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Grider, A.; Ramirez, J.A. and Yun, Y.M.

Structural Concrete Design


Structural Engineering Handbook
Ed. Chen Wai-Fah
Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC, 1999
Structural Concrete Desi gn
1
Amy Gri der and
Jul i o A. Rami rez
School of Civil Engineering,
PurdueUniversity,
West Lafayette, I N
Young Mook Yun
Department of Civil Engineering,
National University,
Taegu, South Korea
4.1 Propertiesof Concreteand ReinforcingSteel
Propertiesof Concrete

Lightweight Concrete

Heavyweight
Concrete

High-Strength Concrete

ReinforcingSteel
4.2 Proportioningand MixingConcrete
ProportioningConcreteMix

Admixtures

Mixing
4.3 Flexural Design of Beamsand One-Way Slabs
Reinforced ConcreteStrength Design

Prestressed Concrete
Strength Design
4.4 Columnsunder Bendingand Axial Load
Short Columnsunder MinimumEccentricity

Short Columns
under Axial LoadandBending

SlendernessEffects

Columns
under Axial Load and Biaxial Bending
4.5 Shear and Torsion
Reinforced Concrete Beams and One-Way Slabs Strength
Design

Prestressed Concrete Beams and One-Way Slabs
Strength Design
4.6 Development of Reinforcement
Development of Bars in Tension

Development of Bars in
Compression

Development of Hooks in Tension

Splices,
Bundled Bars, and Web Reinforcement
4.7 Two-Way Systems
Denition

Design Procedures

Minimum Slab Thickness


and Reinforcement

Direct Design Method

Equivalent
FrameMethod

Detailing
4.8 Frames
Analysisof Frames

Design for SeismicLoading


4.9 Bracketsand Corbels
4.10 Footings
Typesof Footings

Design Considerations

Wall Footings

Single-Column Spread Footings

Combined Footings

Two-
Column Footings

Strip, Grid, and Mat Foundations

Foot-
ingson Piles
4.11 Walls
Panel, Curtain, andBearingWalls

Basement Walls

Partition
Walls

ShearsWalls
4.12 DeningTerms
References
Further Reading
1
Thematerial in thischapter waspreviously published by CRCPressin TheCivil EngineeringHandbook, W.F. Chen, Ed.,
1995.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
At this point in the history of development of reinforced and prestressed concrete it is neces-
sary to reexaminethefundamental approachesto design of thesecompositematerials. Structural
engineering isaworldwideindustry. Designersfrom onenation or acontinent arefaced with de-
signing aproject in another nation or continent. Thedecadesof effortsdedicated to harmonizing
concrete design approaches worldwide have resulted in some successes but in large part have led
to further differencesand numerousdifferent design procedures. It isthisabundanceof different
design approaches, techniques, and coderegulationsthat justiesand callsfor theneed for auni-
cation of design approachesthroughout theentirerangeof structural concrete, from plain to fully
prestressed [ 5] .
The effort must begin at all levels: university courses, textbooks, handbooks, and standards of
practice. Studentsandpractitionersmust beencouragedtothink of asinglecontinuumof structural
concrete. Based on this premise, this chapter on concrete design is organized to promote such
unication. In addition, effort will bedirected at dispelling thepresent unjustied preoccupation
with complex analysis procedures and often highly empirical and incompletesectional mechanics
approachesthat tendtobothdistract thedesignersfromfundamental behavior andimpart afalsesense
of accuracy to beginningdesigners. Instead, designerswill bedirected to givecareful consideration
to overall structurebehavior, remarkingtheadequateowof forcesthroughout theentirestructure.
4.1 Propertiesof ConcreteandReinforcingSteel
The designer needs to be knowledgeable about the properties of concrete, reinforcing steel, and
prestressingsteel. Thispart of thechapter summarizesthematerial propertiesof particular impor-
tanceto thedesigner.
4.1.1 Propertiesof Concrete
Workabilityistheeasewithwhichtheingredientscan bemixedandtheresultingmixhandled, trans-
ported, and placed with littlelossin homogeneity. Unfortunately, workability cannot bemeasured
directly. Engineersthereforetry to measuretheconsistency of theconcreteby performingaslump
test.
Theslumptest isuseful indetectingvariationsintheuniformityof amix. Intheslumptest, amold
shapedasthefrustumof acone, 12in. (305mm) highwithan8in. (203mm) diameter baseand4in.
(102mm) diameter top, islledwithconcrete(ASTM Specication C143). Immediatelyafter lling,
themold isremoved and thechangein height of thespecimen ismeasured. Thechangein height of
thespecimen istaken astheslump when thetest isdoneaccordingto theASTM Specication.
Awell-proportionedworkablemixsettlesslowly, retainingitsoriginal shape. Apoor mixcrumbles,
segregates, andfallsapart. Theslumpmaybeincreasedbyaddingwater, increasingthepercentageof
nes(cement or aggregate), entrainingair, or byusinganadmixturethat reduceswater requirements;
however, thesechangesmay adversely affect other propertiesof theconcrete. In general, theslump
specied should yield thedesired consistency with theleast amount of water and cement.
Concreteshouldwithstandtheweathering, chemical action, andwear towhichit will besubjected
in service over a period of years; thus, durability is an important property of concrete. Concrete
resistance to freezing and thawing damage can be improved by increasing the watertightness, en-
training 2 to 6% air, using an air-entraining agent, or applying aprotectivecoating to thesurface.
Chemical agents damage or disintegrate concrete; therefore, concrete should be protected with a
resistant coating. Resistanceto wear can beobtained by useof ahigh-strength, denseconcretemade
with hard aggregates.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
Excesswater leavesvoidsand cavitiesafter evaporation, and water can penetrateor passthrough
theconcreteif thevoids areinterconnected. Watertightnesscan beimproved by entraining air or
reducingwater in themix, or it can beprolonged through curing.
Volume change of concrete should be considered, since expansion of the concrete may cause
bucklingand dryingshrinkagemay causecracking. Expansion dueto alkali-aggregatereaction can
be avoided by using nonreactive aggregates. If reactive aggregates must be used, expansion may
be reduced by adding pozzolanic material (e.g., y ash) to the mix. Expansion caused by heat of
hydration of thecement can bereduced by keepingcement content aslowaspossible; usingTypeIV
cement; and chillingtheaggregates, water, and concretein theforms. Expansion from temperature
increases can be reduced by using coarse aggregate with a lower coefcient of thermal expansion.
Drying shrinkage can be reduced by using less water in the mix, using less cement, or allowing
adequatemoist curing. Theaddition of pozzolans, unlessallowingareduction in water, will increase
dryingshrinkage. Whether volumechangecausesdamageusually dependson therestraint present;
consideration should begiven to eliminatingrestraintsor resistingthestressesthey may cause[ 8] .
Strength of concreteisusually considered itsmost important property. Thecompressivestrength
at 28 d is often used as a measure of strength because the strength of concrete usually increases
with time. The compressive strength of concrete is determined by testing specimens in the form
of standard cylindersasspecied in ASTM Specication C192 for research testing or C31 for eld
testing. Thetest procedureisgiven in ASTM C39. If drilled coresareused, ASTM C42 should be
followed.
Thesuitability of amix isoften desired beforetheresultsof the28-d test areavailable. A formula
proposed by W. A. Slater estimatesthe28-d compressivestrength of concretefromits7-d strength:
S
28
= S
7
+30
_
S
7
(4.1)
where
S
28
= 28-d compressivestrength, psi
S
7
= 7-d compressivestrength, psi
Strengthcan beincreasedbydecreasingwater-cement ratio, usinghigher strengthaggregate, using
a pozzolan such as y ash, grading the aggregates to produce a smaller percentage of voids in the
concrete, moist curing the concrete after it has set, and vibrating the concrete in the forms. The
short-time strength can be increased by using Type III portland cement, accelerating admixtures,
and by increasingthecuringtemperature.
Thestress-strain curvefor concreteisacurvedline. Maximumstressisreachedat astrain of 0.002
in./in., after which thecurvedescends.
Themodulusof elasticity, E
c
, asgiven in ACI 318-89 (Revised 92), BuildingCodeRequirements
for ReinforcedConcrete[ 1] , is:
E
c
= w
1.5
c
33
_
f

c
lb/ft
3
and psi (4.2a)
E
c
= w
1.5
c
0.043
_
f

c
kg/m
3
and MPa (4.2b)
where
w
c
= unit weight of concrete
f

c
= compressivestrength at 28d
Tensilestrength of concreteismuch lower than thecompressivestrengthabout 7
_
f

