule, law (Tso ); tremble, fear (Yi);.
exhaust (Y1h); search, demand (Tso ); ransack (Shu); disperse (Li); *sak j svk 1 s e
select (Li). Gl. 1513. ·
771 a-c. *pdk I pdk I p o wide, ample (Shi); loan for n. (Lunyii). b. is Chou II (inscr.
157), c. is Chou II (inscr. 182).
This character is phonetic, slightly abbreviated (cf. :Bt phon. in :15f etc.), in the
following:
d-e. *pdk I pdk I p ·beat (Meng); grasp, seize (Shi) (also read *piwo I pin- I f u, then
taken to have 102 p. for phonetic); p o-f u small drum (Shu). Gl. 1340. e. is Chou II
(inscr. 172, rad. 62 instead of 64).
f. *prik I I p o name of a river; loan for *p'ag I p'uo: I p'u great, vast (Shi); loan
for 102 t . spread out (Li).
g-i. *pdk I pdk I p o bell (Tso); hoe (Shi). h. is Chou III (inscr. 218), i. is Chou IIIIN
(inscr. 301). - j-k. id. leather strap (inscr. 86). k. is Chou I (inscr. 86).
I. *p'dk I p'ak I p'o dismember (Tso).
m. *b'jwak I b'iwak If u bind, wrap, roll (Tso); bonds (Tso).
n. *pdk I pdk I p o a kind of ancient game (similar to chess) (Ch'uts'i).
o. *b'dg / b'uo: I p u register (lVIeng).
p. *b'dk / b'ak I p o trees with interlaced branches (Ch'uts'i); trellis (Li); loan for id ..
thin (Shi); initial particle (Shl); to press (Shu); contiguous to (Shu); for *p'dk I p'dk 1 p'o
sound of swiftly driving carriages (Shi); loan for 773 a. (Li). Gls. ll, 1689.
q. *b'dk / b'dk I p o to fill (Chuang); loan for id. sit with legs crossed under body
(Chuang). - r. variant of g. above (Yili).
772 a. *p'dk / p'ak I p'o Shuowen says: hide soaked in rain (no text). The graph has
'hide' and 'rain'.
b-d. *p'uk I p'vk I p'o (same word as M!. in this sense, hence the reading) an aspect
of the moon (Shu ap. Shuowen, also inscr. 69, 78 etc.); loan for *pi'ig 1 pa- I p a take
the lead, have hegemony (Lunyii). c. is Chou I (inscr. 69), d. is Chou I (inscr. 78).
773 a-d. *b'dk I b'dk I p o place name, a Yin capital (Tso). b. is Yin bone (A 2: 2,4),
c. is Yin (inscr. 29), d. is Chou (inscr. 390). For the graph, cf. 755 above.
774 a-d. *kwdk I kwdk I k u o outer wall of a city (Tso). b. is Yin bone (A 4: 10, 7),
c. is Chou I (inscr. 63, name), d. is Chou III (inscr. 228). The graph is a drawinO' of
a wall with gate towers. Rad. 163 at the right in the modern graph is a later addition.
In the following derivates, therefore, e. and h. are not abbreviated forms of f. and i.
204
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
771 1ey 1:11 f ft #.t t$
a lr c. clef '3 h. l. j k L m_n o
77£ f ' p 773 $I m 774 tr
f 'j I CL lr C d__ CL lr C d_ Cl. lr
§ #r m 775: t 77c 1}
C d. e. f 3 h_ i._ CL /.,. C d_ e. f 0...
tr   tr l¥o91 Atr
lr c cL e f 9 1-L
but have adhered more closely to the original form of the phonetic. - e-f. id. outer
coffin (Tso); loan for id. to measure (Chouli).
g. *k'wak I k'wdk I k'u o wide, large, ample (Shi). - h-i. id. leather (Sh'i).
775 a-d. *xwak I xwdk I h uo rapid, sudden (Siin). c. is Yin bone (A 2: 15,7 name),
d. is Chou (inscr. 341, name). The graph has 'rain' and 'bird' or 'birds'.- e. id. sprouting
leaves of bean plants (Shi).
f. I I h u soup without vegetables (Ch'uts'i).
776 a. *g'jak I g'jak I k lie Shuowen says: interior of the mouth (no text). The original
graph may have been a drawing. In the derivates it is always confused with k u
in its modern form.
b-e. *k'iak / k'jak I k'ii e decline, refuse (:M:eng); expel, eliminate (Lii); turn down
(Li); loan for (Chuang). c. is a vulgar variant.
d. *k'iak I k'jvk I k'i coarse dolichos cloth (Shi:). - e-f. id. place and family name
(Tso); loan for 787 c. interval (Li). f. is a corrupted variant.
g-h. *kiak I kjak I k lie leg, foot (Siin). h. is a vulgar variant.
777 a-e. *nfak I tizjak I j o agree, conform to, accord with (Shi); approve (Shi); concor-
dant (Shi); compliant (Shu); like, as (Shi); like this, such (Lunyii); thus (Shu); (a case
like:) if (Shu); and (Shu); or (Li); loan for id. you (Yili); a kind of ginger (Ch'uts'i); a
particle (Shu). Gls. 684, 1021, 1175, 1207, 1409, 1570. b. is Yin bone (A 4: 11,3), c. is
Yin (inscr. 42), d. is Chou I (inscr. 65), e. is Chou I (inscr. 86). The graph is a drawing
of a kneeling man with dishevelled hair and stretched-up hands, the traditional attitude
of the vanquished and surrendering warrior; in some forms is added a 'mouth'.
f. *ndk I nak In o agree, say yes (Shi). Cognate to the preceding, and hence the same
graph used enlarged by rad. 149.
g-h. *tli_ak l1iijak / j o cuticle of bamboo (inscr. 328? sense here somewhat obscure).
h. is Chou ]II/IV (inscr. 328). - i-j. id. place name (Tso). j. is Chou III (inscr. 222).
k. *t'niak I t'iak I c h'o a N. Pr. (Tso).
1-rn. *niJk l1liJk In i conceal (Shu). m. is Chou I (inscr. 65).
n. *nj;;k ltijJk I n i (this reading is indicated both by the phonetic of the graph and by
a Sh'i king rime, ode 224) near, be familiar with (Shi); Ts'ieyiin and Shiwen both read
tiidt I n i through confusion with the synonomous aM. Gl. 725.
o. *t'nak / t'Jk I t'e evil, wrong (ShY).
205
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF' FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
777 75
1@ li rlY
lr c cL e f '3 h_ -L j k L m_ -n o
77S
11
{ ti jtj_ ·i·[ 773 780 t t (t! ft /ft
l.r c cl e o_ lr CL lr c. d_ e f
at -i-t 1-t. R 7Fl u § tj 8 -ia fa 78t_ 8 G 6
lr c cl f 5
1t1 ;t£J & '1'8 tB f 6 8i ;f{J !18
e f j k L 0 p s
778 a. *kfwak / ki_wak I k'ii e and *xjwak I xz'wak / h ii e flurried look, anxious look
(Y1). The Pek. aspirate is irregular, The Seal has two 'e:yes', 'bird' and 'hand',
b. * kjwak I kjwak f k'ii e, k u o seize (Li). (Pek. readings irregular).
c. *kiwak I kfwak I k ii e monkey (Lii).
d. *k'iwak I k'fn·ak I k'ii e and *kj1cak I kiwak / k 1i e wobble (sc. legs) (Lunyii); wallc.
quick!)' (Chuang).
e. *xfwak I xiwak f h 1i e scared (Chuang, one version ap. Shiwen).
779 a. * xrrk I xvk I h 0 red, fire-red (Shi:); fiery, angry (Sh!); majestic (Shi); awe-inspiring,
frighten (Shi); ardent (Shi:); brilliant (Sh!); to manifest (Sh!). Gl. 984. The graph has
'red' (793 below) doubled.
b. * zlZk I xvk I h o and * zc1g I xa- I hi a scare (Chuang).
780 a. *tilk I tvk Its e Shuowen says: plant leaves (no text).
b-d. *d'ctk I /{'uk Its e residence, place for settlement (Sh!); inhabit (Sh!); occupy the
position of (Shu); take up one's position (Shu); to settle, consolidate (Shu); lmm for 801
a, *d'ak to measure (Shu). Gk 1635, 2006. c, is Yin bone (A 1: 30,5), cL is Cl10u I
(inscr. 59).
e. *t'ak 1 t'ak f t'o entrust (Lunyii); rely on (:Meng); to charge with (Tso); place oneself as
dependent on (Tso ). ·
f. *tag f tuo- It u and *d'd(J f rl'a I c h'a a certain number of sheans of grain (Yili)-
g. *trig I ta- I c h a sputter (Li); in the orthodox Shu version used lik:e j. below, but
probably both wrong, see Gl. 2006.
h. *t'ag I t'a- f e h'a tell (Chuang)_ - i. id. discourage (Ch'uts'Y).
j. *tag f tuo- It u to depose a vase with wine (Shu ap. Shuowen, but probably 1\Tong,
see Gl. 200G).
781 a-e. *pi"ik f pvk I p o, p a i hundred (Shl). b. is Yin bone (A 3: 23,3 ), c. is Yin
(inscr. 20), d. is Chou I (inscr. 69), e. is Chou II (inscr. 144), vVas the graph the primary
form for 782 p. 'dregs' below'?
f. *mc'lk 1 mvk I m o a Northern tribe (Shl); loan for id. settle (Sh!). Gl. 829. - g. id.
west-east-going path bet·ween fields (Mo ).
206
B£'RNHARD KARLGREN,- GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
782 a-e. *b' rlk / b' vlc / p o, p a i whit3 (Shl); bare (Li); clearly understand (Kuots'e);
(make clear:) declare, report (Lli). b, is Yin bone (A 1: 46,3), c. is Yin (inscr, :37, sense of
i. below), d. is Chou I (inscr. 54, sense of i_), e. is Chou I (inscr. 75). The graph is the
primary form fori. below, and is a phallic symbol analogous to .EL see group 46 above.
-f-h. id. silk (Shu). g. is Yin bone (A 2: 12,-!, name), h. is Chou II (inscr. 150),
i. *prllc I pvk /1) o eldest brother, eldest (Shi); feudal lord (Tso); lord, chief (Shl); loan
for id. one hundred men   sacrifice to the horse god (Shi), Gls. 193, 473, - j. id,
cypress (Shi:); loan fork. (Chouli). - k. id. to press (Tso1,
1. *p?ik I p'vk I p'o passive, quiet (Lao, one version) (the reading p'a-f p'a 'to fear' is
a later application of the character).
m-n. *p' rlk / p'vk f p'o to beat (Ch'uts'l); loan for *pcik / pak I p o shoulder (of an
animal) (Chouli). n. is Chou III/IV (inscr_ 319, name).
o. *p?ik (1/vk / p'o the animal soul of man (as opp, to hun) (Tso); loan for id. an aspect
of the moon (Shu); loan for p. (Chuang).
p. *p'dk f p'ak I p'o dregs (Chuang, one version ap. Shiwen). - q. id. shoulder blade
(Yili).
r. *b'ak I b'ak I p o calm, still (Lao)_
s. *pirlk /1Jicik /pi green or blue precious stone (Lii),
783 a-c. *klci1k I kwvk / k u o place name (Tso). b, is Chou II (inscc 146, c. is Chou II
(inscr. 154, sense of 774 h.).
784 a-c. *g'wilk f ;'u.JEk / h u o (primary form of d. below, as shown by inscriptions,
hence the reading) catch (Yin bone A 2: 34,4); loan for id. to measure (same as f-g.
below) (only Han time text ex., Han shu, Lii li chi:). b, is Yin bone (A 2: 34,4), c, is Chou
II (inscr. lG8, name)_ The graph shows a 'hand' catching a 'bird' (with or without crest),
d. *g'wiik I ywek / h u o catch, get, find (Shl); hit (Sh1); succeed (Shl); to be able (Shu).
GL 438, Anc, Chin. ywEk is irregular, we should expect a yw(tk, since both the Shi: rimes
and the hie she n g connections indicate Arch, *g'wlik. This irregularity recurs in
e. and f. belmv,
e. *g'wiik I ywek I h u o and *'wi'ik I ·wvk I w o to bind (Chuang).
f. *g'wr/k I ywEk I h u o and *'jwak I 'iwak / y ii e to measure (Ch'ut.s'i: ap. Shuowen),
- g. variant of t.he preceding (Ch'uts'J', current version).
h. *g'wak I ywak f h u o to rea}), cut (Sh!). GL 628,- i. id. caldron, cooking pot (Chouli)_
j. *g'wdk fl'wak I h u o to boil (Shi:); *g'wag fyuo- / h u name of an aneient dance (Tso )-
GL 8.
k. *g'1cag I y1w- I h u to guard, protect (L1i),
1. *g'w(/g / ywa-fh u a and *'wr7k I ·wvk I w o catch, a trap (Shu).
m. *'wak I 'teak I w o red or green pigment (Shu), - n. id, caterpillar (Yi).
785 a-b. *lcjr7k I kjuk I k i a kind of lance (Shi)-
786 a-c. *kjak I lcjuk I k i grasp, hold (inscr. 58). b. is Yin bone (B hia 11: 2), c. is
Chou I (inscr. 58)- The graph shows a man ''ith outstretched hands,
787 a-b. *k'jclk f k'f.vk / k'i Shuowen says: light shown through a crevice (no text),
c. *k'f.rlk / k'jvk I k'i crack, crevice (Tso); space between (Tso); interval (Tso); discord
(Kuots'e).
d-f. *xfi"ik I xiuk I hi fear (Yi). e. is Chou II (inscr. 180), L is Chou III (inscr, 238),
207
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
783 \* 781- t k. Jl :a 1! ;t_
a... lr c a_ lr c d. e. f '3 j k
ti 7gs ff 7gr; 1l ';3 7t7 i r:t: t0t
L m n a. t,. a. lr c a. lr c ci c
788 J£   JL 11
f a. lr c. cl. e.. f B h. i.. :i lc L 'tl'\. n
7g9 JJ. 730 Ill \Wf .. J *t ;tf -fr
ct. a... l.r c d. e f 3 h. i j k L m..
tf 1:¥ fi
0 p
788 a-b. *ngiiik / ngjvk I y i Shuowen says: refractory, disobedient, thus taking it to
be the primary form of next (no text). b. is Yin bone (B hia ll: 15, sense here uncertain).
- c-e. id. go against (Shu); rebellious (Shi); go to meet (Shu); receive (Yili); anticipate
(Lunyii). Gl. 1583. d. is Yin bone (I 11: 13); e. is Chou I (inscr. 69).
f-g. *ngdk I ngdk I o beat the drum and make a noise (Sh!). In the second modern form
(g.) the phonetic is deformed. - h. id. scared (Kuots'e).- i. id. unexpectedly come
across (Ch'uts'!).
j. *ngdg I nguo- I w u unexpectedly come across (Chuang).
k. *ngak I ngak ( o speak frankly and brusquely (Lie). - I. id. place name (Tso); loan
for id. pitfall (Kuoyii); suddenly (Shi); for h. (Lie); fork. (Ta Tai li). Gls. 410, 133().
- m. id. edge of a sword (Chuang).- n. id. osprey (Lie).
789 a. * xii'ik I xivk I hi fear (Chuang). The Seal has 'to see' and 'tiger'.
790 a. *djr'lk ( jak I y i Shuowen says: to spy (no text). loan for id. name of a mountain
(Kuots'e); foro. marsh (Siin).- b. id. turn round (Shu ap. Shuowen); loan for q. (Shu,
one version). Gl. 1551.- c. id. to be pleased (Shi); pleasant, mild (Sili). Gls. 117,525,
1654.
d. *djt'Zk I jak I y i and *d'dg I d'uo- It u fed up with, tired of (Shi); ample(-sounding,
sc. music) (Shi); *tag I tno- It u destroy (Shi) (cf. g. below). Gls. 9, 818, 993, 1704.
e. *dfak I jak I yi draw out (as a thread), unfold (Lunyii); long-drawn (Lunyii); in a
line, successive, continue (Lunyii); repeatedly (Tso ); loan for id. great, ample, abw1dant
(Shi); for c. mild (Sh! ap. Tso ). Gls. 467, 1142 a., 1960.- f. id. to interpret (Li).- g. id.
bitter spirits (only Han time text ex.); loan for l. (Kuots'e).- h. id. post horses, relay
horses (only Han time text ex.); loan for id. amply-growing (Shi:); for q. (Shu). Gls.
467, 1551.- i-j. id. Shuowen says: adduce and furnish (no text). j. is Chou III (inscr.
217, sense of n.). ·
k. *sji7k (!link I shY wash rice (ShY). - 1. id. unloose (Yili); dissolve (Li); loose, leave,
let go (Tso); detach (Tso); put away (Shi); condone (Shu); unravel, explain (Tso ); loan
for id. to put into water, moisten (Li); \vash (rice) (ShY). Gls. 878, 1867.
208
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMAT A SERICA REGEN SA
m. *d'ak I rt'vk Its e and *siiik I 8jiik ( s h 1 a kind of jujube tree (Yili).
n. *d'iikl rt'nkl tse choose (Shi); loan for q. (Shu). Gl. 2044.
o. I Jl'vk I t s.e marsh (Shi:); pool, pond (Tso); moist, moisten (Li); glossy, polished
(L1); .. (Shu); _(sweat-garments:) trousers (ShY); *dfiik fiak 1 y i pure wine
(Chouh); *.s1ak I S?ak / s h 1 lay open (sc. the ground) (Shi); loan for l. dissolve (Ta
Tai li), for n. (Li), (Chuang). Gls. 326, 1117.
p. *d'dk I d'dk Ito a kind of bell (Lunyii).
q. *tag I t1w- / t u destroy, destruction (Shu ap. Shuowen).
r. *t'dk I t'dk I t'o withered and fallen leaves (Shi). Gl. 485.
791 a. *tfiilcltsfdk I chi and *fiiigl #ia-1 che roast, broil (Shi); (warmed by:) close
to The Seal has 'meat' and 'fire'.
792 a-:-c· *t'fak I ts'iak / c h'Y to rebuff (Tso); examine, spy out (Tso); point, indicate
(Kuhang)j spread, grow numerous (Tso); salty soil (Shu).
d. *t' tdc I t'vk It s'e split, be rent (Shi); fissure (Chouli).
e-g. *t'ak I t'dk I t'o watchman's rattle (Yi). g. is Chou I (inscr. 92, sense here uncer-
tain).
h-i. *sag I SlW· I su go up against current (Tso). Same w. as 769 d.- j. id. accuse
(Tso); inform ( Tso) .
793 a-c. *t'ji!k I tS'iak I c h''i red (ShY); loan for id. or *t8'jc'ik I u'jiik j t s'i expel
(Chouli). b. is Yin bone (B hia 18:8), c. is Chou I (inscr. 85). The graph has 'man' and
'fire', (353 above).
d. *NJ1g I /;fa· Ish e let go (Shi); let off, liberate (Tso); pardon (Shu). Gls. 223, 1115.
e. *#,ilk I /;fiilc Is hi to sting (Shi). Gl. 1115.
794 a. *t' fi'i k I ts'fak I c h'i a measure, to measure (ShY).
795 a-c. *rliiilc I ijak I shi stone, rock (Shi). b. is Yin bone (E 104: 3), c. is Chou I
(inscr. 113, name).- d. id. stone case for holding ancestral tablets (Tso).- e-g. ·id.
great, stately (Shi); loan for h. (Sill). Gl. 281. f. is Chou IIII (inscr. 214, name), g. is
II/III (inscr. 247, name). - h. id. some kind of rodent (Yi). Gl. 281.
i. *tililc I t/;jiik I c h 1 sole of the foot (Lii).
j. *ti}k I tvk I t s e to rip open (a victim) (Li).
k. ja k I tsiak I c h o cut, hack (Mo ).
1. *ii11g I I c he a kind of mulberry tree (Shi).
m. *t'ak I t'rik I t'o take up, lift (Lie).
n-o. *trig I llto-1 tu jealous (Tso). In o. the phonetic 'stone' has been changed into
the (graphically similar) 'door'.
p. *t'alc / t'dk I t'o sack, bag (ShY); bellows (Lao); loan for id. noise of poundina earth
(Sll'i). - q. id. watchman's rattle (Tso); to open (Huai). "'
r. *tag I tuo- I t u grubs in wood, vermin (Tso ).
796 a-d. *dzjilk / zjiik / s i evening (Shi); night (Chuang). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 5,1),
c. is Yin bone (A 1: 27,4), d. is Chou I (inscr. 65). The graph is a drawing of the moon,
cf. group 306 above.- e. id. darkness, night (as in a grave) (Tso).
797 a. *dzjc'ik I zjiik Is i mat (Shi:).- b. large, loose-fitting (garment) (Shi). Gl. 213.
14 209
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
71! f<.. 7ft flfi ;f:_ Jf ti ;Vf * ru: w 4   753 ;ff, t
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798 a-e. *sjak 1 sjiilc I s i anciently, formerly (Shi); yesterday (Tso), last (Tso);
loan for s. below (Chouli). b. is Yin bone (B shang 28: 3), c. is Yin bone (B h1a 5: 3),
d. is Chou II (inscr. 132), e. is Chou II (inscr. 139). Was the graph the primary form
for g. 'dried meat', showing strips of meat and 'sun'? (The two words are etym. identical,
the latter meaning 'old meat' as opp. to fresh meat).- f. id. regret (Lii); alas (Tso).-
g-h. irl. dried meat (Yi); loan for irl. intense, extreme (Kuoyii). h. is Chou III (inscr.
223).
i-j. *dz'fiik I dz'fiik / t s i sacred field ploughed by the Iring (Shuowen, primary form
of b'. below). j. is Chou I (inscr. 105).
k. *dz'iiik I dz'jiik I t s i trample (Li); *tsfiik / tsitik / t s i walk reverently (Lunyii);
*ts'iak I ts'jJik I t s'i and *ts'fak I ts'jak / t s'ii e reverent demeanour (Sh'i).
1-m. *ts'jak I ts'fak / t s'ii e Shuowen says: walk with light steps (no text). m. is
Chou II (inscr. 135, name). - n. id. magpie (ShY).
o. *tfiak I I c h o cut off (Kungyang). . . .
p. *ts'dk I ts'dk 1 t s'o whetstone (Shi: ap. Shuowen). - q-r. tel. crosswise. (msc_r.
180). r. is Chou II (inscr. 180).- s. id. whetstone, grindstone (ShY); loan for ui. mix
(Shi); crossing each other (ShY); ornamented (Shi); alternating (Li); slanting (Li); scared,
cautious (Yi); loan for x. (Yi).
t. *dz'dk I dz'dk / t so to present and drink a cup in response to the pledge cup (Yili).
u. *tsiag I tsia- I t s i e and *tsjJJk I t!1jiik I t s i loan, borrow (Lunyii); to allege (Shl);
Gl. 960.
v. *tsiilg I tsja- I t s i e sigh (Hanfei). .
x. *ts'dg I ts'uo- j t s'u establish (Yi); to place (Lunyii); lay aside, cease (L1).
y. *ts'fag / ts'iwo- I t s'ii maggot (Chouli); loan for *dz' liq I d?'a- I c h a name of a
winter sacrifice (Li).
z. ? I d?'Ek I t s e to spear (sc. fish) (Kuoyii).
a'. I dz'ftik 1 t s i writing tablet, record (Tso); register of field revenues (Shi);
field the produce of which was used for sacrifice (Li, see b'. below).
b'. *dz'irlg I dz'ja- / t s i e bedding or mat of straw as a support for sacrifices or gifts
(Yi); to present (Tso); contribute, aid (Li); (base oneself on:) avail oneself of, depend
210
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
719 6(_ f g; sg; goo /1F, W 1t ]t"
l.r c d. e f '3 i'"L a.. l.r c d. e f
Jtf ;& t1Z '* y:{i_ 807 If_ If_ J1_1) 802_ ;( w
9 h. i} k L 111..11.. 0 Q. l.r c CL L-
1- l l t t1 -fX j_ 'J /j_ o;(_
c. d. e f 9 h. i. J lc L m.n_ o p
.,...
l 803 ilt {t J!Jl
..s CL G (. c...L e.. f j h.. L j k.
on (Tso); to loan, borrow (Meng) (cf. u. above); *rlz'jak I dz'itik Its i field ploughed
by the king and the produce of which was used for sacrifice (Tso); loan for id. tribute
(Kuliang); to tie (Chuang); to trample (Siin, seek. above).
c'. *'ts'ak I t?'vk It s'e to spear fish (Chouli), cf. z. above.
799 a-d. *siuk I sjiik / s i slipper, shoe, sole (Shi:); loan for id. great (Shi). b. is Chou I
(inscr. 65), c. is Chon II (inscr.134), d. is Chou II (inscr. 187).- e. id. salty soil (Chouli).
f-g. *sfi'ig I sja: I s i e unload, disburden (Shi:); dissipate, remove (Shi); pour off (a
liquid) (Li); to cast (metal) (Kuoyii); depict (Kuoyii). g. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 325).- h.
id. to drain off (Chouli).
80{1 a-c. *zjiik I jak I y i armpit (same word as 1-m. below) (Shi: sii, in stone classics
ap. Sh'iwen); besides, also (Shi); a particle (Shl); loan for d. ample (Shi). Gls. 754, 1093,
1301. b. is Yin hone (A 1: 52,3 ), c. is Chou I (inscr. 76). The graph shows a man with
the sides of the body (armpits) marked by strokes.
d. *zjak I jiik / y i great (Shi:); Gl. 466. -e. irl. baldachin (Li). -f. irl. chess (Lunyii);
loan for irl. curtain (Yi Chou shu).
g. *tsjlik I tsjiik / t s i footprint (Tso ). Cognate to but not identical with lift . - h-i.
id. footprint, traces (Shu). i. is Chou III (inscr. 225).
j-k. *zirlg I fa- I y e night (ShY). k. is Chou I (inscr. 76). The modern character is
deformed so as to obscure the fact that a. above is sin1ply phonetic here.
I. *zjiik I ialc I y i armpit (Li); lift under the arms (Tso); see a. above. - m. id. armpit
(Chuang).- n-o. id. fluid, moisture (Chuang); moisten (Chouli); trailing (sc. sound)
(Li). o. is pre-Han (inscr. 400, name).
801 a. *d'dg I d'no- I t u a measure (of length) (Shi:); law, rule (Shu); limits, bounds
(Tso); regulate (Shu); *d'dk I d'dk Ito to measure (Shi); calculate, consider (Sh'i);
loan for 780 b. (*d'iik) to dwell (Shi). Gls. 794, 1216.
b. *d'dg I d'tw- I tu to ford (Kuots'e).
c. *d'dk I d'rik /to cleave (Tso ap. Kuo P'o).
802 a-c. *mdg l1nuo- / m u evening, late (Shi); loan for irl. name of a plant (a Rumex?)
(Shi); loan for *mak I mak I m o not, not have (Sh'i); there is nobody who (Shi); still,
quiet (Chuang); to plan, deliberate (ShY); settle (Shi, one version); vast (Chuang); obscure
211
BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
(Siin); luxuriant, rich (sc. foliage) (Shi); cut (Kuan); *rnak I m:_vk I m o (Shiwen
mc:k, which must be a lapsus, cf. r.) calm and (Shl). loal_l for h. (Lunyu).
Gls. 638, 662, 819, 829. b. is Yin bone (I 10: ll, name), c. IS Chou II (mscr. 147, name).
The graph has 'sun' and 'grass' doubled. . .. . ..
d. *rndg 1
1
nuo-l m u evening (Meng). - e. summon (Shl). - f. grave (Sh1).
g. *rndg l1nuo I m u ugly woman (Siin). . . .
h-i. *mag 1 muo- 1m u love, think of   1. Chou IV (ms?r. 286).
j. *mag 1 rnuo 1m u model (Lie). - k. kneel (l\Iu t Ien tsi chuan). - 1. td. (Pek.
m o, irregular) to plan, counsel (Shi). , . , . ,. ..
m. *mag j ma 1 m a h i a-m a frog (Mo ap. T a1 p a1 p mg yu lan).
n. *mdk I tndk I m o quiet, still (Chuang). . . T,
o. *mdk 1 mak 1m o, m u (Pek. m u is baldachm, tent \Tso); CYI).
p. *rndk 1 mak 1m o quiet, still (Chuang), vanant of n. above.- q. 2d. suffermg, distress
(Shi:). Gls. 638, 819.
r. *nLiik I mvk I m o silent, still (Ch'uts'i).
s. *nLia k j miek j m i cover (Chouli).
803 a-b. *g'iv-'ag 1 g'jwo, g'jwo- I k'ii, k ii a boar, Han time text ex.);
b. is Chou (inscr. 365, name). The graph has boar . and tiger ..
c-d. *g'iwag I g'iwo-1 k ii d. IS 192,
e. *g'jwag 1 g'1.wo- 1 k ii and *g'1.1cag 1 g FW f k u and *g 1ak I g 1ak I k u e subscnption
feast (Chouli).
f. *ki·wag j Tcjwo- f kii grasp (Li); depend on (Shi). Cognate to 778 b. *kjzmk. -g.
id. a musical instrument (Chuang).
h. *g'jak I g'jak f k ii e tongue (Shl). Gl. 881.
i. *g'i/ik / g'ivk / k i aggravate (Siin). . . .. .
j. *g'jwag j g'jwo 1 k'ii coarse mat (Shi); *k1wag I k1wo: u ?asket (L1). Gl. 121. ,
k. *g'jwag j g'iwo 1 k'ii straw, thatch (Chuang); loan for td. w1th a shock come to ones
senses (Chuang).
804 a-c. *siag 1 sjwo- j shu numerous (Shi); all (Shi); ample, abundant (>>o:.:e
of the manp:) concubine's son (Tso); (many chances for:) possibl:z (Sh1);
would that (Shi); *tiag 1 tsjwo- j c h u c h u s h 1 title of officer who pmsono11s
animals (Chouli). Gls. 247, 66}. b. is Chou (inscr. 65), c. is I,U/IV 324).
It would seem that 795 a. *djak is Phonetw; but why there IS fire below 1s obscure.
d. *tiiig ( tsfa j c he intercept, stop (Kuoyii); combine, several together (Kuan). A
e. *tjJik j tsjiik 1 c h 1 pluck, select (Li).- f. id. tread (Ch'uts'i); sole of the foot (Kuots'e).
805 a-d. *'i'ig 1 ·a- 1 y a second, next (Shi); inferior (Shu); loan for id.
(Shi); loan for h. (Yi ap. Siin). Gl. IllS. b. is Yin bone (A 2: 8,5, sense here uncertam),
c. is Yin (inscr. 52, name), d. is Chou (inscr. 361, name).
e. *' ag f ·a f y a cut one's own throat (Kuoyi.i).
f. *?ik j 'vk f o laugh (Yi); *'ng f ·a: I y a mute (Kuots'e).
*'ale I 'dk I o to plaster (Li).
h. *'ale 1 ·aTe 1 o bad, evil (Shi); wrong, fault (Tso); ugly (Meng); *'dg / ·ua- / wu to
hate (Shi); loan for *'ag f ·uo f w u how (Lunyii); where (Meng).
806 a-e. *dz'iig 1 1 c h a suddenly, unexpectedly (Meng). b. is Yin bone (A 4: 4,3,
sense of 1. below), c. is Yin bone (A5: 31,2, sense of 1.), d. is Yin (inscr. 2, sense of l.),
e. is Chou I (inscr. 54, sense of 1.). -f. id. hurriedly, suddenly (Tso).
*tsag / tt?a- f c h a treacherous, deceive (Tso); loan for a. (Kungyang).
212
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAM.MATA SERICA RECENSA
804 f! [g fl, iE t% Jf: gos- 51 Q Q
0
R ,g._.
a. lr c cl e f a.. lr c d. e. f '3 h.
80b t:: ;f-r§_ Af- 1f-

11
a. lr c iL i j k l 'H1..-rL o
;ff- ·It ai- 1t 807 ;fM It\ 808
p '1 r s t u. tr a_ lr c cl e f 5
M 8:7 m jifj iJf- JA tt1 JfK e1
CL l.r c d. e + 3 h- i j a_ l.r '-
h. *dz'ag I dz'uo- I t s u blessing, prosperity, dignity (Shl). - i. id. sacrificial meat
and wine (Tso); to reward (Tso); to give prosperity (Kuoyii); confer a fief on (Kuoyii);
loan fort. (Chouli). - j. id. east-side staircase leading up to hall (Shu); loan fori. (Yili).
k. *tsiik f f t s e a quiver (Yili); loan for ll28 a. to impress a branding mark on the
forehead of a criminal (Kuoyi.i).
I. *tsdk f tsak J t so act, do, make, work, be in function (Sill); active (Shu); perform,
to sacrifice (Li); compose (sc. verse) (Shl); to be (Shi); rise (Shi); stand up (Lunyii);
agitate (Shi). loan for p. clear away (Shi). Gls. 622, 806, 821, 856, 937, ll46, 1321,
1443, 1671. - m-o. id. to start (Kungyang). n. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 309), o. is
Chou III (inscr. 220, enlarged by rad. 66).
p-q. *tsak j tsdk It so and *dz'dk j dz'ak I t so oak (Shi); *tsak f j t s e clear
away trees and bushes (Shi); loan for id. widening, spreading (sc. sound) (Chouli);
narrow (Chouli); fort. (Kuots'e). q. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 328).
r. *dz'dk I dz'ak f t s o ashamed (Lunyii); change colour of face (Li). - s. id. the pre-
vious day, yesterday (Chuang); loan fort. (Chouli). - t-u. id. to present and drink
a cup in response to the pledge cup (Shi); a matching libation (Shu); to reward (Shi).
u. is Chou III (inscr. 226). - v. id. bamboo rope (only Han time text ex.); loan fork.
(Chouli).
807 a-d. *a' jag 1 dz'fa- 1 she shoot with bow (Shi); archer (Tso); *a'iak j di'iak 1
s hi hit ·with bow and arrow (Lunyii); loan for *djuk f jiik f y i be satiated with, dislike
(Shi). Gls. 9, 814. a. is the current form, b. is a more old-fashioned version (that of
Shuowen), c. is Yin bone (A 6: 3,4), d. is Chou I (inscr. 105). The graph is a drawing
of bow and arrow, sometimes with hand added. The bow has been misunderstood and
corrupted into she n 'body', which was somewhat similar in its archaic form.
e-f. *dziug f zia- j s i e open hall for archery excercise (Ch'unts'iu). f. is Chou II (inscr.
157, rad. 53, inst. of 75). The form f. has a roof with only one side wall, cf. 113 above.
- g. id. decline, renounce (Li); take leave from (Li); make excuses (Tso); loan for e.
(Siin).
808 a. *kcng I kcng Ike n g to plough (Shl). 3t 'a well' was also the term for a certain
area of arable land belonging to one village; in our char. here combined with 'plough'.
In the following derivates, the jj: 'arable land' stands alone (pars pro toto) as abbre-
viation for tJl: and serves as phonetic. The modern modification of :tJ: is a corruption,
as shown by the archaic graphs.
213
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
b_;_c, *g'ieng 1 yieng I hi n g punish, punishment (Shu); law (Shi); model, imitate (Shi);
behaviour (Shu); loan for g. below (Chouli). c. is Chou II (inscr. 147, name). - d.
id. form, shape (Yi); appearance (Meng); appear, be manifested (Li); to conform to (Tso).
- e. id. form (Li). - f. id. whetstone (Chuang). - g-h. id. a ritual vessel (Li).
i-j. *kji.!ng 1 kjvng I king (Anc. kjung is irregular, we should expect a kiting) briar,
thorny shrub (Tso). j. is Chou I (inscr. 104, name). The archaic graph has not 'grass'
at the top but shows a knife cutting thorns.
809 a-b. *ki.!ng 1 hng: I ken g brilliant (Shu); (bright =) wide awake (Shi). GI.
64. b. is Chou II (inscr. 180). The graph has 'fire' and 'ear'.
c. *k'iweng I k'iweng: I k'i u n g a garment of hemp (Shi, so ace. to Shuowen; Cheng
Huan takes it for a variant of 842 f.). Gl. 164.
810 a. *g'cng 1 ysng: I hi n g luck, fortunate (Lunyli). - b. variant of the preceding
(Kuoyu).
c. *g'ieng 1 yieng: I hi n g hate (Ch'uts'i). - d. id. expanse of water, chaos (Chuang).
811 a-b. *tsi.!ng I I chen g strife, quarrel (Shi); to fight about (Shu); to vie
with each other (Shi); remonstrate (Lii). Gl. 578. b. is extracted from the archaic graph
for f!11f (Chou II, inscr. 180). The graph shows two hands and 'force' (928 below).
c. *dz'i.!ng 1 1 c h'e n g and d;?'vng I c h'e n g high, precipitous (Kuots'e).
d. *dz'icng / dz'iang. It s in g clean, cleanse (Kuoyli). .
e. *dz'fcng I dz'iang: It sing stop, keep quiet (Lii); loan for id. choose (Kungyang).
812 a-d. *siJng I Ish eng live (Shi); bear, be born (Shl:); produce (Lunyii);
fresh (as greens) (Shi); (living creature:) sacrificial animal (Shi). Gl. 802. The archa1c
rimes clearly place this word in the *eng class, and *siJng should regularly give .Ano.
· ssng; however, this word (as well as the following three) for unknown reasons has rrreg-
passed over into the Anc. vng class: Anc. fDng. b. is Yin bone ( 0 951), c. is
Chou I (inscr. 57), rl. is Chou I (inscr. 74). The graph may have been the original graph
for e., cf. 998 'ox'. - e-f. id. sacrificial animal (Shi) ('life', living creatme, etym.
s. w. as last). f. is Chou I (inscr. 67). - g. id. sister's son or daughter (Shl:); son-in-law
(Meng). -h. id. reed organ (ShY).
i-k. I Ish eng and ? I t?ivng: Ish eng Shuowen says: fihn
the eye (no text); (film covering the moon:) new moon (inscr. 162); eclipse (Tso); calam1ty
(Yi); fault, offence by mishap (Shu); diminish, restrict (Chouli). Gl. 1269. j. is Chou
II (inscr. 132, name), h. is Chou II (inscr. 162 'new moon').
1-p. * sfeng I siang: I s in g observe, examine, inspect (Shl); go and visit *$iiJ 1!f! I
1 she n g and ? I i?ivng: I she n g diminish, reduce (Tso); loan for 1. oalannty
(Kungyang); m. is Yin bone (A 1: 46,3), n. is Yin (inscr. 27), o. is Chou I 57),
p. is Chou I (inscr. 83), all in the sense of 'inspect'. The archaic forms show that 1. and
l. are really one and the same graph erroneously split up into two in the Seal and hence
in the modern script. It is the phonetic which has been tampered_ with in the one
case so as to become Y.
q-r. *sfeng 1 sfJing- (sing clan, family, family name (Shi:); offspring (Tso). r. is Ch?u
III/IV (inscr. 301, rad. 9 inst. of 38). - s. id. nature, disposition (of man) (Shu); hfe
(Shi:). - t. id. weasel (Chuang); loan for z. below (Siin). - u. id. weasel (Chuang).
v. *tsjeng 1 tsi_iing 1 t sing pennon, banner, feather-flag (Shi); loan for id. give honour
to, distinguish (Tso).
x-y. *sieng 1 sieng J sing star (Shi); loan for dz''[i.!ng I dz'jang lts'ing weather
clearing during the night (Shi); Gl. 139. y. is Chou (inscr. 387, name).
214
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAIII.MATA SERICA RECENSA
870 '($ 5¥ 8!7 J Y 8!2_ 1_ i 'f j::
a c CL.. lr c d. e a_ lr c. d.
b JY if; d ·11_ gj_
h. i :J k: L 11'1.11.. o p q • s t
t 1r   1
v X. y f' -:J' h.! i.' j' k!
'
n' o'
z. *sieng I sieng Ising Shuowen says: to bark (as a rlog), (no text); *sengI Ish e n g
monkey (Li) (in modern praxis, however, the char. is reads in g also in the sense of
'monkey').
a'. *sieng I sieng, sieng- Is in g grainy grease (Li), grease (Chouli); raw meat (Lunyli);
rank smell (Shu).
b'. *sieng I sieng, sieng:, sieng- Ising wake up from drunkenness (Tso).
c'-d'. *ts'ieng J ts'ieng I t s'i n g green, blue (Shi); loan for *tsieng I tsieng I t sing
luxuriant (so. vegetation) (Shi:, cf. f'. below). d'. is Chou II (inscr. 187, name). Gl. 155.
e'. *ts'ieng I ts'ieng It s'i n g Libellula (Lii).
f'. *tsieng I tsjiing I t s in g and *tsieng I tsieng I t s in g leek flower (Chouli, so ace.
to Shuowen and Cheng Chung); a kind of grass (Shu); lm.lll'iant, bushy (sc. foliage)
(Sh1). Gl. 1368.
g'. *tsfeng / tsjfing I t sing fine and pure rice (Lunyii); exquisite, subtle (Li); essence
(Yi); sperma (Yi).
h.'. *ts'ji'ng lts'i_iing-1 ts'ing cold (Li).
i'-j'. *ts'i6ng lts'jiing lts'ing clear, pure, bright (Shl). j'. is Chou III (inscr. 228;
the phonetic here is really n'. below).
k'. *ts' I ts'fdng: I t s 'in g and *dz'i_i.!ng j dz'jiing I t s'i n g request, invite (Lunyii);
ask (Tso). .
"1'. *dz'jJ'ng I dz'jiing 1 t s'i n g feelings (Tso); quality, proper nature (Meng); circumstances
(Tso); true, real (Yi); love (Shi:).
m'. *dz'jeng J dz'jiing: Its in g quiet, tranquillize (Shi); to be quiet, acquiesce (Shl).
Gls. 653, 1511. - n'-r'. id. quiet (Shi); pure (Shi); Gls. 233, 1235. o'. is Chou I (inscr.
109), p'. is Chou II (inscr. 180), r'. is Chou III (inscr. 229).- s'. variant of the preceding
(Ch'uts'i:).
t'. *tsi.!ng I I chen g roll up, tuck in (sc. pendants) (Li); loan for *ts'i;m I ts'ien- I
t s'i en dark red (Tso) (phonetically very curious). Gl. 166.
813 a-f. *kieng J kjvng-l king reverent, respectful (Shl); careful (Lunyli); loan for
h. (Shu). Gl. 1485. In this series, as in the preceding ('-!=:), there is Anc. jvng where we
should expect jfing. Arch. kjeng (which is amply proved by rimes) should give Anc.
kjiing, not lcjvng (indeed, for h. and j. Shiwen indicates ki_iing, not kjvng). The excep-
tions are not so numerous as they appear, for the first five words ( a-j.) are inrleerl
215
I
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEWtJ OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
8!311fx ? t] ( 0t t- fo]x 8!4 )
a.. lr c d e f 1 h. i. :} k l a... /;.


