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Designation: A 108 99 An American National Standard

Standard Specication for

Steel Bars, Carbon, Cold-Finished, Standard Quality
This standard is issued under the xed designation A 108; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.
1. Scope
1.1 This specication covers standard quality cold-nished
carbon steel bars produced to chemical compositions. Standard
quality cold-nished bars are suitable for heat treatment, for
machining into components, or for use in the as-nished
condition as shafting, or in constructional applications, or for
other similar purposes (Note 1). Grades of steel are identied
by grade numbers or by chemical composition.
NOTE 1A guide for the selection of steel bars is contained in Practice
A 400.
1.2 Material furnished under this specication shall con-
form to the applicable requirements of the current edition of
Specication A 29/A 29M.
1.3 Some end uses may require material superior to standard
quality involving one or more of the available designations
shown under Supplementary Requirements. Supplementary
requirements shall apply only when specied individually by
the purchaser.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1 ASTM Standards:
A 29/A 29M Specication for Steel Bars, Carbon and
Alloy, Hot-Wrought and Cold-Finished, General Require-
ments for
A 370 Test Methods and Denitions for Mechanical Testing
of Steel Products
A 400 Practice for Steel Bars, Selection Guide, Composi-
tion, and Mechanical Properties
A 510 Specication for General Requirements for Wire
Rods and Coarse Round Wire, Carbon Steel
A 576 Specication for Steel Bars, Carbon, Hot-Wrought,
Special Quality
E 45 Test Methods for Determining the Inclusion Content
of Steel
E 527 Practice for Numbering Metals and Alloys (UNS)
2.2 Other Documents:
SAE J1086 Recommended Practice for Numbering Metals
and Alloys (UNS)
SAE Handbook
Federal Standard 66 C Steel, Chemical Composition and
AISI Steel Product Manual for Cold Finished Bars
3. Terminology
3.1 Denition:
3.1.1 standard qualitycold-nished carbon steel bars pro-
duced from special quality hot-wrought carbon steel bars or
rods of equivalent quality. DiscussionBars of standard quality are commonly
produced in standard chemical grade compositions or to
mechanical property specications and are subject to product
analysis tolerances. DiscussionThe available sections and sizes are
covered by Specication A 29/A 29M. The bars are normally
produced in cut lengths but some small sizes are supplied in
coils. The producer should be consulted regarding sections and
sizes available in coils.
4. Ordering Information
4.1 Orders for cold-nished bars to this specication should
include the following items to adequately describe the material:
4.1.1 Name of material,
4.1.2 ASTM specication number and date of issue,
4.1.3 Chemical composition grade designation or limits,
4.1.4 Silicon, if required,
4.1.5 Additional machinability-enhancing elements (see
Footnote D to Table 1),
4.1.6 Condition,
4.1.7 Quality,
4.1.8 Shape (round, hex, square, etc.), size, and length,
This specication is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel,
Stainless Steel, and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee
A01.15 on Bars.
Current edition approved March 10, 1999. Published June 1999. Originally
published as A 10826 T. Last previous edition A 10895.
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.05.
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.03.
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.01.
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.01.
Available from Society of Automotive Engineers, 400 Commonwealth Drive,
Warrendale, PA 15096.
Available from the Standardization Documents Order Desk, Bldg. 4, Section D,
700 Robbins Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094 Attn: NPODS.
Available from the American Iron and Steel Institute, 150 East 42nd St., New
York, NY 10017.
100 Barr Harbor Dr., West Conshohocken, PA 19428
Reprinted from the Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Copyright ASTM
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4.1.9 Report of heat analysis, if required,
4.1.10 End use,
4.1.11 Additions to the specication and special or supple-
mentary requirements, if required, and
4.1.12 For coiled product, the coil weights, inside diameter
and outside diameter limitations, when required.