c
for the
higher-strength concretesand 10
_
f

c
for thelower-strength concretes.
Creep istheincreasein strain with timeunder aconstant load. Creep increaseswith increasing
water-cement ratio and decreaseswith an increasein relativehumidity. Creep isaccounted for in
design by usingareduced modulusof elasticity of theconcrete.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
4.1.2 Lightweight Concrete
Structural lightweight concreteisusually madefromaggregatesconformingto ASTM C330that are
usually produced in akiln, such asexpanded claysand shales. Structural lightweight concretehasa
density between 90and 120lb/ft
3
(1440to 1920kg/m
3
).
Production of lightweight concrete is more difcult than normal-weight concrete because the
aggregatesvary in absorption of water, specicgravity, moisturecontent, and amount of gradingof
undersize. Slump and unit weight testsshould beperformed often to ensureuniformity of themix.
During placing and nishing of theconcrete, theaggregatesmay oat to thesurface. Workability
can be improved by increasing the percentage of nes or by using an air-entraining admixture to
incorporate4 to 6% air. Dry aggregateshould not beput into themix becauseit will continueto
absorbmoistureand causetheconcretetoharden beforeplacement iscompleted. Continuouswater
curingisimportant with lightweight concrete.
No-nesconcreteisobtained by usingpeagravel asthecoarseaggregateand 20to 30%entrained
air instead of sand. It isused for low dead weight and insulation when strength isnot important.
Thisconcreteweighsfrom 105 to 118 lb/ft
3
(1680 to 1890 kg/m
3
) and hasa compressivestrength
from200to 1000psi (1to 7MPa).
Aporousconcretemadebygapgradingor single-sizeaggregategradingisusedfor lowconductivity
or wheredrainageisneeded.
Lightweight concrete can also be made with gas-forming of foaming agents which are used as
admixtures. Foamconcretesrangeinweight from20to110lb/ft
3
(320to1760kg/m
3
). Themodulus
of elasticity of lightweight concretecan becomputed using thesameformula as normal concrete.
Theshrinkageof lightweight concreteissimilar to or slightly greater than for normal concrete.
4.1.3 Heavyweight Concrete
Heavyweight concretes are used primarily for shielding purposes against gamma and x-radiation
in nuclear reactorsand other structures. Barite, limoniteand magnetite, steel punchings, and steel
shot aretypically used asaggregates. Heavyweight concretesweigh from 200 to 350 lb/ft
3
(3200 to
5600 kg/m
3
) with strengthsfrom 3200 to 6000 psi (22 to 41 MPa). Gradingsand mix proportions
aresimilar to thosefor normal weight concrete. Heavyweight concretesusually do not havegood
resistanceto weatheringor abrasion.
4.1.4 High-StrengthConcrete
Concreteswith strengthsin excessof 6000 psi (41 MPa) arereferred to ashigh-strength concretes.
Strengthsup to 18,000psi (124MPa) havebeen used in buildings.
Admixtures such as superplasticizers, silicafume, and supplementary cementing materials such
asy ash improvethedispersion of cement in themix and produceworkableconcreteswith lower
water-cement ratios, lower void ratios, and higher strength. Coarse aggregates should be strong
ne-grained gravel with rough surfaces.
For concretestrengthsin excessof 6000psi (41MPa), themodulusof elasticity should betaken as
E
c
= 40,000
_
f

c
+1.0 10
6
(4.3)
where
f

c
= compressivestrength at 28d, psi [ 4]
Theshrinkageof high-strength concreteisabout thesameasthat for normal concrete.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
4.1.5 ReinforcingSteel
Concrete can be reinforced with welded wire fabric, deformed reinforcing bars, and prestressing
tendons.
Welded wire fabric is used in thin slabs, thin shells, and other locations where space does not
allowtheplacement of deformed bars. Welded wirefabricconsistsof cold drawn wirein orthogonal
patternssquareor rectangular and resistance-welded at all intersections. Thewiremay besmooth
(ASTM A185 and A82) or deformed (ASTM A497 and A496). Thewireisspecied by thesymbol
W for smooth wiresor D for deformed wiresfollowed by anumber representingthecross-sectional
areain hundredthsof asquareinch. On design drawingsit isindicatedbythesymbol WWFfollowed
by spacings of the wires in the two 90

directions. Properties for welded wire fabric are given in


Table4.1.
TABLE4.1 Wireand Welded WireFabricSteels
Minimum Minimum
yield tensile
Wiresize stress,
a
f
y
strength
AST designation designation ksi MPa ksi MPa
A82-79(cold-drawn wire) (properties W1.2and larger
b
65 450 75 520
apply when material isto beused for Smaller than W1.2 56 385 70 480
fabric)
A185-79(welded wirefabric) SameasA82; thisisA82 material fabricated into sheet (so-called
mesh ) by theprocessof electricwelding
A496-78 (deformed steel wire) (propertiesap-
ply when material isto beused for fabric)
D1-D31
c
70 480 80 550
A497-79 Same as A82 or A496; this specication applies for fabric made
fromA496, or fromacombination of A496and A82wires
a
Theterm yield stress refersto either yieldpoint, thewell-dened deviation from perfect elasticity, or yieldstrength,
thevalueobtained by aspecied offset strain for material havingno well-dened yield point.
b
TheW number representsthenominal cross-sectional areain squareinchesmultiplied by 100, for smooth wires.
c
TheD number representsthenominal cross-sectional areain squareinchesmultiplied by 100, for deformed wires.
Thedeformationson adeformedreinforcingbar inhibit longitudinal movement of thebar relative
to the concrete around it. Table 4.2 gives dimensions and weights of these bars. Reinforcing bar
steel can bemadeof billet steel of grades40and 60havingminimumspecicyield stressesof 40,000
and 60,000 psi, respectively (276 and 414 MPa) (ASTM A615) or low-alloy steel of grade60, which
isintended for applicationswherewelding and/or bending isimportant (ASTM A706). Presently,
grade60billet steel isthemost predominantly used for construction.
Prestressing tendons are commonly in the form of individual wires or groups of wires. Wires
of different strengths and properties are available with the most prevalent being the 7-wire low-
relaxation strandconformingtoASTM A416. ASTM A416alsocoversastress-relievedstrand, which
isseldom used in construction nowadays. Propertiesof standard prestressing strandsaregiven in
Table4.3. Prestressing tendonscould also bebars; however, thisisnot very common. Prestressing
barsmeetingASTM A722havebeen used in connectionsbetween members.
The modulus of elasticity for non-prestressed steel is 29,000,000 psi (200,000 MPa). For pre-
stressing steel, it is lower and also variable, so it should be obtained from the manufacturer. For
7-wiresstrandsconformingto ASTM A416, themodulusof elasticity isusually taken as27,000,000
psi (186,000MPa).
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
TABLE4.2 ReinforcingBar Dimensionsand Weights
Nominal dimensions . .
Bar Diameter Area Weight
number (in.) (mm) (in.
2
) (cm
2
) (lb/ft) (kg/m)
3 0.375 9.5 0.11 0.71 0.376 0.559
4 0.500 12.7 0.20 1.29 0.668 0.994
5 0.625 15.9 0.31 2.00 1.043 1.552
6 0.750 19.1 0.44 2.84 1.502 2.235
7 0.875 22.2 0.60 3.87 2.044 3.041
8 1.000 25.4 0.79 5.10 2.670 3.973
9 1.128 28.7 1.00 6.45 3.400 5.059
10 1.270 32.3 1.27 8.19 4.303 6.403
11 1.410 35.8 1.56 10.06 5.313 7.906
14 1.693 43.0 2.25 14.52 7.65 11.38
18 2.257 57.3 4.00 25.81 13.60 20.24
TABLE4.3 Standard PrestressingStrands, Wires, and Bars
Grade Nominal dimension
f
pu
Diameter Area Weight
Tendon type ksi in. in.
2
plf
Seven-wirestrand 250 1/4 0.036 0.12
270 3/8 0.085 0.29
250 3/8 0.080 0.27
270 1/2 0.153 0.53
250 1/2 0.144 0.49
270 0.6 0.215 0.74
250 0.6 0.216 0.74
Prestressingwire 250 0.196 0.0302 0.10
240 0.250 0.0491 0.17
235 0.276 0.0598 0.20
Deformed prestressingbars 157 5/8 0.28 0.98
150 1 0.85 3.01
150 11/4 1.25 4.39
150 13/8 1.58 5.56
4.2 ProportioningandMixingConcrete
4.2.1 ProportioningConcreteMix
Aconcretemixisspeciedbytheweight of water, sand, coarseaggregate, andadmixturetobeusedper
94-pound bagof cement. Thetypeof cement (Table4.4), modulusof theaggregates, and maximum
sizeof theaggregates(Table4.5) should also begiven. A mix can bespecied by theweight ratio of
cement tosand tocoarseaggregatewith theminimumamount of cement per cubicyard of concrete.
In proportioningaconcretemix, it isadvisableto makeand test trial batchesbecauseof themany
variables involved. Several trial batches should be made with a constant water-cement ratio but
varyingratiosof aggregatestoobtain thedesired workabilitywith theleast cement. Toobtain results
similar to thosein theeld, thetrial batchesshould bemixed by machine.
When timeor other conditionsdo not allow proportioning by thetrial batch method, Table4.6
maybeused. Start withmixBcorrespondingtotheappropriatemaximumsizeof aggregate. Addjust
enough water for thedesired workability. If themix isundersanded, changeto mix A; if oversanded,
changeto mix C. Weightsaregiven for dry sand. For damp sand, increasetheweight of sand 10 lb,
and for very wet sand, 20lb, per bagof cement.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
TABLE4.4 Typesof Portland Cement
a
Type Usage
I Ordinary construction wherespecial propertiesare
not required
II Ordinary construction when moderatesulfateresis-
tanceor moderateheat of hydration isdesired
III When high early strength isdesired
IV When lowheat of hydration isdesired
V When high sulfateresistanceisdesired
a
Accordingto ASTM C150.
TABLE4.5 Recommended MaximumSizesof Aggregate
a
Maximumsize, in., of aggregatefor:
Reinforced-concrete Lightly reinforced
Minimumdimension beams, columns, Heavily or unreinforced
of section, in. walls reinforced slabs slabs
5or less 3/4 11/2 3/4 11/2
611 3/4 11/2 11/2 11/2 3
1229 11/2 3 3 3 6
30or more 11/2 3 3 6
a
ConcreteManual. U.S. Bureau of Reclamation.
TABLE4.6 Typical ConcreteMixes
a
Aggregate, lb per bagof cement
Maximum Bagsof
sizeof cement Sand
aggregate, Mix per yd
3
of Air-entrained Concrete Gravel or
in. designation concrete concrete without air crushed stone
1/2 A 7.0 235 245 170
B 6.9 225 235 190
C 6.8 225 235 205
3/4 A 6.6 225 235 225
B 6.4 225 235 245
C 6.3 215 225 265
1 A 6.4 225 235 245
B 6.2 215 225 275
C 6.1 205 215 290
11/2 A 6.0 225 235 290
B 5.8 215 225 320
C 5.7 205 215 345
2 A 5.7 225 235 330
B 5.6 215 225 360
C 5.4 205 215 380
a
ConcreteManual. U.S. Bureau of Reclamation.
4.2.2 Admixtures
Admixtures may be used to modify the properties of concrete. Some types of admixtures are set
accelerators, water reducers, air-entraining agents, and waterproofers. Admixtures are generally
helpful in improving quality of the concrete. However, if admixtures are not properly used, they
could haveundesirableeffects; it isthereforenecessarytoknowtheadvantagesand limitationsof the
proposed admixture. TheASTM Specicationscover many of theadmixtures.
Set acceleratorsareused (1) when it takestoo long for concreteto set naturally; such asin cold
weather, or (2) to acceleratetherateof strength development. Calcium chlorideiswidely used asa
set accelerator. If not used in theright quantities, it could haveharmful effectson theconcreteand
reinforcement.
Water reducerslubricatethemixandpermit easier placement of theconcrete. Sincetheworkability
of a mix can beimproved by a chemical agent, lesswater isneeded. With lesswater but thesame
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
cement content, thestrength isincreased. Sincelesswater isneeded, thecement content could also
be decreased, which results in less shrinkage of the hardened concrete. Some water reducers also
slowdown theconcreteset, which isuseful in hot weather and integratingconsecutivepoursof the
concrete.
Air-entrainingagentsareprobablythemost widelyused typeof admixture. Minutebubblesof air
areentrained in theconcrete, which increasestheresistanceof theconcretetofreeze-thawcyclesand
theuseof ice-removal salts.
Waterproong chemicals are often applied as surface treatments, but they can be added to the
concrete mix. If applied properly and uniformly, they can prevent water from penetrating the
concretesurface. Epoxiescan also beused for waterproong. They aremoredurablethan silicone
coatings, but they may bemorecostly. Epoxiescan also beused for protection of wearingsurfaces,
patchingcavitiesand cracks, and gluefor connectingpiecesof hardened concrete.
4.2.3 Mixing
Materialsusedinmakingconcretearestoredinbatchplantsthat haveweighingandcontrol equipment
andbinsfor storingthecement andaggregates. Proportionsarecontrolledbyautomaticor manually
operated scales. Thewater ismeasured out either frommeasuringtanksor by usingwater meters.
Machinemixingisused whenever possibleto achieveuniform consistency. Therevolvingdrum-
typemixer and thecountercurrent mixer, which hasmixingbladesrotatingin theoppositedirection
of thedrum, arecommonly used.
Mixingtime, which ismeasured fromthetimeall ingredientsarein thedrum, should beat least
1.5minutesfor a1-yd
3
mixer, plus0.5min for each cubicyard of capacity over 1yd
3
[ ACI 304-73,
1973] . It also is recommended to set a maximum on mixing time since overmixing may remove
entrainedair andincreasenes, thusrequiringmorewater for workability; threetimestheminimum
mixingtimecan beused asaguide.
Ready-mixed concreteismadein plantsand delivered to job sitesin mixersmounted on trucks.
The concrete can be mixed en route or upon arrival at the site. Concrete can be kept plastic and
workablefor aslongas1.5hoursbyslowrevolvingof themixer. Mixingtimecan bebetter controlled
if water isaddedandmixingstarteduponarrival at thejobsite, wheretheoperationcanbeinspected.
4.3 Flexural Designof BeamsandOne-WaySlabs
4.3.1 ReinforcedConcreteStrengthDesign
Thebasicassumptionsmadein exural design are:
1. Sectionsperpendicular totheaxisof bendingthat areplanebeforebendingremain planeafter
bending.
2. A perfect bond existsbetween thereinforcement and theconcretesuch that thestrain in the
reinforcement isequal to thestrain in theconcreteat thesamelevel.
3. Thestrainsin both theconcreteand reinforcement areassumed to bedirectly proportional to
thedistancefromtheneutral axis(ACI 10.2.2) [ 1] .
4. Concreteisassumed to fail when thecompressivestrain reaches0.003(ACI 10.2.3).
5. Thetensilestrength of concreteisneglected (ACI 10.2.5).
6. Thestressesin theconcreteand reinforcement can becomputed fromthestrainsusingstress-
strain curvesfor concreteand steel, respectively.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
7. Thecompressivestress-strainrelationshipfor concretemaybeassumedtoberectangular, trape-
zoidal, parabolic, or any other shapethat resultsin prediction of strength in substantial agree-
ment withtheresultsof comprehensivetests(ACI 10.2.6). ACI 10.2.7outlinestheuseof arect-
angular compressivestressdistributionwhichisknownastheWhitney rectangular stressblock.
For other stressdistributionsseeReinforcedConcreteMechanicsandDesignby JamesG. Mac-
Gregor [ 8] .
Analysisof Rectangular BeamswithTensionReinforcement Only
Equationsfor M
n
andM
n
: TensionSteel Yielding Consider thebeamshowninFigure4.1.
Thecompressiveforce, C, in theconcreteis
C =
_
0.85f

