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New IPT-Wireless EV Charger

using Single-Ended Quasi-Resonant Converter


with Power Factor Correction
Y. Iga, H. Omori, T. Morizane, N. Kimura
Osaka institute of technology
Osaka, Japan
Y. Nakamura
Smart Energy Laboratory
Shizuoka, Japan


Abstract This paper deals with a cost effective IPT
wireless EV battery charger for smart house, which
incorporates the simplest quasi resonant soft switching
pulse modulated inverter using the latest SiC-MOSFET into
high-frequency isolated DC-DC converter.
In the first place, the operating principle of the single-
ended high-frequency resonant inverter linked planar
coupling IPT DC-DC converter treated here is described by
using the switch-mode equivalent circuits and working
waveforms. This two planar coupling coils type wireless
resonant DC-DC converter can efficiently operate under a
condition of ZVS transitions on the basis of the self-excited
pulse processing scheme due to zero voltage detecting
method of quasi-resonant capacitor voltage. In addition to
this, PWM-based adaptive PFM control strategy
implemented into this self-excited resonant inverter link
DC-DC converter is briefly pointed out.
In the second place, illustrated are the design example and
gap dependent circuit parameters of two planar coupling
inductive coil units; power feeding coil and power receiving
coil parts with individual ferrite core.
In the third place, the experimental setup prototype of low
cost, downsizing and high-frequency IPT wireless battery
charger using high frequency quasi-resonant inverter linked
DC-DC converter using promising SiC-MOSFET is
demonstrated, which is actually built and tested for
EV/HEV battery charging equipment.
Finally, the steadystate operating performances such as
output current vs. output voltage relationships with
variable gap distances and output power vs. output voltage
relations as well as efficiency vs. gap distance relations are
evaluated for wireless EV charging system from a practical
point of view. Moreover, its active filtering performance is
discussed herein.

Indexing Terms single-ended quasi-resonant inverter, PWM
adaptive PFM control, IPT-wireless EV charger, power factor
correction.
I. INTRODUCTION
With great advances of power semiconductor devices,
power circuit components and power conversion circuit
topologies, the state-of-the art transportation technologies on
Electric Vehicle (EV) including Hybrid Electric Vehicle
(HEV) have attracted special interest for effective and
promising solutions of global environmental issues.
In recent years, the key developments for enormous spread
of EV/HEV technologies have been practically indispensable
for the latest proposals of low cost, compact lighter weight,
more reliable and high efficiency battery charging
infrastructure on the bases of high-frequency switching mode
power conversion circuits. In order to provide a cost effective
reliable and high efficiency battery charging equipment using
power electronic systems technologies for smart house as
shown in Fig.1. IPT-based wireless battery charging power
supplies are actually more suitable and acceptable for high-
efficiency viewpoint. Many sorts of IPT-based wireless
charger power supply topologies have been considered so far,
which include half bridge, push-pull, full bridge, boost half-
bridge and boost full-bridge circuit configurations[1-4].
The authors have previously put into practice the cost-
effective and high-efficiency single-ended quasi-resonant soft-
switching inverter using IGBT, including active clamped load
resonant and full-bridge lord resonant inverters before for high
frequency induction heating cooking applications[5].
This paper presents , a low cost IPT wireless battery supply
based upon high-frequency link DC-DC converter which
embed simple single-ended quasi resonant zero voltage soft
switching inverter using new generation power semiconductor
switch; SiC-MOSFET has been timely developed for EV/H-
EV battery charging equipment. Firstly, a low cost IPT-based
wireless battery charging equipment employing quasi-resonant
soft-switching PWM adaptive PFM DC-DC power converter
using a single SiC-MOSFET is demonstrated for EV/HEV.
Secondary, the operating principle of single-ended resonant
inverter link DC-DC converter design for wireless EV charger
is described by using switching mode equivalent circuits and
steady state working waveforms, together with some
advantageous points. Thirdly, the design structure of the
inductive power transfer wireless assembly stage composed of
power feeding planar coil unit and power receiving planar coil
unit is provided including its principal circuit parameters vs.
gap distance performance. Finally, the feasible IPT-based
wireless battery charger using high-frequency resonant
inverter-fed DC-DC converter which consists of minimum
M. Nakaoka
Kyungnam Univercity
Masan, Republic of Koria
power circuit components and switching device is built and
tested for EV/HEV applications. The steady-state operating
characteristics of experimental wireless battery charger setup
which include (a) output current and power (b) efficiency vs.
gap distance performances are actually discussed. Moreover, its
active filtering performance is discussed herein.