NOTE 2Atypical ordering description is as follows: Steel Bar, ASTM
A 108, dated _____; SAE 1117; Coarse Grain; Cold Drawn; 6000 lb of
1.500-in. diameter by 10.0 to 12.0 ft long; Heat Analysis Required; Screw
Machine Parts.
5. Materials and Manufacture
5.1 Melting PracticeThe steel shall be made by one or
more of the following primary processes: open-hearth, basic-
oxygen, or electric-furnace. The primary melting may incor-
porate separate degassing or rening and may be followed by
secondary melting using electroslag remelting or vacuum-arc
remelting. Where secondary melting is employed, the heat
shall be dened as all of the ingots remelted from a single
primary heat.
5.2 Deoxidation:
5.2.1 Unless otherwise specied, the steel may be rimmed,
capped, semi-killed, or killed at the manufacturers option.
5.2.2 When required, the deoxidation practice, including
killed steel, may be specied.
5.3 DiscardSufficient discard shall be made to ensure
freedom from pipe and undue segregation.
5.4 Redraw StockThe bars shall be produced from special
quality hot-wrought carbon steel bars (Specication A 576) or
from hot-wrought rods designated for cold-nished bars
(Specication A 510).
5.5 ConditionThe bars shall be furnished in one of the
following conditions as specied by the purchaser:
5.5.1 Rounds: Cold drawn, Cold drawn, turned, and polished, Cold drawn, ground, and polished, Cold drawn, turned, ground, and polished, Hot wrought, turned, and polished, or Hot wrought, turned, ground, and polished.
5.5.2 Squares, HexagonsCold drawn.
5.5.3 Flats: Cold drawn or Cold rolled.
5.6 Heat Treatment:
5.6.1 Unless otherwise specied, the bars shall be furnished
as cold nished except that when the maximum of the carbon
range is over 0.55 % they shall be annealed for cold nishing.
5.6.2 When property characteristics are required that are not
available for the specied grade as developed in the as-rolled
TABLE 1 Composition of Cold-Finished Carbon Steel Bars
NOTE 1Grade designations and compositions correspond to the respective AISI designations and compositions.
UNS Designation
Grade Designation Carbon, % Manganese, % Phosphorus, % Sulfur, %
Open-Hearth, Basic-Oxygen, and Electric-Furnace Grades
G 10080 1008 0.10 max 0.300.50 0.040 max 0.050 max
G 10100 1010 0.080.13 0.300.60 0.040 max 0.050 max
G 10150 1015 0.130.18 0.300.60 0.040 max 0.050 max
G 10160 1016 0.130.18 0.600.90 0.040 max 0.050 max
G 10180 1018 0.150.20 0.600.90 0.040 max 0.050 max
G 10200 1020 0.180.23 0.300.60 0.040 max 0.050 max
G 10220 1022 0.180.23 0.701.00 0.040 max 0.050 max
G 10250 1025 0.220.28 0.300.60 0.040 max 0.050 max
G 10300 1030 0.280.34 0.600.90 0.040 max 0.050 max
G 10350 1035 0.320.38 0.600.90 0.040 max 0.050 max
G 10400 1040 0.370.44 0.600.90 0.040 max 0.050 max
G 10450 1045 0.430.50 0.600.90 0.040 max 0.050 max
G 10500 1050 0.480.55 0.600.90 0.040 max 0.050 max
G 10950 1095 0.901.03 0.300.50 0.040 max 0.050 max
Open-Hearth, Basic-Oxygen, and Electric-Furnace Free Cutting Grades
G 11170 1117 0.140.20 1.001.30 0.040 max 0.080.13
G 11180 1118 0.140.20 1.301.60 0.040 max 0.080.13
G 11370 1137 0.320.39 1.351.65 0.040 max 0.080.13
G 11410 1141 0.370.45 1.351.65 0.040 max 0.080.13
G 11440 1144 0.400.48 1.351.65 0.040 max 0.240.33
G 11510 1151 0.480.55 0.701.00 0.040 max 0.080.13
G 12110 1211 0.13 max 0.600.90 0.070.12 0.100.15
G 12120 1212 0.13 max 0.701.00 0.070.12 0.160.23
G 12130 1213 0.13 max 0.701.00 0.070.12 0.240.33
. . . 12L14
0.15 max 0.851.15 0.040.09 0.260.35
G 12150 1215 0.09 max 0.751.05 0.040.09 0.260.35
New designations established in accordance with Practice E 527 and SAE J1086.