c
_
ba (4.4)
Thetension force, T , in thesteel is
T = A
s
f
y
(4.5)
For equilibrium, C = T , so thedepth of theequivalent rectangular stressblock, a, is
a =
A
s
f
y
0.85f

c
b
(4.6)
Notingthat theinternal forcesC andT formanequivalent force-couplesystem, theinternal moment
is
M
n
= T (d a/2) (4.7)
or
M
n
= C(d a/2)
M
n
isthen
M
n
= T (d a/2) (4.8)
or
M
n
= C(d a/2)
where =0.90.
FIGURE4.1: Stressesand forcesin arectangular beam.
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Equationfor M
n
andM
n
: TensionSteel Elastic Theinternal forcesand equilibrium are
given by:
C = T
0.85f

c
ba = A
s
f
s
0.85f

c
ba = bdE
s

s
(4.9)
Fromstrain compatibility (seeFigure4.1),

s
=
cu
_
d c
c
_
(4.10)
Substituting
s
into theequilibriumequation, notingthat a =
1
c, and simplifyinggives
_
0.85f

c
E
s

cu
_
a
2
+(d)a
1
d
2
= 0 (4.11)
which can besolved for a. Equations4.7and 4.8can then beused to obtain M
n
and M
n
.
Reinforcement Ratios Thereinforcement ratio, , isused to represent therelativeamount
of tension reinforcement in abeamand isgiven by
=
A
s
bd
(4.12)
At thebalanced strain condition themaximum strain,
cu
, at theextremeconcretecompression
ber reaches0.003 just asthetension steel reachesthestrain
y
= f
y
/E
s
. Thereinforcement ratio
in the balanced strain condition,
b
, can be obtained by applying equilibrium and compatibility
conditions. Fromthelinear strain condition, Figure4.1,
c
b
d
=

cu

cu
+
y
=
0.003
0.003 +
f
y
29,000,000
=
87,000
87,000 +f
y
(4.13)
Thecompressiveand tensileforcesare:
C
b
= 0.85f

c
b
1
c
b
T
b
= f
y
A
sb
=
b
bdf
y
(4.14)
EquatingC
b
to T
b
and solvingfor
b
gives

b
=
0.85f

1
f
y
_
c
b
d
_
(4.15)
which on substitution of Equation 4.13gives

b
=
0.85f

1
f
y
_
87,000
87,000 +f
y
_
(4.16)
ACI 10.3.3limitstheamount of reinforcement in order to prevent nonductilebehavior:
max = 0.75
b
(4.17)
ACI 10.5requiresaminimumamount of exural reinforcement:

min
=
200
f
y
(4.18)
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
Analysisof BeamswithTensionandCompressionReinforcement
For theanalysis of doubly reinforced beams, thecross-section will bedivided into two beams.
Beam1consistsof thecompression reinforcement at thetopandsufcient steel at thebottomsothat
T
1
= C
s
; beam 2consistsof theconcreteweb and theremainingtensilereinforcement, asshown in
Figure4.2
FIGURE4.2: Strains, stresses, and forcesin beamwith compression reinforcement.
Equationfor M
n
: CompressionSteel Yields Theareaof tension steel in beam1isobtained
by settingT
1
= C
s
, which givesA
s1
= A

s
. Thenominal moment capacity of beam1isthen
M
n1
= A

s
f
y
_
d d

_
(4.19)
Beam2consistsof theconcreteandtheremainingsteel, A
s2
= A
s
A
s1
= A
s
A

s
. Thecompression
forcein theconcreteis
C = 0.85f

c
ba (4.20)
and thetension forcein thesteel for beam2is
T =
_
A
s
A

s
_
f
y
(4.21)
Thedepth of thecompression stressblock isthen
a =
_
A
s
A

s
_
f
y
0.85f

c
b
(4.22)
Therefore, thenominal moment capacity for beam2is
M
n2
=
_
A
s
A

s
_
f
y
(d a/2) (4.23)
The total moment capacity for a doubly reinforced beam with compression steel yielding is the
summation of themoment capacity for beam1and beam2; therefore,
M
n
= A

s
f
y
_
d d

_
+
_
A
s
A

s
_
f
y
(d a/2) (4.24)
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
Equationfor M
n
: CompressionSteel DoesNot Yield Assumingthat thetension steel yields,
theinternal forcesin thebeamare
T = A
s
f
y
C
c
= 0.85f

c
ba
C
s
= A

s
_
E
s

s
_
(4.25)
where

s
=
_
1

1
d

a
_
(0.003) (4.26)
Fromequilibrium, C
s
+C
c
= T or
0.85f

c
ba +A

s
E
s
_
1

1
d

a
_
(0.003) = A
s
f
y
(4.27)
Thiscan berewritten in quadraticformas
_
0.85f

c
b
_
a
2
+
_
0.003A

s
E
s
A
s
F
y
_
a
_
0.003A

s
E
s

1
d

_
= 0 (4.28)
where a can be calculated by means of the quadratic equation. Therefore, the nominal moment
capacity in adoubly reinforced concretebeamwherethecompression steel doesnot yield is
M
n
= C
c
_
d
a
2
_
+C
s
_
d d