8!5@. 8/C .fi1
c ci e f 9 h.. a.. lr c a. lr c cL e
Jil tj 8!7 878 #x JR\ )i\ tht
f '3 ct. CL lr c. cL e f '3 h. 1. j
ft- 1t :tt i=t B- M Jt- r.tt s2o :3 221
a.. l..r c d._ e. f 9 h. \. a... l.r a.. lr c.

etymologically one and the same word stem. b. is Chou I (inscr. 65), c. is Chou I (inscr.
72), d. is Chou II (inscr. 134), e. is Chou II (inscr. 139), f. is Chou III (inscr. 225). The
graph seems to show a kneeling man with a peculiar (rituaH) head-dress, cf. 60 m., 823,
896, 934, 1025.
g. *kfeng I kfvng j king to be afraid (Sh'i); attentive (Shl); scare (Yi).
h. *kjl!ng I kfvng: I king and *kjl!ng I kjang: I king and *g'jl!ng I g'jvng-j king
warn, admonish (Tso ); be attentive (Tso ). - i. variant of the preceding (Siin).
j. *kjl!ng j kjvng: I king and *kjl!ng / kjang: I k i n g warn, admonish (Tso ); to be on
one's guard (Tso).
k. *g'jeng / g'jvng / k'i n g lift (Chuang). - I. i1. frame for a bow (Siin).
814 a-b. *'ieng I 'fang I yin g necklace (Siin); surround (Kuots'e); loan for irl. baby
(Li); knock against, attack (Hanfei). b. is Chou III (inscr. 219, name). The graph has
'cowry' and 'woman'. - c. irl. encounter, press against (Meng); disturb (Chuang).
d. *'jifng j'jiing: I y ing tumour, swelling (Chuang); dumb (Lii).
e. *' jeng I · jiing j yin g ribbon, hanging cord, cap-string (Li); tassel on horse's trappings
(Tso).
f. *'eng/ ·sng j yin g bird's call (Sh1). Gl. 416. - g. irl. parrot (Li). - h. id. jar,
vase (Mu t'ien ts1 chuan).
1
815 a-b. *rljeng 1 fang I yin g full, fill (Sh!); satified (Shi). Gl. 961. b. is Chou III/
IV (inscr. 327). - c. id. pillar (Sh1).
816 a-d. *rlfi!ng I fang/ yin g place name and family name (Tso ); loan for f. fulness (Siin).
b. is Chou I (inscr. 122), c. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 294), d. is Chou (:inscr. 358). In spite
of the violent variations we can see that this is a compound ideogram, 'a bear' (885)
and 'woman' -probably a totemistic clan name. In the modern corrupted form the
'bear' element has coincided with the 1 o of group 14 above. - e. irl. great water
(Ch'uts'i:). - f-g. id. profit (Tso); surplus (Shi); excess (Chouli); loan for id. receive
(as guests) (Tso); to pack and carry (as provisions) (Chuang). g. is Chou I (iuscr. 92,
name).
817 a. *t'ieng / t'jiing: j c h'e n g gallop (Chuang); drive rapidly (Sh'i).
216
r '.'.
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
818 a-d. *clieng / ifiing / c h'e n g to achieve, complete (Shi); completed, perfect (Shu);
peace-making (Shi); an area of ten l i square (Tso); loan for h. (Shl). Gls. 184, 495,
616, 617, 802,892,1178. b. is Yin bone (A5: 10,6), c. is Chou I (inscr. 58), d. is Chou I
(inscr. 75). Explanation of graph uncertain, cf. 1257 h-1. - e-g. irl. city wall (Shl);
to fortify (ShY); city (Meng). f. is Chou II (inscr. 14:7, rad. 'city wall' inst. of 32 'earth'),
g. is Chou III (inscr. 220). - h. irl. sincere (Lunyii); truly, real,ly (Shi); verify, examine
(Li).
i-j. *aji!ng / iifing / c h'e n g put in (a receptacle) (Shl); to load, pack (Tso); vessel
(Tso ), a vesselful (Meng); *ajeng j ifang- Ish eng ample, abundant (Li); highest
degree (Chuang); loan for a. above (Chouli). j. is Chou II (inscr. 158).
819 a-e. *tsieng / tsjdng: / t sing a well (Tso); a system of fields belonging to one
village (Tso); loan for id. continually (Yi). b. is Yin bone (B shang 18: 5, name), c.
is Chou I (inscr. 58, sense of 808 b. or d., see group 808 above), d. is Chou I (inscr. 63,
name), e. is Chou II (inscr. 132, name). The graph is a drawing of a well-curb.
f-g. *dz'iJ'ng / dz'fiing: / t sing Shuowen says: quiet; Kuangya says: chaste (sc.
woman) (no texts). g. is Yin bone (E 75: 1, name).- h. id. pitfall (Shu). - i. irl.
pit (Li).
820 a-b. *tsjeng / tsiiing / t sing bright, limpid (s. w. a. 812 g.). (Yin bone P 506).
b. is Yin bone (P 506). The graph has 'sun' tripled.
821 a-b. *sjeng / siang Ising horn and wood well adjusted (in a bow) (Sh'i ap.
Shumven). The Seal has 'horn', 'sheep' and 'ox'. The form b. is a modern contraction which
means, indeed, a violent corruption. The graph has nothing to do with ¥. - c. irl.
red horse (Sh'i); red sacrificial animal (Sh1); red (Chouli); loan for a. (Sh'i). The character
has the same corruption of the phonetic as b. above.
822 a.   I sjiin'J /she n g sound, noi3e (Sh'i); voice (Sh'i); fame (Shi). The graph
has 'musical stone' and 'ear'.
823 a-e. *ljl7ng I liang, liang- / 1 in g command (Sh1); loan for *lii!ng / liang / ling
good (Sh'i); loan for r. (Shl), for v. (Sh1). Gl. 257. Besides the Arch. reading *li!Jng,
confirmed by several Shl rimes, there must have existed an alternative reading *ljiJn,
revealed by other rimes. A vestige of this may be a place name in Han time in which
the character is read ljan jl i en. b. is Yin bone (A 3: 18,5), c. is Yin (inscr. 1 0), d.
is Chou I (inscr. 54), e. is Chou I (inscr. 58). Was it the primary graph for r. below (with
a kneeling man below)? In the inscriptions this graph very often serves for if[t.
f. *lieng /liang: /ling neck (ShY); collar (Li); (take by the neck:) to lead, to direct,
regulate (Li).
g. *lieng I lieng I 1 in g comedian (Sh1 in the Han version).
h. lieng / lieng: / I in g and ? jlvng: / 1 eng cold (Chuang).
i. *lieng jlieng fling prison (Li). - j. id. pure, clear (sc. air, wind) (Chuang); to
instruct (Chuang); loan for id. long and entangled, twisted together (hair)
(Li). - k. id. a kind of jade (Mu t'ien tsY chuan). - 1-m. id. bamboo matting
covering carriage box (only Han time text ex.). m. is pre-Han (inscr. 456, name). -
n. id. boat having cabin with windows (Ch'uts''i). - o. id. (the ShY rimes indicate an
alt. reading *lfi'Jn, c£. a. above) name of a plant (Licorice! or Xanthium strumarium?)
(Shi). - p. id. Libellula (Lti); insect on mulberry leaves (Shi). - q. id. wooden
cross-piece on front inside of carriage box (Ch'uts'Y); linch-pin (Li). - r-t. id. small
217
BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
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bell (Shl); loan for q. (Chouli). s. is Chou IT (inscr. 180; there is of a.,
which underlines how these two are interchangeable, see a-e. above), t. IS Chou II
(inscr. 182). - u. irl. (there are rimes that indicate an alt. *lien, cf. a.
o. above) to fall in drops_ (Sh1). - v. id. t s i -I in g name of a brrd (Tso ). - x. 1d.
year of life (Li).
824 a-c. *pjf!ng 1 piiing, pjiing- / ping combine two (things) (Chouli); all together
(Shl); likewise (Shu); add (Tso); take all, monopolize (Li); loan for f. remove (Chuang).
Gl.1575. c. is Yin bone (A 4: 47,5). The graph shows two men c01mected by two strokes.
d. *b'ieng / b'ieng: 1 ping and *pjeng I pjiing- / ping side by side (Li); loan for
f. (Siin).
e. *p'ieng 1 p'ieng, p'ieng: I p'i n g face, mien (Ch'uts'i).
f. *b'ieng 1 b'ieng 1 p'i n g screen, protecting wall (Shi); shut off (Shu); to screen, protect
(Tso ); *pjf!ng 1 pjiing:, pjang- I ping (screen off, ward off:) remove (Tso );
oneself:) retire (Li); loan for *pjeng 1 piiing I ping anxious, (Ch'uts'I).
g. *b'j1Tng 1 b'fiing- I ping eliminate (Si.in); cognate to the
b. *b'ieng 1 b'ieng / p'i n g to beat (sc. silk in water, to make It white) (Chuang).
i. id. pitcher (Shi:). - j. id. bottle, flask (Li).
k. *b'ieng 1 b'ieng 1 p'i n g a plant used for making brooms (Kuan); loan for *p'eng I
p'c:ng 1 p'e n g to cause, to make (Shi). Gls. 973, 1115, 1217.
I. *peng 1 psng / p eng sew (Kuots'e).
m. *ptTng 1 peng-/ p eng drive out, relegate . .
n. *b'ieng 1 b'ieng 1 p'i n g and *b'ien I b'ien I p'i en horse side by side With another
(Tso, as part of N. Pr.); *b'ien I b'ien I p'i en two side _bY side, double (Chuan?,); two
sticking together (Tso ). - o. variant of the preceding m the last ..
p. *b'ien 1 b'ien 1 p'i en hard skin on hands or feet (Chuang). - q. td. pIe n- s I en
walk with difficulty (Chuang).
825 a-b. *b'1'eng 1 b'jwvng I p'i n g level, even (Shi); a plain (Shi:); equalize (Li); :? be
just (ShY); ca:-lm (Shi:); regulate, pacify (Shl); peace (Ch'unts'iu); loan for 195 a. (*b_1an I
b'jiinlp'ien) qnod vide. Gls. 716, 1212,1217, 1877; Zf .. b'jeng (_as proved by.Shlnmes)
here gives Anc. Chin. b'jwvng instead of a regular b 1ang. b. IS Chou III (mscr. 220).
Was the graph a drawing of' a scraper, a rake, a
218
BF:RNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
c. *b'ieng / b'jwvng I p'i n g Artemisia (Shl); *b'ieng / b'ieng I p'i n g duckweed (Ta Tai
li); loan for 824 f. protect (Chouli). Gl. 399.
d. *b'ieng I b'ieng I p'i n g duckweed (Li).
e. *p'iing I p' eng I p'e n g and *peng / peng I pen g to send, to cause (Shu).
f. *p'eng I p' c.ng I p'e n g frank (Ch'uts'i). - g. id. rumble (Lie).
826 a-c. *m,jeng I mf.iing I min g name (Tso); fame (Shl); ·written word (Yili). b. is
Yin bone (A 6: 1,4), c. is Chou II (inscr. 151). The graph has 'mouth' and 'moon,
evening'. Was 5 as short-form for PJI *mjiing phonetic in our ;:t *mieng? (Observe
that {fr 762 *mi.iing also can mean 'name' like our ::g *mjeng here).
d-e. *mien{! lmieng I min g inscription (Li). e. is Chou III (inscr. 220).
827 a-c. *mjeng l1ni_wvng I min g cry of birds (Shl); sounds of animals generally
(Shi); to sound (Lunyi.i). Arch. *mjeng (proved by Shi rimes) should regularly give
Anc. rn].iing, so mfuvng is irregular. b. is Yin bone (I 42: 11), c. is Chou III/IV (inscr.
306). The graph has 'bird' and 'mouth'.
828 a. *k'iweng I k'J.wiing I k'i n g slanting (Sill); loan for *k'iweng / k'jwiing: I k'i n g
a certain acreage of field (Li.i); interval, short while (Li); loan for R-:f (*k'jweg) (Li).
b. *k'iweng I k'jwiing I k'i n g and *k'jeng I k'fiing I k'i n g incline the head, incline (Li);
turn over, overthrow (Sh!).
c. *gjwi!ng I ftding: I yin g point of an ear of grain (Shl); pointed ring on sword handle
(Li); *kjiJng I kjang: I king and *kiweng I kiweng: I k i u n g a kind of cushion (Li).
d. *kiu-eng 'j kiweng: I k i u n g light (Shi). Gl. 648.
e. *k'iwo!g I k'iweng: I k'i u n g, k'i n g a textile plant (Li); unlined garment (Yili).
Gl. 164.
829 a. *g'jweng I g'jwting I k'i u n g scared, alone and helpless (Sill). Gl. 299. The same
character serves for yet another word, see group 256 h. above. - b. id. alone and
helpless (Sh1). Gl. 299.
830 a. *g'jweng I g'iu·ang I k'i u n g alone and helpless (Shi). Gl. 299.
831 a-b. *kieng I kie.ng I king Shuowen says: a vein of water (no text); since an
inscription has it in the sense of   and the graph may depict some kind of loom, it
is probably the primary form of c. below. b. is Chou I (inscr. 65, sense of c.).
c-d. *kieng / kie1!1J I king warp (Tso) (in this sense alt. read kieng- in Ts'ieyi.in);
rule, norm, law (Shi); regulate (Sh!); to plan (Shl); to direct (Tso); pass through (Tso);
walk along (Shu); continue, successively (Shu); strangle (Lunyii). Gls. 1677, 1865 b.
d. is Chou II (inscr. 157).
e. *lei eng I kieng: I king cut the throat, cut off the head (Tso ).
f. *kieng I kien{!- I king small path, short-cut (Lunyii); diameter (Li); go, travel (Tso).
g-h. *kieng / kieng I kin g to flow through, communicate (Chuang); name of a river
(Shi). Gl. 891. h. is Chou II (inscr. 148, name).
i. *lcieng llcieng- I king (road, pass on:) gone far away (Chuang).
j. *lc'ieng I k'ieng- I k'i n g empty (Shl ap. Shuowen).
k. *g'ieng / yieng- I hi n g leg, shank (Lunyii).
I. *g'ieng I yieng / hi n g ravine, defile (Tso).
m. *kii'ing I kjiing- I king strong (Tso ).
n. *kjiin{! I kfiing: /king and *g'feng I g'iiing I k'i n g neck (Tso).
219
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUJlll OF' F'AR EASTERN ANTIQTTITIES
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o. *k'ieng I k'jiing I k'i n g light carriage (Kuots'e); light (as. opp. to heavy) (Shu);
*k'jeng I k'fang- I k'i n g nimble, swift (Tso).
p. *k'feng I k'jiing I k'i n g and *k'ieng I k'ieng- I k'i n g to hop on one leg (Tso) (the
radical should properly be 157).
q-r. *k'i'ng I k'sng I k'e n g and *g'eng I ycng I hen g Shuowen says: shank bone of
ox (no text) N. Pr. (Tso). r. i'l. Chou III (inscr. 217, name).
s. *k'eng I k' eng I k'e n g stony, b1ockheaded, stubborn (Lunyii).
t. *k'eng I k'sng I k'eng and *g'eng I ysng I heng unreasoning, impulsive (Chuang).
u. *g'eng I ysng I h eng stalk (Ch'uts'Y); sword hilt (Chouli).
v. *ngeng I ngeng I yin g quick, rash (Ta Tai li).
x. *t'ieng I t'iiing I c h'e n g red (Yili).
832 a-b. *k'ieng I k'ieng- I k'i n g Shuowen says: musical stone, thus taking it to be
the primary form of c. below (no text). b. is Yin bone (A 4: 10,5, name). The graph
is a drawing of a musical stone ( cf. 795) and a hand wielding a club for beating it.- c. iil.
musical stone (Shl); beat the musical stone (Shi); suspend (Li); loan for id. to be visible,
to be like (Shi, Han version); for d. (K.uoyii). Gls. 216, 775. - d. id. empty (Shl);
exhaustively, entirely (Shi').
e. *k'ieng I k'ieng: I k'ing cough, clear the throat (Chuang).
f. * xieng I xieng I hi n g fragrance (Shi).
833 a-d. *tieng I tieng It in g cyclical character (Yili); loan for id. to strike (Shl); a
bell (Tso ); tadpole (Chuang); for *teng I teng I chen g sound of beating (Shi). Gl. 994:.
b. is Yin bone (A 1: 4,3), c. is Yin (inscr. 9), d. is Chou I (inscr. 56).
e. *tieng I tieng: I t in g top of the head (Yi).
f. *t'ieng I t'ieng I t'i n g island (Ch'uts'i').
g. *t'ieng I t'ieng: I t'i n g trampled (sc. field) (Shi); *d'ieng I d'ieng: It in g small
banks between fields (properly: trampled paths) (Tso). Gl. 388.
h. *d'ieng I d'ieng I t'i n g settle, regulate (Lao). - i. id. to stop (Kuanyin).
j-n. I I chen g straight (Yi); correct, right (Shi'); to correct, regulate
220
BERN HARD KARLGREN: GRAMMAT A SERICA REGEN SA
iShi); regulator, model (Lao); principal, chief (Shi); ruler (Sill); just, exactly (Lunyii).
tji!ng I t&jiing I chen g first (month) (Shi); centre of a target (Shl); loan foro. to exact
(Shu); for r. government (Shu). Gls. 504, 526, 539, 1847. k. is Yin bone (A 1: 48,6),
l. is Yin bone (A 6: 26,1), m. is Yin (inscr. 22), n. is Chou I (inscr. 55). Since the radical
is 'foot', the graph is probably the primary form foro. below (cf., however, 1219 below).
o-q. *tjeng I tsjiing I chen g (i>to correct)>:) go on a military expedition against (Shi);
to plmish, attack (Shi); to go (Shi'); to progress (Shi'); levy taxes (Meng). p. is Yin
(inscr. 28); q. is Chou I (inscr. 54).
r-s. *tjeng I chen g government (Shi); rule, law (Li); manage (Tso); service
to the state (Li); loan for o. levy (Chouli). s. is Chou II (inscr. 157).
t. *tii!ng I tsjiing: I chen g arrange, dispose (Shi); orderly (Tso). The radical is it&
to correct.
u. I I chen g remonstrate (Kuots'e).
v-x. *tjcng I tsjiing I chen g a kind of bell (Shi'); a section of a big bell (Chouli).
x. is Chou IIIIIV (inscr. 315).
y. *t'ji!ng I t'jang I c h'e n g and ? I t'vng I c h'e n g Shuowen says: to look straight
(no text); loan for id. red (Tso).
z-a'. *d' ieng I d'ieng- It i n g settle, establish, fix (Shi); finish, stop (Shi'); settled,
certain (Yi); quiet (Tso ); *tieng I tieng- It in g name of a star (Shi); forehead (Shi);
ready-cooked (food) (Li). a'. is pre-Han (inscr. 460, name).
834 a-f. *tieng I tieng: I t in g cauldron (ShY); loan for id. tin g- tin g at ease,
comfortably (Li). b. is Yin bone (A 5: 3,4), c. is Yin (inscr. 46), d. is Chou I (inscr. 61),
e. is Chou I (!nscr. 80), f. is Chou II (inscr. 147). The graph is a drawing.
g-i. *tieng I fi.iing I chen g (Pek. irregularly: chen) verify, read off an oracle (Shu);
divination enquiry (Chouli); lower half of a hexagram in Yi lung (Shu); straight (Yi);
correct (Shu); pure, proper (Tso). Gls. 1354, 1550, 1752. h. is Yin bone (A 2: 45,2), i.
is Yin bone (E 45: 3). The graph was really only an application of *tieng 'cauldron'
as loan for *tjeng 'divination enquiry'. But in this application the character was mostly
less explicit, reduced to·a few summary lines. An interesting inscr. is A 5: 3,4, where
there are both variants in one line, the *tieng 'cauldron' being a more realistic drawing
than *ti2ng 'divination enquiry'; i. has added rad. 25 to divine.- j. id. auspicious (Shi').
k. *ti,eng I tjiing I chen g and *t'jeng I t'iiing, t'jiing- I c h'e n g observe, examine (Li);
to test, verify (Li).
1. *tjeng I tjiing I chen g posts in framework used in rearing earth walls (Shu); supports
(ShY).
m. *t'jeng I t'iang I c h'e n g red (Shl).
835 a-c. *t'ieng I t'ieng: I t'i n g Shuo\ven says: good (no text). The Yin bone forms
b-e. have been identified with this character, and sure enough the variant c. is the same
that recurs in g. below in inscr. 164. But the sense of our a-c. here in the bone in-
scriptions is entirely obscure. b. is Yin bone (B hia 39: 1), c. is Yin bone (B hia 6: 1).
d-g. *d 'ieng I d'ieng I t'i n g and d'ieng I d'ieng- I t in g court (of palace) (Shi). e. is
Chou I (inscr. 67), f. is Chou II (inscr. 137), g. is Chou II (ins cr. 164).
h. *d:ieng I d'ieng I t'i n g court, courtyard (of palace) (Shl); come to court (Shu); loan
for straight, upright (ShY); loan for *t'ieng I t'ieng- I t'i n g distant (Chuang). Gls.
1026, 1109.
i. *d'ieng I d'ieng: I t'i n g (the Pek. aspirate is irregular) pull out (K.uoyii); stick out,
crop up (as something growing) (Li); loan for id. to alleviate (punishment) (Li); move
(Lii); for *t'ieng I t'ieng: I t'i n g straight (Tso); loan for q. (Yili).
221
BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
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j. *d'ieng I d'ieng: I t'i n g (Pek. aspirate irregular) stick, staff (Meng).
k. *d'ieng I d'ieng I t'i n g small bamboo rods used for divination (Ch'uts'i). - 1. id.
stalk, stem (Chuang).- m. id. a clap of thunder (Shi).
n. *d'ieng I d'ieng: I tin g and *d'ien I d'ien: It i en lizard (Siin).
o. *d'ieng I d'ieng: It in g metal rod inserted in arrow (Chouli); loan for *t'ieng I t'ieng: /
t'i n g to rush (Tso).
p. *t'ieng I t'ieng: I t'i n g jade tablet (Li). - q. id. slice of dried meat (Knngyang).
r. *d'feng I r'l'iang I c h'e n g to manifest (Lie); loan for x (Tso, Hi 23 ap. Shi:wen). In
the modern graph the phonetic is slightly deformed so as to look like :f:.
s. *d'ieng I !l'jang I c h'en g a kind of precious stone (Ch'uts'i:); *t'ieng I t'ieng I t'i n g
jade tablet (Yili ap. Shiwen).
t. *d'ieng I !l'iang I c h'e n g measure (of capacity, weight or length) (Sii.n); norm, rule
(Shi); loan. for id. leopard (Chuang). - u. id. naked (Meng).
v. *d'icng I Cl'jiing I c h'e n g and *t'icng j t'jang I c h'e n g overcome with wine, deadly
drunk (Shi).
x. *t'ieng I t'jiing: I c h'e n g to run after, let oneself loose, gratify one's desire (Tso);
relax: (Lunyu).
y. *dieng I fang I y in g pillar (Chouli). ,
z-b'. *sieng I :ijiing- j she n g sage (Shi). a'. is Chou II (inscr. 149), b. is Chou II
(inscr. 152).
c'. *t'jJ!ng I t'jang I c h'e n g tamarisk (Shi).
d'-e'. *t'ieng I t'ieng I t'i n g hear (Shi); *t'ieng I t'ieng- I t'i n g listen to (Shi); acknow-
ledge (Shu); obey (Tso). e. is Chon III (inscr. 234). The Seal contains a. t'i n g as
phonetic to the left, then 'ear' and t e 'power, faculty'. But the only archaic form we
possess (e) is rather z. above with some addition of unknown meaning.
836 a-d. *lieng / lien.g /1 in g rain dropping (ShY ap. Shuowen). b. is Yin bone (4: 24,2),
c. is Chon I (inscr. 58, sense of i. below), d. is Chon II (inscr. 140, sense of i.). The graph
has 'rain' and two or three 'mouths', the latter probably meaning inca,ntation for rain,
as still practised in China. - e-f. id. a kind of vessel (inscr. 397). f. is Chou (inscr.
397). - g. id. drop the leaves (Ch'uts'i:). - h. id. insect on mulberry leaves (Shi ap.
Shuowen).- i. id. sorcerer, diviner (Ch'uts'Y) (incantator for rain? of. a. above); super-
natural, spiritual, divine, felicitous (ShY); intelligent (Shu); excellent (Shu). Gl. 1481.
222
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMAT A SERICA REGEN SA
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837 a-f. *nieng I nieng I n in g peace, tranquil (Shi); serene (Shu); inquire about the
:-veil-being of (Shi); to favour (Shu); preferable, would that (Shl); rather (Shl); loan for
1,d. why, how (Shl); t ing -ni ng a small bell (Tso). Gls. 77,980,999. a.- c. are modern
variants d. is Yin bone (A 2: 18, 1), e. is Chou I (inscr. 68), f. is Chou II (inscr. 180).
The graph has 'roof' and 'bowl', and further 'heart' (in e. and f.) and a bottom element
(in d. and e.) of unknown meaning.
g. *nieng / nieng- I n in g mud (Tso).
h-i. *ncng I Jic;ng In eng Kuangyiin says: body (no text). i. is Chou II/III (inscr.
277, name).
838 a. *nieng I nieng- In in g eloquent, clever, artful (Lunyii). The Seal has 'good'
and 'woman'.
a-b. *p'ieng I p'ieng I p'i n g Shuowen says: frank words (no text). b. is Chou II
(mscr. 194, sense here uncertain).
c. *p:f:.ii1Lfl I P_'iiing- J. p:i n.g inquire about the name (with a view to marriage) (Siin). -
d. td. mqmre (Sh1); mnte (Meng); to seek for wife (Tso).
840 a:-c. *b'ieng J I pin g. side by side, together (Shi). b. is a modern corrupted
vanant c. IS 1'm bone (B hta 9: 1). The graph has two men standing side by side.
The word ts cognate to but not identical with 824 a.
841 a. *mieng / mieng, mieng: I min g dark, darkness, darken (Shl); *rniek 1 miek j m i
cover ( Chonli).
b.* *n.1ieng l_mieng I .min g and mien /mien I mien shut the eyes (Tso); sleep (Chuang);
11mn I rnten- I m 1 en (troubled sight:) dizzy, confused (Meng).
c. *mieng I mieng I min g ocean (Chuang). - d. id. insect which damaaes the grain
(Shi); insect on mulberry leaves (Shl). "'
e. *miek I I m i t? plaster (Tso).- f. id. to cover (Yili); loan for id. to plane, make
even (Chouh). -g. 1d. floor-carpet in carriage (Chonli).
842 a:-b· *kiwenq I I k i u n g Shuowen says: out-lying parts, far from the
capttal, thus taking 1t to be the primary form of c. below (no text). b. is Chou II (inscr.
133, sense of f. below). - c. id. out-lying parts, far from the capital (ShY).
223
BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEU/iii OF F'AR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
d. *kiu:eng I kiu:eng I k i u n g bar (of gate of door) (Li); bolt (Chuang); rod for lifting
a cauldron (Yili); frame for weapons on chariot (Tso); loan for *kiweng I kiweng: 1
k i u n g clear-minded, discriminate (Tso ).
e. *kiu:eng I kiweng I k i u n g sturdy (sc. horse) (Shi).
f-g. *k'iu·eng 1 k'iu:eng: I k'i u n g unlined garment (Li). Gl. 164. g. is Chou II (irucr.
177).
h. *g'iweng I yiweng: I hi u n g distant (Shi).
843 a. *g'iweng 1 yiweng, yiweng:, yiweng- I yin g dazzle, confuse, delude (Chuang).
In this group again (i.e. in d, e, k, m.), as in and there are some
irregular Anc. Ch. i_vng instead of the jiing to be e2.:pected. The Arch. *jeng, proved
both by Shi rimes and the phonetics in general of the series, should regularly give Anc.
fang, not i_vng.
b. *k'iweng 1 k'iweng: I k'i u n g and *k'iweng I k'jwiing: I k'i u n g a kind of hemp
(Shi: aJJ. Shuowen). Gl. 164.
c. *gi_wcng I ju·iing I yin g grave area (Li).
d. *gi_weng 1 jiwvng I j u n g flower (Li); curved ends of roof beam (Li); glory, honour
(Tso).
e. *gi_wcng 1 jiwvng, jju:vng-1 y u n g sacrifice to natural objects to avert calamity (Tso).
f. *gjweng 1 jwiing 1 yin g to demarcate, delineate, to plan (Shi); to encamp (Tso ); to
build (Tso); to regulate, to direct (Shi); to surround (Kungyang); loan for icl. buzz
about (as flies) (Shi:); confuse (Ta Tai li).
g. *g'jweng 1 g'fu·iing I k'i u n g alone and helpless (Tso); sad (Ch'uts'I). Gl. 299.
h. *'i_1reng I '{wang I j u n g to wind, entwine (Shi).
i. *g'iweng I yiweng I yin g glow-worm (Li).
j. *gj_weng I jwiing I y i 11 g hum (sc. of flies) (Shi ap. Shuowen).
k. *'ieng 1 'ieng- I y i n g and *giweng I jjwvng I yin g a kind of precious stone (Shi);
brilliant (Lunyu ap. Shuowen).
I. I ·Eng I y i 11 g variegated wings of a bird (Shi).
m. *g'wi!ng 1 ywcng 1 h u n g and *gjweng I jjwvng I j u n g high, distant (Ch'uts'I).
844 a-c. *"ek I "ck I o part of a yoke (Shl); (pinch:) straits, difficulties (1\ieng). Gl. 1028.
a. and b. are modern variants, c. is Chou I (inscr. 86). The graph is a drawing. -
d-e. id. part of a yoke (Yili). - f. variant of the preceding (Chuang).
g-h. *"ek I "ck I o and *"rg I ·ai- j y a i a defile, a pass (Tso); straits, difficulties (Meng).
845 a-f. *ts'ek 1 It s'e document, dimploma (Shu). a. and b. are modern variants,
c. is Yin bone (A 4: 37,6), d. is Yin (inscr. 40), e. is Chou I (inscr. 69), f. is Chou II (inscr.
133 ). The graph shows writing slips tied together.
g. *ts'!Jk I tt;'c;k It s'e and 1 I tt;'vk j t s'e hedge (Chuang).
846 a. *ts'ek j tt;'c;k 1 t s'e Achillea stalks used for divination (Li); loan for 845
(Kuo;yu); for 845 g. (Chuang). The Seal has 'bamboo' 'keep between the fingers.
847 a-d. *g'wek j '}'WEk I h u o delineate, mark off, to plan (Tso); limitate (Lunyu);
*g'v;/Jg 1 ywai- 1 h u a to draw a design, to figure, depict (fi1eng). b. is Chou I (inscr. 59),
c. is Chou I (inscr. 86), d. is Chou II (inscr. 154). The graph has a hand holding a stylus
(502 above) and drawing a map, cf. 1083.
e. *g'wl!g I ywai- I h u a and *xwek j xwck I h u o bind, embarrass, obstacle (Ch'uts'I).
224
I,
I
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMAT A SERICA RECENSA
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848 a-b. I m o vein (Tso). a. and b. are modern variants. The right
part of a. is identical with 7k of b. in its archaic form, see 764 above.- c. id. drizzle (Shi).
d. *mwek I mwck I m o and *nLiek I rniek I m i look on, examine (Kuoyii).
849 a-b. *"irk j "iak I y i increase (Shi); more (Lunyii); advantage, profitable (Lunyii);
b. is Yin (E 223: 4, name). The graph shows a bowl full of liquid.- c. id. throat (Chu-
ang).,- d. id. flesh on the neck (Yili).
e. *"i!k I "Ek I o grasp (Mo).
f. *ngiek I ngiek I y i name of an aquatic bird (Tso, = 873 p.).
g. *"feg I "ie- I y i and *"ieg / "iei- I y i strangle (Tso).
h. *"rg I "ai- j a i, y a i defile, narrow pass (Tso); narrow (Sill); constrained, feeble, small
(Tso); id. and *"l!k I "Ek I o in straits, distress (Chuang). Cf. 844 g.
'850 a-e. *clii!k I fak j yi change (Yi); exchange (l\1eng); *djl!g j ie- ( y i easy (Shi);
negligent (Li); at ease (Shl); loan for 851 a. work (Shu); well cultivated (sc. field) (Shi:);
loan for g. (Kuang). Gls. 681, 1226. b. is Yin bone (A 7: 21,4), c. is Yin bone (A 7: 333),
d. is Yin (inscr. 6, sense of n. 'to give'), e. is Chou I (inscr. 54, sense of 'give'). The graph
is said to be the primary form of f. below, being a drawing of a lizard {?).
f. *df!Jk I fiik I y i lizard (Shi). - g. id. raised borders between fields (Shi); frontier,
boundary (Tso).
h. *t'iek I t'iek I t'i to cut (Shi). - i-j. id. grieved (Shi); fear, respect (Shu). Gls.
345, 1422. j. is Chou III (inscr. 237, sense of n. 'give'). - k. icl. distant, keep at a
distance (Shi). Gl. 950.
1. *siek / siek I s i thin cloth (Huainan); *t'ieg I t'iei- j t'i border ornament on lower
garment (Yili).
rn. *siek I siek I s i to bare the upper body (Shl); jacket open in front and worn outside
a fur garment (Li); *t'ieg I t'iei- j t'i wrapper, swaddling cloth (Shi).
n-o. *siek j siek I s i tin (Sh'i); loan for icl. give (Shl); a very thin-woven and smooth
stuff (Li). o. is Chou II/III (inscr. 258, sense of 'give'; the phonetic is really p. below).
p-q. I {;i_iik Ish 1 hurried glance (only post-Han text. ex.). q. is Chou II (im;cr.
157, sense of 'give').
r. *d'ieg I d'iei- I t i and *sflik I si_iik j s i false hair (Shuowen and Shi:wen, to Chouli,
indicate it as original form of s. below); loan for *t'iek I t'iek I t'i and *t'ieg j t'iei- I
t'i cut off, cut to pieces (Chouli).
15 225
BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
s. *d'ieg 1 d'iei-1 t i false hair (Shl); the character is a corrupted abbreviation of the
preceding.
t. *sjeg lsi(!- I s 1, t s'i (Pek. t s'i is irregular) give, gift (Lunyii).
851 a. *djlilc 1 jiik 1 y i war expedition (Shi); service to
(Meng); to toil (Chuang); to work (Sh'i). Gl. 8?1. has . go and baton,
- b. id. pottery stove, furnace (Li). - c. td. ep1demw, pestilence (Tso). Phonetic
abbreviated.
852 a. *tsjiJk 1 tsjiik 1 t s i spine (Li); fundamental principle, reason (Shi); t s i · I i n g
wagtail (Shi); loan for *dz'jiJk I dz'iiik I t s i trample, (Chuang) .. Gl. 534.
Seal has 'flesh' and an upper part which was probably ongmally a drawmg of a spme.
b. *tsiiJk I tsiiik It s i walk with small steps (Shi:). . " .
c. *dz'iek 1 dz'iiik I t s i emaciated (Yi); meagre, poor (sc. sOil) (Kuots e); suffermg (Shu).
- d. variant of the preceding (Kuan).
853 a-c. *pick 1 piak 1 pi ruler, prince (Shi); brilliant (Li); loan for id. thin-sliced
(Li); *b'jiJk 1 b'iiik 1 pi law, rule (Sill); la>vful, correct (Shl); to (Shu);
arrange (Meng); *b'iek I b'iek I pi inner coffin (Tso); loan for d., J ., k u. (Shl);
for p. and t. (Li); for g. (Siin). Gls. 567, 854, 934, 1039, 1203. b. IS Chou I (mscr. 65),
c. is Chou III (inscr. 220). . . .
d-f. *piek 1 piak 1 pi circular jade insignium (Shl). e. IS Chou II (mscr. 151), f. 1s.
Chou III (inscr. 234). - g-h. id. walk lame (Li). .
i. *p'jlik 1 p'jiik 1 p'i oblique (Ch'uts'I); depraved, perverse (Shu); despise (Tso); loan
for u. (Sh'i ap. Shuowen).
j. *b'jiJk I b'jiik I pi beat the breast (Shi).
k. *b'jek 1 b'jak 1 p'i (the Pek. aspirate is irregular) to open (Shu); loan for u. (Chouli).
I. *pielc I piek I pi house wall (Li). . .
m. *p'ielc 1 p'iek / p'i beat silk in water (to make It white) (Chuang).
n. *b'iek 1 b'iek I p'i (the Pek. aspirate is irregular) tile (Shi).
o. *miek I miek I m i covering on carriage (Li).
p. *piJk / pek I p o cleave, split (Li); thumb (Meng).. . ,. ..
q-r. *b'ek j b'ek 1 p o Shuowen says: net for catchmg (no Ts 1eyun says:
woven silk sash; this is possibly the sense in inscr. 180. r. IS Chou II (mscr. 180).
s. *pfiJg I pjiQ- I p i arm (Li).
t. *p'fiJg / p'jil):- I p'i example, compare (Shi).
u. *b'jeg I   I pi go away from (Kuoyti ); avoid (Meng).
v. *pieg / piei- I p i favourite (1\ieng). _
x. *b'ieg 1 b'iei- 1 pi name of a plant (Chuang); loan for *pe k I pt:k / p o crack, burst
(Chouli).
854 a. *k'iek I k'iek I k'i beat (Chouli); rub (Chonli).
b. *kiek / kiek / k i beat (Sh'i); sounding-box (Shu). Gl. 1340. .
c. *kieg 1 kiei- f k i carriages knocking against each ?ther (Chouh). ..
d. *g'ieg 1 yiei- /hi and *kieg I kiei- I k i attach (Y1); suspend (Lunyu).
855 a-c. *gliek jliek 1 l i a kind of ritual vessel (tripod hollow le?s) (Chouli);
loan for *kli!k f leek 1 k o a handful (Yili); yoke (Chouli). b. IS Chou I (mscr. 65), c.
is Chou I (inscr. 69). The graph is a drawing. .
1
d. *klek 1 kt:lc 1 k o a handful (Yili). - e. id. lcliJk I I k o d:aphragm (no pre-Han
text ex.); loan for id. s11spending stand for a bell (Sun). - f. td. obstruct (Kuan).
226
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
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g. *g'li"'k I yck I h o root of a feather (Chouli).
h. *ngliek j11gielc / y i a plant with leaves in ribbon pattern (Shi).
856 a-c. *d'iek I d'iek / t i name of a Northern tribe (Shi); low servant (Shu); loan
(Li); for e. (Shi:), for f. (Shi). Gl. 563. b. is Chou II/III (inscr. 258), c. is Chou
III/IV (inscr. 316). The graph c. has 'fire' and 'dog', as the modern graph; b. has
instead of 'fire', which may be a corruption(?).- d. id. rush, reed (Hanfei); southern-
wood (Tso).
e. *t'iek I t'iek I t'i troubled, grieved (Ch'uts'i). - f. id. distant (Shu); remove (Tso).
857 a-b. *siek jsielc / si cleave, split (Shi); disperse (Shu). b. is Chou I (inscr. 97).
The graph has 'wood' and 'axe'. - c. id. white, bright (Sh'i). - d. id. white (Tso).
Chu Tsiin-sheng insists that it is different from the preceding, but that seems hardly
tenable. - e. id. wash rice (Meng).
858 a-b. *lielc fliek fl i Shuowen says: arrange separately one after another, in a
series, a sequence, thus taking it to be the primary form of e. below (no text). b. is
Yin bone (H 1: 18,14, sense here uncertain). The graph shows two cereal plants, i.e.
})in a 1'0\V)) like the plants in a tilled field. - c-d. id. to pass, go along (Siin), s. w.
as next. d. is Chou II (inscr. 180). - e-g. id. seriatim, successively, a sequence,·in
all details (Shu); number (Shu); classify (Li); go along (Li), pass (Meng), loan for id.
squeeze the fingers (Shu); disorder (Ta Tai li). Gls. 1475, 1588, 1694, 1865 b. f. is Yin
bone (B hia 11: 4), g. is Yin bone (A 1: 33,1). - h. id. calculate the course of (sc. stars)
(Shu); calculate (Chuang); number (Kuan). - i. id. name of a mountain (Kuots'e);
loan for e. (Chouli).
859 a-b. *miek I miek I m i cover for sacrificial vessels (Yili). b. is Chou III (inscr.
229, sense here uncertain). The graph has 'cauldron' and 'cover'.
860 a. * kiwek / kiwek / k ii place name (Kuliang). - b. id. shrike (Li). - c. id.
shrike (Shi), corrupted variant of the preceding.
d. *k'iwek I k'iwek / k'ii quiet (Yi).
227
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
861 a. *keg 1 kai: I k i e cut up (sc. an ox) (Chuang); divide dissolve (Li);
unloose (Meng); explain (Tso ); *k(
7
g 1 kai- I k i e and *g' iJg 1. h 1 e .(unlo?sened:)
remiss, idle, careless (Sill); *g'eg I yai: I hie understand (L1); *keg I kat- I k 1 e offi-
cial's residence (Shang-tsi). loan for d. (Lti.).
b. *kiJg 1 kai- 1 k i e lazy, remiss (Hiaoking). - c. id. worn and washed dress (Chuang).
d. *g'eg I yai: I hie crab (Li). _
e. *g'iJg 1 yai- I hie hie - h o u carefree and happy (Sh1). Gl. 242.
862 a. *k'fJ!g I f k'i stand on tiptoe (Lao); eager (Ch'uts'l). The Seal has
'man' and 'foot'.
863 a. *tieg 1 1 chi know (Shi); understand (Tso); take notice (Tso ); intimate friend
(Shl); for b. (Li). Gl. 356. The graph (see c. below) has 'man' and 'mouth', the
former misunderstood and turned into 'arrow' in the modern graph.
b-e. *tjeg 1 1 c h 1 knowledge, wisdom c. is Chou II 180). ?'he
character is enlarged by 'to speak' and another element of uncertam mterpretatwn.
d. *t1'('tg I I chi spider (Kuanyin).
e. *d:icg 1 (i'iQ 1 c h'i c h'i- c h'u walk hesitatingly (Shi). Gl. 116.
864 a. *tjeg 1 tsit< I c h 1 branch (Shi); limb (Yi); separate (Siin): support, hold up
calculate (Ta Tai li); The original graph was probably a drawmg of a hand holding a
branch. - b. id. branch (of tree) (Shi); go astray (Sun); resist, hold out (Tso). - c.
id. limb (Meng).
d. *tieg 1 I c h 1 wicked, malignant oppose 1057. . ,
e. *siiJg 1 sir;<- 1 c h'Y, s h 1 (the :Pek. c h''i IS rrregular) wmg (Knots e); loan for td. onl3
(Meng) ( = 877 k.).
f. *k'feg llc'jir;<- 1 k'i slanting, placed obliquely_ (Shi ap. . . * ,:
7
g. *lc'jiJg 1 k'ji(;'!:, k'ji(;'!- I k'i stand on tiptoe (Sh1); loan for f. (Sh1, l\Iao versmn), g ltg I
g'jif;< I k'i foot with six toes (Chuang). . _
h. *g'jiJg 1 g'ji(;'! 1 k'i name of a mountain (S.hi), (to straddle =) to stnde (Sh1). Gl. 870.
- i. id. bifurcating, forked (sc. road) (Lw ).
j. *g'jeg 1 1 k i talented (Lao); *g'iiJg I I k'i run slowly (Shi). Gls. 598, 1057.
k. *g'jiJg I g'ji f<: I k i skill, ability (Shu).
1. *g'fiJg I g'ji(;'!- I k i water-chestnut (Kuoyii).
m. *k'fy/eg I k'jwi(;'!: I k'u e i cleft bands (Shi). Gl. 697.
865 a. *tfiJg I I chi a particle (Shi). Gl. 445.
b. *tji!g 1 tsie 1 c h 1 limb (Sun). .
c. 1 1 chi hole for linch-pin at :nd of (Chouh); cross boards on the
inside of the left and right walls of a carnage box (Chouli); loan for a. (Chuang). - d.
id. foot (8 inches) (Tso ).
e. *tjeg 1 I chi and *lciiJg I 11{ i a kind of Citrus (Chouli).
866 a-c. *ajeg 1 iit<: 1 s h 1 this (Sh1); this is, is (Sh1); (to be t.hus:) to be _right (Shi).
loan for s. really (Shu). Gl. 1569. b. is Chou I (inscr. 95), c. 1s Chou II (mscr. 157).
- d. id. verify (Shu ap. Li).
e. *tji!g 1 tsig 1 chi and *ajeg 1 1 s hi and *d'ieg I d'iei I t'i peace, happiness (Yi
ap. Shuowen).
r. *sjrg 1 1 s h 1 and *kieg I kjit:.- I k i wing (Chouli).
g. *tieg I tiei It i bank, dyke (Li).
228
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMAT A SERICA REGEN SA
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h. *tieg tiei I t i and *d'ieg I d'iei I t'i leather shoe (Li).
i. *t'ieg t'iei: I t'i clarified red spirits (Li).
j. *d'ieg d'iei I t'i and *t'ieg I t'iei: I t'i red (Chouli).
k. *d'ieg d'iei I t'i bank, dyke (Tso), cf. g. above. - I. id. stately, fine-looking (Ch'uts'i).
- m. variant of n. dilatory (Siin).
n. t'i lift, gra.sp (Sh1); loan)or calm, tranquil (Shi); slow, dilatory (Siin);
*tug I ttet: It 1 cut off (L1); loan for *d1iJg I zir:; I c h'1 in a flock (sc. birds) (Shi); throw
(Kuots'e ). Gl. 271.
o. *d'ieg I d'iei I t'i cicada (Ta Tai li).
p. *d'ieg I d'iei I t'i forehead (Li); to direct, conduct (Tso); *d'ieg I d'iei- 1 t i see, look
. at (Sh1).
q. *d'ieg I d'iei- It i kick (Chuang); *d'feg I rl'if);: / c h 1 make efforts (Chuang).
r. I d'iei- It i and d'it:g I d'iei I t'i and *ajeg I iit:: 1 s hi sheat fish (Kuots'e).
s. I ijak I s h f this, this is (Shi); really (Shu). Gl. 1569.- t. id. limpid (sc. water)
(Shi). Gl. 96.
867 a-c. *Cljeg I s h 1 clan, family (Lun_yii); surname (Sh1); title of a lady (Shi).
b. fs Yin bone (A 7: 39,2), c. is Chou I (inscr. 84).
d. *tiJ!g I I c h f stop, cease (Tso; often wrongly written with f£ as right part
therefore spelled tsi: and tiei: in Shiwen, cf. 590).
e. *tteg I tsil);: I chi to beat (Kuots'e).
f. *a'jiJg I di'if);: Ish i pick up with the tongue, lick (Chuang).
g. *g'fiJg / g'ji(;! I k'i illness, suffer (Shi, Ode 229).
h. *tiar I tiei: / t i illness, suffer (Shi, Ode 206); - here Phonetic 590 above; our g.
and h. are often confused in various editions.
i. *g'jeg I g'ji!;! I k'i earth spirit (Shu); loan for g. above; loan for *tfiJg 1 t.;i!;! 1 c h 1 only
(Shi). Gls. 613, 1383.
j. *g'i_eg I I k'i protruding part of a wheel nave (Shf).
868 a-c. *ts'jeg I   s'i: Shuow.en says: thorn (no text) b. is Yin bone (H 2: 18,13,
sense here uncertam), c. 1s Chou I (mscr. 75, name). The graph is a drawing of a tree
with some extra twigs.
d. *ts'jeg I It s'f and *ts'i!Jk I ts'iak / t s'i pierce, prod, stab (Meng)· kill
(Ch'unts'iu); criticize, reprove (Shl:); probe (Chouli). '
229
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUNI OF F'AR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
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a. c d.. e f 9 h..
e. *ts'flJg J J t s'i to prick (Hokuan). -f-g. id. criticize (no early text ex.); g.
is Chou II (inscr. 150, sense here uncertain).
h-i. *tsjJ!k J tsjdk J t s i footprints, trample (inscr. 182), s. w. as u. below. i. is Chou II
(inscr. 182).
j-k. *ts'fi!k I ts'iak J t s'i walk with mincing sidesteps (Shi ap. Shuowen). k. is Chou
III/IV (inscr. 323).
l. *ts'ek 1 ts'ck It s'e tablet, records (Tso); to whip (Lunyii).
m-n. *tsik I Its e to demand payment (Tso); require (Shu); to exact
to blame, reprove (Shu); *tseg I t?ai- J c h a i debt (Shu). Gls. 1569, 1886. n. 1s Chou
II (inscr. 189). The modern graph is simplified so as to obscure the fact that a. above
is phonetic.
o. *tsek I tsck I t s e and *rlz'ek I d:;' Ek Its e wrangle, dispute (Tso).
p. *tsek I Its e kerchief round the hair (only Han time text ex.); loan for *ts'i!k I
ck I t s 'e regular fine teeth (Tso).
q. *tsek 1 t/j<k I t s e (bed) mat (Li); mat (Sh'i). Gl. 157.
r. *ts'ek Jt?'ck jts'e pure (Kuan).
s. *dz'elc J d?'<k I t s e recondite (Yi).
t. *tsiek J tsiak 1 t s i collect, accumulate (ShY); to block (Chuang); practise (SUn);
pleated (sc. skirt) (Li); *tsieg I tsif,!- Its i put in stack or store (Sh'i); stack (Shi); hoard,
provisions (Tso). G l. 1124.
u. *tsjlJlc J tsf..iilc J t s i footprint (Shi); follow the (right) track (Shi). This is cognate
to but not identical with
v. *tsiek J tsiek J t s i twist, spin (Shi); achieve, achievement, meritorious deed (Shu);
completely (Tso ); loan for u. vestige (Shl). Gls. 861, 1252, 2093.
x. *dz'ieg I J t s i to steep, soak (Chouli); infect (Li).
869 a-b. *sfeg 1 Is i cleave, tear apart (Shi); loan for t:d. this (Shi); final particle
(Shl); then, thereupon (Lunyii); si-s ii an instant (M:eng); *s(lig / sil}· Is i completely,
entirely (Li). Gls. 16, 742, 835. b. is Chou III (inscr. 225). The graph has 'axe' and
'basket' (952).
c. *sieg 1 J s i melting ice, ice-water (Ch'uts'i:).- d. id. servant, menial (Kungyang).
e. *sieg jsiei J s i shriek (Ta Tai li). - f. id. take by the hand, lead (J.\ilo).
230
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMAT A SERICA REGEN SA
870 a. *sfeg J si(;! I s i a place name (Tso). The Seal has 'tiger' and 'cliff'.
b. *t'ieg 1 c h'i and *d'feg 1 a'ir.! 1 c h'i and d'ieg 1 d'il}: 1 c h 1 strip off (Yi).
c. *d'ih a'i(.! I c h'i a kind of flute (Shi).
d. *d'ieg rl'iei I t'i cry out (LU).
e. *d'ieg d'iei:, d'iei-1 t i alternate, substitute (Kuots'e).
871 a. *sjeg Jsi(.!: Is i move towards (Lunyii); remove (Tso). M:and. s i in the whole
of this group is irregular, we should expect a s L The graph has 'walk' (half of
748 'walk') and 'foot'.- b-e. id. (variant of the preceding, hence the reading) remove
to, go to (inscr. Yin bone A 1: 1,7). c. is Yin bone (A 1: 1,7), d. is Yin (inscr. 12), e.
is Chou I (inscr. 67). This archaic graph has generally been interpreted as but
that is quite unwarranted. Shuowen gives it rightly as a variant of a. above, radicals
60 and 162 being interchangeable, as usual, and in the inscriptions the graph sometimes
has its ordinary sense (as in Yin bone A 1: 1,7), sometimes stands as loan for the
homophonous :M}f f. id. name of a plant (T, no text ex.); loan for 1:d. five times,
five-fold (Meng).
g. *?iiJg Jlfif,!: Is i sandal (Lii); in Meng written w. rad. 157 inst. of rad. 44. - h. id.
band wound round the hair (Li).
872 a. *ljeg lljie,- I l i revile, defame (Shi). The Seal has 'net' and 'speak'.
873 a-d. *'Jijeg J / e r child, son (Shi'). b. is Yin bone (A 7: 16,2, name), c. is Yin
(inscr. 23), d. is Chou II (inscr. 143, part of name). Gl. 1176. The graph has been ex-
plained as a drawing of a baby with open fontanel, but more probably it depicts the
two tufts of a child's hair-dress, see 187 above.- e. id. forced laugh (Ch'uts'i); prattle
(as children) (Siin).
f. *ngieg / ngiei I y i, n i young and weak (Meng); loan for id. limit, boundary (Chuang);
loan for h. below (Chuang), for 879 r. (Chuang).
g. *ngieg I ngiei:, ngiei- I y i grasp, keep on to (Chuang). - h. id. (both tones) look
askance (Tso ).
i. *ngieg J ngiei I y i lock attaching the yoke to the end of a carriage pole (Lunyii).- j-k.
irl. place name (Tso). k. is pre-Han (inscr. 422). - 1. id. female whale (Tso); name
of a small fish (Chuang).
m. *ngieg / ngiei J y i and ? I ngiet I y e rainbow (J.\ileng).- n. variant of the preceding
(Ch'uts'i).
<>. *ngieg I ngiei I y i and *rnjeg I mjie, / m i and *mieg J miei I m i fawn (Lunyii).
p. *ngiek I ngiek J y i name of an aquatic bird (Chuang), (see 849 f.); cackle (Meng).
q. *xielc I xiek I hi "\ITangle (Shi).
874 a-b. *pfeg / I pi low (Shi); humble (Shu); loan for c. (Siin). Gl. 1844. b. is
Chou I (inscr. 100, sense of c.). Is the graph the primary form for p. below?
c. *pf..eg J pjil}: J pi, p e i to cause, so that (Shi); to direct, command (Shu); make out,
consider (Shi); loan for a. low, humble (Shu). Gls. 831, 983, 1901 1981.
d. *pjeg I pjif,! I p e i pillar (Li).
e. *pjiJg / pjil} / p e i to supplement, add (Kuoyii); *pjeg I pjif,! I p e i and *b'jcg J b'jil} I
p'e i a kind of ceremonial robe (Li); loan for i. (Kuoyii).
f. *pfeg / / p e i and *b'ieg I b'iei: I pi and ? I pji: I p i femur, head of femm,
haunch (Li).
g. *b'j1rg I b'jiQ I p'i border ornament on lower garment (Yili). - h. id. spleen (Li);
tripe (Shi). - i-j. id. parapet (Tso ); loan for f. (Lii). j. is Yin bone (A 2: 8,4).
231
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
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k. *b'iJ!g I b'jiQ I p'i accumulate (Sh!); *b'iiJg I b'jif).: I pi low ground (Kuoyii). Gl. 517.
I. *b'ieg 1 b'jie: I p e i, pi female slave, servant (Li). - m. id. low (Tso ), short (stature)
(Chouli); loan for iil. to help (Siin).
n-o. *p'ieg I p'iei: I p'i incline the head (inscr. 238). o. is Chou III (inscr. 238).
p. *b'ieg I b'iei I p'i a small hand-drum (Chouli).
q. *b'ieg 1 b'iei I p'i oval shaft (of weapon) (Chonli); *b'iek I b'iek) pi and *b'jek I
b'iak I pi inmost coffin (close to the body of a prince) (Li).
r. *peg I pai: I p a i to open (Kueikutsi); *pek I psk I p o tear apart, cleave (Li).
s. *b'eg 1 b'ai- 1 p a i weed resembling grain (Tso). - t. id. fine rice (Shi).
u. *b'eg I b'ai I p'a i oyster (Yili).
v. *b'eg I b'ai I p'a i and *b'fi!g I b'jiiJ, I p'i and *b'cng I I pen g a long and
narrmv bivalve (Chouli).
x-y. *pieg I pjif,!: I pi and *pieng I pieng: I ping scabbard (Shi:); loan for p. above
(Li). y. is Chou I (inscr. 109). Gl. 692.
875 a. *ki·weg 1 I k u e i a compass (J.feng); circle (Li); to draw regulating lines
(Kuoyii); rule, law (Li); regulate (Tso); admonish (Tso); to have plans against (Li);
loan for id. demand, greedy (Tso); disconcerted (Chuang). -b. id. look at superficially
(Sun).
c. *k'jweg I k'ju•iiJ, I k'u e i to peep (Lunyii). - d. iil. to pry, spy (Yi).
876 a-b. *g'ieg I yiei- I hi bind (only Han time text ex.). b. is Yin bone (E 2:2,
sense here uncertain). The graph shows a hand and silk thread.
c. *kieg 1 kiei- 1 hi bind (Meng); cotmect, succeed (Yi). Mand. hi is irregular (we
should expect a k i) and due to confusion with the preceding.
d-f. *g'ieg I yiei I hi slave, servant (Chouli); loan for id. why, what (Tso). e. is Yin
bone (A 2: 42,3, name), f. is pre-Han (inscr. 446, name). The graph has (t a) 'man'
and 'bind', a bond, a slave. - g-h. id. Shuowen says: female slave (no text). h. is
pre-Han (inscr. 408, name).
i. *g'ieg I yiei, yiei: I hi wait (Shu); loan for I. (Li).
232
BERNHARD [{ARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
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j. *g'ieg I yiei: I hi disgrace (Siin); *g'ieg I yiei, yiei: I hi perverse (Chuang, meaning
uncertain).
k. *g'ieg / yiei I hi discord (Chuang). - I. id. foot-path (Nleng); trample up a path
(Tso). - m. id. some kind of rodent (Ch'unts'iu).
n-o. *kieg I kiei I k i fowl (Shi:). o. is Yin bone (A 2: 36,7). - p. variant of the
preceding (Tso ).
q. *lc'ieg I lc'iei / k'i valley with stream in it (Tso ).
877 a-d. *tieg I tiei- It i sovereign, emperor, God (Shi:). b. is Yin bone (E 35: 3),
c. is Chou I (inscr. 63), d. is Chou I (inscr. 101).
e. *tieg I tiei- It i and *t'ieg I t'iei- I t'i and ? I t'iai- I c h'! comb-pin (Sh!).
f. *tieg I tiei- It i examine (Kuanyin); loan for g. (Siin).
g. *d'ieg I d'iei t'i "'eep, howl (Tso). - h. id. animal's foot, hoof (Yi).
i. *d'ieg I d'iei- t i a kind of great sacrifice (Tso ).
j. *d'ieg I d'iei- t i and *d'ieg I d'iei I t'i knit together, condense (Ch'uts'I).
k-1. * dieg I I s hi: only (Shu). l. is Chou I (ins cr. 89, sense of q. below).
This k. is really phonetic in the following series, but in the modern form it is sliahtly
deformed. "
m. *tiek I tielc I t i son of principal wife (Tso ). - n. iil. barb of arrow (Lie).
o. *tielc I tiek It i animal's foot, hoof (Shi); *d'jiik I rl'iiik I c h 1 check the foot, stop
walking (Yi); loan for id. throw out, send away (Chuang).
p. *t'iek / t'iek 1 t'i and *teTe I iek I c he to pluck (Lie).
q. *d'iek J d'iek I ti enemy, (Shu); resist (Tso); an equal, a match (Tso).
r. *tek 1 I c he and *d'ek 1 1 c he blame, punish (Tso); loan for *d'clc 1 1
c he change of appearance of the sun (Tso).
s. *§jiik I 8fJilc I s hi: proceed to, go to, come to (Shl) (in this sense also read tiek I I
c h 1 in Ts'ieyiin); tend towards (Shu); happen (Shi); just then (Tso); be suitable to
(Shi); (find suitable=) to like (Shi); (make suitable=) to moderate (Shu); agree, on
good terms (Kuan); loan for id. only (Meng), scared (Chuang); loan form. above (Sill),
for q. (Lunyii), for r. (Shl); Gls. 194, 418, 1204, 1802.
t. *d'ielc J d'iak I chi scratch (Lie); throw (Chuang). - u. variant of r. to blame (Shl).
878 a-b. *lieg lliei- I 1 i a pair (Chouli); number (Shi); well-proportioned (Li); elegant,
beautiful (Ch'uts'i); refined (Shu); good (Chuang); loan for id. apply (Yili); attach (Li);
233
BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
to hit (Tso); to fasten (Shi); assigned (for punishment) (Shu); name of a plant (Kuots'e);
loan for e. (Chuang). Gls. 442, 759, 1907, 1974. b. is Chou (inscr. 382, name). The
graph is probably a drawing of a deer with a pair of fine horns. - c. id. a pair (Yili);
one of a pair, mate, companion (Tso). - d. id. break (Chuang). - e. id. beam (Lie).
f. *z.ieg I liei 11 i and *lj!Jg I ljiQ 11 i black horse (Shi).
g. *lif!g ll i rope (Shi:); *sljeg I Ish 1 and *sl!Jg I Ish a i band we md
round the hair (Li).
h. I Ish i to strain off wine (Sh1); also read I I shu, a synonymous
word applied to the same character.
i. *sliJJg I Ish i and *sWg I Ish a i sprinkle (Li); distribute (Li).
j. I Ish 1 straw sandal (Kuots'e).
879 a-b. * kiweg I kiwei I k u e i jade tablet as token of rank, sceptre, tessera (Shl);
pure, sacred (Meng); loan for e. below (Li). b. is Chou II (inscr. 150) - c. vari(tnt
of the preceding (Shu). """
d. *kiweg I kiwei- / k u e i Cinnamomum Cassia (Li).
e. *kiweg I kiwei I k u e i small gate, inner gate in mansion (Li).
f. *kivxg / kiwei I k u e i and *'wag I ·wa I w a hole, hollow, concave (Lti).
g. *kiweg I kiwei I k u e i porpoise (only Han time text ex.); loa.n for *g'wag I ywa / h u a
and *g't7g I yai I hie h u a -1 u n g a kind of demon (Chuang).
h. *k'iweg I k'iwei I k'u e i stab, cut (Yi). - i. id. crotch of a ma.n's legs (Chua.ng);
name of a. constellation (Li).
j. *g'iweg I yiwei I hi (l\1and. hi is irregular, we should expect a hue i) an a.rea of
50 mou (Meng); area. (Chua.ng). ·
k. *'iweg l'iwei 1 wei concave, puddle (Chuang). (Shiwen quotes several other readings;
the word also occurs, with various readings, in severa.l meanings not a.ttested in pre-
Han texts).
I. *k'iweg I k'jwic: I k'u e i a stride, distance covered by lifting one leg (as. opp. to p u
a pace taken by both legs) (Li).
m.   I 'jwie· I hue i a.nger (Kua.n). Mand. h u ei is irregular, we should
expect a w e i.
n. *keg I kai / k i a good (Lao). - o. id. roa.d-crossing, street (Chuang).
p. *ngiJg / ngai I y a i, a. i river bank (only post-Han text ex.). - q. id. river bank
(Tso); limit (Chuang). - r. id. river bank (Shu); limit (Chuang).
s. *kweg I kwai- I k u a prognosticate by means of Achillea stalks (Yi); divination
figures (combinations of lines) (Li). - t. id. suspend (Yili). - u. variant of the
preceding.
v. *g'weg I ywai-/ h u a and *kweg I kwai- I k u a entangled, hampered (Tso).
x. *g'w'tg I ywai, ywai- I h u a vomit, spit out (Chuang). (Ts'ieyiin has other readings
for meanings not attested in early texts).
y. *'1veg / ·u·ai I w a and *'wt'ig I ·wa I w a and *g'weg I ;nvai I h u a and *g'w£"ig l;nva I
h u a frog (Chouli).
z. *'weg l',wai I w a. frog (Yinwen).
a'. *ngeg I ngai-1 y a i rim of the eye (Kuots'e).
b'. *'wt1g I ·wa J w a hollow, concave (Lao).
880 a. *g'iu·eg 1 yiwei I hi (Mand. hi in this and the following is irregular, we should
expect hue i) Shuowen says: name of a bird (no text); loan for id. distance equal to
the circumference of a wheel (Li). - b. id. to dissent, alienate (Kuoyii). - c. id.
take by the hand, lead (Shi:); hold, carry (Shu); leave (Kuoyii); alienate (Tso). - d. id.
big tortoise (Ch'uts'i:).
234
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAllfMATA SERICA RECENSA