When silicon is required, the following ranges and limits are commonly specied: 0.10 % max, 0.100.20 %, 0.150.35 %, or 0.200.40 %.
When required, lead is specied as an added element to a standard steel. A range from 0.150.35 %, inclusive, is commonly specied. Such a steel is identied by
inserting the letter L between the second and third numeral of the grade number, for example, 11L17. A cast or heat analysis is not determinable when lead is added
to the ladle stream.
The elements bismuth, calcium, selenium, or tellurium may be added as agreed upon between purchaser and supplier.
Grades 1211, 1212, 1213, 12L14, and 1215 are not supplied with a specied silicon content.
Lead content shall be 0.150.35 %.
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cold-nished condition, the following thermal treatments can
be ordered: Annealed and cold nished, Normalized and cold nished, Cold drawn and stress relieved, or Carbon restoration anneal to overcome surface de-
carburization on cold-drawn bars. (For round bars produced by
turning, surface decarburization is removed during the manu-
facturing process.)
6. Chemical Composition
6.1 Chemical Composition:
6.1.1 The steel shall conform to the chemical composition
limits specied in Table 1 for the grade specied by the
6.1.2 Carbon steels not listed in Table 1 can be specied.
Steels may be selected from Specications A 510 and A 576;
Federal Standard 66 C; the SAE Handbook; or the AISI Steel
Product Manual for Carbon Steel Bars.
6.1.3 When a steel cannot be identied by a standard grade
number in accordance with 6.1.1 and 6.1.2, the limits for each
required element may be specied using the chemical ranges
shown in the table (Heat Analysis Chemical Ranges and Limits
of Carbon Steel Bars) of Specication A 29/A 29M.
6.1.4 When additional machinability-enhancing elements
are specied in accordance with Footnote D to Table 1, the
specied content of the element or elements shall be agreed
upon between purchaser and supplier.
6.2 Heat AnalysisAn analysis of each heat shall be made
by the manufacturer to determine the percentages of the
elements specied. The analysis shall be made from a test
sample preferably taken during the pouring of the heat. The
chemical composition thus determined shall be reported to the
purchaser or his representative when required by the purchase
order, and shall conform to the specied requirements.
6.3 Product AnalysisA product analysis may be made by
the purchaser. The chemical composition thus determined, as to
elements required or restricted, shall conform to the ordered
chemical composition subject to the permissible variations on
product analysis of the table (Permissible Variations for Prod-
uct Analysis of Carbon Steel) in Specication A 29/A 29M.
7. Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance
7.1 WorkmanshipThe bars shall be free of pipe, cracks,
and akes. Within the limits of good manufacturing and
inspection practices, the bars shall be free of injurious seams,
laps, segregation, or other imperfections which, due to their
nature, degree, or extent, will interfere with the use of the
material in machining or fabrication of suitable parts.
7.2 Finish:
7.2.1 Unless otherwise specied, the bars shall have a
commercial bright smooth surface nish obtained by conven-
tional cold-nishing operations such as cold drawing, cold
rolling, or turning and polishing.
7.2.2 When required, bars may be specied to be ground
and polished, turned and polished, or turned, ground, and
7.2.3 Bars that are thermal treated after cold nishing may
have a discolored or oxidized surface.
7.3 OilingThe bars shall be given a surface coating of oil
or other rust inhibitor to protect against rust during shipment.