_
(4.29)
Reinforcement Ratios The reinforcement ratio at the balanced strain condition can be
obtained in a similar manner as that for beams with tension steel only. For compression steel
yielding, thebalanced ratio is
_

_
b
=
0.85f

1
f
y
_
87,000
87,000 +f
y
_
(4.30)
For compression steel not yielding, thebalanced ratio is
_

s
f
y
_
b
=
0.85f

1
f
y
_
87,000
87,000 +f
y
_
(4.31)
Themaximumand minimumreinforcement ratiosasgiven in ACI 10.3.3and 10.5are

max
= 0.75
b

min
=
200
f
y
(4.32)
4.3.2 PrestressedConcreteStrengthDesign
Elastic Flexural Analysis
In developingelasticequationsfor prestress, theeffectsof prestressforce, deadloadmoment, and
liveload moment arecalculated separately, and then theseparatestressesaresuperimposed, giving
f =
F
A

Fey
I

My
I
(4.33)
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
where() indicatescompression and (+) indicatestension. It isnecessary to check that thestresses
in theextremebersremain within theACI-specied limitsunder any combination of loadingsthat
many occur. Thestresslimitsfor theconcreteand prestressingtendonsarespecied in ACI 18.4and
18.5[ 1] .
ACI 18.2.6statesthat thelossof areaduetoopenductsshall beconsideredwhencomputingsection
properties. It isnoted in thecommentary that section propertiesmay bebased on total areaif the
effect of theopen duct areaisconsiderednegligible. In pretensionedmembersandinpost-tensioned
membersafter grouting, section propertiescan bebased on grosssections, net sections, or effective
sectionsusingthetransformed areasof bonded tendonsand nonprestressed reinforcement.
Flexural Strength
Thestrength of aprestressed beam can becalculated usingthemethodsdeveloped for ordinary
reinforced concretebeams, with modicationstoaccount for thedifferingnatureof thestress-strain
relationship of prestressingsteel compared with ordinary reinforcingsteel.
A prestressed beam will fail when the steel reaches a stress f
ps
, generally less than the tensile
strength f
pu
. For rectangular cross-sectionsthenominal exural strength is
M
n
= A
ps
f
ps
d
a
2
(4.34)
where
a =
A
ps
f
ps
0.85f

c
b
(4.35)
Thesteel stressf
ps
can befound based on strain compatibility or by usingapproximateequations
such asthosegiven in ACI 18.7.2. Theequationsin ACI areapplicableonly if theeffectiveprestress
in thesteel, f
se
, which equalsP
e
/A
ps
, isnot lessthan 0.5f
pu
. TheACI equationsareasfollows.
(a) For memberswith bonded tendons:
f
ps
= f
pu
_
1

p

1
_

f
pu
f

c
+
d
d
p
_

_
__
(4.36)
If anycompression reinforcement istaken intoaccount when calculatingf
ps
withEquation 4.36, the
followingapplies:
_

p
f
pu
f

c
+
d
d
p
_

_
_
0.17 (4.37)
and
d

0.15d
p
(b) For memberswith unbonded tendonsand with aspan-to-depth ratio of 35or less:
f
ps
= f
se
+10,000 +
f

c
100
p

_
f
py
f
se
+60,000
_
(4.38)
(c) For memberswith unbonded tendonsand with aspan-to-depth ratio greater than 35:
f
ps
= f
se
+10,000 +
f

c
300
p

_
f
py
f
se
+30,000
_
(4.39)
Theexural strength isthen calculated fromEquation 4.34. Thedesign strength isequal to M
n
,
where = 0.90 for exure.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
Reinforcement Ratios
ACI requiresthat thetotal amount of prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement beadequate
to develop afactored load at least 1.2timesthecrackingload calculated on thebasisof amodulusof
ruptureof 7.5
_
f

c
.
To control cracking in members with unbonded tendons, some bonded reinforcement should
be uniformly distributed over the tension zone near the extreme tension ber. ACI species the
minimumamount of bonded reinforcement as
A
s
= 0.004A (4.40)
whereA istheareaof thecross-section between theexural tension faceand thecenter of gravity of
thegrosscross-section. ACI 19.9.4givestheminimumlength of thebonded reinforcement.
To ensureadequateductility, ACI 18.8.1providesthefollowingrequirement:
_

p
+
_
d
d
p
_
_

pw
+
_
d
d
p
_
_

w
_
_

_
0.36
1
(4.41)
ACI allows each of the terms on the left side to be set equal to 0.85 a/d
p
in order to simplify the
equation.
When areinforcement ratiogreater than 0.36
1
isused, ACI 18.8.2statesthat thedesign moment
strength shall not be greater than the moment strength based on the compression portion of the
moment couple.
4.4 Columnsunder BendingandAxial Load
4.4.1 Short Columnsunder MinimumEccentricity
When asymmetrical column issubjected to aconcentric axial load, P, longitudinal strainsdevelop
uniformly acrossthesection. Becausethesteel and concretearebonded together, thestrainsin the
concreteand steel areequal. For anygiven strain it ispossibletocomputethestressesin theconcrete
and steel usingthestress-strain curvesfor thetwo materials. Theforcesin theconcreteand steel are
equal to thestressesmultiplied by thecorrespondingareas. Thetotal load on thecolumn isthesum
of theforcesin theconcreteand steel:
P
o
= 0.85f

c
_
A
g
A
st
_
+f
y
A
st
(4.42)
To account for theeffect of incidental moments, ACI 10.3.5speciesthat themaximumdesign axial
load on acolumn be, for spiral columns,
P
n(max)
= 0.85
_
.85f

c
_
A
g
A
st
_
+f
y
A
st
_
(4.43)
and for tied columns,
P
n(max)
= 0.80
_
.85f

c
_
A
g
A
st
_
+f
y
A
st
_
(4.44)
For high values of axial load, values of 0.7 and 0.75 are specied for tied and spiral columns,
respectively (ACI 9.3.2.2b) [ 1] .
Short columnsaresufciently stocky such that slendernesseffectscan beignored.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
4.4.2 Short Columnsunder Axial LoadandBending
Almost all compression membersinconcretestructuresaresubjectedtomomentsinadditiontoaxial
loads. Althoughit ispossibletoderiveequationstoevaluatethestrengthof columnssubjectedtocom-
binedbendingandaxial loads, theequationsaretedioustouse. For thisreason, interaction diagrams
for columnsaregenerally computed by assumingaseriesof strain distributions, each corresponding
to aparticular point on theinteraction diagram, and computingthecorrespondingvaluesof P and
M. Once enough such points have been computed, the results are summarized in an interaction
diagram. For exampleson determiningtheinteraction diagram, seeReinforcedConcreteMechanics
andDesignby JamesG. MacGregor [ 8] or ReinforcedConcreteDesignby Chu-KiaWangand Charles
G. Salmon [ 11] .
Figure 4.3 illustrates a series of strain distributions and the resulting points on the interaction
diagram. Point A representspureaxial compression. Point B correspondsto crushing at oneface
and zero tension at theother. If thetensilestrength of concreteisignored, thisrepresentstheonset
of crackingon thebottom faceof thesection. All pointslower than thisin theinteraction diagram
represent casesinwhichthesectionispartiallycracked. Point C, thefarthest right point, corresponds
tothebalancedstrainconditionandrepresentsthechangefromcompressionfailuresfor higher loads
andtension failuresfor lower loads. Point Drepresentsastrain distribution wherethereinforcement
hasbeen strained to several timestheyield strain beforetheconcretereachesitscrushingstrain.
Thehorizontal axisof theinteraction diagram correspondsto purebending where = 0.9. A
transition isrequired from = 0.7 or 0.75 for high axial loadsto = 0.9 for purebending. The
change in begins at a capacity P
a
, which equals the smaller of the balanced load, P
b
, or 0.1
f

c
A
g
. Generally, P
b
exceeds0.1f

c
A
g
except for afewnonrectangular columns.
ACI publication SP-17A(85), ADesignHandbookfor Columns, containsnondimensional interac-
tion diagramsaswell asother design aidsfor columns[2] .
4.4.3 SlendernessEffects
ACI 10.11describesan approximateslenderness-effect design procedurebasedon themoment mag-
nier concept. Themomentsarecomputed by ordinary frameanalysisand multiplied by amoment
magnier that isafunction of thefactored axial load and thecritical buckling load of thecolumn.
Thefollowing givesasummary of themoment magnier design procedurefor slender columnsin
frames.
1. Lengthof Column. Theunsupported length, l
u
, isdened in ACI 10.11.1astheclear distance
between oor slabs, beams, or other memberscapableof givinglateral support tothecolumn.
2. Effectivelength. Theeffectivelength factors, k, used in calculating
b
shall bebetween 0.5and
1.0 (ACI 10.11.2.1). The effective length factors used to compute
s
shall be greater than 1
(ACI 10.11.2.2). Theeffectivelengthfactorscan beestimatedusingACI Fig. R10.11.2or using
ACI Equations(A)(E) given in ACI R10.11.2. Thesetwoproceduresrequirethat theratio, ,
of thecolumnsand beamsbeknown:
=