'd
m n. a. [;.
m
c cL e f a.. i. j
;J:m :rm m tM
k l m 0
e. *g'iweg l.?iwei I h .i and * xiweg. I I hue i spike of horn or bone for opening
knots (Shi). -f. zd. (both readings) b1g bell (no text); loan for id. vapours round
the sun (Chouli).
881 *kd1}1/l k;mg- Ike n g (primary form of d. below, hence the reading) Shuowen
mcreasmg moon (no text). b. is Yin bone (B shang 9: 10, name), c. is Chou I
(mscr. 119, name).
d-e.   I yang I hen g consta.nt (Sh1); loan for *kcmg I k;mg- Ike n g increasing
moon (Sh1); to spread out, everywhere (Shi). e. is Chou II (inscr. 132).
f-g. *kang I kmg Ike n g violently thrum the strings of a lute (Ch'uts'i:).
h. *kang / kang. I ken g road (Li).
882 a-b ..   / k'ang: / k'e n (Pek. k'e n is irregular, we should expect a k'e n g)
meat st1ckmg to bones (Chuang; Shlwen says that the Tsi-lin in this sense read
*k'ag I k'qi: I k'a i); loan for id. to be willing ·(Shi').
883 a-d. *tang I tang 1. t e g a kind of sacrificial vessel (Shi). b. is Yin bone (A 5: 20,7,
sense of e. below), c. 1s Ym bone (A 5: 2,2, sense of e.), d. is Chou I (inscr. 68, sense
of 1.): The graph shows two hands- now at the top, not at the bottom-
graspm? a :1tual vessel; to the left hand the modern graph has substituted 'meat'. -
e-h. (Shl); put up (Tso); rise high (Shl); raise (Shu); ripen (sc. grain)
(Meng). f. 1s bone \A 5: 2,1), g. is Yin (inscr. 34), h. is Chou II (inscr. 147). Gl.
1009. The radical, subst1tuted to the top elements of a., is 'two feet'. - i. id. a ritual
with a high foot (Yili); foot of such a vessel (Li); lamp (Ch'uts'i:). - j. vulgar
vanant of the preceding in the sense of 'lamp'.
k. I tang·/ ten g gradually rising height, slope (Mu t'ien tsi chuan).
I. *d ang / d'ang- I ten g place name (Tso).
m.   l,:l'iang / c h'e n g ? I rl'vng I c h'e n g limpid, clear (Li).
n. tlang I tsFmg. /chen g testify, prove (Lunyii).
235
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
884 a-b. *ts:cmg I !sang J t sen g add (Meng); accumulated, double (Ch'uts''i); late,
remote (Shl); rise high (Ch'uts''i); particle equal to Jllj (Shi:); *dz'mg I dz'ang Jt s'eng
a particle denoting perfect tense (Sh'i). Gl. 935. b. is Chou I (inscr. 110, name). The
graph seems to be the primary form for k. below.
c. *tsang J tsmg 1 t sen g increase (Shl); numerous (ShY). - d. id. hate (Shi:). -e. id.
bundles of branches (Li). - f. id. net (Chuang). - g. id. arrow with string attached
(Chouli).
h. *tsmg I tsmg Its eng and *dz'f.mg I dz'jang It s'i n g silk (Li).
i. *dz'ang 1 dz' mg 1 t s'e n g and *tsang I ts<7ng Its eng in two storeys, double (Ch'uts'l).
j. *dz'<Jng 1 dz' ang- 1 t sen g give, gift (Shl); (send, send away:) expel (sc. bad influences}
(Chouli).
k. *tsjang 1 tsjang- I t sing, t sen g (Pek. t s eng is irregular) boiler, earthenware
pot for steaming rice (Meng).
885 a-e. *nang I nang In eng a kind of bear (Kuoyii); loan for id. able, can (Shl);
treat well (Sh'i, Shu); endure (Tso). Gls. 189, 917. In the sense of 'bear' also read
*nCJg 1 ru[i 1 n a i. In the sense of 'can, able' it rimes so frequently with *-Jg
in the Sh'i and other early texts, that probably *nJg was the normal Arch. reading
and An c. n<Jng (l\Iand. n en g) is an aberrant evolution in this common auxiliary verb.
b. is Yin (inscr. 6), c. is Chou I (inscr. 58), d. is Chou I (inscr. 79), c. is Chou II (inscr.
180). The original graph must have been a drawing.
f. *t'nCJg 1 t' qi- J t'a i apparition, bearing, manner (Kuots'e).
886 a-e. *b' ang J b' ang 1 p'e n g a set of cowries (stringed) (Shi:); a peer, equa,l (Shi);
comrade, friend (Shi); a pair (Shi); faction, league (Shu). Gls. 297, 1171, 1331. b. is
Yin bone (A 1: 30,5), c. is Yin (inscr. 10), d. is Chou I (inscr. 66), e. is Chou I (inscr. 59).
The graph is a drawing of strings of cowries. - f-i. id. adherent, (Chouli).
h. is Yin bone (A 4: 30,2), i. is Chou II (inscr. 135).- j. id. a fabulous great b1rcl (Chuang).
k-1. *pCJng J pang- I pen g put coffin in the ground (Tso).
m. *pang j p<Jng J p e n g fall, collapse (sc. mountain) (Sill); die (said of prominent
people) (Shu).
n. *piang J pjmg I ping cover of a quiver (Shl).
o. *pc,ng I pc,ng I pen g to bind round
887 a-e. *kw<71lfll kwmg I kung Shuowen says: arm, thus taking it to be the primary
form of f. below (no text). c. is Yin bone (A 5: 15,2, sense of g. below), d. is Chou I
(inscr. 95, sense of g.), e. is Chou II (inscr. 164, name). The original graph may have
been a drawing of an arm. - f. id. arm (esp. the upper arm, from elbow to
shoulder) (Shi).
g. *g'w<Jng I ywJng /hung vast (Shi); enlarge (Sh'i).
h. *g'wc,ng 1 ywmg J hung resounding (Chouli); great (Shu); hung- f u master of
works (Shu). - i. id. to measure (Chouli). - j. id. cord on ceremoniaJ cap (Tso);
suspending cord (Yili). - k. id. gate (Tso); loan for h. great (Li).
1. *gfung 1 jjttng J hi u n g (lVIand. hi u n g is irregular, we should expect a y u n g
or j u n g) male (Shi).
m. *kwCJng 1 kwJng I kung and *k'wJng I k'w:mg I k'u n g leather-covered leaning-
board of carriage (Shi).
888 a-b. *kjCJng I kfang I king fear, cautious, attentive (Sh!); id. and *g'fmg I g'jJng /
k'i n g strong (Shi); terrible (Shi:). b. is Chou II (inscr. 143).
236
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAlVIMATA SERICA RECENSA
S87 J_._ t
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889 a-d. *;;img I ;xjCJng I hi n g lift, raise (Shi'); rise (Shl); prosper (Shi:); start, begin
(Shu); arouse (lVImg); be aroused (Lunyii); open up (lVIeng). *xiang I xiang- I hi n g
be elated (Li). b. i:-; Yin bone (A 5: 21,8), c. is Chou II/III (inscr. 280), d. is Chou
(inscr. 365, name). The graph has four hands and a sail, see 625.
890 a-b. *'iang / 'i,Jng I yin g Shuowen says: eagle, thus taking it to be the prin1ary
form of c. below (no te:xt). b. i3 Chou I (inscr. 88, name). - c. id. eagle, falcon (Shl).
d. *' jang l"iJng-l yin g answer (l\feng), respond (Shi); correspond, conform (Yi);
accept, agree (Kuoyu); *'f<Jng I 'jmzg I y i 11 g ought, of right (Tso ); loan for e. resist
(Shi); for e. receive (Shu). Gls. 857, 1142, 1634.
e. *'jmg l·iang I yin g breast (Sh'i); breast-plate (Shi); (turn the breast against:) resist,
oppose (Shi:); receive (Kuoyii).
891 a. *tiang I liang I c he 11 g summon (Shu); examine, test (Tso); testify (Tso);
evidence (Li); prove (Tso ); prognostics, verifications (Shu); effect (Li); to levy (sc. tax)
(Chouli); *d'j<Jng I ct'j;;ng I c h'e n g suppress (Yi); *tjag I ti: J chi: name of one of the
notes of the gamut (Li).
b. *d'fang I d'fang I c h'eng to reprove, warm (Tso); a warning (Shu); to correct,
chastise (Shi); punish (Shu). Gl. 1114.
892 a. *djJ1UJ I jmg I y i n g a fly (Sh'i).
b. *d'iang I di'f.Jng Ish eng string, cord (Shi); (in a line:) continue (Shi); lay the
regulating line on, regulate (Li); in a continuous line (Shi); careful (Kuan); to praise
(Tso); loan for *diang / jang- J yin g full (sc. ear of grain) (Chouli). Gl. 20.
893 a-b. *djang I fang- I yin g (primary form of c. below, hence the reading) servant,
slave (inscr. 180). b. is Chou II (inscr. 180). The graph has two hands, holding an
object of uncertain interpretation, which has wrongly been turned into 'fire' in the
modern graph. - c-e. id. (same word as k. below) servant, to serve (inscr. 138);
go as servant or concubine, accompanying the first rank consort (inscr. 386). d. is
Chou II (inscr. 138), e. is Chou (inscr. 386).
f-i. *d'f.mn I d'inn: I chen I, we, our (Shi); *d'jan / d'fi'n: / chen a seam (Chouli);
omen, sign (Chuang). The final consonants in this and next are very enigmatic, all
the moTe since the derivates again have -ng. g. is Yin bone (A 4: 4,7), h. is Chou I
(inscr. 63), i. is Chou I (inscr. 65).
237
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
j. *d'iam I a'i;:nn: I chen horizontal pieces in a frame for silk worms (Lii).
k. *dj;mg 1 f:ang- 1 yin g girl who follows the principal wife to her future husband and
becomes at the same time his concubine (Tso); accompany (Ch'uts'i). - 1-m. id.
accompanying 'present', additional concubine following the bride of first rank (inscr.
212; s. w. as c. and k. above). m. is Chou IIII (inscr. 212).
n-o. *cl'jang 1 di'jang I c h'e n g Shuowen says: raised path between fields (no text).
o. is Chou III (inscr. 216, sense of k. above).
p. *siang 1 si;mg-/ she n g vanquish, overcome (Shi:); surpass {Lun:yii); loan for id.
head ornament (Li). *sj;mg I lijang I she n g equal to, capable of (Lunyii); equal to
one's task (Shi). Gls. 797, 1185.
1
q. *d'nuJ 1 d'ang 1 t'e n g to gush up (as water) (Shi ap. Yiip'ien); to gape and gush out
words (Yi); loan for id. place name (Tso). - r-s. id. place name, same as the preceding
in this sense (hence the reading). s. is Chou I (inscr. 116). - t. id. tie, band (Shi).
u. *d'mg 1 d';mg I t'eng a fabulous flying snake (Stin); *d'Jk I d'Jlc I te insect eating
the leaves of grain plants (Sill). ,
v. *d'ang 1 d';mg 1 t'e n g mount, rise (Shi); ascend (Li); (surmount=) overcome, get
the better of, oppress (Shi); loan for k. (Yili). Gl. 1170.
1
894 a-c. *t'iang I ts'jang I c h'eng lift, hold (Yin bone A 7: 25,3). b. is Yin bone
(A 7: 25,3), c. is pre-Han (inscr. 406, name). The graph shows a hand lifting an object
of uncertain interpretation.
d-f. *t'f:ang 1 ts'iang I c h'e n g lift (Shu ap. Kuo P'o, comm. on Shu). e. is Yin bone
(E hia 36: 8, sense here uncertain), f. is pre-Han (inscr. 404, name).
g. *l'fang I ts'i;mg I c h'e n g to weigh (Li); lift up (Shi); start (Shu); praise (Lunyti);
divulge (Lunyii); (evaluate:) denominate, call (Lunyii); say, declare, profess to, plead
(Tso); *t''f;;ng 1 ts'jang- I c h'e n g appreciate, estimate (Yi); (weighing up:) equal to,
corresponding (Shi); corresponding to, according to (Shu); be fitting (Tso); capable of
(Li); a set (of clothes) (Li). Gl. 1754.
895 a-c. *chang 1 di'jang I c h'e n g to mount, ascend (Shi); ride, drive (Shi); be on
top, above (Lao); avail oneself of (Meng); to bully (Kuoyti); calculate (Chouli); *a'jang I
rU'f:ang- 1 she n g (what is mounted:) chariot (Shi); team of four horses (Shl); set of
four (l\feng); several, group (Li); set of annotations, annals (l\ieng); set of fields, district
1
(Meng). Gls. 376, 1483. b. is Yin bone (A 5: 25,3), c. is Chou I (inscr. 97). The graph
: shows a man mounted on a tree.
i
896 a-b. */liang / ijmg I c h'e n g lift, hold (inscr. 54), same word as c. below, which
is only another modern variation of the same archaic graph. b. is Chou I (inscr. 54).
The graph shows two hands lifting a kneeling man. -c. id. lift, to present (Sill); to
honour, celebrate (Shi); to support, assist (Yi); serve (Shl); receive (ShY); meet (in battle)
(Shi); continue (Sill); (successive steps:) gradations in taxes (Tso). Gls. 431, 1070, 1172,
1892.- d-f. id. assist. Shuowen gives this as the original form of g. below, the straight
bottom line of which is only a corruption. e. is Yin bone (E 171: 3), f. is Chou II,IIIV
(inscr. 324). The radical at the bottom is not 'mountain', but a drawing of a pitfall,
(
two hands rescuing a man out of it. - g. id. assist (Li).
, h. *liang f 1 chen g to steam (Shi); loan for id. advance, bring forward (Shi);
offer gifts to (Shi); winter sacrifice (Shi); numerous (Shi); grand (Shu); splendid (Shi);
debauch (Tso). Gls. 387, 679, 1151, 1245, 1918, 1949.
i. *t'fang I tdiang: I chen g to save, help (Tso); lift (Yi).
j. *tjang 1 tliiang I chen g to present (meat) in sacrifice (Yili). - k. id. small twigs
as firmvood (Sh!); loan for id. numerous (Shi ap. Meng).
238
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
F94 -fit A 114 1ft 41 *¥4 895 *
c d. e f '3
i- 7k ffr(_ t it &97 J+
CL a.
i 89t;
7
I<- 7k
Lr c a. lrc
ft. tJt 898
d. e f 9 h i :i k CL
t   :& !k f
lt c e a..
900 7t
c cl e f :3 h. i a.. cl e a.
9()( tj J
13
CL [. d e lr c t 9
897 a-b. *siang I siang Ish eng a measure (lOth of a to u) (Shi); loan for id. a set of
80 threads (in weaving) (Li); to mount, rise, arise (Shi); (lift:) to present to (Li). b. is
Chou II (inscr. 191). The graph is a drawing of a measure.- c. variant of the preceding
in the sense of 'rise' (Yi, Cheng Htian's version). - d. variant of the preceding in the
sense of 'rise' (Ch'uts'i).
e. *siang I sjmg fs hen g and *tjang I tsjmg: I chen g to lift up, to save (Chouli).
898 a-b. *lf;cmg /liang 11 in g Shuowen says: transgress, thus taking it to be the
primary form of c. below (no text). b. is Chou I (inscr. 96, name). - c-d. id. high:
mound, hill (Shi); a height (Tso); ascend (Kuots'e); transgress (Li); encroach upon, ',
usurp (Tso ); molest, oppress (Tso); msult, contemn (Tso); loan for id. to temper (steel)
(Siin). d. is Chou II (inscr. 147). - e. id. transgress (Kuots'e); surmount (Ch'uts'!).
-f. id. ice (Sill); maltreat, oppress (Ch'uts'i). - g. id. water-chestnut (Lie). - h.
id. name of a fish (Ch'uts'i).- i. id. water-chestnut (Li), see g. above.
899 a. *pjmg I pfang I p in g Shuowen says: ice, thus taking it to be the primary form
of b. below (no text). -b-e. id. ice (Shi); loan for 886 n. above (Tso). c. is Chou IV
(inscr. 292).
d. *b'iang I b''fang I p'i n g (tread:) walk across a river (Shi); (trample:) 'maltreat (Tso);
encroach upon (Chouli); angry (Tso); ascend (Chouli); (stand on:) lean on, rely on (Shi);
loan for id. full, solid (Shi). Gl. 796. - e. id. to lean on (Shu).
900 a. *b'iang I b''f;Jng I p'i n g and I b'iang- I ping lean on (sc. a stool) (Shu ap.
Shuowen).
901 a-d. *kiting I kiung I kung a bow (Shl); a length measure (Yili). b. is Yin bone
(A 5: 7,2), c. is Yin bone (B hia 13: 17), d. is Chou I (inscr. 88). The graph is a drawing.
e. *k'jung I k''fung f k'i u n g hollow, hole (Shi); high and vaulted, vault (Shi); loan for
(Chouli). Gl. 372.
902 a-b. *mfiing I mj1mg- I m eng dream (Shi); *mung I mung / m en g darkened,
blind (Shi). Gl. 532. b. is Chou II (inscr. 170). The graph has 'evening, night' below,
meaning of upper part uncertain. This upper element, which recurs in the following
characters, is not known as an independent character. - c. variant of the preceding
(Chouli).
239
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
d. *mjiing j mimtg I men g and *mwmg j mwJng jm eng darkened (Chouli); ashamed,
despondent (Tso).
e. *mweng j mweng j m eng rafters, beams inside roof (Tso ).
f. *mwlng j mwlng j man g exert oneself (Shu).
g. r.,mwang j xw<Jng j hung to die (said of kings and princes) (Tso ); loan for id. numerous
(ShY). Gl. 19.
903 a-e. *k'Jk I I k'o carry, sustain (Li); able, can (Shi, Shu); vanquish, dominate
(ShY); crush (Shu); self-controlled (Shl); predominate (Shu). Gls. 992, 1519, 1543. b. is
-Yin bone (A 3: 27,2), c. is Yin bone (A 8: 5,5), d. is Chou I (inscr. 56), e. is Chou I
(inscr. 72). - f-g. variants of the preceding (Chuang).
904 a-b. * xm,!k I X<Jk I he i black (Shi). b. is Chou II/III (inscr. 244). The graph
shows a human figure with face and body covered with spots (war-paint?).
c. *rnak j mak j m o ink (Meng); black (Tso); blac.l.\_-branding (Shu); name of a measure
(Kuoyii). - d. id. (dark:) silent (Tso). - e. variant of the preceding (Kuots'e). -
f. id. cord (Yi).
905 a-c. *tJk I iJk It e obtain, get, take (inscr. 146). b. is Yin bone (E 29: 2). c. is
Chou II (inscr. 146). The graph has 'hand' and 'cowry' (money). In the Seal the cowry
has been misunderstood and turned 'to see'. - d. id. obtain, get (ShY); can
(Lunyii).
906 a-b. *tsak I tsak I t s e law, rule, pattern (ShY); follow a law, imitate (Shl); accord-
ingly, thus, then, thereupon (ShY); loan for 907 (Shu). Gl. 1462. b. is Chou I (inscr. 97).
The graph hasting 'ritual cauldron' and 'knife'. The law was codified by inscriptions
on ritual vessels. In the modern graph 'cauldron' has been corrupted into 'cowry'.
c-d. j j t s'e (the Maud. aspirate is irregular) side (Shl); inclining (Sill);
partial (Shu); (side-placed:) inferior, low (Shu); perverse (Shi); tum on the side (Sill).
Gls. 1315, 939. d. is Chou II (inscr. 179).
e. *i$'iak I t1'iak j t s'e to pity, pained (Meng). -f. id. to fathom (ShY); limpid (Chouli).
Gl. 1053.
g. *i$'fgg I t1'i- It s'i latrine (Tso).
907 a-b. I dz'<Jk Its e i murderer, bandit, villain (Shu); injure (Shi). b. is Chou II
(inscr. 147). The graph has 'man', 'dagger-axe' and 'cowry' (money).
908 a. *s<Jk jsak I s e and *sog j s(!i- Is a i stop up, block (Shi:); shut (Lunyii); a pass,
strait (Tso ); fill (1\ieng); loan for id. sincere (Shi:); *sag I S(!i- f sa i frontier (Tso ); loan
for id. a game of draughts (Chuang). Gls. 73, 1208.
b. *sak I sakI s e sincere (Shu ap. Shuowen).
909 a-d. *pak I pak I p e i turn the back (Tso); (back side:) North (Shi); send to the
North (Shu). Gl. 1272. b. is Yin bone (A 4: 3,2), c. is Chou I (inscr. 115), d. is Chou II
(inscr. 134). The graph shows two men back to back.
e. *pw<Jg I puqi- I p e i the back, posterior part (Shl); *b'wgg j b'zu]i- I p e i turn the
back on, cheat (Shi). Gl. 939.
f. *b'wgg I b'uqi-1 p e i turn the back on, abandon (Li); not to face straightly (Li).
910 a-b. *ki,ak j kiak j k i urgently, hurry (Shi:); straits (Tso). *k'j9g I lc'ji-1 k'i often
(Lunyii). b. is Chou II (inscr. 180).
240
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
903 Jt 1 ti 5ti 904 f. 90S
a. lr c d e f 9 ct. Lr c cl e f
c;tJc W M J()7 if$ Jo8
lr c cL a. lr c d e .f 9 a. lr
9tJJ J t f 1 f {}f 9!()
a a. G c d. e. f ct. lr c d.. e f
111 lr 9!3 :rfk. 9!4 4 Jls-
c a. /; c d a_ !.,.
a
a.
a.. a..
c. kfak I kjak I k i urgently, hastily (Lie).- d. id. die (Li); destroy, kill (Shu).
e-f. *g'jJk I g'j9k I k i ridge of roof (Chuang); the highest point, extreme limit, utmost
(Shi); reach the end, come to _(Sh!); attainment (Shi); centre, middle
(S_hi); nnddle . >;ay, correctness (Shu); loan for zd. leathern finger protection (in shooting
with bow) (Y1li); loan for a. (Siin). Gls. 148, 182, 253, 671, 726, 1040, 1058, 1205, 1524.
f. is Chou I (inscr. 65, rad. 60 inst. of rad. 75).
_)
911_ a-b. *k_iJk I kjak I k i jujube (Shi); thorns (Tso ); thorny, harassing, painful,
distress (Sh1); urgent, haste (Shi); swift (Sh'i); emaciated (Lii); loan for 785 above (Tso).
Gls .. 254, 500, 860. b. is Yin (inscr. 51, name). The graph has 'thorn' (8138) doubled.-
c. td. collar of a coat (Shl).
a-d. *gfak I iak / y i to buzz br_ight (Shu, one version); next-following (day)
(mscr. 137). Gls. 1302, 1598, 1982. c. IS Ym lone (A 2: 20,5), d. is Chou I (inscr. 137).
913 a. * xi<Jk I xi<Jk I hi and 1 I siak I s h 1 red (Shi); (rimes in the <Jk class in Slu).
b. 1 I sfak Ish 1 raincoat of straw (Kuoyii).
914 a. * xi<Jk I xiak I hi grieved, pained (Shu).
915 a. *'jJk I / y i _put the rub to repress (Shu); (self-repressing:)
careful, attentive (Sh1); loan for rmtial partwle (Shi); and, but, or else (ShY). Gls.
552, 895.'
a-c.- *t'{iikf tjak_l c Y ascend (Shl); pron:ote (Shu); _(ascend on high=) die (Shu);
Gls. 1109, 1294. b. IS Ym bone (A 7: 32,4), c. Is Chou I (mscr. 58). The graph has feet
taking 'steps', and (staircase:) 'height' (cf. 1015 below).
917 a-c. jakl t' jJk I _c h'Y to correct (Yi); arrange (Shi); dispose (Shu). Gls. 670,
1348. c. IS Chou III (mscr. 229). The graph has * for 'admonish' (185 b.) and
'beat' or 'force'.
' a-b. *rljgk I jak I y i to shoot with arrow and string attached (Shi:); b. is Chou I
(mscr. 100, sense here uncertain). The graph must be a drawing of some kind of arrow .
••
16
241
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
_ c-d. id. a clan name (inscr. 302). d. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 302). - e. id. stake,
pole (Tso). d
1
(Shl.)· be a model to (Shi)· follow the model
f. *diak I sj<Jk I B hi pat;ern.'(r: (Shi)· a particle (Shl); loan for k. (Siin),