8. Certication
8.1 Upon request of the purchaser in the contract or order, a
manufacturers certication that the material was manufactured
and tested in accordance with this specication together with a
report of the test results shall be furnished at the time of
shipment. If bismuth, selenium, tellurium, or calcium are added
in accordance with Footnote D of Table 1, the presence of these
additional elements shall be noted on the certication.
9. Keywords
9.1 carbon steel bars; cold-nished steel bars; steel bars
One or more of the following supplementary requirements shall be applied only when specied by
the purchaser in the inquiry, contract, or order. Details of these supplementary requirements shall be
agreed upon in writing by the manufacturer and the purchaser. Supplementary requirements shall in
no way negate any requirement of the specication itself.
S1. Cold Working Quality
S1.1 The classication encompasses bars subject to severe
cold plastic deformation such as, but not limited to, upsetting,
heading, forging, forward or backward extrusion.
S1.2 If the type of steel or chemical composition does not
have adequate cold working characteristics, appropriate ther-
mal treatments should be specied.
S1.3 When Supplementary Requirement S1 is specied, the
bars shall be produced by manufacturing practices and sub-
jected to mill tests and inspection and freedom from injurious
surface imperfections to the extent that the bars shall be
suitable for the manufacture of identied parts. The quality
requirements of individual application vary.
S2. Special Surface Quality
S2.1 Special surface steels are produced with exacting
control and appropriate inspection and surface preparation to
minimize the frequency and degree of seams and other surface
S3. Special Internal Soundness Requirement
S3.1 Special internal soundness is relative freedom from
segregation and porosity, as evaluated by means of a macroetch
test which is performed on representative billet or bar samples.
The test consists of deep etching a cross section in a hot acid
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solution and examination to evaluate soundness. An alternative
method consists of fracturing a billet section and examination
of the fracture to evaluate soundness.
S4. Nonmetallic Inclusion Requirements
S4.1 The nonmetallic inclusion requirement comprises a
metallographic examination of longitudinal sections to deter-
mine the nature and frequency of the nonmetallic inclusions.
Experience indicates that samples taken midway between the
center and surface of the bloom, billet, slab, or bar are most
representative of the average inclusion content of the lot
involved. The test specimen is generally heated and quenched
to harden it before being polished to avoid polishing pits. The
specimen is examined at 100 diameters. Methods for determin-
ing the nonmetallic inclusion content of steel are described in
Test Methods E 45.
S4.2 For resulfurized steels, much of the sulfur is present as
sulde inclusions. For this reason, those steels are not generally
produced to inclusion rating.
S5. Special Heat-Treating Requirements
S5.1 Special heat treating (hardenability) is a term used
when the purchaser species as a requirement the ability of a
steel to heat treat to specied mechanical property values that
the purchaser must meet after his heat treatment. Care should
be taken so that the desired mechanical property values are
compatible with the chemical composition, size, and cross
section of the steel.
S5.2 Hardenability band limits have been established for
1038H, 1045H, and 1541H as well as other grades that appear
in the SAE Handbook.
S6. Grain Size
S6.1 The steel shall conform to either the coarse austenitic
grain size requirement (except as stated in S6.2), or the ne
austenitic grain size requirement of Specication A 29/A 29M.
S6.2 Certain elements, or combinations of elements, such as
manganese, sulfur, and lead tend to produce grain renement
and it is technically inappropriate to ensure coarse grain size as
measured by the McQuaid-Ehn test on high manganese, high
sulfur, and leaded steels such as 1144, 1151, and 11L41.
S7. Restricted Incidental Elements
S7.1 The purchaser may specify maximum requirements for
copper, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, or other elements.
S8. Thermal Treatment
S8.1 When required, the purchaser may specify that the
material be stress relieved, annealed to specied structure,
annealed to no specied structure, or normalized.
S9. Mechanical Properties
S9.1 When required, cold-nished bars can be supplied to
mechanical properties. Mechanical properties shall be deter-
mined in accordance with Test Methods and Denitions A370.
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