(E
c
I
c
/l
c
)

(E
b
I
b
/l
b
)
(4.45)
In computing it isacceptableto taketheEI of thecolumn astheuncracked grossE
c
I
g
of
thecolumnsand theEI of thebeamas0.5E
c
I
g
.
3. Denitionofbracedandunbracedframes. TheACI Commentarysuggeststhat aframeisbraced
if either of thefollowingaresatised:
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
FIGURE4.3: Strain distributionscorrespondingto pointson interaction diagram.
(a) If thestability index, Q, for astory islessthan 0.04, where
Q =

P
u

u
H
u
h
s
0.04 (4.46)
(b) If thesum of thelateral stiffnessof thebracing elementsin astory exceedssix timesthe
lateral stiffnessof all thecolumnsin thestory.
4. Radiusofgyration. For arectangular cross-sectionr equals0.3h, andfor acircular cross-section
r equals0.25h. For other sections, r equals

I/A.
5. Considerationof slendernesseffects. ACI 10.11.4.1allowsslendernesseffectsto beneglected for
columnsin braced frameswhen
kl
u
r
< 34 12
M
1b
M
2b
(4.47)
ACI 10.11.4.2allowsslendernesseffectsto beneglected for columnsin unbraced frameswhen
kl
u
r
< 22 (4.48)
If kl
u
/r exceeds100, ACI 10.11.4.3statesthat design shall bebased on second-order analysis.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
6. Minimummoments. For columnsin abraced frame, M
2b
shall benot lessthan thevaluegiven
in ACI 10.11.5.4. In an unbraced frameACI 10.11.5.5appliesfor M
2s
.
7. Momentmagnierequation. ACI 10.11.5.1statesthat columnsshall bedesignedfor thefactored
axial load, P
u
, and amagnied factored moment, M
c
, dened by
M
c
=
b
M
2b
+
s
M
2s
(4.49)
whereM
2b
isthelarger factored end moment acting on thecolumn dueto loadscausing no
appreciablesidesway (lateral deectionslessthan l/1500) and M
2s
isthelarger factored end
moment duetoloadsthat result in an appreciablesidesway. Themomentsarecomputedfrom
aconventional rst-order elasticframeanalysis. For theaboveequation, thefollowingapply:

b
=
C
m
1 P
u
/P
c
1.0 (4.50)

s
=
1
1

P
u
/

P
c
1.0
For membersbraced against sidesway, ACI 10.11.5.1gives
s
=1.0.
C
m
= 0.6 +0.4
M
1b
M
2b
0.4 (4.51)
Theratio M
1b
/M
2b
istaken aspositiveif themember isbent in singlecurvatureand negative
if themember isbent in doublecurvature. Equation 4.51 appliesonly to columnsin braced
frames. In all other cases, ACI 10.11.5.3statesthat C
m
=1.0.
P
c
=

2
EI
(kl
u
)
2
(4.52)
where
EI =
E
c
I
g
/5 +E
s
I
se
1 +
d
(4.53)
or, approximately
EI =
E
c
I
g
/2.5
1 +
d
(4.54)
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
When computing
b
,

d
=
Axial load dueto factored dead load
Total factored axial load
(4.55)
When computing
s
,

d
=
Factored sustained lateral shear in thestory
Total factored lateral shear in thestory
(4.56)
If
b
or
s
isfound to benegative, thecolumn should beenlarged. If either
b
or
s
exceeds
2.0, consideration should begiven to enlargingthecolumn.
4.4.4 Columnsunder Axial LoadandBiaxial Bending
The nominal ultimatestrength of a section under biaxial bending and compression is a function
of three variables, P
n
, M
nx
, and M
ny
, which may also be expressed as P
n
acting at eccentricities
e
y
= M
nx
/P
n
and e
x
= M
ny
/P
n
with respect tothex and y axes. Threetypesof failuresurfacescan
bedened. In therst type, S
1
, thethreeorthogonal axesaredenedbyP
n
, e
x
, ande
y
; in thesecond
type, S
2
, thevariablesdening theaxesare1/P
n
, e
x
, and e
y
; and in thethird type, S
3
theaxesare
P
n
, M
nx
, and M
ny
. In thepresentation that follows, theBresler reciprocal load method makesuse
of thereciprocal failuresurfaceS
2
, and theBresler load contour method and thePCA load contour
method both usethefailuresurfaceS
3
.
Bresler Reciprocal LoadMethod
Usingafailuresurfaceof typeS
2
, Bresler proposed thefollowingequation asameansof approx-
imatingapoint on thefailuresurfacecorrespondingto prespecied eccentricitiese
x
and e
y
:
1
P
ni
=
1
P
nx
+
1
P
ny

1
P
0
(4.57)
where
P
ni
= nominal axial load strength at given eccentricity alongboth axes
P
nx
= nominal axial load strength at given eccentricity alongx axis
P
ny
= nominal axial load strength at given eccentricity alongy axis
P
0
= nominal axial load strength for purecompression (zero eccentricity)
Test results indicate that Equation 4.57 may be inappropriate when small values of axial load are
involved, such aswhen P
n
/P
0
isin therangeof 0.06 or less. For such casesthemember should be
designed for exureonly.
Bresler LoadContour Method
ThefailuresurfaceS
3
can bethought of asafamilyof curves(load contours) each corresponding
to aconstant valueof P
n
. Thegeneral nondimensional equation for theload contour at constant P
n
may beexpressed in thefollowingform:
_
M
nx
M
ox
_

1
+
_
M
ny
M
oy
_

2
= 1.0 (4.58)
where
M
nx
= P
n
e
y
; M
ny
= P
n
e
x
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
M
ox
= M
nx
capacity at axial load P
n
when M
ny
(or e
x
) iszero
M
oy
= M
ny
capacity at axial load P
n
when M
nx
(or e
y
) iszero
The exponents
1
and
2
depend on the column dimensions, amount and arrangement of the
reinforcement, and material strengths. Bresler suggeststaking
1
=
2
= . Calculated valuesof
vary from 1.15 to 1.55. For practical purposes, can betaken as1.5 for rectangular sectionsand
between 1.5and 2.0for squaresections.
PCA (Parme-Gowens)LoadContour Method
Thismethodhasbeen developedasan extension of theBresler loadcontour methodin which the
Bresler interaction Equation 4.58 istaken asthebasic strength criterion. In thisapproach, apoint
on theload contour isdened in such away that thebiaxial moment strengthsM
nx
and M
ny
arein
thesameratio astheuniaxial moment strengthsM
ox
and M
oy
,
M
ny
M
nx
=
M
oy
M
ox
= (4.59)
Theactual valueof depends on theratio of P
n
to P
0
aswell asthematerial and cross-sectional
properties, with theusual rangeof valuesbetween 0.55 and 0.70. Chartsfor determining can be
found in ACI Publication SP-17A(85), ADesignHandbookfor Columns[ 2] .
SubstitutingEquation 4.59into Equation 4.58,
_
M
ox
M
ox
_

+
_
M
oy
M
oy
_

= 1
2

= 1

= 1/2 (4.60)
=
log 0.5
log
thus,
_
M
nx
M
ox
_
log0.5/log
+
_
M
ny
M
oy
_
log0.5/log
= 1 (4.61)
For moreinformation on columnssubjected to biaxial bending, seeReinforcedConcreteDesignby
Chu-KiaWangand CharlesG. Salmon [ 11] .
4.5 Shear andTorsion
4.5.1 ReinforcedConcreteBeamsandOne-WaySlabsStrengthDesign
Thecracksthat formin areinforced concretebeamcan beduetoexureor acombination of exure
and shear. Flexural cracksstart at thebottomof thebeam, wheretheexural stressesarethelargest.
Inclinedcracks, alsocalledshear cracksor diagonal tensioncracks, areduetoacombination of exure
and shear. Inclined cracksmust exist beforeashear failurecan occur.
Inclined cracksform in two different ways. In thin-walled I-beamsin which theshear stressesin
theweb arehigh whiletheexural stressesarelow, aweb-shear crack occurs. Theinclined cracking
shear can becalculated astheshear necessary to causeaprincipal tensilestressequal to thetensile
strength of theconcreteat thecentroid of thebeam.
In most reinforcedconcretebeams, however, exural cracksoccur rst andextendverticallyin the
beam. Thesealter thestateof stressin thebeam and causeastressconcentration near thetip of the
crack. In time, theexural cracksextend to becomeexure-shear cracks. Empirical equationshave
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
been developed to calculatetheexure-shear crackingload, sincethiscrackingcannot bepredicted
by calculatingtheprincipal stresses.
In theACI Code, thebasicdesign equation for theshear capacity of concretebeamsisasfollows:
V
u
V
n
(4.62)
whereV
u
istheshear forcedueto thefactored loads, isthestrength reduction factor equal to 0.85
for shear, and V
n
isthenominal shear resistance, which isgiven by
V
n
= V
c
+V
s
(4.63)
whereV
c
istheshear carried by theconcreteand V
s
istheshear carried by theshear reinforcement.
Thetorsional capacity of abeamasgiven in ACI 11.6.5isasfollows:
T
u
T
n
(4.64)
whereT
u
isthetorsional moment dueto factored loads, isthestrength reduction factor equal to
0.85for torsion, and T
n
isthenominal torsional moment strength given by
T
n
= T
c
+T
c
(4.65)
whereT
c
isthetorsional moment strength provided by theconcreteand T
s
isthetorsional moment
strength provided by thetorsion reinforcement.
Designof BeamsandOne-WaySlabsWithout Shear Reinforcement: for Shear
Thecritical section for shear in reinforced concretebeamsistaken at adistanced from theface
of thesupport. Sectionslocated at adistancelessthan d fromthesupport aredesigned for theshear
computed at d.
Shear Strength Provided by Concrete Beams without web reinforcement will fail when
inclinedcrackingoccursor shortlyafterwards. For thisreason theshear capacityistaken equal tothe
inclinedcrackingshear. ACI givesthefollowingequationsfor calculatingtheshear strengthprovided
by theconcretefor beamswithout web reinforcement subject to shear and exure:
V
c
= 2
_
f