713, 8'16, 1193, 1636, 1944, 1966.
g. *t'<Jk / t'<Jk I t'e er.r (Sh1); chdange g. above (Shu ap.
h. *t' ale / t'<Jk I t'e and *d <Jk I d Jk t e eg, eman '
. Gl. t a i take the lace of (Shu); supersede (Tso); alternate
1-l · d ag I d   I . (Sh")· d P t (Lunyu)· from generation to genera,tiOn (Sh1).
sion (Tso); generatiOn 1 '. yna,s Y '
Gl. 974. j: is III/I': 332)i id cross-bar at front of ca,rriage box (Tso).
k. *siJk 1 s
1
alc 1 s h 1 to w1pe 1 ... - · ·
m. *t.'iak J,.l'iak / .? h'i fear 1 make use of (ShY). Gls. 460, 1173. - o. id.
n. *sFJg 1 1 s h 1 test, ..try (Shi'.), app y,
kill (a superior) (Lunyu). f b (L
1
')
'>' / ' • b lend (Tso)· loan or g. a ove . .
p. *t'ag t tal. orrow, t '. (Sh ) - r id to Jlencil the eyebrows (Lle).
*d'J d'fri- 1 t a 1 name of a moun am u · • · _
*d'Jz a;;k I t e insect eating the leaves of grain plants (Sh1 ap. Shuowen).
919a. *d'iak f ct'jJk 1 chi

   

, loa,n for k. (Shu); :oan for td. or dl below) has 'eye' and a straight line.
be equivalent to (L1). Gl.1320. The grap ·
b *tiak / tiak / c hi to sow or plant early (Shi).
c.' *diak / i1.Jk Ish i clay, (S_hu). lGl. 1358h. ould expect a s hi) rancid (sc. fat)
5 . k / . . k I h . (Pek c h l 1S megu ar' we s > 1 t
d. *uta ZF'J c 1 . )· l f rid to grow, prosper' flourish (Tso); top an '
(Shuowen no pre-Han text ex. ' oan o . •
to_ plants (Chouli); up-
e . . *(tpk I Z1CJk /chi an : g establish (Chouli); wooden piece winch door
nght (Shu); to place put fulp, . h (H . )· aim will (Ch'uts'i); supenntend (Tso ).
bar enters (:rYio); pole (L1); grow, ouns ual ' '
Gls. 331, 1566. .
1
f *d'. k / cl'iJk / chi hem (of a garment) (Li).
1
1
lc (Shi); (set aside:) letdff

h. *d'jJg / cl'i- I chi hold upright (Shl); to meet (Chuang). .
242
BTERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMM AT A SERICA REGEN SA
i-j. *t,lk I t8k It e virtue (inscr. 286). j. is Chou IV (inscr. 286). - k-1. id. virtue,
virtuous (Shl); quality, nature (Tso); character, disposition (Shu). Gls. 1477, 1854.
l. is Chou I (inscr. 65).
920 a-d. *tjJk I I chi (Ts'ieyiin gives this reading but, following Shuowen, says
its meaning is unknown) stick to, adhere (Yi, one version ap. Shiwen). Gl. 1358. b. is
Yin bone (A 4: 4,4,
1
sense uncertain), c. is Chou I (inscr. 97, name), d. is Chou II (inscr.
138, sense of f. below).
e. *tjak I t:ijak / c h i and *d' Jlc / d' ak / t e pole (Chouli).
f. *tfJk I tdjak I c h 1 weave (Shi); *tjag / t8i- / chi stuff made of coloured silk (Li);
Gl. 457.
g-h. I tsjJk I chi duties of office, office (Shi); attend to, manage (Tso); duty,
tribute (Tso); loan for id. simply, only (Shl); ample, numerous (Chuang); loan for e.
(Chouli), for f. fabric (Shi). Gls. 286, 1023. h. is Chou IV (inscr. 283). - i. id. slice
of dried meat (Yili).
j. *sjJk I #,Jlc / s h 1 and *sjJg I 8i- Ish i and *t'iJfJ / t.fi- / c h'1 a kind of banner
(Hanfei).
k. *djJk I #Jlc / sh i know (Shi); *tiJg / tdi- I c h 1 remember (Shi); commemorate (Yi);
to record (Shu).
I. *t'jCJg I ts'i- I c h'i blaze (Shi); glorious (Shi); to heat (Tso).
921 a-c. *(['jak I di'i,Jk / s h 1 eat (ShY); (•>eating•> of sun or moon:) eclipse (Shl); *dzjJg /
zi- f s i food (Shl); give food to (Shl). b. is Yin bone (A 6: 35,2), c. is Chou (inscr. 351,
name). The graph is a drawing of a food vessel with lid.
d. *ct'falc / di'jCJk / s h 1 to eat up gradually, to eclipse (the sun or the moon) (Lii) .
e-f. *dzjJg I zi- Is i food, give food to (Yili ap. Shiwen; inscr. 225). f. is Chou III (inscr.
225).
g. *t'jak Jl'iak f c h'i to make solid, strengthen (Kuoyii); prepare, make ready (Shi:);
put in fine order (Li); to order, command (Kuoyii).
h. * sf8k J {;j;Jk Is hi adorn, ornament (Shl); loan for g. above (Kuliang).
92:2 a. *tsiak / tsfak / t s i and / I c h'1 sharp-cutting (Shl). Gl. 1128.
b. *tsiak I tsfak Its i millet (Shi); loan for JJ:. (Kuliang).
c. *t?flik I I s h u to rise (Li).
923 a. *tsiak / tsfak Its i go to, forthwith, thereupon etc., see series 399 above. - b.
id. t s i - t s ii millipede (Chuang).
c. (*dz'fak I dz'jak f t s i; so Shiwen, but more correctly:) *dz'jat I dz'fet / t s i,
loan see Gl. 1292, detest (Shu); *tsjJt / tsfi!t / t s i masonry (Li); coaled part of
a burning torch (Kuan); in this latter reading the phonetic has its value of group 399
above.
d. *tsfak / tsi ak / t s i and *tsjiik / tsiak / t s i t s i - 1 in g name of a bird (Tso ).
924 a-b. *tt?f,Jk I lf?iJk Its e Shuowen says: incline the head (no text). (Tsiyiin reads
this word niet I n i e or liet J 1 i e). b. is Chou I (inscr. 69, name). The graph is the
primary form for c., showing a man with inclined head. - c-d. id. slanting, oblique
(Chouli). Shuowen registers c. as an early form of what is currently written d. -
e-i. ill. sun slanting, inclining to the West (Shu). h. is Yin bone (E 110: l, sense here
uncertain), i. is Yin bone (A 4: 8,7, sense uncertain).
925 a. *siJk I si,Jk / s i breathe (Lunyii); sigh (Li); rest, repose (Shi); cease (Shu);
(collect force:) grow (Meng); interest on money (Chouli); descendants (Kuots'e). The
243
I "I
, I,!
BULLETIN OP THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
921 tt 923 F 924 fk. If:. R JZ
a. lr c. a. c cL a.. lr c cl e f-
/(\3 at cyzs- .&t ;;tc 1ft; ¥f 'J27 e '728 n
a.
9 h.. i o.. lr a.. lr c cl e
) {tJ tJJ r!J 1fJJ ID J29 1ij o\ et 1a1 i\
1.t c d e f
9
h_ a_ lr c d. e f h..
;.\ }t @J @ Ar31  
k L m.n. o p 9 .,- .s t
.
j
Ll v
graph hast s 1 1237 m. below, said to depict a nose (cf. 1088) and 'heart'; thus: 'heart'
and 'nose'. - b. id. extinguish (Meng).
926. a-d. *EJiak I EfiJk I s e harvest (Yili); greedy (Yi). b. is Yin ,<A 29,7),
c. is Yin bone (G 12: 2), d. is Yin bone (A 4: 41,3). The graph has gram , smgle
doubled, and a drawing of a granary, or (in d.) a field. - e. ul. to reap, harvest (Sh1);
husbandry (Shu); sparing, economical (Tso). Gl. 974.
927 a. *?ialc f Efiak 1 se colour (Tso); countenance, looks (Shi); beauty (Lunyii); to show
off (Shl). Gl. 841.
928 a-b. *liak 1 liak ll i strong, strength, force (Shi); to force (Shi); effort (Shi). b. is
Chou III 220). The graph seems to depict an arm with a hand (cf. 995).
c. *bk 1 lak jle and *liak fljak ll i. a tenth (Li). . . . . . . r·
d. *lJk llJlc fl e space between the (wher_e sticks. were
- e. iii. vein or duct in soil (Chouh); loan for fractwn (Chouli). - f-g. ul. rems
(Yili); loan for id. engrave (Li). g. is Chou I (inscr. 86). - h. id. to split according to
the veins (sc. stone, cf. e. above) (Chouli).
929 a-d. *giwak 1 jjwak f y ii (primary form of e. below, Shuowen, hence the
territory, state (inscr. 57); loan for *g'wJk I yw;;k I h u o some, someone, somethmg
(Shi); (some chances of:) possibly, perhaps (Shu); either-or (Tso); loan for. q. error,
erroneous (Shu). Gls. 1453, 1640, 1828, 1836. b. is Yin (A 2; 6,5), Chou I
(inscr. 57}, d. is Chou I (inscr. 71). The graph has 'dagger-axe and mouth m the old-
est forms (army and command). .
e-f. *gfwak 1 jiw;;k 1 y ti territory, state (Lunyii); boundary (Shi); (La_:>)· f.
is Chou II (inscr. 182, T\Ld. 163 inst. of 32). Gls. 304, 875. - f?.-:-•· ?ak (Slu).
is Chou II (inscr. 147, name}, i. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 328). - J· .. hshmg net (Slu).
k. *gfwak 1 iiwak 1 y u and * xiwak I xiwak I h (Lunyu). .
1. *xiwJk f xiwJk 1 h ti city (Shi}: - m . ..1il. to whistle the w1.?"d) (Chuang).
n. * xi·wJk I xiwak I h ti and *giW()k I J1WJk I y u of Gl.
o-p. *kwak 1 kwak 1 k u o state, country (Shl); capital mty (Chouli). p. Is Chou I (mscr.
84).
q. *g'wak 1 ywJk I h u o deceive, delusion (Lunyii); doubt (Lunyii).
244
' '
' '
(:I, J
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
r. *g'wak I ywak I h u o and *gjwak I fiwak I y ti a faboulous nocuous water animal,
water demon (Shi); loan for t. (Ta Tai li).
s. *kwc:k I kwc:k I k u o hollow at back of knee (Sun). - t. id, frog (Li). - u. id.
cut off the head (Shi}; loan for id. (see Sh'iwen) parched, wizened (sc. face) (Chuang,
so ace. to the Si-ma comm.). - v. variant of the preceding (Tso ap. Shuowen). - x.
variant of the preceding (chao 'claw, hand' radical) (inscr. 67). x is Chou I (inscr.
67).
y. *Bile I 'iuk I yii richly-giving, flourishing (sc. millet) (Shi).
930 a. *x·iwak I xiwak I h ti water-channel, ditch, moat (Lunyii); empty (Kuan); loan
for id. excessive, bad (Chuang; so ace. to some comm.). The character was primarily
read* xiwat, and therefore lfn. is phonetic, see group 410 d. above. It was then applied
to our synonymous word here, which is identical with 9291. above. Gl. 859. Abbreviated
phonetic in the following derivates:
b. *xiwak I xiw;;k I h u and * xiwag I xjwi- I hue i still, quiet (Shi).
c. *xiwak I xiwek I h u and *xiwak I xiwak 1 h u burst, cleave (said of egg shells) (Li).
931 a-b. *kc:k I kt::k I k o hide, skin (Sh'i); change (Sh'i); (flay, peel:) take away (Tso);
said to be loan for *lciak I kiJk I k i extreme (Li), but this may simply be an extension
of meaning: *kt::k (change =) to take a (bad) turn; loan for 928 f. reins (Sh'i); for d.
below (Shi). Gls. 450,501, 860. b. is Chou II (inscr. 166). The graph is a drawing.- c. id.
to change (Sun).
d. *g' sk I yc;k I h o wing (ShY, Han version).
932 a-c. *mwEk I mwc;k I m o, m a i wheat (ShY). b. is Yin bone (I 10: 8), c. is Chou
I (inscr. 64, name). The graph is a drawing.

933 a-c. *b'iuk I b'iuk If u Shuowen says: full, fullness (abundance) (no text). The
graph shows a wine vessel, and if this is not simply the primary form of d. below, for
which it serves in the oracle inscriptions, then it is etymologically closely cognate to
it (abundance: happiness). b. is Yin bone (A 4: 23,8, sense of d. below), c. is Chou II
(inscr. 197, sense of d.).
d-h. *pjuk / pj1tk I f u happiness, blessing (Shi). e. is Yin bone (A 4: 2,8 ), f. is Yin
bone (B hia 27: 6), g. is Chou I (inscr. 58), h. is Chou I (inscr. 87). - i. id. a plant
with edible fruit and root (Shi). - j. id. spokes of a wheel (Sh'i).
k. *pfuk I pj1tk If u width (of cloth) (Tso); limit (Tso); wide (Shi); *pf{tk I pfitk If u
and *pf;;k I pfak I pi strap round the leg (Shi). Gl. 1187.
1. *pjuk I pj1tlc I f u and *piJk I piak I pi piece of wood fastened across a bull's horns
(Shl); stand for arrows (Yili). Gl. 1165.
m. *b'juk I b'juk I f u and *l/Jk I b' Jlc I p o crawl (Sh'i). Gl. 98.
n. *pi'dlc I pjalc / pi to crowd (Tso); encroach upon (Li); press upon (Meng); adjoin, be
near to (Tso); strap round the leg (Li); *pjuk I pfuk If u place name (Ch'unts'iu).
o. *piak / pj,Jk /pi bath-house (Li). - p. id. to urge, press (:Meng); close (Tso).
q. *p'j'Jk I p'jgk J p'i and *pek I pc;k I p o split, cut open (Chouli).
r. *pj1lg I Pigu- / f u rich, wealth (Shi); self-important (Sh'i). Gl. 585.
s. *p' f/i.g I I f u aid, assistant (Lii); a kind of head dress (Shi); *p'fgk I p'fak I p'i
cleave, divide (Shi).
934 a-c. *b'iuk I b'iulc I f u subdue, submit (inscr. 184). b. is Yin bone (A 4: 8,2),
c. is Chou II (inscr. 184). The graph has a kneeling man and a hand. - d-f. id. domi-
nate, subdue (Shi); domesticate, train and use (Yi); be dominated, submit to
245
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
CJJO Aa1_@_ 937 if- Ji 'l'f * j: & f
a.. lr c. a... lr c. cL Q._ Lr c Q.. lr
1& TA ;t& 1J 1& k_
cJ.. e f- .9 h._ i j. k L l"YLn. o p q,..
JJ1 It t f:{ J3!i 1A 1i (j{_
.s a. lr c d.. e f 9 lr a.. lr c
937 t__ f l -9 5 Jf<_ Jf<
lr c. cl e f 9 h. L J. k L 0
'@t__ tA ;;t_ Ill
p 9
y s t \r X.. y z. a!
(Shi:); to yoke, yoke-horse (Shi); (cause to undergo=) apply (Shu); serve; service,
business, labour (Shi); intense thoughts (Shi); (subjugated area:) district, dependency
(Shu); loan for id. garment, robe (Shr); to ·wear (Shi:); a quiver (Shi:); f u- f u crawl
(Shi:, Ts'i version); *b'jug I b'ig1l: If u box of a carriage (Cbouli). Gls. 4, 98, 455, 633,
1286, 1386, 1634, 1844. e. is Chou I (inscr. 63), f. is Chou I (inscr. 65).- g. id. a quiver
(Chouli).
935 a-b. *b'j{lk I b'juk I f u lie down, prostrate (Sbl); throw down (Shu); submit (Sh'i);
be hidden, ambush (Sh'i); loan for   I b'ig'll- If u to batch (Li); loan for 933 m.
(Tso). b. is pre-Han (inscr. 410, name). The graph has 'man' and 'dog'.
936 a-c. *k9g I kqi: I k a i change (Shl). b. is Yin bone (A 5: 10,6), c. is pre-Han (inscr.
445, name).
937 a-f. *g'gg I yqi: I h ai cyclical character (Tso). b. is Yin bone (E 258: 3), c. is
Yin bone (A 5: 44,2), d. is Yin bone (A 1: 52,3), e. is Yin (inscr. 12), f. is Chou I (inscr. 70).
This was probably a drawing of some animal; but when it has been identified with
l>the boan, this is because it corresponds to the boar as the last in the cycle of 12 animals,
named after the l>twelve branches•>. This animal cycle was not so ancient that it can
give the key to this 1£ *g'gg which is a primeval cyclical character.
g. *g'ag y(]i lhai smile as a baby (Li); *k'gg I k'(]i-1 k'ai cough (Li).
h. *g'Jg y(ti I h a i smile as a baby (Lao); child (Kuoyii); young of animals (Li).
i. *g' J'] yr?i- I h a i suffer (Hanfei).
j. *bg k1!i I k a i a N. Pr. (Kuliang); *ngag I ngiJi- I a i to swallow (Chuang).
k. *kJg kc]i I k a i circumscription, territory (Kuoyii). - 1. id. a hundred million
(Kuoyii). - m. id. all, complete (Kuoyii).
n. *kag I k{ji I k a i and *g'sg I yai I hie bind (Chuang).
o. *kag I kc!.i I k a i great toe (Chuang). - p. id. all, complete (Kuliang). - q. id.
provide (Chuang).- r. id. steps, staircase (Shi, in the name of a lost ode); loan for 990
f. below (Yili).
246
J
i
'>
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAIVll'riAT A SERICA REGEN SA
s. *k'ag I k'qi- f k'ai cough (Tso); guffaw (Chuang).
t-u. *ng<Jg I ngqi- I a i obstruct, hinder (Lie).
v. *k'alc I k' ak I k'o engrave (Tso); to cut, wound, injure (Shu); (cutting:) intense
(Kuots'e ). Gl. 1510.
x. *g'olc I y<Jk I h o and *g'ag / yqi- I h a i investigate, try (a culprit) (only Han time
text ex.).
y. *g' E!J I yai: I hi e alarmed, frightened (Tso ). z. *g' Eg I yai I b i e bones, skeleton
(Tso).
a'. *g'Ek I ysk I h o kernel fruit (Shi); (go to the kernel:) scrutinize (Chuang). Gl. 705.
938 a. *'gg I· qi I a i oh yes! (Chuang). Abbreviated phonetic in the following. - b.
id. dust (Li). •
c. *'ag I· qi: / a i and *' E'J I 'l"ii: I y a i beat (Lie).
d. *'ag I· (ti I a i sigh, moan (Ch'uts'Y).
e. *xiag I xji I hi amusement (Cb'uts'l). - f. id. (several more readings) fie! ah! (Tso
ap. Shumven).
939 a. *d'ag I d' (ti I t'a i tower, elevated terrace (Shl); loan for id. servant (Tso); a kind
of rush (Shl). Gl. 728.
940 a-c. *ts;yg I tsqi I t sa i calamity, disaster, injury (Shi); misfortune (Shu). Gl.
1269. b. is Yin bone (A 2: 22,2), c. is Yin bone (A 2: 22,1). The modern graph bas
'flo·wing water' and 'fire'. The arc'haic graph (b.) had only 'flov;ing water' obstructed,
this indicated by a cross stroke; sometimes (as in c.) the latter has been shaped so as to
be phonetic at the same time (see 943 below). - d. variant of the preceding (Chouli).
The graph here has 'fire' and ':r;oof' (house).
941 a-c. *tsag I tsqi- Its a i twice (Shu); second, again (Tso). Gl. 315. b. is Chou III
(inscr. 220), c. is Chou IV (inscr. 288).
942 a-c. *ts' 9!J I ts' (ti: I t s'a i gather, pluck (Shi); variegated, full of colour (Shi);
colour (Shu); elegant (Tso); loan for id. business (Shu); loan for e. below (Chouli);
*ts' ag Its' iji- I t s'a i appanage (Shu). Gls. 318, 1233. b. is Yin bone (E 242: 1 ), c. is
Chou I (inscr. 90). The graph has 'tree' and 'hand'. - d. variant of the preceding
(Kuots'e).
e-f. *ts' dg Its' iji- I t s'a i (gathered herbs:) edible herbs, vegetables (Shi:). f. is Chou I
(inscr. 97, part of name).
943 a-f. *dz'ag I dz'(ti It s'ai endowment, ability, talent (Tso); well-endowed, able,
strong (Shl); loan for c. below (Kuots'e). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 9, 7), c. is Yin bone A 1: 42,1),
d. is Yin (inscr. 25), e. is Yin (inscr. 4), f. is Chou I (inscr. 54) - in all these (b-f.)
sense of i. below. Observe that in the oldest script the same symbols could sometimes
serve for several different words. Thus the cross serves for both -1:;, lfl and?.- g. id.
timber, wood stuff, material (Meng); treasures (Tso); disposition, natural qualities (Li);
talent (Shu).- h. id. wealth, valuables (Shu); (mental resources:) talent (Meng).
i-k. *dz'ag I dz'di: Its a i be at, in, on (Sill); be present (Sill); in, at, on (Shi:); to lie in,
depend upon (Shu); consist in (Lie); be living (Lunyii); be intent upon (Shu); examine
(Shu); loan for v. (Shu). Gls. 751, 1898, 1899, 2081. j. is Chou I (inscr. 57), k. is Chou I
(inscr. 65 ).
24:7
BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEU1l1 OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
738 rlpz fA j_Jz j]j ! J40 lt1 /(_ J47 J}
Q & a f Q \r c. Q
rn 74z *- t t tt- t} ;J
tt-t--t-t
t, c a... lr c. d. e f lr c cl e f
;f;f wt 11 t± ±t ' Yf
k $r it
jj h.. i j k L m n o p q r s t
fx 744 *- t- t r ±'43R-
x y a._l c
1
d.
1
e.' a. l.r c cL e f '3
,jl.;, -;t *
/3'- 7'!.  
h.. i. j k L m
1-o. *tsag I ts(ji Its a i to hurt, damage (Yin bone A 5: 9,3). m. is Yin bone (B shang
14: 6), n. is Yin bone (A 5: 9,3), o. is Chou II (inscr. 143, sense of a'. below).
p-q. *tsJg I ts(ti-1 t sa i to set out food, to serve (inscr. 58). q. is Chou I (inscr. 58).
r. I tsi I t s I small tripod (Shi).
s. I I t s I black (Li).
t-u. *ilz'c:g I rll ai I c h'a i wolf (Shi). u. is Chou (ins cr. 368, name).
v-x. *tsag I tsqi Its a i a particle (Shi); to begin (Shu). x. is Chou III (inscr. 218).
y. *ts"glts(filtsai to plant (Li); *ilz';;gjrlz'qi-ltsai to board, erect building
frames (Tso).
z. *ts;;g I tsqi I t sa i calamity (Li), same word as 940 a. above.
a'-b'. *ts;;g I ts(ti- Its a i conveyance (Shu); be conveyed in a carriage, to load (Shi);
carry (Tso); fill (ShY); to record (Tso); item, business (Shu); action (Shi); start (Shi);
achieve (Shu); synon. with jtlJ (Shi); *tsag I ts(ti:, ts(fi- Its a i year (Shu); *dz'"g I dz'r}i- I
t s a i to load, a load (Shi). loan for y. *dz'ag (Shi). Gls. 311, 683, 767, 792, 824, 1100,
1351, 1352. b'. is Chou IV (inscr. 293, phonetic a. inst. of 1.).
c'. *dz' ag I dz' 0i I t s' a i and *dz' ag I dz' (fi- I t s a i cut out clothes (Li); regulate, moderate
(Kuoyii); decide (Tso).
d'. *t$jag I i$i- j t s Y minced meat (ShY).
e'. *tJg I t(!.i- It a i carry on the head (fifeng); have above oneself (Li); to bear, support
(Tso).
944 a-e. *lCJg I li]i I I a i a kind of wheat (Shl); loan for id. come (Shi:) .loan fori. (Shl).
b. is Yin bone (A 2: 17,6), c. is Yin bone (A 1: 25,3), d. is Yin (inscr. 22), e. is Chou I
(inscr. 73). The graph is a drawing of a wheat plant. -f. id. come (Ch'uts'i). -g-h.
id. Kuangyiin says: come (no text). h. is Chou II (inscr. 147, name).
i. *lag ll4i- I 1 a i Shuowen says: stimulate (causative of a. above: cause to come)
(no text). The character is often erroneously used for JliJJ.
j. *lag I l!Ji, l(fi- I I ai a kind of weed (Shi); to weed (Chouli); incult soil (l\Ieng).
k-1. *lag I lqi- I l a i give (Shi).- l. is pre-Han (inscr. 419).
m. *l"g I lqi 11 a i horse seven c h'I high or more (Shi).
24:8
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
J4) 7J ) 1 i:r 177 tn /§ {?; :;r; JIC ;§}__
a. I_, c. cL e f g h.. i. j a. IJ c. cL
J47 -IJf t t -JBJ
5
-lf !if # itt
L- c. d. e f :3 h.. i k L l'l"ll'l. o
a.
fBi:? If i4f a1f ¢; Y,_ :148 t_ f 4t_
P "! r s t u. u x. 'j a. tr c d. e f
54-J tBZ J50 1(_ ·pP( JtK 9S! J:ftl
l.r c a_ [.,
c
945 a-c. *nCJg j nrJi: In a i your (Shu); loan for 946 below (Shi). b. is Yin bone (A 7:
36, 1), c. is Chou I (inscr. 65).
d. *nag I n(ji:, n1Ji- In a i big tripod (Shi).
e. *;l,fang j1lijcmg I j e n g repeat, as before (Lunyii); traditional (Shu); again and again,
evermore (Shi); loan for f. below (Lao). Gl. 1051. - f. irl. to pull, push (Lao). -
g-i. id. herbs growing freely without ever being cut (Lie). i. is Chou II (inscr. 147,
name).
j. *d-jang I i:ang- I y ii n pregnant (Tso ). The Pek. y ii n is irregular, we should expect a
y i l1 g.
946 a-d. *n"g j nr_li: In a i then, thereupon (Shi). This must be a loan application;
the primary sense of the character is not known through any text example. b. is Yin
bone (B hia 20,4), c. is Chou I (inscr. 56), d. is Chou I (inscr. 70).
947 a-e. *mag I I m u mother (Shi). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 31,1), c. is Yin bone
(A l: 3,4), d. is Yin (inscr. 10), e. is Chou I (inscr: 56). The graph is sometimes identical
\vith that of -k 'woman', sometimes distinguished by two dots marking the breasts. -
f. id. female teacher in harem (Tso). - g. id. the great toe (Yi), the thumb (Kuoyii).
h. *miuk I mfuk I m u place name (Shu ap. Shuowen).
i-k. *mwag l1nur_ti, muqi- I me i flourishing, rich, abundant (sc. growth) (Tso); loan
for *1nwag I mw]i: I me i each, every, whenever (Sh!); although (Shi:); covetous (Chuang);.
dark, confused (Chuang). Gls. 126, 405. j. is Yin bone (A 2: 2,6, sense here uncertain),
k. is Chou II (inscr. 132, sense of u. below). The radical is a drawing of some branches.
I. I mtufi I m e i plum tree (Sh!); plum (Tso ); loan for t. (Li).
m. *mwag l1nurj,i, 1n·ur_?i- I me i meat on sides of spine (Yi).
n. *mwag I mu(ti I me i dog's big collar-ring with two smaller rings on it (Shi).
o-p. *mag I I m u, rn o u Chinese acre (Chouli). p. is Chou I (inscr. 118).
q. *mwag I mut!i- I me i and *xmwJg I xu(fi- I hue i pain, distress (Shi).
r. *xmwJg I xw!i- I hue i upper lines in divinatory hexagrams (Shu ap. Shuowen).
- s. irl. repent, regret (Shi); loan for r. (Shu, current version). Gl. 1550. - t. irl.
last day of a moon (Tso); dark, obscure, darkness (Shi); reticent (Tso). Gl. 1136. -
u-v. id. instruct (Shi). v. is Chou II (inscr. 172).
x-y. * xmJg I I h a i sea (Shi). y. is Chou I (inscr. 54).
249

BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
948 a-b. *mag 1 mgu: 1 m o u so and so, a   (Shu); ?·is Chou I (ins?r. 60, sense of
f. below). Since the word *mwag 'plum tree 111 Ode 20, 111 Mao verswn wr. 947 1.,
in the Han version was wr. and our m o u to the nght, the latter (see 948 b)
was probably the primary form for 'plum tree'. ..
c. *rn.wag 1
1
n
7
uJi 1 me i match-maker, go-between (Sh1); loan for '* (Chuang). -d. irZ.
soot (Lii).- e. id. god of fecundity (Li). . . . . .
f. *miug 1 1 m o u (one Ts'ieyiin ms. has mgu, but _the placmg m Its nme senes
reveals this to be a slip) scheme, plan (Shi); consult (Sh1).
()4:9 a. *
11
wg J mgu: 1m u, m o u Chinese acre (Shi), same word as 947 o. above.
950 a. *xwag 1 x1u]i 1 hue i ashes (Chuang); charcoal (Li). The Seal has 'fire' and
X. 'hand'. ..
b. *k'wag 1 k'uqi I k'u e i great, extend (Tso ); (Lu).. .
c. *
1
nwag J 1 muqi, muqi- 1 me i meat of spme (L1), cf. 947 m. above.
951 a-b. *b'wag 1 b'uq.i- f p e i, p'e i (the Pek. aspirate is irregular)
at the girdle, pendants (Shi). b. is Chou I (inscr. 67). The graph _has man,
and above the latter a summary dra\ving of a girdle. - c. vanant of the preceding
(Ch'uts'i).
952 a-e. *kiag 1 kji f k i Shuowen says: winno_wing tht:s _it to
primary form of f. below (no text); loan for a part1_cle fo;: k·pg I kp- ( k
this that (Shi)· for *g'·iag 1 g'ji 1 k'i this (Lunyii); his, her, 1ts, the1r (Sh1); modal part10le.
will,probably (Shi), wish that (Shl); loan hope for;' aim at (Shu),- Gl. 1829 .. b. is
Yin bone (A 1: 1, 7), c. is Chou I (inscr. 58), d. IS Chou I (mscr- 107 ), e. 1s Chou II (mscr.
140). The graph is a drawing of a basket. . . . .
f. *kjag 1 kji J k i winnot\mg basket (Shi); dust-_basket - g-1 .. base, foundatwn
(Sh'i); gate-house base (Shi); settlement, lodgmg (Sh1); loan for td. hoe (Meng). Gl.
908. b. is Yin bone (P 354, name), i. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 310, sense of k.below). -
j. id. year (Shu). . , . , .. ,. . .
k. *kjag 1 kji 1 k i a year (Yi); a full fixed time (L1); *g Jag I g Jt / k 1 a st.Ipulated trme
(Shi); time, occasion (Shi); end, limit (Shl); wait for, expect (Chuang); to aim at (lVIeng).
Gl. 698.
1. *kjag f kji I k i a year (Shu ap. Shuowen). . , . , . . ,.
m. *kiag 1 kji 1 k i hi an g- k i a kind of vegetable (L1); g pg / g p / k 1 stalks of pulse
(Huainan). .
n-o. *kjJg 1 kji 1 k i to plan (no text ex.); *k'jag I k'ji j k'i says: dece1ve,
thns taking it to be a variant of q. below (n? text). o. lS I_ (mscr. 105, name).
p. *k'jag 1 k'ji 1 k'i mask (Siin). - q. id. dece1ve,_
r-s. *g'jJg f g'ji f k'i (variant of k., the reading) f1xed time, lmut (mscr. 224).
s. is Chou III (inscr. 224). - t-u. id. chess, _game - v. td. flag - x.
id. a kind of jade (Mu t'ien tsi chuan). - y. prospenty, fortunate .. .
z. *g'iag 1 g'ji 1 k'i black-mottled grey (Shi); *g'iag I g'ji I k'i and *g'1ag I g'Jt- I k 1
sandal cord (Li); loan for g. above (Siin), for (Siin). Gl. 364. _ .
a'. *g' jag 1 g' ji f k'i black-mottled grey horse (Shi); black-mottled grey (Sh1 ); fme horse
(Kuots'e). Gl. 364. - b'. id. unicorn (Li).
c'. *g' jag 1 g' ji- 1 k i pernicious, damage (Tso ); detest (Tso); warn (Tso). Gl. 2106. -
d'. id. fear (Shu ap. Shuowen); s. a. 953 s. .
e'. *g'jag 1 g'ji' f k'i jade ornaments attached at seams of cap (Chouli).
f'. *k'jag 1 k'ji 1 k'i demon-mask-like (Shi). GL 712.
250
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
p '!
JSJ
a.
p r s
953 *lcjJg I kji: / k i cyclical qharacter (Tso); self (Lunyii). b. is Yin bone (E 39: 4),
c. IS bone (E 197_: 1), d. is (inscr. 12), e. is Chou I (inscr. 58). - f-h. id. lady's
(mscr. 79), IS Chou I (mscr. 79), Chou II (inscr. 201). - i. id. leading thread
(Shl); regulate rule, norm (Shi); regular series, sequel, cycle of years (Kuoyii);
follow up, contmue (Shu); record, to record (Tso); conjunction of sun and moon (Li);
loan for l. (Shi). Gl. 320.
j. *kiCJIJ I kji- I k i record (Shu); remember (Shu).
k. *k'i:ag / k'ji: I k'i hill bare of vegetation (Shi). Gl. 275. - 1-p. id. a kind of willow
(Shi); Lycium chinense (Shi). m. is Yin bone (A 2: 8, 7, name), n. is Yin (inscr. 35, name),
o. and p. are Chon II/III (inscr. 248, name). - q. id. a kind of millet (Shi); Cichorium
or Lactuca (Shi). - r. id. rise (Shi).
s-t. *g'fiig I (ii- / k i_ dread (Shi); hate (Shi); show respect for (Tso); abstain from,
c_aut10us (Shi); of death (Tso); loan for *kjag 1 kji- / k i
final partwle (Sb1). Gl. 2106. t. IS Chou III (inscr. 217).
u-v., _*g'jag {,g'ji- ( k i warn, take warning (inscr. 301). v. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 301).
x. *!! 1_ag liJ'J1: I k 1 kneel (Chuang); Ts'ieyiin places it under rime §' (*-d, *-r), but
Slnwen under Jl: (*-g). - y-b'. id. (Yiip'ien and Tsiyiin, not in Ts'ieyiin
or Kuangyun; same word as x., confirming the reading) Yiip'ien says: to kneel; Shuowen
says: to squat on crossed legs; no text ex. z. is Yin (inscr. 9, name), a'. is Chou II (inscr.
141, part of name), b'. is Chou II (inscr. 182, name).
954 a-c. *gjag I i-f y i different (Shi); rare (Shs); aberrant, strange (Sh'i). b. is Yin
bone (A 5: 38,6, sense here uncertain), c. is Chou I (inscr. 65, sense of d. below). The
graph shows a human figure with raised hands and a head like that of a demon, see 569
above.
d. *giak / _iak I y i wing (Shi); (keep the wings over) protect, shelter (Shi); aid (Shi);
for respectful, reverent (Sh'i); orderly (Shi); loan for 912 a. to buzz about (Shu);
bnght (Shu); for 603 a. aspire to (similar char.) (Shu); next-following (sc. day) (Shu).
Gls. 433, 1598, 1799, 1982.
e-f. *giak / iak / Y i and *giag / i- I y i Shuowen says: tent; Ts'ieyiin says: respectful
(no text). f. is Chou I (inscr. 111, name).
g-h. *t'j9k I t'fak I c h'i sound of marching (inscr. 323). h. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 323).
i. *gjak I iak / y i drip (Kuan).
251
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
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955 a-c. * XiJrJ I rJi: I hi joy (Yi); rejoice (Sh1). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 2,3), c. is Chou II
(inscr. 197). The gmph has 'drum' and 'mouth'. - d. variant of the preceding (Ta,
Tai li).
e. *xigg I ;di /hi exclamation of joy (Yi) or fear (Tso).- f. id. an outcry, oh! (Tso).
- g-h. id. amuse oneself (Ta Tai li). h. is Yin bone (H 1: 21,12). - i. id. warm,
harmonious (Ta Tai li). - j-k. id. shine (Kuan).
l. *t'fag I ts'i- j c h'i cooked sacrificial millet (Shl). Gl. 911. - m. variant of the preced-
ing (Sh'i).
956 a. *ngiag / ngji I y i to doubt (Lunyi:i); suspect, hesitate (Li); as if, appearing as
(Li); to fear (Li); *ngjJk j ngiak I y i to fix on, settle (Shi); stand still, stop (Yili); loan
for d. below (Yili) (Cheng Hiian considers this as loan for 517 m. *ngjJt, which is inad-
missible). Gl. 967.
b. *ngf:Jg / ngji: / y i compare (Li); loan for a. above (Siin).
c. / ngji I y i name of a mountain (in Ch'uts'i written without the radical at
the top); loan for *ngjCJk I ngjCJk / y i to stand firmly (Sh1). Gls. 967, 870.
d. *ngjag ngji: j y i estimate, calculate (Yi).
e. *ngf: ag ngji: / y i and *ngi Jk / ngfak / y i luxnrian t growth (of grain) ( Shl).
f. *ngjCJg ngji I y i and *ngfak I ngjak / y i (Ch'uts''i).
g. *ngag ngr]i- / ai obstruct (Lie).
h. *ngjang I ngiCJng In in g freeze, coagulate (Sill); solid, to fix (Yi); concentrate, achieve
(Shu).
957 a. *'fag I 'i- / y i to think (Sh'i); thought intention, will (Li).
b. *'f;;g I 'i / y i alas, oh! (Shl); *' E!J / • i"ii-1 y a i belch (Li).
c. *'jag I 'i-/ y i the s'vallow (Chuang).
d. *'iJg I 'i: / y i and *'iak I 'i.Jk / y i drink made of prune juice (Li); loan for *'c;g I
?ii-/ y a i pent-up breath (Chuang).
e. *'jJk I   / y i a hundred thousand, a great number (Shl); calculate, provide (Tso);
satisfied, tranquil (Tso ); loan for b. (Yi). - f. id. remember (Li). - g. id. a kind of
tree (Chouli). - h. id. border, decorative band (Yili). - i. id. bosom (Lie).
958 a. *'j,Jg I 'i / y i physician (Tso); potion (Chouli). The character must be some kind
of composite ideogram, for the upper part (589, -r class) cannot be phonetic; the Archaic
final -g here is certain because of the Ts'ieyiin rime.
252

u
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
959 a. *t'jJg I t'i: / c h'i shame (Shi); disgrace (Tso). The Seal has 'ear' and 'heart'.
960 a-b. *gfag / i I y i chin (inscr. 244, part of name: Hei-yi 'Black'chin'). b. is Chou
II/III (inscr. 244). - c. id. chin (Li); loan for id. nourish (Li). - d-e. id. Shuowen
says: broad chin (no text). e. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 298, sense of j. below).
f-h. *kjag / kji / k i a family name (Shl); a fine lady (Shl). g. is Chou II (inscr. 149) .
h. is Chou II/III (inscr. 259).
i. *t'i9g 1 ts'i: I c h'i and *fiag I tsi: I c h 'i Iris (Li).
j. *xiag I r.,ji I hi brightness, splendour (Shl). Gl. 1229.
k. *t'iag I   I c h'i: cooked sacrificial millet (Chouli), see 955 1. above.
961 a-f. *tiag / Ui: / c h 'i foot (Chuang); to stop, to rest, remain, dwell, stand (Sh1);
to stop (action), detain (Lunyu); settle (Shi), settlement (Shi'); proper deportment, cour-
teous (Sh'i); loan for id. a particle (Shl); a hammer for a sounding-box (Shu); for k.
(Shi). Gls. 142, 679, 908, 1004, 1319, 1343. b. is Yin bone (I 9: 16), c. is Yin bone (A
7: 19, 1), d. is Chou I (inscr. 57), e. is Chou II (inscr. 140), f. is Chou II (inscr. 150, name).
The graph, which is a drawing of a foot, is mostly used both in the bone and the bronze
inscriptions as loan for the homophonous Z. in its various meanings, see 962 below.
- g. id. foot (Sh1); heel (Shl). - h-i. id. islet (Sh1). i. is Yin bone (A 6: 25,6, name).
- j. id. a fragrant plant (Ch'uts''i).
k. *t'jCJg I t'i: / c h'i happiness, prosperity (Shi). Gl. 602.
I. *t'jJg I ts'i: / c h'i: front teeth (Shi).
m-o. *dzjag / zi- / s 1 hall (only Han time text ex.); eunuch (Sh1). Gl. 308. n. is Chou
III (inscr. 217), o. is Chou III (inscr. 220, sense of x.). In the modern character the
phonetic 11: (quite clear in the archaic graph) has been corrupted into±.
p. *d'jag / d'i / c h'i: to grasp, hold (Tso).
q. *d'jag / d'i: I c h 'i pile up, accumulate, provide (Shi:). Gl. 1016. - r. variant of the
preceding (Shi ap. Shi'wen). - s. id. to store, prepare (Shl).- t. id. piles (Chuang).-
u. id. stop, hesitate, not advance (Chuang). Gl. 116.
v. *t iag I tsi: chi islet (Mu t'ien ts'i chuan), same as h. above.
x. *djgg Iii- s h 1 accompany, wait upon (Tso).
y. *ajJg Iii: s hi depend on, rely on (Shi).
z-a'. *r'ljJg zi / sh'i time (Sh'i); then, now (Shi); season (Shi); seasonable (Shi:); at
all times, constantly (Lunyii); loan for id. this (Shi:); then (Shu); conect, good (Sh1);
for u. to halt (Shi); for y. (Shu). Gls. 553, 791, 1249, 1284, 1860. a. is Chou III/IV
(inscr. 323). - b'-c'. variant of the preceding (Ch'uts'i). c. is Yin bone (A 6: 24,7).
d'. I si Ish 'i poem, ode (Shi:); loan for p. (Li).- e'-f'. id. place name (Tso). f.
is Chou II/III (inscr. 254).
g'. *d'c;g / d'r!i: It a i wait, await (Lunyu); treat, behave to (Lunyii).
h'. *d'ak / d'ak I t'e (the Pek. aspirate is irregular) bull (Shu); male animal (Chouli);
3 years old animal (Shl); loan for id. single, an only one (Yili); only (Lii); especially (Tso );
straight, upright (ShY); (one of two:) a mate (Sh1); a match for (Shi:). Gls. 129, 494.
i'. *tang I tCJng: It eng step of a stair (Lunyu); class, degree (Yi), rank (Tso); classify
(Chouli) (in this last sense also read *tJg I t(ii: It a i).
j'. *diCJg Iii Ish 1 in wall (Shi).
k'. *d'fag / ch: I c h 1 provide, prepare (Kuoyu).
962 a-b. *tjag / tsi ( c h 'i go to (Shi); loan for id. this (Shi); him, her, it, them (Shi:);
genitive and attributive particle (Shl). Gls. 626, 984. b. is Yin bone (A 1: 1, 1). This
archaic graph for 'go to' is indeed only a variant of 961 'foot', as proved by the archaic
253
BULLE.TIN OF' THE JlriU8EUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
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graphs for :)t, which has Yin bone forms with both variants as upper part. Cf. also
961 b-e. above. -c. id. a kind of mushroom (Li); a fragrant plant (Ta Tai li).
d. *t'jJg I ts'i j c h'i jesting, jolly (Sh1). Gl. 176. The phonetic at the top must have
been either z or Jl:, to judge from the seal form of Shuowen.
e. *tf:ag 1 tsi- I c h 1 aim, goal (Shu); will, purpose (Lunyii); spirit, mind (Tso); sign,
emblem (Li); record (Tso); treatise (Tso); keep in mind (Kuoyii). The phonetic at the
top must have been either z or J!::, to judge from the Seal form.- f. id. record (Lie).
963 a. *ftjJg I ii: I s h 1 market, market-place (Shl); to deal (Kuoyii).
964 a-j. *tsjag I tsi: I t s i son, daughter, child (Sh1); treat as a child (Shi); the young of
animals (Sh'i); gentleman (Sh'i); young lady (Shi); master (Lunyii); prince, viscount
(Tso); cyclical character (Shu); loan for 1. (Shi); for n. cherish (Shu); for 966 j. {Li). Gls.
850, 1727. b. is Yin bone (A 3: 4,1), c. is Yin bone (A 7: 15,3), d. is Chou II (inscr. 151),
e. is Yin bone (:M 197), f. is Yin (inscr. 10), g. is Chou I (inscr. 58), h. is Yin bone (A 3: 7,5),
i. is Yin bone (A 3: 22,7), j. is Chou I (inscr. 97). We must distinguish two series here:
A. There was one which occurs exclusively as cyclical character, viz. no. 1 of the 12
series (-=f). To this series belong our examples b., c. and d.- there are a great many
variations in the execution of this character.
B. Secondly, there was the graph with a simple circle as head and a rudimentary
body with two arms. This has two applications:
a: It may serve in the sense of 'son', 'gentleman' etc., our examples e., f. and g.
b. It may serve as cyclical character, but then never as the 1st of the 12 cycle {-=f-),
but always as the 6th, in later times always ·written B (*dzf._;1g / zi: I s 1), our examples
f. (in this inscr. same char. in two meanings), h., i. and j.
k. *tsfrig / tsi, tsi: / t s i burden (Shi).
1. *tsjJg I tsi It s 1 diligent (Shu).
m. *tsf:ag / tsi: I t s 1 to hoe earth round plants (Shi).
n-o. *dz'iag 1 dz'i. 1 t s 'i to breed (Yi); nurture (Shi); to love, fondle (Shi); to fostel."
(Tso); adolescent's name, designation (Tso); compound character in the script, written
character (Han time text ex.). o. is Chou III (inscr. 225).
965 a. *tsiag 1 tsi: 1 t s i Catalpa (ShY). The graph bas 'tree' and sin cyclical character,
explanation uncertain. Abbreviated phonetic in:
254
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMM AT A SERICA REGEN SA
\fl /fl JCt tt 11 o 88 ofl )U 1ft ,f!;,
c d a. [,.
r.r if6
d. e., f 9 h._ i. j
te. J(8 '}(J
a. lr c. cL e f 9 h.. i :J k
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(_ d. e f k,
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L m. GL {.,. c d_ e. f
b-d. *tsJg I ts(fi: I t sa i steward (Shi); minister (Shi); to butcher (Tso). c. is Yin bone
(0 1196, name), d. is Chou I (inscr. 88).
966 a. *tsiag I tsi I t s i black (Tso ap. Shuowen). This is the graph 366 doubled.-
-b-f. id. mat (Kungyang); loan for id. this (Shi). c. is Yin bone (A l: 10,3), d. is Yin
bone (A 1: 51,1), e. is Chou I (inscr. 58), f. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 323).
Shuowen distinguishes these two (a :b) homophonous words; the archaic inscriptions
have the gnphs c-f., all in the sense of 'this', which may account for both characters.
g. *tsf:ag I tsi j t s r sigh (Kuots'e); to taste (Lu). -h. id. abundant (Shu); grow, extend,
increase (J\<[eng); dirty (Tso ); juice, savour (Li); loan fork. (Kuoyii). - i. id. hoe (1\leng).
j. *dz'f,,g I dz'i I ts'i affectionate, loving, kind (Tso).
k. *dz'fag I dz'i. j t s i copulate, breed (Shu); loan for 964 1. above (Meng).
967 a-c. *dzjag I zi: Is i cyclical character (Tso), cf. 964 above. b. is Yin bone (E 263: 4,
sense of d. below?), c. is Chou I (inscr. 65, sense here uncertain). The graph is the 'foetus'
we have found in 581 'wife' and 1!1 1113 (=I*!) 'womb'; but the cyclical char. are so
primeval that their primary picture value cannot be determined from the late Yin
or the Chou forms known to us. - d-h. id. sacrifice (Shi); (autumnal sacrifice after
harvest:) year (Shu). e. is Yin bone (A 2: 22,2), f. is Yin (inscr. 22), g. is Chou I (inscr. 65),
h. is Chou II (inscr. 132).- i-j. id. branch led from a river and led to it again (Shi).
Gl. 56. j. is Yin bone (A 4: 13,6, sense here uncertain).
k. *d;'jag I d(i: Ish i corners of the hall platform where the stairs descended (Shu).
968 a. *dziag I zi I s 'i, t s'i words, speech (Shi); indictment, accusation (Shu); (words
about one =) (bad) fame (Shu); make excuses (Lunyii); decline, refuse (Lunyi.i); take
leave (Tso); loan for 972 k. succeedingly, thereafter (Shu). Gls. 1609, 1804, 2027.
969 a-b. *trrfag j t$i I t s i Shuowen takes a. to be the primary form of c-d. below
(no text). It distinguishes b. as a homophonous word meaning 'earthenware' (no text).
In the following series the phonetic may be written a. or b. ad libitum. It is little likely
that they are two separate and homophonous words. If a. is the primary graph (and
255
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF' FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
b. a corruption), then 940 b. above is phonetic. If, on the other hand, b. is the primary
form (and a. a corruption), then it may be a compound ideogram for 'recently broken
field', c-d. below, the graph having 'field' and 'running water' (irrigation).
c-d. *t?fag I t?i I t s I break soil (Shu); recently broken field (Shl); loan for I
t?i- Its 1 standing dead tree stumps (Shi); cleave (Chouli); loan (ShY). GL 822.
e-f. I I t s i black (Shl).- g-h. id. carriage with screens (Kuan). - i-j. id.
name of an ancient weight (Li).
970 a-c. *d?'iag I d?'i: / s hi officer (Shi); scholar (Lunyii); gentleman, man (Shi);
warrior (Sll'i); a judge (Shu); to serve (Shi); work (Shf). Gls. 231, 274, 1109, 1140. b. is
Yin bone (N 1: ll, p. 142, sense here uncertain), c. is Chou I (inscr. 98). - d. id. to
work (Shi); serve, office (Shl). Gl. 863.
()71 a-c. I dz'i- Ish r serve (Shi); service, office, occupation (Shf); affair (Tso);
to practise (Lunyii); (performance:) sacrifice (Sh1.-'3hu); functionary (Shi). Gls. 1047,
1756. b. is Chou I (inscr. 59), c. is Chou I (inscr. 70). There is really no fundamental
difference in the archaic graphs bet·ween $, !E_ and ( 1J!! ), see group 97 5 below.
d. I / t s Y pick, hoe (Kuan).
()72 a-e. *sjag I si Is i superintend, regulate, govern (Shi); regulations (Shu); officer
(Shu); loan fork. (Shu). Gls. 1492, 1641. b. is Yin bone (A 2: 14,4), c. is Chou I (inscr. 69),
d. is Chou II (inscr. 151), e. is Chou II (inscr. 162).
f. *siag / si, si- I s I to spy (Kuoyii).
g. *sjag lsi- Is i basket (Li).
h-i. *dziag 1 zi / s 1 spring sacrifice (Shi); sacrifice (Chouli). i. is Chou III (inscr. 237).
- j. id. utterance, word, expression (Hanfei).
k-m. *dzj,1g I zi- / s 1 continue, succeed, inherit (Sh1); for generations (Shu). 1. is Chou I
(inscr. 65), m. is Chou IIIIIV (inscr. 329).
973 a. *siag lsi/ s i think (Shf); loan for id. a particle (Sh1, Shu); for *siag lsi- Is i to
brood (Shl); for *sjJg lsi Is 1 and *sag I s1]i /sa i bearded (Tso, so ace. to some comm.,
ace. to others: white-haired). Gls. 490, 700, 1142 a, 1146, 1178, 1296.
b. *si_ag I si Is 1 coarse 1nourning cloth (Li).
c. *siag lsi: Is i (Pek s i is irregular, we should expect a s 1) timid (Lunyii). - d.
variant of the preceding (Siin).
e. *t?'fiJg / I c h'I cold wind (Ch'uts'i).
f. *ts' ag I t.s' i]i It s'a i forceful (Sh!); *siJg I si Is 1 forcible, urgent (Lunyii). Gl. 258.
974 a-c. *sjJg I si I s 1 silk (Sh'i). b. is Yin bone (B hia 8: 7), c. is Chou II (inscr. 132).
The graph is a drawing of sill-. threads.
975 a-f. *slj;:Jg I 1 s h 1 a recorder, scribe (Shi:); record (Meng). b. is Yin bone (A 4:
28,3, sense of$, 971 a. above), c. is Yin bone (A 4:45,1, sense of n. below), d. is Chou I
(inscr. 56, sense of n.), e. is Chou I (inscr. 69, sense of 971 a.), f. is Chou I (inscr. 102,
sense of a. here). The archaic graph is not fundamentally different from that of 971 a.
above and that of g. (n.)
g-j. *ljag f lji- 11 i officer (Tso). b. is Yin (inscr. 20, sense of g. here). i. is Chou I
(inscr. 56, sense of n. below). j. is Chou I (inscr. 65, sense of 971 a.).
k-m. *sljag / ?i- Ish i a kind of animal (no text ex.) L is Chou I (inscr. 131, name),
m. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 324, sense here uncertain).
256
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMM AT A SERICA REGEN SA
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Cl l.r c a lr c d.. e f g h.. i k
t fi 'Jl?
j

6 3 3

-++-
{Vl b if Jfg
£..
[§ )!}_
7Z.
L YY\. n.. CL Lr c. cL e f 9 h. 1.. j k l

-(;).,
;jz
P.. l,
&i {!;
§h jt-



CJ
'd a a 1,a a
0
11'1. YL 0
p -r 5 t u.. lT ;<..
z... a_' &' ,
I
c
1

(;;

,I...
1(;

.h
tr<-
•/....

7'<..
'CI
;:if_ ./a
·h. ... \:1
;;a
c!.' e. I f I
9' h.'
I . I
k' L' m' 11./
o' p'
9'
t. j
n. / $i: I s h i command (Yi); to cause (Shi); send (Shi:); suppose that (Lunyii);
*sl1ag I $i- Ish I envoy (Tso).
976 a-e: *zjag I i: I J __i use (Lunyii); (use=) treat (Shl); employ, employee (Sh!);
by (Sh1); because (Sh1); m order along with, together with (Shu); loan for e,
Gls. 6_54, 1ll9, 1894. c: IS Ym bone (I 7: 11), d. is Yin (inscr. 10), e. is Chou I
(rnscr: 54). a. IS a more old-fashioned and pedantic normal script correspondence to the
archa1c c-e:; b., the common and current form, is in its left part a stronger reduction
of the c---:-e., and the right part is an additional radical A.
f-g. *zzJg I t: I y 1 Plantago (Shi).
h. *dzj;Jg I zi: (Shi). Gl. 497. - i-j. id. family name (Sh1); wife of elder
_(fso ) .. J. IS Chou 198 ). - k. id. plough share, to plough (Shi).
1.   Jt: I An?. rrregular, :ve should expect an i) final particle (Shi).
m. 1ag / d? t: I s 1 wa1t (Sh1); loan for td. to move on (Sh!). Gl. 474. - n. id. wait
(Kuoyii). - o. id. river bank (Shi).
p-s. *djag / i I Y i I,, (Shu); loan for *t'Jg I t'(ii / t'a i (globe-fish-like, globular=)
(sc. ba?k) (Sh1); loan for a. (Shu); for u. pleased (Shu). Gls. 884, 1253, 1383.
;1·, IS Chou III (mscr. 217, sense of a. above), r. is Chou III (inscr. 217, sense of p. here
I , _char. enlarged by rad. 160), s. is Chou III (inscr. 226, sense of p. here 'I', rad. 9 and
61 mst. of 30).
t. I i_: / y _i and *t'jag I t'i- I c h'i to stop, obstruct (Lii).
u. I I y affable, cheerful (Lunyii); mild (Li).
v. :al_Jg I t. I Y transmit, give (Sh1); *d'ag I d'(ji: 1 t a i deceive (Lie).
x .. d1ag I t I, y 1 to present, give (Shi); leave to (Li); hand down (Tso). - y. id. sweet
nee cake (ShY); sweet (Li); y i- yen rock salt (Chouli).
z. I a'i I c _h'r *d'iag I (l'i- I c h r regulate, arrange (Tso); manipulate, work
w1th, make (Sh1); to direct, govern (l\Ieng); well-governed, in good order (Yi); punish
(Tso ); compare (Kuots'e ).
a'· *t'(,1g ['i- I c h'! and *d' i,mg / d'i.ang- I chen g stare (Ch'uts'i).
b'. *t'?ag t 'i I c h'r beat, fustigate (Siin).
c'. *ilzj;:Jg zi: I s 1 handle of a plough or a sickle (Kuan).
d' · *sjJg / si: I s i (Iviand. s i irregular, we should expect a s 1) hemp (Shu).
17
257
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF' FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
J77 G :l78 !- EfJ ;f_t ;:_t $_ Wit   J-1..
L- a... lr c d.. e f g h_ i j k: L
' )7jr- rt 1t rAJ£ rt lJl
G c c:l e f '3 h.. l- j k L
a
  f. ;;z; Jlf 11l oJf 1:Jf A
n a. a. (;. c d.. e t 3 h. ,: a... lr
l'l
J4(1l] :t83 -ftJ
f 9 1-t. i J 0- [;
c
c e
e'-g'. *:iiag 1 si: 1 s hi beginning, begin (Shi); first, as soo.n as (Shi). f. is Chou I (inscr.
103, sense of i. above), g. is Chou II (inscr. 164, sense of 1.).
h'. *t' ag j t' f{i I t' a i foetus (Li ).
i'. *d'ag j d'ai I t'a i soot (Lu).
j'. *d'ag j d'fJ,i 1 t'a i a i. t'ai ugly <.Chuang); *d'ag d'9i: / t a i slack
k'. *d'ag j d'qi: j tai idle (Shi:); negligent (Tso).-1. td. danger,penlous (Shi), (there
is risk of:) possibly, perhaps (Meng); nearly, (Tso); don?t (Kungyang)., Gl. ?19.
_ m'. id. cheat (Kuliang).- n'. id. come to, unt1l, when (Sh1). Gl. 52.- o · vanant
of the preceding (Shi: ap. Shuowen). . ..
p'. *iljag 1 ja: 1 y e smelt, fuse, cast (Meng);. adorn, embellish (YI}.
q'. *il'ag j d'qi: j tai bamboo shoot (Chouli).
977 a. *ziag j i: 1 y i cease, end, stop (Shi); achieve (Yi); past te.nse
(Shi); already (Tso); dismiss (Lunyii); abstain from (Meng); excess1ve. (Shi); frnal partwle
(Lunyii); oh! (Shu); loan for .1;;1. employ (Shu). Gls. 519, 1240_. To JUdge from the seal
form of Shuowen, this character is but a variant of the archaic graph 976 c---e. a,bove.
b. *ziag j i- I y i different, remarkable (Shu). Gl. 1239.
978 a-b. *liJg 1 lji: 1 l i village (Shi); place of (Sh'i); a measure of
(Shi); loan for id. grieved (Shi). Gl. 90. b. is Chou I (mscr. 70). The graph has held
and 'earth'.
c. *ljag jlji jl i shovel (lVIeng). . . . ,, . . ..
d. *liJg jlji: lli to cut jade according to 1ts verns e); (m muscles) (Ll},
to out divisions of fields (Shl); regulate (Shi); reason (Y1); prmmple (Meng); resources
(Meng); (arranger:) marriage go-between (Ch'uts'i); j.ail envoy.(Tso).-
e-g. id. inside of a garment, lining (Sh'i}; inside, mtenor, Within (Tso). f. lS Chou I
(inscr. 86), g. is Chou II (inscr. 154). . .
h. *ljJg jlji jl i a small aninlal of unknown species, some kind of Wild cat
(Shi:); loan for l. below (Chouli). -. i. variant of preceding  
j-k. *ljJg 1 lji: 1 l i carp (Shi). k. IS Chou III/IV (mscr. 324). .. . .
1. *mlcg 1
7
niii j m a i bury (Tso). - m. variant of the preceding (Sun). - n. ul. wmd.
whirling up the dust (Shi).
258
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
979. a-b. *ljJg I lji 11 i. (Tsiyiin; Ts'ieyiin reads * xiJg I xii I h i, which agrees badly
With the phonetic series) Shuowen says: to crack, split (no text). b. is Chou II (inscr.
182, name).
e-e. *li,Jg llji [ l i says: pull, lead (no text). d. is Yin bone (A 2: 28,3, sense
of l. e.Is II (mscr. 156, f. iil. widow (Tso).- g-h. id. Fangyen
Ts say: .tWllls .(no text). h. IS Chou II (inscr. 174, sense of l. below). - i. iil.
small, .fme (Lie). Character also applied to a word mao, see group 1137.
- J. ox (Kuoyii)j char. also applied to a synonymous word ? 1 mau 1
a o. --:: k. of precedmg (Chuang). -1-n, id. regulate (Shi:); govern (Shu);
give (Sh1). m. IS Chou I (mscr. 86, name), n. is Chou II (inscr. 140).
980 a. *ljag I lji: /li plum tree, plum (Shi); baggage (Tso); loan for ;EJI! envoy (Tso).
The graph has 'tree' and 'child'.
a-b. I nii: I e r ear (Shi);.loan for h. sinew (Shi); auxiliary word (Shi). Gl.
1164. ?· 1s extracted from the archmc graph for J&. (Chou II, inscr. 180). The graph is
a drawrng.
c. *nfag I nii-/ e. r . cut the e!LrS (Shu); so in the Kuwen version; but probably this is
v.T_ong for the s1milar 306 h. amputate, see Gl. 1640.- d. id. pendant covering the ear
(Lie); guard of a sword (Ch'uts'I); cut the ear of (sc. game) (Chouli). - e. id. cut a
tuft of hair from victim's ear in sacrifice (Li).- f. id. assist (Mo).
g. *niag j1!ii, nii: I e r corner of the mouth (Li).
h. *niJg j1/ii- I e r cake (Ch'uts'i:); meat and rice dumpling (Li); bait (in fishing) (Chuang)·
loan for id. sinew (Li). '
i. *njag I nii-1 e r and *nek I {u;k / n i look on with contempt, disdain (Lie).
<J82 a-b. *njJg I nii j er whiskers (on an animal) (Chouli); loan for id. auxiliary word·
and, and (Shi); final particle (Shi); you (Shi). Gl. 936. b. is Chou III (inscr. 225):
The graph IS a dra,wing.- c. id. a fungus (Li). -d. id. unite (Chuang). - e. id. boil,
cook thoroughly (Tso).- f. id. the swallow (Chuang).
g. *itiag / itii I e r and *njuk / nii,7tk I j u eggs of fish (Kuoyii); name of a fish (Lii).
h. *1wg I nq.i-ln a i endure (Siin); loan for (Li).
i-j. *7iiang I I j e .n g and *nu I ngu: In u (repeating=) in a long row (Shi).
Gl. 793. The frrst reading takes a. (doubled) to be phonetic, and j. is then a vulgar
form; the second reading takes 11fi as phonetic, here, as often, confused with the similar
series 238 a,bove (see 238 c-f.). Same word as 945 e.
983 a-d. *pjgg I pji: [pi. Shuowen says: to hoard (no text). b. is Yin bone (A 4: 11,6,
sense of e. below), c. lS Ym bone (A 4: 11,4, sense of e.), d. is Chou I (inscr. 126, name).
For the graph, cf. 926 granary. - e. id. district (Chouli); border town (Li)· border
outskirts (Tso); rustic, mean, common (Lunyii); despise (Shu). Gl. 1597. ' '
984 a-c. *b'jJg I b'ji- / p e i says: prepare, thus taking it to be the primary
for_m of d. (no text). b. IS Ym bone (A 5: 9,4, sense of some kind of sacrifice),
c. IS Ch_ou II (mscr. 180, sense of 934 g. above). -d-e. id. prepare, provide (Tso);
preca,ut10n (Tso); ready, (Sh1); ample (Yi); (defensive weapon:) long
(Tso); claw (Chouh). e. 1s Chou III (mscr. 234).- f. id. a kind of tree (Kuan).
- g. td. put yoke on, domesticate (Yi ap. Shuowen).
h. *b'wsg I b'wai- j p a i exhausted (Yi).
985 a-b. *kjwag I kjwi I k u e i tortoise (Shi). b. is Yin bone (A 4: 54,7). The graph is
a drawing.
259
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
986 a. *kiwag I Tcjwi: I k u e i a kind of ritual vessel (Sbi), see 987 a.
. d the preceding hence the Teading) a
987 a-d. *kiwJg I I k u e
1
(same :vor B hia, 7: 1'2), c. is Yin (inscr. 20),
kind of ritual vessel (mscr. etc.). b. distYh (986 a) have the fundamental
d
. Ch I (' r 58) ThiS graph an e prece . . 986
• IS ou msc: . l . but the accessories are different: m
element, the drawmg of a vesse ' m commohn, . h d with a, ladle
'b b , d 'plate' here in 987 t ere IS a an . bl
there is am oo an. . , d . 95) f ·s Chou I (inscr. 95). - g. id. a sta e
e-f. *kfug 1 1 k 1 u satiate (mscr. · ·
1
(Sh'i).
* , . ''wi I k'u e i bones of the face (Yi, one version ap. Cheng cf.
988 a. g 1Wilg I g J *k'. . I k'. ·. 11 'u e i (and several readings in Sbiwen) simple
992 e. below); loan   . JW't(.Ch l: ) Abbreviated phonetic in:
and honest mien, rnce-looking mien uang ·
b. * xwag I xw]i-1 hue i wash the face (Shu).
* , . I ' . . I k'u e i where seveml roads meet, thoroughfare (Sbi). Gl. 28.
989 a. g 1Wilg g .
d . t (Sh'')" be on guard mistrusting (Shu);
990 a-b. *kEg I kiii- I k i e