Fig.1 A smart house construction including wireless EV charger.
II. WIRELESS EV CHARGING POWER SUPPLY
A. Schematic System Description
Fig.2 shows a whole generic system configuration of two flat-
shape coils IPT wireless battery charging power supply, which is
composed of the primary side power feeding planar coil unit and the
secondly side power receiving pick-up planar coil unit in high
frequency quasi-resonant inverter linked DC-DC converter.
The utility grid AC-DC power converter in the input side of full
bridge rectifier or active PFC converter.
On the other hand, pick-up coil side high frequency diode
rectifier with DC filter is connected in parallel with battery bank.


Fig.2 A schematic system configuration of wireless EV battery charger

B. Proposed High Frequency Switching DC-DC Converter With
Wireless Coupling Coil Unit
Fig.3 illustrates the proposed IPT-wireless power
conversion circuit using the simplest single-ended quasi-
resonant inverter link DC-DC power converter which is
composed of the minimum power circuit components and
switching power devices.


Fig.3 A proposed power conversion conditioning circuit using low-cost IPT
wireless battery charger using single-ended quasi-resonant high-frequency
inverter link.

This wireless power conversion circuit designing for EV
battery charging power supply is roughly divided into two
sections; primary-side power feeding planar and spiral coil
unit and secondary side power receiving pick-up planar and
spiral coil unit.
The power feeding stage is composed of AC-DC power
converter; diode rectifier, and single-ended quasi-resonant
zero voltage soft-switching pulse modulated high-frequency
inverter using promising single active SiC-MOSFET switch.
This high frequency resonant inverter is designed so as to
be able to operate over a switching frequency range from
20kHz-30kHz.
This resonant inverter can operate under a condition of
ZVS transition so as to reduce the switching power losses.
In addition to this, the output power (voltage or current) can
regulate on the bases of PWM adaptive PFM control scheme
by means of self-excited pulse timing processing method
using zero crossing detecting signal from resonant capacitor
voltage sensing. (see Fig.3).
On the other hand, a secondary pick-up coil or power
receiving circuit is composed of high-frequency diode rectifier
with a filter and smoothing capacitor connected with the
battery bank on the EV/HEV.

III. OPERATING PRINCIPLE OF QUASI-RESONANT CONVERTER
A. Operating waveforms
The periodic steady-state voltage and current operating
waveforms of the single-ended high-frequency quasi-resonant
inverter-fed DC-DC converter in Fig.3 are illustrated in Fig.5,
which include Mode I, II, III, IV, during one switching cycle.
Fig.4 shows switching-mode equivalent circuits in accordance
with on-off operating mode due to the single active switch
Q
1
(S
1
/D
1
) and passive switches in secondary-side diode bridge
D
2
.
The circuit state in which the active switch Q
1
(S
1
/D
1
) in
the primary-side is cut off and passive switch D
2
in the
secondaryside is conducting, is defined as Mode I and II(see
Fig.4(a), (b)).
In Mode I, when the active switch Q
1
is turned off at t
0
, LC
resonant tank circuit can operate. The inductor current and
capacitor voltage become resonant state. Because of resonant
operation, the voltage across the switch Q
1
begins to increase
sinusoidally from zero voltage. The active switch Q
1
is turned
off with ZVS transition. The inductor current i
L1
, i
L2
through
the primary coil L
1
, the secondary coil L
2
are decreasing. As
soon as the inductor current i
L2
reaches zero at t
1
, the state of
D
2
moves to Mode II shown in Fig.4(b), the inductor voltage
V
L2
across the secondary coil L
2
becomes V
C2
from V
C2
.
As soon as the resonant capacitor voltage reaches the
supply DC voltage V
C3
at t
2
, the voltage across Q
1
becomes
zero. At this point, the antiparallel diode D1 of Q
1
turns on
naturally. The operating mode becomes Mode III. The circuit
state in which the active switch Q
1
(S
1
/D
1
) in the primary-side
and passive switch D
2
in the secondaryside are both
conducting is defined as Mode III, IV(see Fig.4(c), (d)). The
inductor current i
L1
through the primary coil L
1
and the active
switch current i
Q1
increase in a function time as illustrated in
Mode III, IV of Fig.5 during T
on
period.