c
b
w
d (4.66)
or, with amoredetailed equation:
V
c
=
_
1.9
_
f

c
+2500
w
V
u
d
M
u
_
b
w
d 3.5
_
f

c
b
w
d (4.67)
Thequantity V
u
d/M
u
isnot to betaken greater than 1.0in computingV
c
whereM
u
isthefactored
moment occurringsimultaneously with V
u
at thesection considered.
Combined Shear, Moment, and Axial Load For members that are also subject to axial
compression, ACI modiesEquation 4.66asfollows(ACI 11.3.1.2):
V
c
= 2
_
1 +
N
u
2000A
k
_
_
f

c
b
w
d (4.68)
whereN
u
ispositivein compression. ACI 11.3.2.2containsamoredetailed calculation for theshear
strength of memberssubject to axial compression.
For memberssubject toaxial tension, ACI 11.3.1.3statesthat shear reinforcement shall bedesigned
to carry total shear. As an alternative, ACI 11.3.2.3 gives the following for the shear strength of
memberssubject to axial tension:
V
c
= 2
_
1 +
N
u
500A
g
_
_
f

c
b
w
d (4.69)
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
whereN
u
isnegativein tension. In Equation 4.68and 4.69theterms
_
f

c
, N
u
/A
g
, 2000, and 500all
haveunitsof psi.
CombinedShear, Moment, andTorsion For memberssubject totorsion, ACI 11.3.1.4gives
theequation for theshear strength of theconcreteasthefollowing:
V
c
=
2
_
f

c
b
w
d
_
1 +(2.5C
t
T
u
/V
u
)
2
(4.70)
where
T
u

_
0.5
_
f

x
2
y
_
Designof BeamsandOne-WaySlabsWithout Shear Reinforcements: for Torsion
ACI 11.6.1requiresthat torsional momentsbeconsidered in design if
T
u

_
0.5
_
f

x
2
y
_
(4.71)
Otherwise, torsion effectsmay beneglected.
Thecritical sectionfor torsionistakenat adistanced fromthefaceof support, andsectionslocated
at adistancelessthan d aredesigned for thetorsion at d. If aconcentrated torqueoccurswithin this
distance, thecritical section istaken at thefaceof thesupport.
Torsional StrengthProvidedbyConcrete Torsionseldomoccursbyitself; bendingmoments
andshearingforcesaretypicallypresent also. Inanuncrackedmember, shear forcesaswell astorques
produceshear stresses. Flexural shear forcesand torquesinteract in away that reducesthestrength
of themember comparedwithwhat it wouldbeif shear or torsion wereactingalone. Theinteraction
between shear and torsion istaken into account by theuseof a circular interaction equation. For
moreinformation, refer to ReinforcedConcreteMechanicsandDesignby JamesG. MacGregor [ 8] .
Thetorsional moment strength provided by theconcreteisgiven in ACI 11.6.6.1as
T
c
=
0.8
_
f

c
x
2
y
_
1 +(0.4V
u
/C
t
T
u
)
2
(4.72)
CombinedTorsionandAxial Load For memberssubject to signicant axial tension, ACI
11.6.6.2statesthat thetorsion reinforcement must bedesigned to carry thetotal torsional moment,
or asan alternativemodify T
c
asfollows:
T
c
=
0.8
_
f

c
x
2
y
_
1 +(0.4V
u
/C
t
T
u
)
2
_
1 +
N
u
500A
g
_
(4.73)
whereN
u
isnegativefor tension.
Designof BeamsandOne-WaySlabswithout Shear Reinforcement:
MinimumReinforcement ACI 11.5.5.1requiresaminimumamount of webreinforcement
tobeprovided for shear and torsion if thefactored shear forceV
u
exceedsonehalf theshear strength
provided by theconcrete(V
u
0.5V
c
) except in thefollowing:
(a) Slabsand footings
(b) Concretejoist construction
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
(c) Beamswith total depth not greater than 10inches, 21/2 timesthethicknessof theange, or 1/2
thewidth of theweb, whichever isgreatest
Theminimumareaof shear reinforcement shall beat least
A
v(min)
=
50b
w
s
f
y
for T
u
<
_
0.5
_
f

x
2
y
_
(4.74)
When torsion istobeconsidered in design, thesumof theclosed stirrupsfor shear and torsion must
satisfy thefollowing:
A
v
+2A
t

50b
w
s
f
y
(4.75)
whereA
v
istheareaof twolegsof aclosedstirrupandA
t
istheareaof onlyonelegof aclosedstirrup.
Designof StirrupReinforcement for Shear andTorsion
Shear Reinforcement Shear reinforcement isto beprovided when V
u
V
c
, such that
V
s

V
u

V
c
(4.76)
Thedesign yield strength of theshear reinforcement isnot to exceed 60,000psi.
When theshear reinforcement isperpendicular totheaxisof themember, theshear resistedbythe
stirrupsis
V
s
=
A
v
f
y
d
s
(4.77)
If theshear reinforcement isinclined at an angle, theshear resisted by thestirrupsis
V
s
=
A
v
f
y
(sin +cos ) d
s
(4.78)
Themaximumshear strength of theshear reinforcement isnot to exceed 8
_
f

c
b
w
d asstated in ACI
11.5.6.8.
SpacingLimitationsfor Shear Reinforcement ACI 11.5.4.1 sets the maximum spacing of
vertical stirrupsasthesmaller of d/2or 24inches. Themaximumspacingof inclined stirrupsissuch
that a45

lineextendingfrom midheight of themember to thetension reinforcement will intercept


at least onestirrup.
If V
s
exceeds4
_
f

c
b
w
d, themaximum allowablespacingsarereduced to onehalf of thosejust
described.
TorsionReinforcement Torsion reinforcement istobeprovided when T
u
T
c
, such that
T
s

T
u

T
c
(4.79)
Thedesign yield strength of thetorsional reinforcement isnot to exceed 60,000psi.
Thetorsional moment strength of thereinforcement iscomputed by
T
s
=
A
t

t
x
1
y
1
f
y
s
(4.80)
where

t
= [0.66 +0.33 (y
t
/x
t
)] 1.50 (4.81)
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
whereA
t
istheareaof onelegof aclosed stirrup resistingtorsion within adistances. Thetorsional
moment strength isnot to exceed 4T
c
asgiven in ACI 11.6.9.4.
Longitudinal reinforcement is to be provided to resist axial tension that develops as a result of
thetorsional moment (ACI 11.6.9.3). Therequired areaof longitudinal barsdistributed around the
perimeter of theclosed stirrupsthat areprovided astorsion reinforcement isto be
A
l
2A
t
(x
1
+y
1
)
s
A
l

_
400xs
f
y
_
T
u
T
u
+
V
u
3C
t
_
= 2A
t
_
_
x
1
+y
1
s
_
(4.82)
SpacingLimitationsfor Torsion Reinforcement ACI 11.6.8.1 givesthemaximum spacing
of closed stirrupsasthesmaller of (x
1
+y
1
)/4or 12inches.
Thelongitudinal barsareto spaced around thecircumferenceof theclosed stirrupsat not more
than 12inchesapart. At least onelongitudinal bar istobeplacedin eachcorner of theclosedstirrups
(ACI 11.6.8.2).
Designof DeepBeams
ACI 11.8 coverstheshear design of deep beams. Thissection appliesto memberswith l
n
/d <5
that areloadedononefaceandsupportedontheoppositefacesothat compressionstrutscandevelop
between theloadsand thesupports. For moreinformation on deep beams, seeReinforcedConcrete
MechanicsandDesign, 2nd ed. by JamesG. MacGregor [ 8] .
Thebasicdesign equation for simplespansdeep beamsis
V
u
(V
c
+V
s
) (4.83)
whereV
c
istheshear carriedbytheconcreteandV
s
istheshear carriedbythevertical andhorizontal
web reinforcement.
Theshear strength of deep beamsshall not betaken greater than
V
n
= 8
_
f

c
b
w
d for l
n
/d < 2
V
n
=
2
3
_
10 +
l
n
d
_
_
f

c
b
w
d for 2 l
n
/d 5 (4.84)
Design for shear isdoneat acritical section locatedat 0.15l
n
fromthefaceof support in uniformly
loadedbeams, andat themiddleof theshear spanfor beamswithconcentratedloads. For bothcases,
thecritical section shall not befarther than d fromthefaceof thesupport. Theshear reinforcement
required at thiscritical section isto beused throughout thespan.
Theshear carried by theconcreteisgiven by
V
c
= 2
_
f

c
b
w
d (4.85)
or, with amoredetailed calculation,
V
c
=
_
3.5 2.5
M
u
V
u
d
__
1.9
_
f

c
+2500
w
V
u
d
M
u
_
b
w
d 6
_
f

c
b
w
d (4.86)
where
_
3.5 2.5
M
u
V
u
d
_
2.5 (4.87)
In Equations4.86and 4.87M
u
and V
u
arethefactored moment and shear at thecritical section.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
Shear reinforcement isto beprovided when V
u
V
c
such that
V
s
=
V
u