guar · '. :te (Tso)· abstinence, fast (Tso).
be ready for (Shi); careful (Shi); warn_

  for d. (Shi). Gls. 354:,
loan for id. press, harass w_It a99. ) The graph has 'two hands' and
434 679 1179 2049 b IS Chou I (mscr. , name -
'd ' .. , , _:___ c id (Yi)- prohibit (Slin); to be watchful (Tso).
agger axe . · - . ' t il (L')
d. *g' sg I )'lti- I h i e fetters (LIC ); wea. pon, u 1 . h dr (Chouli).
e. *g'sg 1 yi'ii: 1 hie frighten, o:erawe t e um
f. *kag I k(!i I k a i name of a piece of music (Chouli).
991 a. *kwc-g I kwili- / k u a i extraOTdinary (Shu); prodigy (Li).
992 a-d. *kilig lkig1!: lkiu nine(Shi);b.isYinbone(A4:40,3),c.isChou I(inscr. 59),
d. is Chou I (inscr. 65). d * '. I '. 'I k'u e i cheekbone bones of the face, face (Yi).
e. *g'jug I g'jg1t / k'i u 1wag g JWL • . t ;f the preceding. Shuowen
f. *ki:w;Jg / kjwi: I k u:
1
(Shu); - rad. 40 at the top. h. is
records an arch. vanant With rad. 29 ) j id spring in which the
Chou II (inscr. 189, name), i. is Chou II (mscr. .., name ·- · ·
260
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
water comes from the side (a vertical wall), not from the bottom (Shi'). - k. id. wheel-
axle ends (Shi:); rut, gauge (Meng); rule, law (Tso); loan for f. above (Tso). Gl. !H. -
1. id. bowl (Shu; same word as 986). Gl. 1368.
m. *g'jwag I g'jwi I k'u e i where several roads meet, thorougWare (Shi: in Han ver-
sion); cf. 989 a. above. Gl. 28.
n. *kiog I k]ij,u I k i u name or part of name of various birds (Shi); loan for id. collect,
accumulate (Shu); cooperate (Tso); (bring together:) stabilize, give peace to (Tso). Gl.
1234.
o. *kjog I kjgu- I k i u search into, investigate, scrutinize (Shi); go to the end, in the end
(Sh'i); extravagant (Shi:). Gls. 300, 478.
p. *g'j6g I g'jgu I k'i u mate, companion (Shi); antagonist, feud (Sill). Gls. 2, 325, 538,
709, 842. - q-r. id. triangular-bladed (spear) (Shi'). Gl. 314. - s. id. wilderness
(Sh'i). Gl. 650. - t. id. cold in the head, sneeze (Li).
u. *k'og I k'au I k'a o end of spine, rump (Li).
v. * xrg I xau I h i a 0 roaring of a tiger (Shl). G l. 938.
x. *xiuk I xiwok j h ii rising sun (Shi:, :Mao version); bright (Kuoyii). Gl. !)2.
993 a. *kjug I kjr,u: j k i u long, a long time (Shi:); wait (Tso); loan for id. to cover (Yili).
b. *kjug I Tcjgu:, kjr,u· I k i u cauterise by burning tinder (Chuang); loan for id. to prop
up, raise against (Chouli).
c. *kjlig I kj?_u: I ki u a kind of precious stone (Shi:).
d. *kjug I Tcjgu- I k i u suffering, distress (Shl). - e. variant of the preceding (Shi ap .
Shuowen).
f. *gf:.ug I I yu Y u -1 i a place name (only Han-time text ex.); in Shu (orthodox
version) said to mean 'induce', but it is there really an erroneous char. (for JX), see Gl.
2012.
g. *g'jug I g'jgu- I k i u coffin with corpse (Li).
994 a-c. *k'f:ug I k'jgu I k'i u hill, mound (Shi); loan for id. village, district (Meng);
great (Kuan); waste, ruins (Ch'uts''i). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 24,3), c. is Chou II/III (inscr.
260, name). The original graph was a drawing, misunderstood and deformed already
in the Chou version.- d. id. earthworm (Li).
995 a-d. *gf{tg I jigu- I y u repeat (Shi); further, moreover, also (Shi'); pardon (Li);
loan fork. below (Sh'i). Gl. 444. b. is Yin bone (A l: 16,5), c. is Yin (inscr. 12), d. is
Chou I (inscr. 56, sense of o. below). The graph is the primary form of i. below, and is
a drawing of the right hand.
e-b. *gfug I jfgu: I y u friend, friendly (Sh'i); associate, couple (Sill). loan for i. assist
(Shu); foro. (Shi:). Gls. 1003, 1686. f. is Yin bone (A 4: 29,3), g. is Chou I (inscr. 56),
h. is Chou II (inscr. 136, enlarged by rad. 73).
i-j. *gfiig I jir.u:, jjg1t- / y u the right hand, on the right (Sill); to honour, esteem (Shi');
assist (Shi:); wait upon (Sill). Gls. 1079, 1082. j. is Chou I (inscr. 56).
k. *gjug I jf:gu- I y u assist (Shu). - 1. id. help, blessing (Yi).
m. *giug I jjgu:, ji.r.u- j yu Shuowen says: a small bowl (no text).
n. *xJg I xq1:: I h a i meat which has been dried, minced and pickled (Shi).
o-p. *giiig I jff!.1t: I y u have (Shl); there is (Shi); (having=) rich (Shi'); loa.n for a., e. and
i. (Shi). Gls. 208, 909. p. is Chou I (inscr. 63).
q. *gjug I hiJ.!l-1 y u assist (Li); encourage to drink (Sh'i); forgive (Kuan). Gl. 659.
r-t. *gfug I ji7,u- I y u to be large-minded (Shi); to pardon (Yi); remit taxes (Tso);
aid, encourage (Tso); mitigate (Shu). s. is Yin (inscr. 24, name), t. is Chou II (inscr. 160).
261
j;
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
993 A_ J:Z IX_ 7: J@: J94 1L M j£ :tlf ;;9; A_
CL e f (:j a. l.r c cL a..
t1 {{;" i 1 1f-l
c clef '3 h.. i j k L )11..-n. o p 9,..
rJ0 l!J AA trr cy:;c JL \ a /Jt M. fjJ7
s t LL U" ;x. 'j z. a
1
a.. [,. c cl e f
J5l8 4- *
a a !_, G
u-v. *gi'i:ig I I yu and *gjilk I jiuk I y ii park, garden (Shi); limited (Shi-tsi). v.
is Chou III (inscr. 229).
x. *gjwag I jwi: I we i wound (Lii). - y. id. sturgeon (Shi). .
z. *xwiJg I I hue i property, valuables (Shi); present, bnbe (Tso).
a'. *' jiik I I y ii stately, elegant (Lunyii).
990 a-c. *gjug I I y u fault (Shi:); guilt (Shu); to blame (Shi); excess, excessively
(Tso); (find fault with =) be surprised at (Tso ); excelling, remarkable (Chuang). Gl.
2080. b. is Yin bone (A 1: 40,5), c. is Chou I (inscr. 77). - d. id. fault, blame (Shi).
-e. id. a swelling, tumour (Chuang). - f. variant of the preceding (Siin).
997 a. *gittg / iii!.u I y u place name (Tso); post station, relay of couriers (Meng); inspec-
tor's hut in the fields (Li); loan for 996 a. (Shi).
998 a-c. *ngiug 1 WJign I y u bull, cow, ox (Shl). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 24:,3), c. is Chou I
(inscr. 67). The graph is a drawing.
999 a-d. *pjtlg I pi,gu: If o u to soar (Lii); loan for *pi'ug I Pif!.tL, pjgu:, Pif!.u-1 f o u
not (Sh'i); loan for k. 'great' below (Shi). Gls. 410, 759, 1896. All the modern dialect
readings reveal an Anc. pu9t, which points to an Arch. *pwat, cognate to "* *pjwat. This
negation *pwot being synonymous with our *pj{lg, the character has been loaned for it.
b. is Yin bone (A l: 27,4), c. is Chou I (inscr. 56), d. is Chou I (inscr. 65, sense of k.
below). The graph may be a drawing of a soaring bird.
e-f. *pi,{lg I pjgu: I f o u not (Shi); wrong (Lunyii ); loan for *pjag I pji: I p e i bad
(Shi); *b'i,ag I b'ji: I p e i obstruct (Yi). Gls. 612, 1021, 1243, 1894. f. is Chou II (inscr.
180).
g. *p'jug I p'jgu, p'if!.u: If o u clean and bright (sc. robes) (Shi).
b. *b'jtlg I b'if!.tt I f o u net (Li). - i. id. Plantago (Shi).
j. *b'ug I b'f!.tt I p'o u take in the hollow of the hand (as water) (Li). .
k. *p'jag I p'ji I p'e i great (Shu); overbearing (Shu). Gls. 1569, 1832, 1899. - I. ul.
robust (Shl).- m. id. yellow and white horse (Shi); to gallop, run (Ch'uts'i).
n. *p'jag I p'ji I p'e i and *p'jtlg I p'jgu If o u black millet with double kernels (Shl).
o. *pwag I pwJi I p e i cup (Li). - p. variant of the preceding (Meng).
262
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
JJJ :f- m T "¥
Lr c d
"f tf- :£ 1'f,  
rf
e f g h.. i
j k L m.n o
% ;f§=
;t.:li. rr :?L {'-if:. --1--.s'L r,ct.g:_ -li:<z
o p:1 o -to JFo ;rs
X. z. a
1
lr' c
1
d.
1
e. f
1
!O(}! j$ £r
10
(}2. eo A n
p 9
fr3 !000
t u... tr s r
91
!003
f CL
a
c cl
c d Q & c
d e
1004 ;tZ \t)
a. l.r c.
q-r. *p'wag I p'u4i I p'e i wall (Chuang). r. is Chou I (inscr. 78, name). The radical
is !f'lL
s. b'w;Jg I b'uqi I p'e i fill up, obstruct (sc. a hole) (Li).
t-u. *p'ag I p'gu- I p'o u (Tsiyiin; Ts'ieyiin reads t'f!.tL, which is probably a corruption,
as shown by the sounds of the derivates) Shuowen says: to spit (no text).
v. *p';Jg I p'gtt: I p'o u cleave, cut open (Tso).
x. *p'og I p'gu: I p'o u and *b'ag I b'gu I p'o u raised wooden platform, a look-out built
of planks (Kungyang).
Y· *b';Jg I I p o u jar, pot (Kuots'e).
z. I I p o u hillock (Tso ); loan for id. spread, distribute (Siin); (a spreader:)
central piece on which the ribs of a canopy are fastened (Chouli); from Han time also:
section, department (then also read b'uo: I p u).
a'. *b'w;Jg I b'nqi I p'e i to earth up (sc. vegetables), lay up earth (Li); accumulate, add
to (Chuang); *b'ag I b'gu: I p o u mound (Kuoyii).
b'. *b'w;Jg I b'uqi I p'ei accompany, associate, support (Shi); to augment, to double
(Tso). Gl. 939.
c'. *b'wJg I b 'nqi- I p e i turn, turn the back on (Li); obstinate (Lunyii); improper
(Lmqii); loan for *b'wag I b'u4i: I p e i double (Shi).
d'. *p;Jg I I p o u and *p'gg I I p'o u beat (Chuang); to knock down, crush
(Shi); loan for v. above (Chuang).
e'. *b'ak I b'gk I p o and *p'ag I p'?_u- I p'o u overthrow, lay prostrate (Tso).
f'. *pung I pung: I pen g gem at mouth of scabbard (Tso).
g; *b'ag I I p o u and *p'ag I p'gn: I p'o u screen (Yi).
1000 a. *b'jiig I b'jgu: I f u carry on the back (Shi); support, be exposed to (Kuots'e);
turn the back on (Li); neglect, be rude to (Kuots'e); lean on, rely on (Tso). -b. id.
reflect, represent (Li). - c. id. cucumber (Ta Tai li).
1001 a-d. *b' jug I If u woman, wife (Shi). b. is Yin bone (K 723), c. is Yin
(inscr. 16), d. is Chou I (inscr. 69). The graph has 'woman' and 'broom'.
1002 a-d. *tOng I tuong It u n g winter (Shi). b. is Yin bone (A f: 28,2), c. is Chou I
(inscr. 63, sense of e. below), d. is Chou II (inscr. 140, sense of e.). Was the primary
graph a drawing of the locust in f. below?
263
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
e. *tjong I tsjung 1 c hung end, finish (ShY); persist (Shu); for ever, everlasting (Shi);
definitely, indeed (Shi). Gls. 79, 542, 1270. -f. id. locust, grasshopper (Shi).
1003 a-e. *tsong I tsuong Its u n g ancestral temple (Shi); ancestor (Li); clan (Sill); to
honour (Shi); summer audience of the king with the feudal princes (Chouli); go to pay
court (Shi); dignitary (Shu); master, follow as master (Lunyii). Gls. 483, 810, 904,
932, 1822. b. is Yin bone (A 1: 30,5), c. is Yin bone (A 1: 45,5), d. is Yin (inscr. 33), e.
is Chou I (inscr. 58). The graph has 'roof (house) and 'sign, omen'.
f. *tsong I tsuong- Its u n g bring together, collect, sum up (Yi).
g. *dz'ong 1 dz'uong 1 t s'u n g tube-shaped jade insignium (Chouli).
h. *d?'iong I d?'iung I c h'u n g high (Shi:); exalt, to honour (Shi:); pile up, accumulate
(Shl); full (Yi); excessive (Shu); peaked, upwards-pointing (sc. ornaments) (Shi); end, all,
the whole of (Shi). Gls. 140, 892, 1679.
1004 a-c. *song lsuong- Is u n g place name (Shij. b. is Yin bone (P 106), c. is Chou
III (inscr. 221). The graph has 'roof' (house) and 'tree'.
1005 a-f. *n6ng 1 nuong In u n g agriculture (Sh'i); farmer (Shi); loan for id. vigorous,
energetic (Shu). Gls. 1523, 2040. a. is the current form, b. a variant in Shuo':en, c. is
Yin bone (A 5: 48, I), d. is Yin bone (A 5: 48,2), e. is Chou I (inscr. 100, name), f. Is Chou I
(inscr. 105). Of. 455 above. -g. t:d. mutter, murmur (Ch'uts'i:).- h. id. pus (Hanfei).
i. *niung I In u n g and *nungl nung In u n g thick, rich (so. dew) (Shi). -
j. id. thick, strong (sc. drink) (Hanfei).
k. *nittng 1 niwong 1 nun g and *jziung 1 nziwong 1 i u n g thick covering, luxuriant
growth (Sh'i). Gl. 61. - 1. id. (both readings) thick (so. growth) (Shi ap. Shuowen).
1006 a-d. *kiong I kjung I kung dwelling-house (Shi); palace (Shi); apartment (Tso );
temple (Shi:); name of a note of the gamut (Li). b. is Yin bone (A 2: 20,5), c. Yin
bone (A2:3,7), d. is Chou I (inscr. 57). Thegraph.depictstworoomsandaroof. Shght1y
abbreviated phonetic in the following. - e-f. id. body, person (Sill). f. is a vulgar
variant.
g-h. *g'i6ng 1 g'jung I k'i u n g extreme, to the utmost (Tso); reduced to extremity,
poverty (Shi); examine thoroughly (Yi). h. is a vulgar variant.
1007 a-e. *ti6ng I tjung I c hung middle (Shi); midway (Shl); interior, in
mediocre, average (Tso); (centre:) heart (Li); observing the middle way, prope!, nght
(Lunyii); accomplish (Li); pierce (Ch.ouli); receptacle for tallies (Li); *tj6ng I tjung- I
c hung hit the centre, hit, attain (Tso). b. is Yin bone (A 4: 37 ,3), c. is Yin bone (A
7: 22,1), d. is Chou I (inscr. 56, name), e. is Chou I (inscr. 67). The fundamental part of
the graph, the circle with the vertical stroke through the centre, is exclusively used in
the cognate sense of f. below in the inscriptions. In our general sense of 'middle' here
the inscription graphs have always the 'streamers', of uncertain interpretation.
f-i. *d'fang 1 a'jung- 1 c hung ('the middle one':) th.e 2nd of brothers (Shi); 2nd of
3 months (Shu). g. is Yin bone (D 3: 1), h. is Yin (inscr. 31), i. is Chou I (inscr. 81)-
j. *tj6ng I tjung 1 c hung inner garment (Tso); middle, medium (Tso); correct, JUSt
(Shu); surround (Tso).- k. id. sincere, loyal, integrity (Lunyli). -1-m. id. Shuowen
says: a herb (no text). m. is Chou II (inscr. 139, sense here uncertain).
n. *t'jong I t'i1mg 1 c h.'u n g grieved, agitated (ShY). Gl. 40.
o. *t'jong I t'jung I c h'u n g and *d'j6ng I a'jung I c h'u n g empty (Lao ap. Shuowen).
p-q. *d'iong I a'itmg I c h'u n g (to surge:) rise up against (so. the sky) (Lii); loan for
id. empty (Lao); young, weak (Shu); tinkling sound (Shi). q. is Chou (inscr. 384,name).
Gl. 450.
264
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
a-d •. I fung I y u n g on a following day (after a principal sacrifice)
(Shu). b. IS Ym bone (A l: 1,8), c. IS Ym bone (A 1: 2,2), d. is Yin (inscr. 22). The rad.
130 to the left is a later addition, the primary graph may be a kind of 'repetition mark'.
e-f. *d'ong I d'uong I t'u n g red (Shi). f. is Chou I (inscr. 88).
1009 a-b. *d'f6ng I (t'jung I c h'u n g Shuowen considers this as the primary form of
J{g, but there are no text examples of this. Its role as phonetic (see d. e. below) on the
contrary shows that it was the primary graph of c. below. b. is extracted from the
archaic graph for (Chou III, inscr. 229). The graph is a drawing. - c. id. insect
(Shi:); reptile, scaly creature (Tso ); animal (generally) (Ta Tai li); loan for id. great heat
(Shl). Gl. 988.
d. *diong I I j u n g hot air, steam, heat (Tso, in the name Chu-jung, spirit of the
heat); harmomous (Tso); loan for 1008 a. long, extensive (Shi:). Gls. 520 885.
e. *d'6ng I d'Mng I t'u n g red (Kuan). - f. id. grieved     Gl. 40.
a-d. I tsiung- I c hung numerous, all (Shi); loan for e. (Shi).
Gl. 510. b. IS Ym bone (A 4: 30,2), c. IS Chou I (inscr. 56), e. is Chou II (inscr. 132).
The graph has three (many) 'men' and either 'sun' or 'eye' above the meanincr of the
Ia tter uncertain. '
0
e. *]iong I tsjung I c hung locust (Kungyang).
f. *tj6ng I tsjung I c hung and *dz'ong I dz'uong I t s'u ncr and *dz'
1
tng 1 dz'ung 1
t s'u n g junction of two rivers (Shi). Gl. 893. o
1011 a. *t'f6ng I ts'jung I c h'u n g full, fill (Shi).
b. *t'6ng I t'1ta1l{!-l t'u n g leading line, rule, norm (Kuoyii); principle, beginning (Yi);
connect (Li); to direct (Kuots'e).
'
1012 a. *sjong I sj1tng Is u n g high (Li). The Seal has 'mountain' and 'high'.
1013 .. *1'tj6ng l1iifttng I j u n g weapon (Sill); attack (Shu); war chariot (Shi); loan
for tnbes of the West (Shi:); great (Shi); you, your (Shi); to help (Shi); luxuriant,
bushy <.ShY, Mao ve:sion). Gls. 105, 2089. b. is Yin bone (A 8: 11,3), c. is Chou I (inscr.
65), d .. Is Cho?- II (mscr. 14?)- The graph has 'dagger-axe' and k i a buff-coat (H29).
-e. 1d. a kind of bean (Lw); great (Sh'i, Han version). Gl. 61.
265
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
e. *tj6ng I tsjung I ch u n g end, finish (Shi); persist (Shu); for ever, everlasting (Shi);
definitely, indeed (Sbi). Gls. 79, 542, 1270. - f. id. locust, grasshopper (Shi).
1003 a-e. *t"'36ng I t"'3uong I t s u n g ancestral temple (Shi); ancestor (Li); clan (Shi); to
honour (Shl); summer audience of the king with the feudal princes (Chouli); go to pay
court (Shi); dignitary (Shu); master, follow as master (Lunyii). Gls. 483, 810, 90<!,
932, 1822. b. is Yin bone (A 1: 30,5), c. is Yin bone (A 1: 45,5), d. is Yin (inscr. 33), e.
is Chou I (inscr. 58). The graph bas 'roof' (bouse) and 'sign, omen'.
f. *ts6ng I t"'3uong- I t sung bring together, collect, sum up (Yi).
g. *dz'6ng I dz'twng I t s'u n g tube-shaped jade insignium (Chouli).
h. *d?'i6ng I d?'iung I c h'u n g high (Shi:); exalt, to honour (Shi:); pile up, accumulate
(Shi); full (Yi); excessive (Shu); peaked, upwards-pointing (sc. ornaments) (Shi); end, all,
the whole of (Shi). Gls. 140, 892, 1679.
1004 a-c. *song I suong- J sung place name (SlJ.U. b. is Yin bone (P 106), c. is Chou
III (inscr. 221). The graph has 'roof' (house) and 'tree'.
1005 a-f. *nong I nuong In u n g agriculture (Shi); farmer (Shi}; loan for id. vigorous,
energetic (Shu). Gls. 1523, 2040. a. is the current form, b. a variant in Shuowen, c. is
Yin bone (A 5:48, I}, d. is Yin bone (A 5: 48,2), e. is Chou I (inscr. 100, name), f. is Chou I
(inscr. 105). Cf. 455 above. -g. id. mutter, murmur (Ch'uts''i). -h. id. pus (Hanfei).
i. *niung I In u n g and *nung I nung In u n g thick, rich (sc. dew) (Shi). -
j. id; thick, strong (sc. drink) (Hanfei).
k. *wjung I nfwong I n u n g and *;tjung I U:Sjwong J j u n g thick covering, luxuriant
growth (Shi). Gl. 61. - 1. id. (both readings) thick (sc. growth) (Shi ap. Shuowen).
1006 a-d. *kj6ng I kj1tng I kung dwelling-bouse (Sill); palace (Sbi); apartment (Tso);
temple (Shi}; name of a note of the gamut (Li). b. is Yin bone (A 2: 20,5}, c. is Yin
bone (A 2:3,7 ), d. is Chou I (inscr. 57). The graph depicts two rooms and a roof. Slightly
abbreviated phonetic in the following. - e-f. id. body, person (Shi). f. is a vulgar
variant.
g-h. *g'j6ng I g'jztng f k'i u n g extreme, to the utmost (Tso ); reduced to extremity,
poverty (Shi); examine thoroughly (Yi). h. is a vulgar variant.
1007 a-e. *ti6ng I fiung J c hung middle (Sh'i}; midway (Shi); interior, in (Shi);
mediocre, average (Tso); (centre:) heart (Li); observing the middle way, proper, right
(Lunyii); accomplish (Li); pierce (Chouli); receptacle for tallies (Li); *tjong I fiung- I
c hung hit the centre, hit, attain (Tso ). b. is Yin bone (A 4: 37 ,3), c. is Yin bone (A
7: 22,1), d. is Chou I (inscr. 56, name), e. is Chou I (inscr. 67). The fundamental part of
the graph, the circle with the vertical stroke through the centre, is exclusively used in
the cognate sense of f. below in the inscriptions. In our general sense of 'middle' here
the inscription graphs have always the 'streamers', of uncertain interpretation.
f-i. *d'iong 1 a'jung- 1 c bung ('the middle one':) the 2nd of brothers (Sill); 2nd of
3 months (Shu). g. is Yin bone (D 3: 1), h. is Yin (inscr. 31), i. is Chou I (inscr. 81).
j. *tj6ng I tjung I c hung inner garment (Tso); middle, medium (Tso); correct, just
(Shu); surround (Tso). - k. id. sincere, loyal, integrity (Lunyii). -1-m. id. Shuowen
says: a herb (no text). m. is Chou II (inscr. 139, sense here uncertain).
n. *t' jong I I c h'u n g grieved, agitated (Shi). Gl. 40.
o. *t'jong I t'fung I c h'u n g and *d'fong I a'jung I c h'u n g empty (Lao ap. Shuowen).
p-q. *d'j6ng I cl'iung I c h'u n g (to surge:) rise up against (sc. the sky) (Lii): loan for
id. empty (Lao); young, weak (Shu); tinkling sound (Shi). q. is Chou (inscr. 384,name).
Gl. 450.
264
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAll:f.MATA SERICA RECENSA
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1008 a-d. *djong I jung I y u n g sacrifice on a following day (after a principal sacrifice)
(Shu). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 1,8), c. is Yin bone (A 1: 2,2), d. is Yin (inscr. 22). The rad.
130 to the left is a later addition, the primary graph may be a kind of 'repetition mark'.
e-f. *d'ong I d'uong I t'u n g red (Shi). f. is Chou I (inscr. 88).
1009 a-b. *d'jong I a'jung I c h'u n g Shuowen considers this as the primary form of
)fg, but there are no text examples of this. Its role as phonetic (see d. e. below) on the
contrary shows that it was the primary graph of c. below. b. is extracted from the
archaic graph for !L.fE (Chou III, inscr. 229). The graph is a drawing. - c. id. insect
(Sill); reptile, scaly creature (Tso ); animal (generally) (Ta Tai li); loan for id. great heat
(Sill). Gl. 988.
d. *dj6ng / jung I j u n g hot air, steam, heat (Tso, in the name Chu-jung, spirit of the
heat); harmonious (Tso); loan for 1008 a. long, extensive (Shi). Gls. 520, 885.
e. *d'6ng I d'uong I t'u n g red (Kuan). - f. id. grieved (Ch'uts'i). Gl. 40.
1010 a-d. *tj6ng I I c hung multitude, numerous, all (Shi); loan for e. (Shi).
Gl. 510. b. is Yin bone (A 4: 30,2), c. is Chou I (inscr. 56), e. is Chou II (inscr. 132).
The graph has three (many) 'men' and either 'sun' or 'eye' above, the meaning of the
latter uncert •.
e. *tj6ng I I c hung locust (Kungyang).
f. *tj6ng I tt-jnng I c hung and *dz'ong I dz'1wng I t s'u n g and *dz'ung I dz'ung J
t s'u n g junction of two rivers (Shi). Gl. 893.
1011 a. *t'i6ng I tt-'iung I c h'u n g full, fill (Shi).
b. *t'6ng / t'1tong- I t'u n g leading line, rule, norm (Kuoyii); principle, beginning (Yi);
connect (Li); to direct (Kuots'e).
'
1012 a. *siang I siung Is u n g high (Li). The Seal has 'mountain' and 'high'.
1013 a-d. IMiung I j u n g weapon (Shi); attack (Shu); war chariot (Shi:); loan
for id. tribes of the West (Shi:); great (Sill); you, your (Shi); to help (Shi); luxuriant,
bushy (Shi:, Mao version). Gls. 105, 2089. b. is Yin bone (A 8: 11,3), c. is Chou I (inscr.
65), d. is Chou II (inscr. 147). The graph bas 'dagger-axe' and k i a buff-coat (629).
- e. irl. a kind of bean (Lie); great (Shi, Han version). Gl. 61.
265
BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEUN OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
1012 !013 !\ { -r--Q 1\ 1011 ! I r $! 101s- rt
c. cL e CL lr c d e
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1019 11 +1'- ;ft_
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Ak 7(}J(} 702/ 1 1022_ J-f:
lr
e f ct a.. lr c
a..
1014 a-d. *p'iong 1 p'j1tng 1 fen g a kind of ritual loan for id.
abundant (Shi). Gl. 1988. b. is Yin bone (A 5: 5,4), c. IS (mscr .. 33),. d: IS Chou. I
(inscr. 59, name). The graph is a drawing of a ritual vessel With something IDit.- e. td.
cooked wheat (Chouli).
1015a-c. *k(Jng (kl(Jng?)l kang- lkiang descend, go down (S?il;.send down (Sill);
*g'{jng (g'l6ng?) J yang J hi an g submit (Shi). Gls. 14:77, b.1s YID (A 3: 27,1),
c. is Chou I (inscr. 72). The graph shows two feet descending (steps:) a hmght.
d. *g'6ng 1 yuong 1 hung and *g'{jng I yang I hi an g and *g'ung I yung I hung and
*kong 1 kang- I k ian g inundate (Meng).
e. *xung 1 xung-l hung and ? I 1 g st_upid (Siin). .
f. *gljong lliung 11 u n g high (Kuots e); (LI);.emment !Tso); loan for td. thunder,
sound of thunder (Shi). Gl. 988. - g. td. decrep1t (Hanfe1).
1016 a. *d'ok 1 d'uok 1 t u poison, poisonous (SW); hate (Shu); loan for id. to direct,
govern (Yi); nourish (Lao); loan for 1019 g. (Shu). Gls. 14:24:,1507 ..
b. *rl'ok 1 d'uok 1 t u and *d'og I d'au- It a o banner, streamer (Chouli).
1017 a-b. *ki6k I kj1Lk I k ii a handful (Sill). b. is Chou (inscr .. 353). The has
'rice' and the upper part recurs in 1113 p a o to ":'ap. --: c. td. both ha.nds Jome_d,
grasp with both hands, double-handful (Tso ). - d. td. Cup:essus - e. td.
Chrysanthemum (Ch'uts'i). -f. id. variant of the preceding (Chouli).- g. td.
(Kuots'e).- h. id. foot-ball (Kuots'e); loan for id. nourish (Shi); to bow, bend
entirely, all (Shi); exhaust, go to the extreme (Shi); full, ample (Shi); to address, inform
(Sh'i); loan for e. (Li), for i. (Li). Gl. 253.
i. *k'i6k I k'juk I k'ii leaven (Tso). _ .
j. *kjok 1 1 k ii exhaust, destitute (Sh'i); go to the extren:e loan for td. convexe
side of a river bend (Shi). Gls. 100, 592, 910. The phonet1c lS h. above, and the rad.
149 has ousted 'rice' in that character. Our character here therefore has nothing to do
with 1252 b. below.- k. id. exhaust, to the utmost (Ch'uts''i).
1018a-b. *xioklxiuklhii and *xiogfxigu-lhiu and
*t'i6g lt'jg7t- 1 c h'o u nourish (Shi);.to rea: (Li); (Shi); domestic ammal
keep (Li); support (SW); to hoard (L1). b. 1s Chou Til (mscr. 229). The graph has dark-
coloured' and 'field'.
266
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMNATA SERICA RECENSA
c. *xiok I xiuk I h ii and *t'iok I t'iuk I c h'u collect, store of vegetables (Shi); to
harbour (feelings) (Tso). -d. variant of the preceding (Kuots'e).
e. *xiok I xiuk I h ii cherish (Shi). Gl. 99.
f. *t'iok lt'juk I c h'u accumulated, pent up (sc. feelings) (Chuang).
1019 a-b. *tiok lliuk I c h u bamboo (Shl); creepers (Shi). Gl. 150. b. is extracted
from the archaic graph for 173 a-b. (Chou IIII, inscr. 205). The graph is a drawing
of the typical down-turning leaves. -c. id. guitar (Kuots'e).- d-e. id. to pound,
beat (sc. earth into hard walls), build (Shi); beat, strike (Chouli); to earth up (trees)
(Shu).
f. *tok I tuok I t u ample, to favour (Ch'uts'i). -g. irl. firm, solid, reliable (Shi); staunch
(Shi); honest (Shu); massive (Sill); consolidate (Shi); heavily (Shu). Gls. 779, 1507.
1020 a. *djok I juk I y ii rear, breed (Shu); nourish (Shi); loan for 1079 h. (Shu ap.
Shuowen), for 1023 a. (Chuang). Gl. 1471.
1021 a-c. *djok I iuk I y ii to produce (Chouli), same word as the preceding. b. is
Yin bone (A 2: 24,8), c. is Chou I (inscr. 111). The graph has 'woman' and 'child' with
head down, and drops of water; an illustration of child birth.
1022 a-c. *d'f6k I a'iuk I c h u pursue (Shu); drive out (Tso); contest (Tso). b. is Yin
bone (A 3: 33,3), c. is Yin bone (A 2: 12,3). The graph has 'pig, boar' and 'foot' (go).
.d. *d'iok I d'iek It i flute (Chouli).
-e. *t'f6k lt'iuk I c h'u and *d'iok I cl'iuk I c h u Rumex (Shi).
1023 a-b. *di.ok I iuk I y ii sell (inscr. 132). \. is Chou II (inscr. 132). The graph has
'inspect' (812 1.) and 'cowry' (money). - c-d. id. sell (Chouli). d. is Chou I/II (inscr.
208).
-e. *d'iok I d'iek It i see (Yi); have an audience (Lunyii); be visible (Tso).
f. *d'uk J rl'uk It u box, case (Lunyii).- g. id. to defile (Kuoyii).- h. id. coffer (Lunyii);
box (Li); coffin (Tso). - i. id. abortion (Li). - j. id. canal, ditch, drain (Lunyii);
to sully (Li); harass, molest (Yi); insult (Tso ); extort (Tso ); loan for s. (Tso ). - k. id.
tablet (Kuoyii); tube used for marking time in music (Chouli). -I. id. calf (Li). - m.
id. recite (Sh'i), read (Lunyii). - n. id. discontented, complain (Tso); vilify (Tso). -
o-p. irl. careless, nonchalant, at ease (inscr. 323). p. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 323). -
q. id. quiver (Yili). - r. id. dirty (Yi).
s. *d'ug I d'gu- I to u and *rl'ukj d'uk / t u hole (Li); a drain (Tso).
t. *ct'iuk I dz'iwok Is h u and *diuk I ziwok J s h u redeem (Shi).
u. *dzjuk I zf:wok Is ii continue (Shi); connecting ring (Shi). - v. id. Alisma plantago
(Shi).
1024 a. *tjok I tsiuk I c h u, chou (Pek. chou is irregular) rice gmel (Li); loan for
id. modest (Li); for *df6k I juk I y ii sell (Li), cf. 1023 a-d. above.
b. *tiok I tSfuk I c h u rice gruel (Tso); *diok I juk I y ii nourish (Chouli); (in rearing:)
young (Shi); loan for id. sell (Meng). Gl. 379.
1025 a-e. *tjok I tsjuk I c h u prayer, recite (Shu); pray (Tso); prayer-master (Shi);
loan for id. bind, attach (Shi); cut off (Kungyang); *ti6g I tsi?,u-1 chou to curse (Shl).
Gl. 143. b. is Yin bone (A 4: 18, 7), c. is Yin bone (A 4: 18, 8), d. is Chou I (inscr. 61), e.
is Chou I (inscr. 67). The graph has a kneeling man and 'sign, omen'. Abbreviated
phonetic in:
f. *t'jok I tS'j1tk I c h'u and *tiok I tsjuk J c h u resounding box (used in music) (Shi).
267
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
1023