(a) Mode I

(b) Mode II

(c) Mode III


(d) Mode IV

Fig.4. Equivalent circuits for switch-mode states of single-ended high-
frequency inverter linked DC-DC converter operating under battery charging
scheme.



Fig.5 Relevant voltage and current waveforms of quasi-resonant high-
frequency inverter and DC-DC converter.


When the secondly current i
L2
reaches to zero at t
3
, the state
of D
2
moves to Mode IV shown in Fig.4(d), and the
secondary voltage V
L2
changes to V
C2
from -V
C2
.The active
switch Q
1
is turned off in accordance with its gate pulse
i
Q1
v
Q1

i
L1

v
L1

i
L2
v
L2
i
D2
v
D2
t
0
t
1
t
2
t
3

Toff Ton
t
4
duration time T
on

Judging from the operating voltage v
Q1
and current i
Q1
of
the active switch, it is understood that the switch Q
1
can
achieve a soft-switching turn-on transition with ZVS. Note
that the diode D
2
in the secondary side can operate under a
principle of ZCS. As a result, the recovery current of D
2
is
considerably small, and switching power loss of D
2
as well as
switching noise can be minimized effectively. The active
switch Q
1
(S
1
/D
1
) can achieve the complete soft switching
transitions with ZVS at turn-on and turn-off.

The synchronized PWM oscillator generates pulses
synchronized with v
L1
to achieve ZVS turn-on. v
SW
limiter
controls v
SW
amplitude that is v
L1
by deciding pulse width T
on
.
This system can supply an approximately constant current to
battery owing to leakage inductance of wireless symmetrical
coupling planar coils without sensing any signals from the
secondary-side pick-up coil circuit in EV.

IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND EVALUATIONS
A. Wireless Coupling Coil Units
It is noted that the primary-side power feeding coil unit
is loosely coupled to the pick-up coil of the secondary side
power receiving coil unit in the high-frequency resonant link
DC-DC converter for battery charging power supply.
In actual, these planar and circular coils in the primary and
secondary-side are assembled by the power litz wires in order
to reduce the power losses due to the eddy current skin effect.



Specifications of the coil
Winding 22turns
Diameter 170mm
Thickness 2mm
Inductance 60H
Resistance 20m

Fig.6 A wireless electro-magnetic structure with two symmetrical planar and
circular type coil units and design specifications.
Two contactless planar and circular coil units with ferrite
core sheets; power sending coil and power receiving coil are
depicted in Fig.6, including trially-produced planar coils.
As a matter of fact, some circuit parameters; mutual
inductance M and magnetic coupling coefficient k of two
planar spiral coils (see Fig.6) can depend upon the gap
distance variable.
Fig.7 shows the relationship of circuit parameters of two
planar coils for the gap distance variable.


(a) Mutual inductance, coupling coefficient vs. gap distance.


(b) Inductance vs. gap distance.

Fig.7 Relationship of circuit parameters of two planar coils for the gap
distance variable.

B. Circuit State Equation
In two planar spiral coils shown in Fig.6, circuit equations
are given by,

1 2
1 1 1 1
1 2
2 2 2 2
L L
L
L L
L
di di
v ri L M
dt dt
di di
v r i M L
dt dt

= + +

= + +

(1)

Where,
1 2
L L ; self-inductance of the primary-side power feeding coil
and secondary side power receiving coil.
1 2
r r ; internal resistances of each planar coil.
k ; electromagnetic coupling coefficient of two planar spiral
coils.
M ; mutual inductance between and , which is influenced
upon gap distance variable.
Coupling coefficient
Mutual inductance
Pickup inductance
Primary inductance
B. Design Specifications and System Parameters
The design specifications and circuit parameters of feasible
IPT-based wireless EV/HEV battery charger shown in Fig.3
are listed in Table 1.

Table 1 Circuit parameters and design specifications of a prototype wireless
battery charging power conversion system in Fig.3
C1 0.3F C2 6F
C3 6F C4 3300F
L1 60H L2 60H
L3 90H L4 300H
V
B
55V V
AC
AC100V 60Hz

In feasibility study, the next generation SiC-MOSFET as
wide band gap semiconductor switch is embedded in the
voltage source quasi-resonant zero voltage soft-switching
inverter or high-frequency DC-DC converter with IPT-
wireless planar spiral coil units (see Fig.3). The specifications
of an SiC-MOSFET(ROHM SCH2080KE[7]) used in a
prototype system are 1200V-V
DSS
,

35A-I
D
and 3.0x4.4mm-
chip size.
In particular, in single-ended quasi-resonant inverter link
DC-DC converter, note that the maximum voltage applied to
the active switch ( / ) becomes relatively high because
of quasi-resonant operation.