V
c
(4.88)
where
V
s
=
_
A
v
s
_
1 +l
n
/d
12
_
+
A
vh
s
2
_
11 l
n
/d
12
__
f
y
d (4.89)
whereA
v
and s aretheareaand spacingof thevertical shear reinforcement and A
vh
and s
2
refer to
thehorizontal shear reinforcement.
ACI 11.8.9and11.8.10requireminimumreinforcement inboththevertical andhorizontal sections
asfollows:
(a) vertical direction
A
v
0.0015b
w
s (4.90)
where
s
_
d/5
18 in.
_
(4.91)
(b) horizontal direction
A
vh
0.0025b
w
s
2
(4.92)
where
s
2

_
d/3
18 in.
_
(4.93)
4.5.2 PrestressedConcreteBeamsandOne-WaySlabsStrengthDesign
At loads near failure, a prestressed beam is usually heavily cracked and behaves similarly to an
ordinary reinforced concretebeam. Many of theequationsdeveloped previously for design of web
reinforcement for nonprestressed beamscan also beapplied to prestressed beams.
Shear design isbased on thesamebasicequation asbefore,
V
u
(V
c
+V
s
)
where =0.85.
Thecritical sectionfor shear istakenat adistanceh/2fromthefaceof thesupport. Sectionslocated
at adistancelessthan h/2aredesigned for theshear computed at h/2.
Shear StrengthProvidedbytheConcrete
Theshear forceresisted by theconcreteafter crackinghasoccurred istaken asequal to theshear
that caused the rst diagonal crack. Two types of diagonal cracks have been observed in tests of
prestressed concrete.
1. Flexure-shear cracks, occurringat nominal shear V
ci
, start asnearly vertical exural cracksat
thetension faceof thebeam, then spread diagonally upward toward thecompression face.
2. Webshear cracks, occurringat nominal shear V
cw
, start inthewebduetohighdiagonal tension,
then spread diagonally both upward and downward.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
The shear strength provided by the concrete for members with effective prestress force not less
than 40%of thetensilestrength of theexural reinforcement is
V
c
=
_
0.6
_
f

c
+700
V
u
d
M
u
_
b
w
d 2
_
f

c
b
w
d (4.94)
V
c
may also becomputed asthelesser of V
ci
and V
cw
, where
V
ci
= 0.6
_
f

c
b
w
d +V
d
+
V
i
M
cr
M
max
1.7
_
f

c
b
w
d (4.95)
M
cr
=
_
I
y
t
_
_
6
_
f

c
+f
pc
f
d
_
(4.96)
V
cw
=
_
3.5
_
f

c
+0.3f
pc
_
b
w
d +V
p
(4.97)
In Equations4.95 and 4.97 d isthedistancefrom theextremecompression ber to thecentroid of
theprestressingsteel or 0.8h, whichever isgreater.
Shear StrengthProvidedbytheShear Reinforcement
Shear reinforcement for prestressed concrete is designed in a similar manner as for reinforced
concrete, with thefollowingmodicationsfor minimumamount and spacing.
MinimumReinforcement Theminimumareaof shear reinforcement shall beat least
A
v(min)
=
50b
w
s
f
y
for T
u
<
_
0.5
_
f

x
2
y
_
(4.98)
or
A
v(min)
=
A
ps
f
pu
s
80f
y
d
_
d
b
w
(4.99)
SpacingLimitationsfor Shear Reinforcement ACI 11.5.4.1 sets the maximum spacing of
vertical stirrupsasthesmaller of (3/4)h or 24in. Themaximumspacingof inclined stirrupsissuch
that a45

lineextendingfrom midheight of themember to thetension reinforcement will intercept


at least onestirrup.
If V
s
exceeds 4
_
f

c
b
w
d, themaximum allowablespacings arereduced to one-half of thosejust
described.
4.6 Development of Reinforcement
Thedevelopment length, l
d
, istheshortest length of bar in which thebar stresscan increasefrom
zero to theyield strength, f
y
. If thedistancefrom apoint wherethebar stressequalsf
y
to theend
of thebar islessthan thedevelopment length, thebar will pull out of theconcrete. Development
lengthsaredifferent for tension and compression.
4.6.1 Development of BarsinTension
ACI Fig. R12.2givesaowchart for determiningdevelopment length. Thestepsareoutlined below.
Thebasictension development lengthshavebeen foundtobe(ACI 12.2.2). For no. 11andsmaller
barsand deformed wire:
l
db
=
0.04A
b
f
y
_
f

c
(4.100)
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
For no. 14bars:
l
db
=
0.085f
y
_
f

c
(4.101)
For no. 18bars:
l
db
=
0.125f
y
_
f

c
(4.102)
where
_
f

c
isnot to betaken greater than 100psi.
The development length, l
d
, is computed as the product of the basic development length and
modication factorsgiven in ACI 12.2.3, 12.2.4, and 12.2.5. Thedevelopment length obtained from
ACI 12.2.2and 12.2.3.1through 12.2.3.5shall not belessthan
0.03d
b
f
y
_
f

c
(4.103)
asgiven ACI 12.2.3.6.
Thelength computed fromACI 12.2.2and 12.2.3isthen multiplied by factorsgiven in ACI 12.2.4
and12.2.5. Thefactorsgiven in ACI 12.2.3.1through12.2.3.3and12.2.4arerequired, but thefactors
in ACI 12.2.3.4, 12.2.3.5, and 12.2.5areoptional.
Thedevelopment length isnot to belessthan 12inches(ACI 12.2.1).
4.6.2 Development of BarsinCompression
Thebasiccompression development length is(ACI 12.3.2)
l
db
=
0.02d
b
f
y
_
f

c
0.003d
b
f
y
(4.104)
Thedevelopment length, l
d
, isfoundastheproduct of thebasicdevelopment lengthandapplicable
modication factorsgiven in ACI 12.3.3.
Thedevelopment length isnot to belessthan 8inches(ACI 12.3.1).
4.6.3 Development of HooksinTension
Thebasicdevelopment length for ahooked bar with f
y
=60,000psi is(ACI 12.5.2)
l
db
=
1200d
b
_
f

c
(4.105)
Thedevelopment length, l
dh
, isfoundastheproduct of thebasicdevelopment lengthandapplicable
modication factorsgiven in ACI 12.5.3.
Thedevelopment length of thehook isnot tobelessthan 8bar diametersor 6inches(ACI 12.5.1).
Hooksarenot to beused to develop barsin compression.
4.6.4 Splices, BundledBars, andWebReinforcement
Splices
TensionLapSplices ACI 12.15 distinguishesbetween two typesof tension lap splicesde-
pending on the amount of reinforcement provided and the fraction of the bars spliced in a given
lengthseeACI TableR12.15.2. Thesplicelengthsfor each spliceclassareasfollows:
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
ClassA splice: 1.0l
d
ClassBsplice: 1.3l
d
wherel
d
isthetensiledevelopment length ascomputed in ACI 12.2without themodication factor
for excessreinforcement given in ACI 12.2.5. Theminimumsplicelength is12inches.
Lap splicesarenot to beused for barslarger than no. 11 except at footing to column jointsand
for compression lap splicesof no. 14and no. 18barswith smaller bars(ACI 12.14.2.1). Thecenter-
to-center distancebetween two barsin alap splicecannot begreater than one-fth therequired lap
splicelength with a maximum of 6 inches (ACI 12.14.2.3). ACI 21.3.2.3 requires that tension lap
splicesof exural reinforcement in beamsresistingseismicloadsbeenclosed by hoopsor spirals.
Compression Lap Splices The splice length for a compression lap splice is given in ACI
12.16.1as
l
s
= 0.0005f
y
d
b
for f
y
60,000 psi (4.106)
l
s
=
_
0.0009f
y
24
_
d
b
for f
y
> 60,000 psi (4.107)
but not lessthan 12inches. For f

c
lessthan 3000psi, thelap length must beincreased by one-third.
When different sizebarsarelap spliced in compression, thesplicelength isto bethelarger of:
1. Compression splicelength of thesmaller bar, or
2. Compression development length of larger bar.
Compression lap splices are allowed for no. 14 and no. 18 bars to no. 11 or smaller bars (ACI
12.16.2).
End-BearingSplices End-bearingsplicesareallowedfor compression onlywherethecom-
pressivestressistransmitted by bearing of squarecut endsheld in concentric contact by asuitable
device. According to ACI 12.16.4.2 bar endsmust terminatein at surfaceswithin 1 1/2

of right
anglestotheaxisof thebarsandbettedwithin 3

of full bearingafter assembly. End-bearingsplices


areonly allowed in memberscontainingclosed ties, closed stirrups, or spirals.
WeldedSplicesor Mechanical Connections Barsstressed in tension or compression may be
spliced by weldingor by variousmechanical connections. ACI 12.14.3, 12.15.3, 12.15.4, and 12.16.3
govern theuseof such splices. For further information seeReinforcedConcreteDesign, by Chu-Kia
Wangand CharlesG. Salmon [ 11] .
BundledBars
Therequirementsof ACI 12.4.1 specify that thedevelopment length for bundled barsbebased
on that for theindividual bar in thebundle, increased by 20% for athree-bar bundleand 33% for
afour-bar bundle. ACI 12.4.2 statesthat aunit of bundled barsshall betreated asasinglebar of
adiameter derived from theequivalent total area when determiningtheappropriatemodication
factorsin ACI 12.2.3and 12.2.4.3.
WebReinforcement
ACI 12.13.1requiresthat theweb reinforcement beascloseto thecompression and tension faces
ascover and bar-spacing requirementspermit. TheACI Coderequirementsfor stirrup anchorage
areillustrated in Figure4.4.
(a) ACI 12.13.3requiresthat each bend awayfromtheendsof astirrup enclosealongitudinal bar,
asseen in Figure4.4(a).
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
FIGURE4.4: Stirrup detailingrequirements.
(b) For no. 5 or D31 wire stirrups and smaller with any yield strength and for no. 6, 7, and 8
barswith ayield strength of 40,000psi or less, ACI 12.13.2.1allowstheuseof astandard hook
around longitudinal reinforcement, asshown in Figure4.4(b).
(c) For no. 6, 7, and 8stirrupswith f
y
greater than 40,000psi, ACI 12.13.2.2requiresastandard
hook around alongitudinal bar plusan embedment between midheight of themember and
theoutsideend of thehook of at least 0.014d
b
f
y
/
_
f