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h_ i j k a. lr c d a. l.r c
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1026 a. *diok I ijuk I s h u cooked (Li); loan for id. which one, who (Lunyli). The
Seal has hi an g 'sacrificial offering' and k i 'grasp, hold'. (786). - b. id. cooked
(Lunyii); ripe (Shu); thoroughly (Tso).- c. id. gate-room (Shu), used as school (Li).
1027 a. *ts'i,olc J ts'iuk It s'u t s'u. s hI toad (Shi ap. Shuowen). Gl. 121. The graph,
as seen in c. below, is a drawing.
b-e. *ts6g / tsdu- Its a o cooking-place, stove (Tso). c. is Chou III (inscr. 229, sense
here uncertain).
1028 a-b. *si6k fsiulc J su grave, reverent, solemn (Sb'i); severe (Shi); eager (Shi);
swift (Shl); to present (Li); contract, shut (as a flower) (Li); shrivel (Shl); to beat (Slu);
Gls. 25, 54, 377, 476, 735. b. is Chou II/IV (inscr. 306).
c. *sj6lc J sjuk J s n and *9j6g J J s h o u slice of dried fish (Li). - d. variant of
the preceding (Chouli ap. Shuowen).
e. *sj6g J sjgn- J s i u embroider (Shi).
f. *siog J .sie11- J s i a o to croon (Sh'i); whistle (Li). Gl. 58. - g. iii. (properly variant
of f.) to wail (Shi).
h. *siog I siezL J s i a o pan-pipe (Shi); ends of a bow (Li). - i. id. Artemisia (Shi); loan
for irl. solitary, quiet (Ch'uts'i); chilly (Ch'uts'I); for s i a o · s i a o the neighing of
horses (Shi). - j. id. chilly (Shi). Gl. 235. - k. id. spider (Shi).
1029 a-b. *si6k I sjuk J s u lodge the night, pass a night (Shl); abide by (Tso); old
(not new) (Li); continuous (Chuang); loan for 1028 a. above (Li); *sjog I sjgu· J s i u a
)>mansiom, group of constellations, part of the zodiac (Li); loan for c. to strain -v,,jne
(Shu). Gl. 2004. b. is Chou II/III (inscr. 270). The graph has 'roof' (house), 'man' and
a 'mat'.
c. *$i6k I / so bind (Shi); collect (Kuoyli); loan for irl. straight, upright (l\Ieng);
vertical, longitudinal (Li); lose (Kuots'e); draw back, shrink (Huai); to strain (sc. wine)
Gl. 792.- d. id. drag the feet (hardly lifting the heels) in walking (Lunyii).
1030 a-c. *sj6k I sjnk I s u early morning (Shi); early, (Sh'i); loan for 1028 a.
(Li). Gl. 867. b. is Yin bone (A 6: 16, 3), c. is Chou I (inscr. 65). The graph has a kneeling
'man' and 'moon'.
268
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
!OJ! ;;G 1 "-19\_ ;rx__ 1-*R );tz {t
a_
lr c cLef '3 h.. i j k. L Yl'l.n
0
!!;, ;fiz {5iR pftt ;&, !OJ:L :A {t ft {t t-

r
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f:1? @f: !OJJ rf) 1034

l
ft ff Ai tt
Lr 9
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i a a. Lr c cL e f :J
lc i

·If
7-'S- <ll.7
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rd p5f -10371')( w k R ft
j k: l 11'1. a. lr
CL lr c 0.... l.r c
1031 a. *siok I si,uk Ish u Shuowen pulse, beans, thus taking it to be the
form of g. below (no text).- b-el. gather, harvest (Shi); loan for id. junior, 3rd
of 4 brothers (Shi). c. is Chou II (inscr. 156, sense of j. below), d. is Chou II (inscr. 187,
sense of j.).
e. *tsi,6lc I tsi,uk I t s u grieved (l\ieng ap. Shuowen).
f. I ts'iek It s'i battle-axe (Sh'i); loan for id. intense feelings, affection (Shl);
solicitous (Shu); beloved ones, relatives (Shl); grieved (Sh'i); to distress (Shu); t s'i s h 'i
toad (Shi). Gls. 121, 1409, 1564.
g. I siuk I shu pulse, beans (Shi).
?·   I c h'u commence (Sill). Gl. 886. - i. id. deceitful (Chuang).
J. *dtok / z1uk J shu fine, good (Sill).
k. *tfljok I tsj1Lk I t s u to walk reverently (Lunyii); *rl'iok I rl'iek I t i level and easy
(sc. road) (Shr).
1. *dz:iok I rlz'ielc / t_s i repose, quiet (Yi).- m. variant of the preceding (Ch'uts'i).
n. *tok.J tuok It u (Chouli); correct, proper (Tso); (the correct medium:)
the 1mddle (sc. the seam m the middle of the back) (Chuang).- o. id. seam in the back
of coat (Kuoyli), see the preceding.
p. J ni:Tc / n i _hungry for, (Shi); hungrily, dissatisfied (Shi). Gl. 35.
q. tswg f I t s 1 a o and *ts1og I tstiin J t s i a o pepper plant (Shi)· fraament (Shi).
Gl. 1125. ' "'
r-s. I / t i dried up, wi.zened (sc. plants) (Shl ap. Shuowen). Gl. 997.
t-u. ts1ok / tsrulc / t s u trample (L1); press, compress, harass (Shi); urgent (Li); reduced
to extremity, straitened (Shi). Gl. 524.
v. I and. *ts'iok I ts'iek It s'i -v.Tinlde (the brow) (1\leng).
x. Is wk / t8 / t s 1 anxiOusly thoughtful, solicitous (Shu). - y. id. axe (Tso).
1 a-d. *ljok I liulc Jl u, l i u six (Shl). In Pekinese, the regular form, I u, is
literary, the irregular, l i u, is colloquial. b. is Yin bone (A 4: 47, 7), c. is Yin (inscr. 52),
d. is Chou I (inscr. 65).
e. f. ljuk I 1 u Shuowen says: clod of earth (no text). From g. below it can be seen
1t 1s above (doubled) that is phonetic.- f-g. id. land (as opp. to water)
(Sh1); a level hmght (Shl); path (Tso); loan for id. jump (Chuang). g. is Chou IV (inscr .
. 282, .. - h. id. grain which is sown late and ripens early (Chouli). Gl. 375.
1. *1nl1ok I m1uk J m u concord, harmonious (Shu).
269
BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
1033 a-b. *Jijok I nzjuk I j 0 u meat, flesh (Tso); nj6g I liiiil,U· I j 0 u fleshy, full (Li).
b. is Yin bone (A l: 41, 7), c. is extracted from the archaic graph (Chou III, inscr.
218); said to depict a slice of dried meat.
1034 a-c. *b'f:6k I b'jnk I f u return (inscr. 143). b. is Yin bone (A 5: 13,6), c. is Chou
II (inscr. 143). - d-f. id. return (Shi); report (Lunyii); reply (Tso); repay (Meng);
recall (Li); restore (Shi); recommence (Li); loan for i. (Li); for m. a cover (Shi); *b'jog j
f u repeat (Meng), again (Lunyii). Gl. 789. e. is Chou I (inscr. 54), f. is Chou II
(inscr. 132).
g. *b'j6k j b'jnk If u support under box of carriage resting on the axle and holding it in
position (Yi).
h. *pjok j piuk j f u belly (Shi); embrace (Shi). - i. id. double, lined (garment) (Li).
j. *p'i.Ok I p'jnk If u snake (Ch'uts'i).
k. *b'jak j b'jgk I pi, p'i (the Pek. aspirate is irregular) resist, obstinate (Tso).
I. variant of m. a cover (Shi ap. Shuowen). Gl.
m. *p'i6k I p'juk I fu turn over (Shi); overthrow (Tso); on the contrary (Shi); revert
(Shi); repeatedly (Meng); *p'jog I p'jil,U· If o u overspread, cover (Shi); a cover (Shi);
protect (Shu); lay troops in ambush (Tso). Gl. 526.
1035 a-b. *miok I miuk I m u splendid, stately, august (Sill); solemn (Shu); shrined
on the right (odd series) in the ancestral temple (Li). b. is Chou II (inscr. 132). Gl. 757.
1036 a-c. *1njok I mjuk I m u eye (Shi); see (Kuoyii); details (Kungyang); index
(Lunyii); denominate (Kuliang). b. is Yin bone (I 11: 3), c. is pre-Ha.n (inscr. 438).
The graph is a drawing.
1037 a-c. *miok I mjuk I m u to herd, herdsman (Shi); pasture-grounds (Shi); nourish
(Yi). b. is Yin bone (A 5: 27,1), c. is Chou I (inscr. 54). The graph has 'ox, cow' and
'baton, beat'. In the Yin bone forms there is often 'sheep' instead of 'ox'.
1038 a-c. *g'f;k I yak j h ii e learn (Shi); school (Li); imitate (Li); loan for d. below
(Li). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 44,4, name), c. is Chou I (inscr. 65).
d-e. *g' i)g I yau- I hi a o teach (Shu). e. is Chou I (inscr. 58).
f. *ki)k j kdk I k ii e to awake (Chuang); apprehend, get insight (Lun;yii); to rouse some-
body into understanding (Tso); loan for id. straight (Shi); *k(Jg I kau- I k i a o to awake
(Shi). Gl. 503.
g. *k'6k I k'twk I k'u a N. Pr. (Kuoyii).
h. *g'f;k I yak I h ii e and *'9k I 'ak j y ii e name of a bird (Chuang).
i. *ki)g I kau: I k i a o disturb (Shi).
1039 a-d. *k6g I kdu-1 k a o and *kok I knok j k u announce, inform (Shi). b. is
Yin bone (A 4: 29,5), c. is Yin bone (A 1: 3,-!), d. is Chou I (inscr. 56). The graph. has
'ox' and 'mouth', possibly referring to the announcement (with sacrifice) to the ancestor&
in the temple.
e. *kOg I kr'iu- I k a o announce, inform (Yi).
£-g. *kog I kdu- I k a o and *kok I k110k I k u place name (Tso). g. is Chou II/III
(inscr. 247).
h. *k6g I kdn: I k a o pure, bright (Shi).
i. *g'6g I ydn: I h a o bright, white (Lii).
j. *g'6g j ydtt: I h a o great waters (Shu); vast, great (Shi).
k. *k6k I kuok I k u manacles (Yi); loan for 1038 f. straight (Shi, Ts'i version). Gl. 503-
-1. id. pen, stable (Yi); hobble (Shu). Gl. 2099.
270
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
m. *k'6k I k'uok I k'u cruel (Siin).
n. *g'6k I ynok I h u name of a bird (cra.ne? snow-goose? swan?) (Li); *kok 1 kuok 1 k u
centre of target (Li); loan for j. (Lii).
o. *ki)g I kau- I k i a o cave, cellar (Li); secluded (Chuang).
104.0 a-b:. *kog I kd'!: I k a o announce (Chouli); loan for id. long cry (Li); marsh (Tso);
high (Sh1); lazy (Sh1); loan for 1068 e. (Chouli). Gls. 484, 1064.
c. * k6g I kdu, I k a o a well-sweep (Chuang).
d. *g'og I ydu I h a o howl, cry (Tso).
e. *g'og) ydu: I h a o bright (Chuang). - f-g. id. comfortable (Meng).
b. *ng6g lngdu / a o fly backwards and forwards, go to and fro (Shi).
1041 a-c. I k'dn: I k:a o Shuowen says: to sob text). b. is Chou II (inscr.
147, name), c. IS Chou II (mscr. 169, sense of d. below).- d-i. id. high age, old (Shi:)'
father (Shi); father (Shu); loan for id. beat (Shi); achieve (Shi); settle (Shu);
(SJ:ll).   for I. (Shu) .. Gls. 160, .1126, 1570, 1609, 1791. e. is Yin bone (B hia 35: 5),
f. IS Ym (mscr. 15): g. IS I (mscr. 58), h. is Chou I (inscr. 86), i. is Chou I (inscr.
63, sense of ;f:). - J-k. vanant of the preceding (Chouli). k. is Chou III (inscr. 226).
I. *k'i)g I k'au:, k'au. I k'i a o artful, skilful (Shi:).
m. *xiog I Xigu: I hi u rot, decay (Shi); be forgotten (Tso). - n. id. cut to pieces (Lie)·
loan for the preceding (Mo). . '
o. *k'6g / k'dtt: / k'a o a kind of tree (Ailanthus?) (Shi).
p. *g'og I ydu- I h a, o Shuowen says: cry out, wail, thus taking it to be the primary form
of next (no text). •
q. *g'og /?'au I h a o cry out (Shi); *g'og j g'dtt- j h a o command (Chuang)· call (Tso)·
name, denomination (Chouli). ' '
r. : I / h o vast *g'og j ydu I h a o noise (Chuang).
s. xrog I xran I h 1 a 0 empty, spacwus (Chuang); h ii an. hi a 0 na,me of a constella-
tion (Tso).
t. *gjog I iiaV: I y a o owl (Shi); a, small bird (Chuang); c h'i - y a o another bird of
unknown kmd (Shi; later comm. take this also to mean 'owl', but that goes against
the earliest commentators).
271
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF' FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
1042 a. *g'6g 1 ydu: 1 h a o bright, splendid (sc. heaven) (Shi). The Seal has 'sun' and
'heaven'.
1043 a. *g'6g 1 ydu: 1 b a o bright (sc. heaven) (Lii).
1044 a-e. * xog 1 ldu: 1 h a o good (Shl); * xog I 1. h a o to love, to (Shi);
1 f
'd bole (L
1
') b is Yin bone (A 1: 38 3) c. IS Ym bone (A 7: 27,4), d. 1sCh.ou I
oan or 1 . • · ' ' , , ' 'ld'
(inscr. 128), e. is Chou II (inscr. 167). The graph has woman and chi .
1045 a. *'og 1 ·an- 1 a 0 south-west corner of bouse ); . inside interior
(Tso); loan for id. to heap (Kuoyii); to cook (Stin); I   I y u cove bank
of a stream (Shi); loan for id. warm, genial (sc. sun) (Sh1); b.1rd s stomach (L1) .. Gl. 14:9.
b. *'j6k 1 ·ju,k 1 y ii and *'og 1 ·au- j a o bay, cove (L1). Gl. 149. - c. td. (both
readings) conceal, hidden (Kuoyii); inside area (Shu); loan for d. (Shu). Gls. 149, 1227,
1380.
d. *'jok 1 'iulc 1 y ii warm (Shi).- e. id. wild vine1Shi).
1046 a-b. *t'og 1 t'dn 1 t'a 0 slippery, elusive (Shi ap. Shuowen). b. is Chou (inscr.
367, name). Gl. 237. -c. id. bow case (Tso).
1047 a-c. *d'og 1 rl'du 1 t'a 0 Shuowen says: kiln, taking .it to be the primary
form of d. below (no text). b. is Yin (inscr. 6, name), c. IS Chou {mscr. 387). The graph
has 'earthenware' and the same element as in 1113 p a o to wrap. .
d. *d'6g 1 rl'd
1
t 1 t'a o kiln (Tso); to mould pottery,
1
:a. pent up (feelings) (Li); anxious (:M:eng); a kind of (Tso ), loan for d og I d I
t a
0
to gallop (Shl); for *diog 1 jau f y a o pleased (Sh1); k a o - y a o wooden drum
(Chouli). Gls. 220, 288, 657, 789.
e. *d'6g I I t'a o rope (Shi).
1048 a-c. *d'6g 1 rl'du: 1 tao way, road (Shi); method (Shl); principle _(Lunyii); I
d'du- 1 t a
0
show the way, lead (Tso); e:J-."}llain (Li); b. IS Chou I (mscr.
98, name), c. is Chou II (inscr. 147). The graph has head and ·
d-e. *d'og 1 d'dtt-1 t a o to lead, conduct (Meng). e. is Chou I (mscr. 83).
1049 a. *ts6g I tsc1tt: I t s a o early (Shu). . .
b-e. *ts'6g 1 ts'd
1
c 1 t s'a 0 grass, plants, herbs (Shi); trl. rough, coarse (Shu),
troubled, grieved (Shi). Gl. 1502. c. is Chou III/IV (mscr. 328).
1050 a. *ts6g 1 tsan: 1 t sao jujube (Sh!). The graph has 'thorn' doubled.
1051 a-c. *ts'6g 1 ts'dn- 1 t s'a o go and offer (a sacrifice) (Li); go (Meng);, (cause
to go=) send out (ShY); to rush, ur?ently go m court (Shu);

put, to place (Li); (passing time:) penod, epoch *dz.?g I dz t sao do,
(Shi);: act, be active (Yi), initiate, begin (Li); achieve (Sh1); to tram perfect (Sh1);
IJerfected (Shu). Gls. 817' 903, 1589, 2055. b. is n, (mscr. 164),, c. IS. Chou
(inscr. 309). c. and the modern character have 'to go and to (as m a
b. has 'to announce', 'roof' (house, temple) and another element which looks hke arch.
'boat', of uncertain interpretation.
d. *ts'6g I ts'dn-/ t s'a o sincere (Li).
e. I ch'o u assistant (Tso).
272
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA.
1011- i(+ 1t; 101s J{}lfb t §t
a. c d e a. !.r c d. e a.. l.r c
!Of7 tfJ $t J(}f8 ;@_ 101J f :9;
CL G c. d. e. a.. l.r c d e a. l.r
!OfO   ;!_ ffili {i !OJZ f f tt ltJ)J t U
a.. C. d e.. CL lr C d 0. l.r
tm ft 1051 !OS.f{ ff
c f
a. lr c cL
1052 a-b. I ts'du: It s'a o (same word as 1/1.) grass, plants (Siin). Shuowen says:
a sprout, and Ts'ieyiin reads its t'iiit I c h'e, but there are no text examples whatever in
support of this. It occurs in the sense of 11. in Sun, and is obviously a simpler variant
of c. below. b. is pre-Han (inscr. 452, name). The graph is a drawing. - c-d. id.
grass, plants (only Han time text ex., Lun beng). Character generally superseded by
:!if. d. is extracted from the archaic graph (Chou IV, inscr. 283).
1053 a-c. *dz'61J I dz'duf t s'a o two parties, a pair (Ch'uts''i); come together (Kuoyii);
servant (Sill); crowd (Tso ). Gl. 903. b. is Yin bone (A 2: 5, 5, name), c. is Chou II (inscr.
135, name). - d. id. dung-worm, insect larva (Meng).
e. *dz' 6g I dz'du- / t sao to transport by boat (Yi Chou shu); *dz'6g I dz'dn f t s'a o
place name (Sh!).
f. *t.s6g / tsdu Its a o complete, end (Siin). - id. dregs (Chouli). - h. id. meet
with (Shi).
1054 a-b. *dz'og I dz'du: Its a o acorn, black-dyeing fruit (Chouli); loan for id. soft,
not yet ripe (sc. grain) (Shi); menial (Tso); a stable (Chuang); 12 horses (Chouli).
1055 a-d. *lOg I Ui1t: I 1 a o old (ShY). b. is Yin bone (B hia 35: 2), c. is Yin bone (A
2: 2,6), d. is Chou II (inscr. 150).
1056 a-c. *log lldu 11 a o pen, fold (Sill); domestic animal (Li); sacrifice of an ox,
a sheep and a pig (Tso). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 10,2), c. is Chou I (inscr. 98). The graph
has 'ox' and a drawing of a pen. In the Yin bone form_s there is often 'sheep' instead of
'ox'.
1057 a-e. *p6g ( pdn: I p a o preserve, protext (Sh!); assist (Shi); maintain (Tso);
rely on (Tso); stronghold (Li). Gls. 814, 1091, 1400. b. is Yin bone (A 7: 3,1), c. is Yin
(inscr. 47), d. is Chou I (inscr. 65), e. is Chou I (inscr. 70). The graph has 'man' and
'child' (in e. enlarged by 'jade, precious'). - f. id. screen, fan (Li); loan for a. strong-
hold (Shu), for h. (Li). Gl. 1400. - g. id. swaddling cloth (Lie).
h. *p6g I pdu I p a o robe with wide skirts (so Shuowen), robe given in recompense (Li);
loan for *p6g / pdu-1 p a o to salute (Chouli).
18 273
'I'
1
i I
BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
!O.ft If lH !OS71{'- 1r 1f fJ: {11{%.. !&_ !OJ8 tft
lr c. a. lr c. d... e f 9 i'L a_ !r
!0)9 !tJtO *   ;#jt !Otl @) j§ J&
a. L c. c:L e. a. lr Cl l.r c. cL
!0(31i. t± !tJC4 ;Ei lOCi it
a.
L c a. l.r c d e f g h.- 1.. a.
>}z_ { i $ #{_ J1<-- t4t- f.¥- if<-- {;fz_
lr c. d.. e f h- i j k l rn ..
-
1058 a-b. *p6g 1 pdu- I p a o respond, recompense (Shi); return, repay, avenge (Tso );
announce (Shu); loan for id. to tie, wrap (Li); plait, interweave (Sill); to have illicit
love with a person of higher rank (Tso). Gl. 632. b. is Chou I (inscr. 69).
1059 a-e. *p6g 1 pdu: J p a o precious thing (Shi); precious (Tso); precious insignium
(of dignity) (Shi'). b. is Yin bone (13 hia 18: 3), c. is Yin (inscr. 2), d. is Chou I (inscr.
54), e. is Chou I (inscr. 60). The graph has 'roof' (house), 'cowry' and 'pottery'; the
latter (*pj6g) may be phonetic at the same time.
1060 a. *p6g I pdu: 1 p a o Shuowen says: in sequel, one after another (no tex:t). -
b. id. bustard (Shi); loan for id. horse of mix:ed black and white colour (Shi).
1061 a. *b'og 1 b'du- 1 p a o violent (Chouli). The Seal has 'warrior' and 'tiger'.
1062 a-b. *mag J m4u- I mao to look down on, see (Shu); covetous (Shu; then alt.
read *rnak J mJk 1 mo); a covering (Li); to cover, overspread (Shi); (with covered eyes:)
blindly, reckless (Tso ); loan for c. (Lii), for d. (Chouli). Gls. 1624, 2117. The graph
has 'eye' and a drawing of some kind of cover. - c. id. jealous (Li). - d. id. sceptre-
cover, cap of a jade tablet (Chouli). Gl. 1998.
1063 a-c. *mag 1 m_i(7t: J m o u, m u male (Shi). The Archaic reading was *mag as
shown by the rimes; this should give Anc. mdu, and the evolution into is irregular
and exceptional. b. is Yin bone (A 1: 20,5), c. is Chou I (inscr. 107). The graph has
'ox' and the phallic-shaped pole of the earth-altar (see Gr. 62). In the Yin bone forms
there is sometimes 'sheep' or 'deer' instead of 'ox'.
1064 a. *kiog J kjeu I ki u Shuowen says: to twist (no text). . .
b. *kji5g I kiJju: 1 k i u twist, plait (Shi); unite (Tso ); loan for id. examn:e (Ch01.:h); loan
for *g'fog J g'jau: J k i a o and *kjog I kjiht: I k i a o elegant, beautiful (Sh1). Gls.
l, 269, 1130. - c. variant of the preceding (Ch'uts'i).
d. *kii5g I ki_iJu: I k i u elegant (Shi). Gl. 26. . .
e. *g'jog 1 g'jiJu I k'i u and *kjog I kjeu j k i u horned dragon (Ch'uts'i). - f. td.
horn-shaped, long and curved (Kuliang).
g. *kiog J kieu-1 k i a o call out, shout (Shi). - h. id. shout (Tso ap. Shuowen). -
i. id. shout, clamour (Chouli).
2 74:
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAM.MATA SERICA RECENSA
1065 a. *kjog_J kjgu: I k i u. Allium, leek, onion (Shi). The original graph may have
been a drawmg. - b. variant of the preceding (Chuang).
1066 a-d.   J.r!'if{7t I k'i u seek (Shi); loan for k. unite (Shi). Gls. 695,
856, 1036. b. Is bone (A 6: 48,5), c.1s Ym bone (A 6: 48,6), d. is Chou II (inscr. 132).
Shuowen takes this to be the primary graph for e. below, 'fur garment', applied by
loan to our word 'seek for'. The graph is then a drawing of fur (a tail?). _ e. id. fur
garment (Shi) .. - f. a kind of precious Gl. 1193 a. - g. id. long and
horn-like (Sh1), cf. 1064: f. above; k1og j k11,u 1 k i u collect (Shi). Gls. 793,
h. *g'jag / I k'i u urgent, pressing Gl. .ll95. - i.' id. long and curved, horn-
shaped (Sh1), see g. above. Gl. ll53. - J. td. bnbe (Hanfe1). - k. id. meet assemble
(Shi);}nate. (Sill); bring together (Shu). Gl. 2. - 1. id. chisel (Shi). Gl. 394:.'
m. *lc1og / I k i u help, save, relieve (Shi).
n. *g'·iag I I k'i u gem-adorned (Shi). Gl. 1133.
1067 a . . *g'fog I g'fg7t: / k i u mortar (Yi). The graph (see d-e. below) was a drawin".
- b. td. maternal uncle (Shi); wife's father (Li).
0
c-e. *(iug I g'jgu- I i u (*g'j1'1g ?Y rimes) old (not new), ancient (Shi'); for a
ago (Shu) .. Gl. 1510. d. IS Ym bone (A 4: 15,4), e. is Chou II (inscr. 156).
f. *g rug I g 11.u-1 k i u coffin (Chouli).
1068_ *g'i_ag I I k i u fault (Shl); blame (Shl); inauspicious (Shi); calamity
(Shu); loan for *kog llcau / k a o part of names (Tso). Gl. 1538. b.
1s Chou III (mscr. 228, enlarged by rad. 104) ..
*!cog) kd1t, kdu: / k a o a of tree. (inscr. 32i). d. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 328).
e. kog I kau I k a o b1g drum (Sh1). - f. 2d. bow case, put in bow case (Shi'); quiver
(Tso).
1069 a. fligu-fl i u and *gljog I ljiJu- jl i u and *glfog 1 l#u- 1 1 i a
0
whistling
of the wmd (Chuang).
b-e. *glj!Jg ( ligu. I I i u *glfog I ljiJu / 1 i u fine gold (inscr. 217). c. and d. are
III .(mscr: 217), e. IS Chou III (inscr. 218).
f. *gl1og I /l1 u wind high up in the air (Lii).
g. flit!! I I i u and *klfog I kjeu J k i u to tie round, strangle (Yili).
* /   / k u down-curving (sc. branch) (Shi); to twist (Yili). Gl. 14.
/ / q ?C?l / k 1 u . variant (Shu).
J. { l1 u and *gl1ok I l]?tk ll u join forces (Kuoyii).
k. t l1og / t lgU I c h o u and *dliag (?) I lieu J I i a o get cured, recover (Shi:)· difference
(Tso); harm (Kuoyii.). '
1. / m_ic1t I m i u ·bind round (Shr); loan for m. below (Li); *klfog 1 kiiJu 1 k i u
to twist (L1), cf. h. above; loan for ;m (Li). Gl. 757. ·
m. *mliog / mf'iJu- / m i u lie, error (Chuang).
n. I lieu / I i a o empty, solitary, quiet (Chuang). - o. id. limpid, pure (Chuang).
P· . *gliog I lieu: I l i a o various Polygon urn plants, esp. the Hydropiper (Shi); *glf6k 1
l1ulc /1 u high-growing (plants) (Shi).
q. I :i.au- I 1 i .shar_p (sc. taste) (Chou shu ap. Shuowen).
r. *gl!Jg / Mm I l a o spmts mth sediment (Lie).
s. *kl9g / ka!l: I k i a .o glue. (Chouli); (to glue together:) unite (Shi); loan for id.
frost (Ch uts 1); school (L1); crowmg of a cock (Shi); to shake, move (Chuang).
275
BULlETIN OF' THE :1IUSEUlll OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
!0{7 {3 11 l (l()(g {F- #- V= t /(}(9
a_ L- c d e f a.. l.r c cl e t ct
W:i- -4-'11J -t"ii'J :J:)J_