C. Steady-State Operating Performances
Fig.8 illustrates output current vs. battery terminal voltage
characteristics in the case of the gap distance 10mm between
planar spiral coils with radial pattern due to ferrite core bars.
The variable frequency related pulse width Ton determined
through the self-excited pulse processing based on the
resonant tank voltage sensor is adjusted to provide the output
DC voltage or battery voltage.
The resonant peak in the primary-side power feeding or
power sending coil is approximately kept constant by means
of the PWM adaptive PFM control strategy on the basis of
instantaneous sensing of resonant tank capacitor.
In this case, ripple accuracy of the battery charging current
is almost kept over 11 0.5 A when the battery terminal
voltage of the EV varies.
Fig.9 represents the output DC power vs. battery voltage
characteristics.
It is inducted in experiment that the maximum output
power can be obtained under the condition of as optimum
matching battery voltage for the gap distance variables.
In IPT-based wireless power supply, the output DC power
reduces as the gap distance between two planar non-contact
coils increases. The maximum output DC power at battery
voltage 75V varies from 500 W to 600W corresponding to the
variations of the gap distances from 15mm to 10mm.


Fig.8 Observed output current vs. output voltage characteristics.



Fig.9 Observed output power vs. output voltage characteristics.

Fig.10 shows system efficiency vs. gap distance
characteristics.For the design example of IPT-wireless battery
charger, 90% in system efficiency can be obtained in the case
of the gap distance 10mm (see Fig.6).


Fig.10 Measured efficiency for gap distances between two symmetrical
planar coils.

The waveform of the input current and voltage of this IPT-
wireless EV charger using single-ended quasi-resonant converter
with power factor correction has very low harmonic distortion by the
PFM control of the converter and the design of the filter circuit
parameter, therefore this new IPT-wireless battery charger operates in
high power factor 0.996 (see Fig.11), although the power factor is
0.70 in the case of usual smoothing circuit 0.5mH and 3300uF.


Fig.11 Measured voltage and current waveforms of the system (2ms/div).

An input power P of this inverter is represented by

1/
2
3 2
0
( )
AC
f
p
AC C
p
P
P f v t dt
E



with f
AC
is frequency of utility main. E
p
is peak value of v
C3
.
P
p
is input power at the point of E
p
.

Fig.12 shows a comparison of 1kW power circuit size
between a conventional half-bridge inverter and a developed
single-ended quasi-resonant inverter.


Fig.12. Power circuit of half-bridge inverter and single-ended quasi
resonant inverter.

V. Conclusions
In this paper, a cost-effective planar IPT-wireless battery
charging power supply prototype for EV/HEV has been presented,
which embeds the simplest single-ended quasi-resonant soft-
switching high-frequency inverter link DC-DC converter employing
the latest SiC-MOSFET.
The operating principle of high-frequency resonant pulse
modulated DC-DC converter has been described, along with its
advantageous points.
The design example of two planar spiral coupling coil units as
IPT-wireless part has been illustrated including trially-produced
planar IPT assembly and design specifications.
The experimental setup of the planar IPT wireless battery charger
using high-frequency resonant inverter link DC-DC converter
composed of minimum power circuit components and switch device
has been demonstrated from a practical point of view.
The output power, output current, and efficiency characteristics
of this wireless charging power supply for EV/HEV are depicted and
evaluated in experiment. And its power factor collection performance
has been demonstrated.
At the next stage of this system which is higher power
charger with 200V utility mains, SiC-MOSFET would be
more suitable to induced resonant voltage near 2kV. Moreover
devise cost would be relatively low for this application,
because its chip size is small by high current density in spite
of high breakdown voltage and an evolution of manufacturing
technology [8].

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The author would like to acknowledge the financial support provided by
Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, Japan Society for the Promotion of
Science.

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v
in

100V/div
i
in

10A/div
0V
0A
(2)
Half-bridge inverter
Single-ended quasi-resonant
inverter