.;;;n 1it :XR
;!) \ l'L:L J-:q; o/J \1-o/" Y?j 17 '4;
G c d e f 9 k i J k L m n o p 9
%t Jfl!07(}1;f'- )1   1 t 1%
t LL V X., ct. Lr C c{_ e. f '3 h.. i
tL jfl_ !fJ7! 1g· • j;@. ;ft.
jf;.! R ?<... :t.) ?Z- jl.._ R . 7{._ tJl-.- 7---
j k
n a.. G c e f 9 h i
...
t. * ;l(!q I za'u I hi a o magniloquent (.:\Ieng). . . .
u. *uliuk 1 lj1tlc flu disgrace (Lunyti); loan for v. below (Sun). - v . . zd. to _lull, pumsh
b,\· death (Shu); to disgrace (Tso ); loan for j. above (Kuoyil). - x. 1d. gram sown late
and ripening early (Sh1). Gl. 375.
1070 a-f. * ;fr!g I / hi u rest, ease (Shl); to rest, abide by desist );
loan for id. good (Sh1); benefit, blessing (Shi); happy (Sh'i); luck (Shu); (Shu);
fim, excellent (Shu). Gls. 1126, Hl38, 2051. b. is Yin bone (A 5: 26,2), c. IS Ym bone
(H 1:23, 15), d. is Yin (inscr. 14), e. is Yin (inscr. 28), f. is Chou I (inscr. 58). The graph
has 'man' and 'tree', sometimes (as in e.) 'man' and 'grain'.- g. id. clamour (Meng).
- h. id. a wild animal, of uncertain kind (Li). - i. id. owl (Chuang). - j. id. dark-red
yarnish (Yili). Phonetic abbreviated.
k. *;..r!rJ j za'll I h a o to weed (Shi: ap. Shuowen).
I. *!.(iff I xau I hi a 0 to bawl (Shi'). Gl. 93H. . .
m. *ki6g llcie1t 1 k i a o a kind of bird (owl'!) (Shi); loan for 7d. mountam_ peak
distnrb, (Sun). Phonetic abbreviated. - n. id. dilute (Chuang, one versiOn).
1071 a. *'fog 1 1 y u grief, grieved (Sh'i); suffering (il!eng). The graph (see c. below)
has a 'man' (head, body and foot) and 'heart'. .
b-e. sense and reading of this word are unknown; it is adduced here because Its arch.
graph contains a. above. c. is Chou IIIJlV (inscr. 328). .. , .
d. *'jug j j y u indulgent, mild (Shi); relax, amusement (Sln); comedy ('I so);
(Li); liberal, generous, plenty (Shi); ample, vast (Shi'); surplus (Lunyii). Gls. b 17, 1060.
e. *'i(!rJ I yu easy, tranquil (Sh'i); loan for a. (Ch'uts'i'). Gl. 346. . .
f. *'i6u j J y u rich moisture, soak (Shi' ap. Gl.. 677 .. - g: nuddle
part of a hair-pin (Yili). -h. id. to cover the seed (Lunyu). - 1. vanant of the preced-
ing (Lunyil ap. Shuowen).
1072 a-b. *'iog ( 1 yu doe (Shi:). b. is Chon III/IV (inscr-. 323). The gra1Jh has
'clePr· and 56fi (tL i. above 'female'.
1073 a. *tf6g 1 tjg11: I chou wrist, elbow (Tso). The Seal has 'flesh' (in
tlw 'thumb' variation). Abbreviated phonetic in the following. - b. td. pam m the
intestines, sidmrss (Lii). Gl. 5\l3.
276
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMliiATA SERICA RECENSA_
!072ftJ "1073 foJt fi illii ti i{ /()7) 1(}7( 1L
CL /_;. Cl lr C d_ Cl [, a_ a_ /y
\ ;flL 1fl {IL l 'IlL 1077 1
1
3t :4 1't
c d. e f j h. i j 1, a_ /., c cL e. f
1
f 1
1
fi {'z /t {;{- 1i
3 h. i j k L m. n a p '1 r s -1: u tr
ra1t D ·1·D ttl sG ® $6 *6 i5 J{J
x: a. G c cL e f :1 h.. t. J k L
c. *d'iog / I chou nrw spirits made to ferment by addition of older spirits (Li).
d. *t'6g I t'au: I t'a o punish, blame (Shu); request (Kuliang); examine (Lunyti); curtail
(Li).
1074 a-b. *tfdg I fi;t.n I chou pull out (Lti). b. is Chou I (inscr. 73). The graph has
'grasp' (685) and 'vessel'.
1075 a. *tjog I /chou time of daylight, day (Shi:).
1076 a-d. *t'njog / t'fgn: I e h'o u cyclical character (Tso). b. is Yin bone (A 5: 26,5),
c. is Yin bone (A 5: 34,1), d. is Chou I (inscr. 69).
e. *nfr!g j1tfgn: I n i u a kind of tree, of uncertain kind (a Prunns?) (Shi'). - f. id. be
familiar with, treat with contempt (Tso); repeat, practise (Sh'i).- g. id. to tie, knot (Li).
h-j. *snfog I sfi?_tt J s i u nourish (Shu); viands (Tso ); to present (Shu); loan for id.
diffidence (Tso); shame (Shu). i. is Yin _bone (A 2: 11,1). j. is Chou II (inscr. 172). Gls.
1458, 1522.
k. *nfolc I 'Jifulc I n u ashamed (l\Ieng); loan for f. practise (Sun).
1077 a-b. *dfoq I iitU I y u place (Shi'); the where (Shi'); that which, whereby,
(Shi'); mark of the passive (Shi'); loan for id. far away (l\Ieng); risky; for d. (Shu). Gls.
90, 1561. (Tso). b. is Chou II (inser. 144, sense of h. below). Thr graph has 'man' and
'baton', and a third dement of uncertain interpretation. - c. id. long-brooding (Sh'i);
distressing (Sh1); long-trailing (Shi'); far away (ShY). Gls. 90, 1111.
d. *si6g / Is i u adorn (Li); arrange, repair (Sh1); cultivate (Lunyii); rlaboratc
(Shu); well attend to (Shu). Gb. 1416, 2096. e. id. dried meat (Lunyii); dry (Sh'i);
loan for id. long (Sh'i); loan for d. (Shl), for 1081 (Chouli). Gl. 203.
f. *d'ioq I d'ietL I t'i a o kind of tree of uncertain sprcies (Sh1); branch, shoot (Shi);
long (Sh1); drawn out (so. sound) (Sh'i); rope (Li); loan for id. arrange, bring into order
(Shu); paragraph (Kuots'e); *t'ir!q / t'ien / t'i a o pull clown branchrs and gather leaves
(sc. of mulberry trees) (Sh1). Gl. 204.
g. *d'iog I d'ieu / t'i a o metal-ornamented (Sh1). Gl. 450. - h-i. 'irZ. ,.;ame as the pre-
ceding (inscr. 86). i. is Chou I (inscr. SG).- j. id. a kind of small white fish (Chuang),
cf. t. below.
k. *d'iog / d',ieu- It i a o lm::;ket (Lunyii ap. Shuowen), cf. v. below.
277
BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
1. *si6g ( sieu ( s i a o and *:ij6k j :Sjuk /shu rapid flight (Chuang); loan for e. *si6fJ
(dried=) shrunk (Shi). Gl. 384.
m-n. *Jjok j ijuk j shu rapid (Kuots'e). n. is Chou II (inscr. 147, name).- o. id.
rapid, sudden (Chuang); loan for j. (Chuang). - p. variant of the preceding.
q. *djog / ( y u to flow (Shi).
r. *sj6g j si,gu: j s i u wash rice (Li); urinate (Siin).
s. *t'iok j t'iek / t'i Rumex (Kuan).
t. *d'iog j d'ieu j t'i a o a kind of small white fish (Sh'i}, same as j. above.
u. *siog / sieu: / s i a o thin bamboo (Shu).
v. *d'iok ( d'iek ( t i and *d'i6g ( d'ieu- / t i a o basket (Lunyii), cf. k. above.
x. *d'i6k ( d'iek ( t i to wash (Li), cleanse (Shi:); (swept clean:) denuded, bare, dried up
(Shi); pen for sacrificial animals (where they are cleaned) (Li); to clarify (sc. spirits)
(Chouli); loan for id. move (Li). Gl. 997.
1078 a. *di,6g J jg·u j y u and *djog / jiiu: / y a o tG..,scoop hulled grain from a mortar
(Shi ap. Shuowen). Gl. 876. The graph (see e. below) has 'hand' and 'mortar'.
b. *t'6g ( t'd1t ( t'a o to please (Tso ); exceed, pass, go away (Shi); loan for id. doubtful
(Tso); conceal (Tso); loan for d. reckless (Shi, certain versions). Gl. 288. -c. id. to
beat (Kuoyii). Gl. 221.
d-e. *t'og J t'du j t'a o voluminous flow (of a river) (Sh'i); rushing water, overflowing,
water rising high (Shu); reckless (Shi); insolent (Tso); *t'6g / t'du / t'a o and *il'6g /
d'ciu j t'a o to assemble, to crowd (Chuang). Gls. 288, 1035, 1236. e. is Chou III/IV
(inscr. 329).
f. *t'6g ( t'a1t j t'a o doubt (Tso). - g. id. to wrap, cover (Yili).
h-k. *il'6g ( d'd1l: ( tao rice, paddy (Shl). i. is Chou II (inscr. 158}, j. is Chou II/III
(inscr. 258}, k. is Chou IIJIII (inscr. 263).
I. *d'6g ( d'du- j tao tread, trample (Tso); mobile, shifting, changeable (Shl). GL 288.
1079 a. *di,6g ( jgu ( y u proceed from, from (Shi);go along (Li); to follow (Sill); compliant
(Shu); through (Tso ); cause, reason (Tso); freely, at ease (1\feng, then probably loan for c.);
prolong (Shu); a shoot (from a tree) (Shu); loan form (Meng). Gls. 200, 898.' 942, 141_3,
1414, 1698, 1960. >>Go out from>> is illustrated by a field and a road emergmg from It.
b. *djog I jgu-( y u Pumelo, Citrus (Shu); *d'jok I a'j7lk I c h u a cylinder for the warp
on the weaving apparatus (Shi}.
c. *djog j jgu J y u to flow (Ch'uts'i); overflowing, abundant (sc. rain) (Meng); (flmdngly:)
freely, spontaneously (Li); mild, courteous (Li).
d. *djog I jg1t- ( y u weasel (Ta Tai li).
e. *t'fog I t'j?_u I c h'o u and *d'j6g I a'jg7L I c h'o u agitated, anxious (Shi). GL 657-
f. *t'jog j J c h'o u take out, pull out (Shi).
g. *d'f6g ( /chou canopy of heaven, world (Chua_ng). - h.
(Shu); eldest son of principal wife (Shu). Gl. 1288.- i-k. td. helmet (Sill). J.ls Chou I
(inscr. 67), k. is Chou II (inscr. 159). The radical below is not 'flesh'_ but, ace. to Shuow:n,
an element meaning 'cover'. :But it seems that the whole graph IS due to a corruptiOn
of an arch. drawing showing an eye ( = head) with some spiked object on top. Yet
ah·eady in Siin there is a variant with a. as phonetic, see L below.- I. variant of the
preceding (Siin).
m. *dzj6g / zf:?_u- / s i u sleeve (Tso).
n-o. *ilzj6g j zjgu- j s i u sleeve (Shl); *zj6g / iftu- / y u (sleeved robe:) full dress (Shi);
loan for id. big, tall (sc. growing grain) (Shi). GL 108. To the left in the character there
is fK 'hand'. The variant o. is very curious.
278
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMAT A SERICA REGEN SA
!cJ7J tB till )cl; till & $ 11il 1ill
Q C d.. e f '3 h. i. j k. L 111.11... o
!OtO !iJ} J21 t}j!J_/(}8! @ (f)
r q Q /; c ct. e t 'J h. a. Lr c cL
!08t)1j 1083 Jf) EBt ' lY 4'J!l   fWJ
f g ct. a. l.r c. d. e f IL i
3
e
·jflJ !.fiJ lfiJ Ja] i EH Jj) $ 1r%J
k L 0 p r s t u. v-
p. *d'f:6lc / d'jnk / c h u wheel-axle (Tso); loan for q. advance, become prominent (Sill).
Gl. 163.
q. *d'iok / d'ielc / t i advance (Shi}; go along, follow a (Shu); to lead, direct (Shu);
(cause to advance:) promote (Shl); walk, conduct (Shu). Gls. 1337, 1515, 1939.
1080 a-e. *dfog I / y u pendants of a banner (Chouli). b. is Yin bone (A 2:26,7,
sense of g. below), c. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 313, name), d. is Chou III/IV (insc.r 327),
e. is Chou (inscr. 340, name). The graph has 'banner' and 'child', explanation uncertain.
- f. id. float; swim (Sill); wander, ramble, diversion (Sill); pennon (Tso, in this sense
sometimes read l i u, through confusion with 1104 c. below). - g. id. wander about
(Sh'i}; leisure (Li). - h. id. f o u- y u Ephemerida (Shi).
1081 a-f. *dj6g / jg1t, jgu: / y u a kind of ritual vessel (ShY). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 18,4),
c. is Yin bone (A 6: 41, 5}, d. is Chou I (inscr. 65), e. is Chou I (inscr. 74), f. Chou II
(inscr. 159). The graph is a drawing.
g. *dj6g I jgu J y u freely, umestrained (Lie).
1082 a. *zjog / iftu: I y u window (Sh'i}; loan for 1095 e. to lead (Shi). GI. 931.
1083 a-e. *tf:6g / tSf::;_u / chou circle (Li), cycle (Tso); a bend (Shi); all round, complete
(Tso); to the end (Tso ); everywhere (Shi), universally (Sill); (to be >>all round>> somebody:)
assist (Shi), succour (Tso); close, intimate (Tso); secret (Tso); name of place and royal
house (Shi). b. is Yin bone (K 641), c. is Chou I (inscr. 58), d. is Chou I (inscr. 62), e. is
Chou I (inscr. 106). This may be a graph for >>Urbs>> (so. Chou), a summary drawing of
the lay-out of a city (square city wall and main streets going north-south and east-west),
c.f. 847 above. Gls. 12, 303, 407. - f-g. id. woman's name (Tso). g. is Chou II/III
. h. id. give, (Chouli). - i. id. heavy in front (sc. carriage) (Yili).
J. *t!D? I t !}.?J: I c h o u and *tr!g / ta1l I c h a o twitter, noise (Li).
k. *t' lO(J / t' / c h' o u disappointed (Siin).
1. *d'j6g / d'igu I c h'o u dense, numerous (Kuots'e); loan for x. adjust (Chuang).
m. *d'jog / d'iflu / c h'o u bind round, wrap round (Shi); pressed tightly together, dense,
thick (Shi); *t'og j t'du j t'a o envelop (Li).
n. *d'j6g I I c h'o u (night) chemise (Shi). Gl. 55.
279
BULLETIN OF THE .MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
1. *si6g I sie1L I s i a 0 and * sj6k I sink I s h u rapid flight (Chuang); loan for e. *sj6g
(dried=) shrunk (Shi). Gl. 384.
rn-n. *di6k J ijuk Ish u rapid (Kuots'e). n. is Chou II (inscr. 147, name). - o. id.
rapid, sudden (Chuang); loan for j. (Chuang). - p. variant of the preceding.
q. *dj6g J igu f y u to flow (Shi).
r. *siog f f s i u wash rice (Li); urinate (Siin).
s. *t'i6k I t'iek / t'i Rumex (Kuan).
t. *d'i6g J d'ieu J t'i a o a kind of small white fish (Shi), same as j. above.
u. * siog I sieu: I s i a o thin bam boo (Shu).
v. *d'i6k I d'iek f t i and *d'iog I d'ieu- It i a o basket (Lunyii), cf. k. above.
x. *d'i6k 1 d'ielc 1 t i to wash (Li), cleanse (Shi:); (swept clean:) denuded, bare, dried up
(Shi); pen for sacrificial animals (where they are cleaned) (Li); to clarify (so. spirits)
(Chouli); loan for id. move (Li). Gl. 997.
1078 a. *dj6g f I y u and *diog f jtht: J y a o to hulled grain from a mortar
(Shi ap. Shuowen). Gl. 876. The graph (see e. below) has 'hand' and 'mortar'.
b. *t'og f t'du, f t'a o to please (Tso); exceed, pass, go away (Shi); loan for id. doubtful
(Tso); conceal (Tso); loan for d. reckless (Shi, certain versions). Gl. 288. - c. id. to
beat (Kuoyii). Gl. 221.
d-e. *t'6g f t'au 1 t'a o voluminous flow (of a river) (Shi); rushing water, overflowing,
water rising high (Shu); reckless (Shi); insolent (Tso); *t'og / t'du I t'a o and *d'6g I
d'ri11 J t'a o to assemble, to crowd (Chuang). Gls. 288, 1035, 1236. e. is Chou III/IV
(inscr. 329).
f. *t'og f t'au j t'a, o doubt (Tso). - g. id. to wrap, cover (Yili).
h-k. *il'6g / d'du: f tao rice, paddy (Shi:). i. is Chou II (inscr. 158), j. is Chou II/III
(inscr. 258), k. is Chou II/III (inscr. 263).
1. *d'og / d'du- It a o tread, trample (Tso); mobile, shifting, changeable (Shi). Gl. 288.
1079 a. *dj6g f fgu / y u proceed from, from (Shi);go along (Li); to follow (Shi); compliant
(Shu); through (Tso); cause, reason (Tso); freely, at ease (Meng, then probably loan for c.);
prolong (Shu); a, shoot (from a tree) (Shu); loan for (Meng). Gls. 200, 898, 942, 14:13,
1414, 1698, 1960. )>Go out from)> is illustrated by a field and a road emerging from it.
b. *df6g I I y u Pumelo, Citrus (Shu); *d'jok I a'juk I c h u a cylinderfor the wmp
on the weaving apparatus (Shi).
c. *dj6g / igu f y u to flow (Ch'uts'i); overflowing, abundant (sc. rain) (Meng); (flowingly:)
freely, spontaneously (Li); mild, courteous (Li).
<1. *di6g J I y u weasel (Ta Tai li).
e. *t'j6g J t'jg1L J c h'o u and *d'i6g J I c h'o u agitated, anxious (Shi). Gl. 657.
f. *t'j6g I t'jg1L / c h'o u take out, pull out (Shl).
g. *d' j6g I a'jgU· I c h 0 u canopy of heaven, world (Chuang). - h. id. descendant
(Shu); eldest son of principal wife (Shu). Gl. 1288.- i-k. id. helmet (Shi:). j. is Chou I
(inscr. 67), k. is Chou II (inscr. 159). The radical below is not 'flesh' but, ace. to Shuowen,
an element meaning 'cover'. But it seems that the whole graph is due to a corruption
of an arch. drawing showing an eye (=head) with some spiked object on top. Yet
ah'eu,dy in Sun there is a variant with a. as phonetic, see l. below. - 1. variant of the
preceding (Siin).
m. *ilzj6g / zjgu· J s i u sleeve (Tso).
n-o. *dzj6g I zjgu- Is i u sleeve (Shi); *zj6g / i?J.n- I y u (sleeved robe:) full dress (Shi);
loan for id. big, tall (sc. growing grain) (Shi:). Gl. 108. To the left in the character there
is )]l 'hand'. The variant o. is very curious.
278
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA
!cJ7J ru ;hE )clJ tti:J tt1 t 2t $tf1 1m
Q c d.. e f 5 h.. i.. j k:. L l1"1.l1. o
!OiO fr W I# iJl :fjj} !08! E5 4_ Qj
r q Cl c cL e f. '3 h. a. lr c cL
  1083 ;f) ill[' ffi) 4'1!1
e f 9 Q a. \.., c. d. e f h. i.
1
!%1 1Pa1 :rfo) Ja] + fi}t {ffl
L 0 r
r s t LL tr 'j
p. *d'j6lc / J'juk I c h u wheel-axle (Tso); loan for q. advance, become prominent (Shl).
Gl. 163.
q. *d'i6lc f d'ielc / t i advance (Shi); go along, follow a r;ad (Shu); to lead, direct (Shu);
(cause to advance:) promote (Shi); walk, conduct (Shu). Gls. 1337, 1515, 1939.
1080 a-e. *dg'6g I if!.'U / y u pendants of a banner (Chouli). b. is Yin bone (A 2: 26, 7,
sense of g. below), c. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 313, name), d. is Chou III/IV (insc.r 327),
e. is Chou (inscr. 340, name). The graph has 'banner' and 'child', explanation uncertain.
- f. id. float; swim (Shi); wander, ramble, diversion (Shi:); pennon (Tso, in this sense
sometimes read I i u, through confusion with ll04 c. below). -g. id. wander about
(Shi); leisure (Li). - h. id. f o u - y u Ephemerida (Shi).
1081 a-f. *dj6g / fgu, I y u a kind of ritual vessel (Shi). b. is Yin bone (A 1: 18,4),
c. is Yin bone (A 6: 41,5), d. is Chou I (inscr. 65), e. is Chou I (inscr. 74), f. is Chou II
(inscr. 159). The graph is a drawing.
g. *dj6g / i?,n I y u freely, unrestrained (Lie).
1082 a. *ziog J jgn: I yu window (Shl); loan for 1095 e. to lead (Shi). Gl. 931.
1083 a-e. *tjog I tsjgu /chou circle (Li), cycle (Tso); a bend (Shl); all round, complete
(Tso); to the end (Tso); everywhere (Shi), universally (Shi); (to be ))all round)> somebody:)
assist (Shi), succour (Tso ); close, intimate (Tso ); secret (Tso ); name of place and royal
house (Shi). b. is Yin bone (K 641), c. is Chou I (inscr. 58), d. is Chou I (inscr. 62), e. is
Chon I (inscr. 106). This may be a graph for ))Urbs)> (sc. Chou), a summary drawing of
the lay-out of a city (square city wall and main streets going north-south and east-west),
cf. 847 above. Gls. 12, 303, 407. - f-g. id. woman's name (Tso). g. is Chou II/III
. -h. id. give, succouE (Chouli). - i. id. heavy in front (sc. carriage) (Yili).
J. *trofJ / tt / chou and *t(Jg J tan / c h a o twitter, noise (Li).
k. *t'j6g / I c h'o u disappointed (Siin).
1. *rl'j6g I a'if!.u I c h'o u dense, numerous (Kuots'e); loan for X. adjust (Chuancr).
m. *d'jog / il'iiJ.u J c h'o u bind round, -..rrap round (Shi); pressed tightly togethe;, dense,
thick (Shi); *t'og / t'du, I t'a o envelop (Li).
n. *d'i,6g I a'jgu I c h'o u (night) chemise (Shi). Gl. 55.
279
..
BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
o. *ti6g J tieu It i a o wither, fade, fall (Kuots'e). - p-q. id. engrave, carve (inscr.
I33). q. is Chou II (inscr. I33).- r. id. engrave (Chuang), carve (Tso); injure (Tso);
loan foro. (Lunyii). - s. variant of the preceding (Siin).- t-u. id. eagle (Chuang);
loan for r. engrave (Shu), for r. injure (Kuoyii).
v. *d'iog I d'ieu I t'i a o cicada (Shi).
x. *d'i6g I d'ieu I   a o to tune (Li); adjust (Shi); blend (Lii); stir, move (Chuang);
loan for *ti.Og f I chou morning (Shi, really for I075 above). Gl. 35.
y. *t6g I tau: /tao read blessings over animals about to be sacrificed (Chouli). Gl. 473.
z. *t'i6lc / t'iek f t'i vast, high (Siin).
1084 a-e. *tf:og / j chou boat (Shi); loan for I083 a. 'Chou' (Shi) and 'to encircle,
engirdle' (Shi). Gl. 630. b. is Yin bone (A 7: 24,2), c. is Yin bone (A 2: 26,2), d. is Chou
III/IV (inscr. 327), e. is Chou (inscr. 367). The graph is a drawing.- f. tf:og / /
chou cheat, impose on (Shi). - g. id. carriage pole (Shi).
1085 a-c. */{fog/ / s h o u receive (Shi); compliant, tranquil (Shi).
Gl. 346. b. is Yin bone (A I: 20, 7), c. is Chou I (inscr. 58). The graph shows two hands,
handling some boat-shaped object (a shuttle?). :lit *tj6g 'boat' is at the same time phone-
tic.
d. *a jog / f s h o u give (Shi), hand over (Tso ).
e. *!li:.6g f ijgu: j s h o u silk band or ribbon (for tying seal at waist etc.) (Li).
1086 a-c. *ti6g f I chou islet in stream (Shi ap. Shuowen); province (Shu);
district (Chouli); congregation (Kuoyii). b. is Yin bone (0 262), c. is Chou I (inscr. 63).
The graph is a drawing. - d. id. islet (Shi).
e. *!li:.og f ijg1L f c h'o u to pledge with wine a second time (Shi); encourage to drink
(Yili); to recompense with gifts (Tso).
1087 a-d. *tiog I I c h o u broom (Li). b. is Yin bone (A I: 30, 5), c. is Yin bone
(A 1: 25, 3), d. is pre-Han (inscr. 437) - in the inscriptions always used in the sense
of either k u e i 570 a. 'return' or f u lOOI a. 'wife'. The graph is a drawing. -
e. id. broom (Kuoyii).
f. *sag I sau:, sau· Is a 0 to brush, sweep (Shi). - g. variant of the preceding (Li).
1088 a-b. *t'j6g I ts'jgu- I c h'o u strong smell (Shi); foul (Shu). b. is Yin bone (A
5: 47,4). The graph has 'dog' and §, said to be a drawing of a 'nose'. Of. 521 c.
and I237 m.
c. *xiog I xiitu-1 hi u to smell, inhale (Lunyii).
d. *k'j6g I k'irtu: f k'i u parched grain, dry provisions (Shu).
1089 a-b. *t'j6g I ts'jg1L: I c h'o u ugly (Shi); evil, ominous (Shi); to hate (Tso); be
ashamed (Chuang); loan for id. multitude (ShY); category, class (Li); of same kind (Meng);
anus (Li). Gls. 438, 918. b. is Yin bone (C 4: 9). The graph has 'devil' and 'wine vessel'.
1090 a-c. *d'j6g I a'jgu I c h'o u Shuowen says: ploughed field, thus taking it to be
the primary form of 1. below (no text). c. is Yin bone (A I: 8,5, sense of s. below). The
graph may be a drawing of a ploughed field. - d-e. irl. who (Yi, Cheng Hiian's ver·
sion ap. Shiwen). e. is Chou I (inscr. 86, possibly sense of u. below). - f. variant of
the preceding (Shuowen).
g-j. *di6g I zjg'U: Ish 0 u longevity, high age (Shi). h. is Chou I (inscr. 58), i. is Chou
I (inscr. 79), j. is Chou II (inscr. 140). Thus a., d. or f. may be phonetic, the radical
being* 'old'.
280
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMMATA SERICA RECENSA

m YL o F' q
' 105!
t
c.' d.' a Lr c e
k. *cl:iog I rl'if!.1L / ch'o u. equal, companion (Kueikutsi).- I. id. ploughed field (Tso)·
territory (Shu); hemp held (Kuoyii); loan for id. who (Shu) (same as d. above); in
past, yesterday (Tso); cat{lgory (Shu); (of same category:) mate, companion (Shu).
1230, -:- m. 2d. arrows thrown into the mouth of a bottle (ancient aame)
(LI!; countmg stwk, tally (Yili). n. icl. c h'o u - c h'u advance and draw oback
hesitate (Chuang). Gl. 116. '
0
• *a jog I if:?,u / c h'o u pledge with wine a second time (Shi)· to requite (Shu) (sam
1.?86 Gl. 525. - p. id. reject (Shi). Gl. 227. ' e
q. * / !1?.7£ / c h o u boast, to bluff, impose on (Shu).
r. . tog I f!iu: I _tao to beat, pound (Li); loan for id. and *d'i6g 1 a'iau- f chou pain
m the mtestmes (Shl) Gl. 593. "
s. *t6g I tdu:, tau. It a o pray (Shi).
t. *d'6!   u:a o block of wood, block-head, stupid one (Tso).
I d au. (tao to cover (Li); (Tso); *d'fog 1 J•
1
·gu f c h'o u cover-
mg (Sun), protectiOn for wheel axle (Chouh). v. is Chou II (inscr 159 rad · t
of 50). . ' . ' ms .
x-y .. *d'6g I cl'a'lL·. It a o and *d'6g I d'au / t'a o to cover (Tso, in Kia K'uei's version)
Y· IS Chou III (mscr. 232, name). - z. id. (both readings) staff with plumes (Shi).'
a'-:-d'. / c h u to cast (Tso). b'. is Chou IIII (inscr. 209), c'. is Chou III
(mscr .. 2-..5), d · IS Chou (inscr. 243). The graph varies considerably, having
sometimes tw? arrangmg a cover, sometimes a 'vessel'; there are also forms (not
quoted here) m which the phonetic is missing.
109ta b *t., 1 ,. 1 h'
- • c 1°rJ ZlftU c o u pay back, reply (give words for words) (Shi)· respond
opponent, enemy (Shi); loan for (Shu). Gls. 954, 1509, I745. b: is Chou
II (m:-9;: 143, The graph has two 'birds' and 'speak'.
c-d. t I t8tgu / c h'o u sound of an ox breathing (Shuowen no text)· loan for id
protrude (Lii). ' ' ·
e. *(t'i:.6g / I s h o u sell (Shi). Phonetic abbreviated.
281
BULLETIN OF' THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES

c cl e f _s h. i J a... &
\!J !OJC rfu 1J @
L c a... /., c d. e a... Lr c. cL e f
Q.
:r© ;t?Ji
'J T $ t
Cl
it fi rl:
f 'J 1-L
u. 1.T
X
p

y Q
1
c e
11: !098i, !09J 1 (fJ
L
J
,,
YL 0
-
a... lJ c
1092 a. *ts'jog 1 1 t s'i u autumn (Shi); crop (Shu); loan for iri. to dance, to posture
(said of a bird) (Siin). The Seal has 'grain' and 'fire'. -b. iri. Catalpa (Ch'uts'i). -
c. id. Catalpa (Tso); Shuowen says: Artemisia, but there are no early text examples of
this. - d. id. stork, marabou (Shl).
e. *tsjog I tsjgtt I t s i u hum, resound (Ch'uts'i).
f. *tsi,og 1 1 t s i u and *tsi6g I tsie1t: I t s i a o low (Tso ); cramped, congested (Tso ).
g: *dz'iog 1 1 t s'i u collect, bring together (Shi ap. Shuowen). Gl. 395.
h. I I chou brickwork of a well (Yi).
i. *d?'i6g I d;'ii!.u I c b'ou grieved (Ch'uts'l).
j. *ts'jog 1 ts'jdu: It s'i a o and *dz'jog I dz'jgtt: Its i u to change colour (of face) (Li).
1093 a. *dz'i6g 1 Its i u go to, come to (Sbi); advance, proceed (Shl_); accomplish,
finish (Shi); accommodate, adapt (Shu); attain, be able to (Tso); (commg to:) as to
(Tso); loan for id. a set, a bundle (of ribbons) (Li). Gls. 576, 1286.
b-e. *tsiolc 1 tsittlc ( t s u and *ts'iok I ts'iuk J t s'u trample, kick (:!\'[eng!; loan for
*tsj6k 1 tsjuk 1 t s u and dz'j6k J dz'j1tk I t s u anxiously, respectfully (Ll).
1094 a-b. *dzf6g 1 zjgu I s i u prisoner (Shi); confine (Tso ); case of ar:est .. b.
is Yin bone (A 4: 24,1). The graph shows a man in an enclosure. - c. td. sWllll (L1e).
1095 a-b. *sj6g 1 s'i,gtl- J s i u to flower and set ears (grain) (Shi); flower,_ come into
flower (Lunyii); flourishing, beautiful (Tso). Gl. 371. b. is Chou III/IV (rnscr. 325).
The graph has 'grain' and another element which may originally have depicted the
root of the plant p).
c. *sjog 1 s£g7L- 1 s i u and *ziog I jg'lt: J y u a kind of stone ..
d. *ziog 1 jgu: 1 y u weeds (Shi); useless, injurious (ShY). - e. td. lead, influence (Lunyu);
encourage_ (Shu); entice, seduce (Shl).
1096 a-g. *zi6g J i$J.u: 1 y u cyclical character (Tso ). b. is Yin bone. (E 146: 3 ),. c. is
Yin bone (E 118: 4), d. is Yin bone (A 6: 5,3), e. is Yin (inscr. 26), f. IS Chou I (mscr.
65, sense of k. below), g. is Chou I (inscr. 67). The graph is evidently a drawing of a
wine vessel.
282
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAMllfATA SERICA RECENSA
h. *zjog I fgu, fgn: I y u rot, decay (Li).
i-j. *zfog I fgu:, ir,u- I y u to store firewood (Sbi).
k. *tsj6g / tsjgu: Its i u spirits, wine (Shi).
1-m .. I dz'jgu It s'i u ·wine-master (Li); loan for id. to achieve, to end (Sbi).
IS, (F 9: sense here - n. id. tree-grub (Shi).
o. ilz ?._OIJ I, dz !.fl.U / t, 1 u . and *tsto(J I I t s i u collect, bring together (Sh'i); to
press (Cb uts 1); t s 1 u J en herald (Shu ap. Tso ). Gl. 395.
P· *ts'j6g I ts'igu I t s'i u crupper (Chouli). - q. id. some kind of small mudfish (Chuang)·
loan for z. (Chuang, current version). '
r-s. *zj6g. / if!.u I Y u a !ll:d of m.?nkey (Shitsi); suspicious, hesitating, deliberate (Li);
for td. to, Similar (Shl); plan, scheme (Shi); counsel (Shl); go along (Shi);
yet (8h1); (Chuang); loan for EI=J (Meng), Gls. 277, 496, 577, 658, lll2, 1143.
s .. Is IV (mscr. 290, name). - t-x. id. plan, scheme (Sbi); to discourse, inform
stll.l (Shu). Gl. 1585. u. is Yin bone (A 7: 12, I), v. is Chou II (inscr. 139), x. is
II (mscr. 180). - y. id. light car (Shi); light (Shi).
z .. I ts1uk It s u and *ts'j6k I ts'juk J t s'u to press (Chuang, one version ap.
ShiWen).
a'. *zjog I if!.1t / y u a stinking water plant (Tso ).
1097 a-c. *svg I Is o u old man (Meng); loan for f. (Shi'). Gl. 878. c. is Yin bone
(A 4: 28, 7, probably sense of d.).
d. Is o u search (Chuang); numerous (Shi); *sug J snt: 1 s 0 u to move
(Chuang). Gl 11.54.
e. I Is o u conceal (Lunyii); s o u- j en title of an official (in charge of the
royal horses) (Chouli).
f. *·$ii!q /sou moisten, wash, soak (Li).
  /sou urinate (Kuoyii). - h. id. seasonal hunt (Li).
1. / so u lean, meagre (Hiaoking).
j. /sou white wine (Yili).
k. *s6g sdu: I s a o elder brother's wife (Li).
1. *si6g sieu: / s i a o small talk (Li).
m. *sug /so u old man (Tso), cf. a. above. - n. id. blind, without pupils (Shi).
10?8 a .. I I s.o u Rubia (only Han time text ex.); loan for id. hunting assembly
m spnngtiine (Tso); mspect (Tso); search for something hidden (Tso). The Seal bas
Rs. 140 and 194: >>devil's plant>>.
1099 a-b. , *sf.og I sfg.u: I s h o u keep, guard (Shi'); *sfog; 1 s h o u territory in
somebody s ?uard, fief (Shu). b. is Chou II (inscr. 161). The crraph has 'roof' (house)
and 'hand' (m the 'thumb' variation).
0
c. * sj6g I Ish 0 u to hunt (Shi); great winter hunt (Sh'i); inspection tour (1\feng).
11 *sj6g /   Ish o u. animal (Sh'i). b. is Yin bone (A 6: 49, 7), c. is Yin (inscr.
-8), Chou,I. (mscr. 65), e. IS Chou I (inscr. 67), f. is Chou I (inscr. 102). The araph
has dog and cicada' (see 147 above).
0
1101 a-:-b· *.§jog I Ish 0 u hand (Shl). b. is Chon I (inscr. 86). The graph is a
drawmg.
1102 a-c. *.l:j6g / / s h o u foremost (Shi:); to display (Li); *sfog 1 sig1t- 1
s l1 o u turi_l the towards (L1). b. IS Chou I (inscr. 58), c. is Chou II (inscr. 170).
The graph IS a drawmg of the head of a horned animal.
283
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
JJ03
Cl /;- c. cl e f a_ U a. lr c
1104- £ !!OS 1_1%__   JJ'- fJ'- ;fJ ___ 1t I!OC /!!_ Yfftt 1!07
(.,. c a. l.r c cL e f :3 a... l.r
$ 0; l 11og t- Jr 1
G c cL e f a. lr c a. lr c. c:l e...
1X J!! 'f 11
h. i. J k L 111..n. or 1 .. s t
f
1103 a. *Si6g 1   j s h o u catch (Shi), take (Yi), collect, apprehend
(ShY); and remove (Shu); settle up, retire (Shu); harvest (LI); ('>receiver,>:) the hack
of a carriage (ShY); a kind of cap (Yili). Gls. 1886, 2008.
1104 a-b. *liag j ljgn 11 i u to flow (Shi); to float (!'so); drift .away (Shl);. nomad
in all directions (Yi); banish (Shu); descend (Shi); dissolute (LI); loan for til. catch
1 i u. li a kind of bird (Shi). Gls. 3, 107. b. is Chou III/IV (inscr. 327).- c. td.
pendants of a banner (Shi); pendants of a cap (Li).
1105 a. *Jijag I nzi-gu I j 0 u flexible (Shi); soft, mild, gentle (Shi)- Gl. 917. The graph
has 'lance' and 'tree, wood'.
b. *Jij6g 11-Zift.u, ?tzjgu- 1 j o u to make pliable, subdue, tranquillize (Shi).
c. *1ijag 1i.Zift.u j j o u fertile field (Kuoyii). _
d. *1/.iog nzjgu, nifgn:, I j 0 u tread, trample GL 877.
e. *1tj6g 1iijg1t:, 1/.iigu- j j o u felloe of a wheel (Chouh).
f. *njag J!jgu- / n i u mixed (Yili).
g. *nag nau 1 n a o monkey (Shi).
1106 a. *pii5g 1 pfiht 1 pi a o (1\fand. pi a o in this and next is irregular) a N. Pr.
(Ch'unts'iu). The Seal has 'tiger' 'strok:s'. ..
b. *b'jog j b'ji!1t 1 pi a o and *b'i6g 1 b li(U j p 1 a o to flow (ShY). Gl. 740.
1107 a-c. *pjOg 1 pjgu: 1 f 0 u earthenware (Shi); earthenware vessel (Yi). b. is Yin
bone (0 939), c. is pre-Han (inscr. 434, sense of Jf). The graph is some kind of drawing
(a kiln?). · · 180 h
d-f. *b'jog 1 b'jiiu 1 p'i a o big pouch (inscr. 324). e. IS Chou II (mscr. , sense ere
uncertain), f. is Chou III/IV (mscr. 324).
1108 a-c. *b'j6g j b'jgzt: 1 f 0 u big mound, earthen hill big and fat (Shi);
(Shi). b. is Yin bone (D 3), c. is extracted from the archmc graph (Chou I, mscr.
72). The graph represents stairs or steps leading down from a height.
1109 a-b. *mi6g 1 mf:gu 1 m a 0 and *mng j mgtt j :0 a .o (Pek. m a o is irregular, we
should expect a m o u) a kind of lance (Sbi). b. IS Ym bone (P 23). The graph is a
drawing.
284
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRA.MMATA SERICA RECENSA
c. *myg j mau I mao certain kinds of grass (Imperata etc.) (Shi).
d-e. *mag I mau I ill a 0 Shuowen says: winter peach tree (no text). e. is Chou IIJIII
(inscr. 242, name).
f-g. *mug J mgu- I m o u make efforts (Shu); loan for 1114 j. to barter, exchange (Shu).
Gls. 1282, 1316. g. i'l Chou I (inscr. 54, name).
h-i. *nl?.1UJ I min:, mfu- I w u maltreat (inscr. 180). i. is Chou II (inscr. 180).
j. *m.jug I mfu- / w u apply oneself to, intent on (Tso); occupation, task (Yi); loan for
h. (ShY, Shu). Gls. 413, 2015.- k. id. w u- n ti name of a constellation (Li). -1. 1:d.
run quickly hither and thither (Mu t'ien tsY chuan); hastily (Chuang).
m-n. *mf6g I mfgn j m o u insect which eats the root of grain (Shi). - o. id. helmet
(Kuots'e).- p. id. long tufts of hair, worn uncut (on each side of the head) by children
or youths (Shi ap. Shuowen).
q. *mlig I m o u and *muk /milk I m o troubled eye-sight (Chuang); deluded
(Ch'uts'i); avert the eyes (Stin).
r. *nwk l1nulc I m u ornamental leather band round pole of carriage (Shi). - s. -id.
goose, duck (Tso).
t. *miug I 1njzt-/ \V u fog, mist (Shu). Gl. 1551.
1110 a. *mj6g I I m o u Shuowen says: to bellow (no text); loan for id. to encroach
upon (Kuots'e); double (Ch'uts'i); a kind of clay vessel (Li); loan for c. (Sun), for d. (Shi).
-b. iil. avid (Sun). - c. id. pupil of the eye (Meng). - d. id. barley (l\feng).
e. *nLfog I I m o u and *1mtg j rn;t,u I m o u alike, uniform (Chouli).
1111 a-b. *ts9g j f$azt: I chao claw (ShY); cut the nails (Li). b. is extracted from the
archaic graph for (Chou II, inscr. 157). The graph is a drawing. In compound cha-
racters the element mostly means 'hand'.
c. *ts(ig I t$aU, tifan:, l$a1L- / c h a o grasp (Chuang).
1112 a-c. *tsf;g I i$au: j chao Shuwen says: claw, nail, thus taking it to be a variant
of 111 a. above (no text). b. is Yin bone (A 2: 19,3 name), c. is Chou (inscr. 369, name).
The graph is a drawing.
d. *ts6g j tsan: j t sa o flea (Chuang); loan for id. early, in the morning (Shi); end of
a wheel-spoke (Chouli); loan for a. (Li).
e. *sag I sd1t, sau: Is a o and *ts'6g J ts'au: j t s'a o anxious (Shi).
f. *sag I sau j sao scratch (Shi); loan for d. flea (Yili). -g. id. move, disturb, set in
motion (Sill); grief (Ch'uts'i); hastily (Li).
b. *sf6g I s i u wash (Li).
i. *ts'iok I ts'iek It s'i night-watchman's drum (Chouli).
1113 a. *PQfJ I pau / p a o wrap, bundle (Shu); contain (Tso ); loan for c. (Shu); for e.
(Yi). The graph was possibly the primary form of b. below, and may have been a drawing
of a foetus in the womb.
b. *p(lg J pau I p a o and *p'(ig I p'an / p'a o womb (Chuang); loan for e. (Li).
c. *p(Jg I pau / p a o reed mat for "\\Tapping (Li); shrubbery, bushy (Shi); dense, massive
(Sh!); luxuriant (ShY); *b'fog / b'iau: I p i a o reed (Li). Gl. 365.
d. *p(Jg / pau: / p a o satiate (Sill).
e. *b'i)g I b'au I p'a o kitchen, butchering-room (ShY). - f. id. gourd (Sill). - g. id.
bake, roast (ShY); loan for id. shout (Shi). GL 938.
h. *b'i)g j b'au: I p a o salted and dried fish (Chouli); loan for m. (Chouli).
i. *b'ag I b'au j p'a o long robe (ShY); *b'og I b'dn- I p a o lapel of coat (Kungyang).
j. *b'og I b'au: J p a o carry in the arms (ShY).
285
BULLETIN OF THE JlfUSEUM OF' FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES
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k. *b'i_og / j f o u drumstick ('Tw). - I. icl. a kind of bird-net (Sh'i ap. Shuo\ren).
m. *p'Qlc / p'lllc l11'o aml b'(;g / b'an:, b'mt-1 p a o and *b'(;g / b'au ( p'a o to \mrk
leather (Chouli ap. Shuowen).
n. *b' Ok I b'ak I p a o hail (Tso).
1114 a-e. *ml(!g / rnau: /mao cyclical character (Shi'). b. is Yin boup (A 3: 4, 1), c·. 1s
Yin (inscr. 25), d. is Chou I (inscr. 56), e. is Chou I (inscr. 90).
f. *ml(;g / mau: / m a o and *li_6g I ljgn: /1 i u Brasenia (8hi).
g-h. *rnl9g / mau: lm a o Pleiades (Shi'). h. iA Chou (inscr. 375, name).
i. *p'l(;g I p'an- I IJ'a o and *lcl(;g I kan- / k i a o cave, cellar (Chouli).
j-k. *m.lug J mgu- I mao (Pek. m a o is irregular, we should expect a m o u) to
barter (Shi'); loan for *mlj6g J I m o u bad eye-sight (Li). k. is Chou (inAcr. 3-!5,
name).
In the following words the archaic graph (b-e.) has been transfigured into two
alternative variants. Shuowen takes the second onP (see 111. and q.) to be a variant of J1H
(*zj6g / IY u) bnt this is disproved by the archaic forms which show quite clearly
that the phonetic in l. is not y u but m a o. ObsPrve also the interesting double
readings in f. above.
1-o. *li_og j ljgu: f l i u willow (Shi:). n. is Chou II (inscr. 147), o. iA Chou III/IV (insrr.
324).
p-r. *ljog I lif2.1L jl i u detain (l\leng); remain, ttLrry (Shi'); a long time (Li). r. is Chou
III/IY (ins cr. 321, name). Gl. 1046. - s-t. icl. hLy horse with black mane (Shi).
u. *li6g J lieu (1 i a o ringing sound in the ear (only Han-time text ex.); loan for id.
support; rely on (Kuots'e); for a while, a little (8hi'); an auxiliary word (Shi'); t s i a o -
I i a o pepper plants (Shl). Gl. 295.
v. *ljog jljgu- I li u to gush forth (Kuan); loan for y. (Tso).
x. *lj6g   jl i u trap for catching fish (Shi'); loan for y. (Shl). Gl. 746.
y. *lj6g ! j l i u place in centrmn of atrium where the dripping of rain was let clo\1-n
(Chouli); roof-spout (Li); eaves (Tso). - z. variant of s. above (LiP).
a'. *li_og f I l i u kill (Shi'); battle-axe (Shu); mutilate, destroy (Shi'). Gl. 964.
b'. *ljog / 11 i u fine, stately (Shi:).
c'. *ljog jlj;t_u, lf.gu: j I i u dPep and clear (sc. water) (Shi:); sharp (sc. wind) (Ch'uts'i:).
Gl. 2!5.
286
BERNHARD KARLGREN: GRAiVIMATA SERICA RECENSA_
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1115 a. *'iog I 'ien / y fLo small (only Han-time text The graph, as secn in
d, e. below, may be a drawing of a silk thread, ef. ;M:.
b. *'jog/ ·?_ru / y u and 'jog / / y u Shuowen says: small (no text).
*'i(ig / 'ji'h1 / y u dark (Shi'); solitary, secluded (Yi); to confine (Tso); obscure,
difficult to understand (Yi). d. is Yin bone (0 54H), e. is Chou II (in;;cr. 144).
f. *"z'og '[l'n- I y u young (l\Ieng).
g. *i.i5g "jen I y u cry of deer (Shi').
h. *'jog 1 y u black (Li).
i. *'iog "ieu: I y a o y a o - t i a o beautiful· (Shi'); deep, obscure, mysterious (Chuang).
Gl. 1. ' . '
j. *'9g ;·au I y a o cavity, depression in a surface (Chuang).
1116 a. *ti6g / tieu: / n i a o bird (Shi:). The :Maud. n i a o is irregular, quite a riddle;
we should expect a t i a o. The Sino-Japanese form is t e. u (c h 6). The graph was
a drawing, see 827 b. above.
b. *tiog I tieu:, tie1t- / t i a o mistletoe (Shi').
c. *tog I tau: It a o island (Shu).
1117 a. *g'ok / yuolc I h u high-reaching, high (Yi ap. Shuowen).
b. *g'ak I )'ale I h o crane (Shi'); glistening white (l\Ieng).
c. *ki5k / kak I k ii e to raise, to quote (Chuang).
d. *lc'ok J lc'lik I k'ii e solid, firm (Yi).
1118. a-b. *ngj?lc I ngjalc / n ii e, y ii e cruel, oppress, maltreat (Shi'); calamity (Shu).
b. 1s Chou II (n1.scr. 184). The graph has 'tiger' with the claw especially indicated.-
c. id. ague (Li). ··
d. *;dok / xiak / h ii e to ridicule, to jest (Shi').
1119 a-b. *djolc / i_alc I y ii e Shuowen says: flute, thus taking it to be the primary
form_of c. below _(no b. is Chou I (inscr. 74, sense of g. below). The graph is <