c
.
(d) Requirementsfor welded wirefabricformingU stirrupsaregiven in ACI 12.13.2.3.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
(e) Pairs of U stirrups that form a closed unit shall have a lap length of 1.3l
d
as shown in Fig-
ure4.4(c). Thistypeof stirrup hasproven unsuitablein seismicareas.
(f ) Requirementsfor longitudinal barsbent toact asshear reinforcement aregiven in ACI 12.13.4.
4.7 Two-WaySystems
4.7.1 Denition
When theratio of thelonger to theshorter spansof aoor panel dropsbelow2, thecontribution of
thelonger span in carryingtheoor load becomessubstantial. Sincetheoor transmitsloadsin two
directions, it isdenedasatwo-waysystem, andexural reinforcement isdesignedfor bothdirections.
Two-way systemsincludeat plates, at slabs, two-wayslabs, and wafeslabs(seeFigure4.5). The
choicebetween thesedifferent typesof two-waysystemsislargelyamatter of thearchitectural layout,
magnitudeof thedesign loads, and span lengths. A at plateissimply aslab of uniform thickness
supporteddirectlyoncolumns, generallysuitablefor relativelylight loads. For larger loadsandspans,
aat slab becomesmoresuitablewith thecolumn capitalsand drop panelsprovidinghigher shear
and exural strength. Aslabsupported on beamson all sidesof each oor panel isgenerallyreferred
to asatwo-way slab. A wafeslab isequivalent to atwo-way joist system or may bevisualized asa
solid slab with recessesin order to decreasetheweight of theslab.
FIGURE4.5: Two-way systems.
4.7.2 DesignProcedures
TheACI code[ 1] states that a two-way slab system may bedesigned by any proceduresatisfying
conditions of equilibrium and geometric compatibility if shown that the design strength at every
section isat least equal to therequired strength . . . and that all serviceability conditions, including
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
specied limitson deections, aremet (p.204). Thereareanumber of possibleapproachesto the
analysisanddesign of two-waysystemsbasedon elastictheory, limit analysis, niteelement analysis,
or combination of elastic theory and limit analysis. The designer is permitted by the ACI Code
to adopt any of theseapproachesprovided that all safety and serviceability criteriaaresatised. In
general, onlyfor casesof acomplextwo-waysystemor unusual loadingwouldaniteelement analysis
bechosen asthedesign approach. Otherwise, morepractical design approachesarepreferred. The
ACI Codedetailstwoproceduresthedirectdesignmethodandtheequivalentframemethodfor the
designof oor systemswithor without beams. Theseprocedureswerederivedfromanalytical studies
based on elastictheoryin conjunction with aspectsof limit analysisand resultsof experimental tests.
Theprimarydifferencebetween thedirect design methodandequivalent framemethodisin theway
momentsarecomputed for two-way systems.
Theyield-linetheoryisalimit analysismethoddevisedfor slabdesign. Comparedtoelastictheory,
the yield-line theory gives a more realistic representation of the behavior of slabs at the ultimate
limit state, and itsapplication isparticularly advantageousfor irregular column spacing. Whilethe
yield-line method is an upper-bound limit design procedure, stripmethodis considered to give a
lower-bound design solution. Thestrip method offersawidelatitudeof design choicesand it iseasy
to use; theseareoften cited astheappealingfeaturesof themethod.
Some of the earlier design methods based on moment coefcients from elastic analysis are still
favored by many designers. These methods are easy to apply and give valuable insight into slab
behavior; their useisespecially justied for many irregular slab caseswherethepreconditionsof the
direct design method arenot met or when column interaction isnot signicant. Table4.7 liststhe
moment coefcientstaken frommethod 2of the1963ACI Code.
TABLE4.7 ElasticMoment Coefcientsfor Two-Way Slabs
Short span Long
span,
Span ratio, short/long all
0.5 span
Moments 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 and less ratios
Case1Interior panels
Negativemoment at:
Continuousedge 0.033 0.040 0.048 0.055 0.063 0.083 0.033
Discontinuousedge
Positivemoment at midspan 0.025 0.030 0.036 0.041 0.047 0.062 0.025
Case2Oneedgediscontinuous
Negativemoment at:
Continuousedge 0.041 0.048 0.055 0.062 0.069 0.085 0.041
Discontinuousedge 0.021 0.024 0.027 0.031 0.035 0.042 0.021
Positivemoment at midspan 0.031 0.036 0.041 0.047 0.052 0.064 0.031
Case3Two edgesdiscontinuous
Negativemoment at:
Continuousedge 0.049 0.057 0.064 0.071 0.078 0.090 0.049
Discontinuousedge 0.025 0.028 0.032 0.036 0.039 0.045 0.025
Positivemoment at midspan: 0.037 0.043 0.048 0.054 0.059 0.068 0.037
Case4Threeedgesdiscontinuous
Negativemoment at:
Continuousedge 0.058 0.066 0.074 0.082 0.090 0.098 0.058
Discontinuousedge 0.029 0.033 0.037 0.041 0.045 0.049 0.029
Positivemoment at midspan: 0.044 0.050 0.056 0.062 0.068 0.074 0.044
Case5Four edgesdiscontinuous
Negativemoment at:
Continuousedge
Discontinuousedge 0.033 0.038 0.043 0.047 0.053 0.055 0.033
Positivemoment at midspan 0.050 0.057 0.064 0.072 0.080 0.083 0.050
Asin the1989code, two-wayslabsaredividedintocolumn stripsandmiddlestripsasindicatedby
Figure4.6, wherel
1
and l
2
arethecenter-to-center span lengthsof theoor panel. Acolumn strip is
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
FIGURE4.6: Denitionsof equivalent frame, columnstrip, andmiddlestrip. (FromACI Committee
318. 1992. BuildingCodeRequirementsforReinforcedConcreteandCommentary, ACI 318-89(Revised
92) andACI 318R-89(Revised92), Detroit, MI. With permission.)
adesign strip with awidth on each sideof acolumn centerlineequal to 0.25l
2
or 0.25l
1
, whichever is
less. Amiddlestrip isadesign strip bounded by two column strips. Takingthemoment coefcients
from Table4.7, bending momentsper unit width M for themiddlestripsarecomputed from the
formula
M = (Coef.)wl
2
s
(4.108)
wherew isthetotal uniform load per unit areaand l
s
istheshorter span length of l
1
and l
2
. The
average moments per unit width in the column strip is taken as two-thirds of the corresponding
momentsin themiddlestrip.
4.7.3 MinimumSlabThicknessandReinforcement
ACI CodeSection 9.5.3 containsrequirementsto determineminimum slab thicknessof atwo-way
system for deection control. For slabs without beams, the thickness limits are summarized by
Table4.8, but thicknessmust not belessthan 5 in. for slabswithout drop panelsor 4 in. for slabs
with drop panels. In Table4.8l
n
isthelength of clear span in thelongdirection and istheratio of
exural stiffnessof beamsection toexural stiffnessof awidthof slabboundedlaterallybycenterline
of adjacent panel on each sideof beam.
For slabswith beams, it isnecessary to computetheminimumthicknessh from
h =
l
n
_
0.8 +
f
y
200, 000
_
36 +5
_

m
0.12
_
1 +
1

__ (4.109)
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
but not lessthan
h =
l
n
_
0.8 +
f
y
200, 000
_
36 +9
(4.110)
and need not bemorethan
h =
l
n
_
0.8 +
f
y
200, 000
_
36
(4.111)
where istheratio of clear spansin long-to-short direction and
m
istheaveragevalueof for all
beamson edgesof apanel. In nocaseshould theslabthicknessbelessthan 5in. for
m
<2.0or less
than 31/2in. for
m
2.0.
Minimum reinforcement in two-way slabsisgoverned by shrinkageand temperaturecontrolsto
minimizecracking. Theminimum reinforcement areastipulated by theACI Codeshall not beless
than 0.0018timesthegrossconcreteareawhen grade60steel isused (0.0020when grade40or grade
50 isused). Thespacing of reinforcement in two-way slabsshall exceed neither two timestheslab
thicknessnor 18in.
TABLE4.8 MinimumThicknessof
Two-Way Slabswithout Beams
Yield
stress Exterior panels
f
y
, Without With Interior
psi
a
edgebeams edgebeams
b
panels
Without drop panels
40,000 l
n
/33 l
n
/36 l
n
/36
60,000 l
n
/30 l
n
/33 l
n
/33
With drop panels
40,000 l
n
/36 l
n
/40 l
n
/40
60,000 l
n
/33 l
n
/36 l
n
/36
a
For valuesof reinforcement yieldstressbetween 40,000
and 60,000 psi minimum thickness shall be obtained
by linear interpolation.
b
Slabs with beams between columns along exterior
edges. Thevalueof for theedgebeam shall not be
lessthan 0.8.
FromACI Committee318. 1992. BuildingCodeRequire-
mentsfor ReinforcedConcreteandCommentary, ACI 318-
89(Revised92) andACI 318R-89(Revised92), Detroit,
MI. With permission.
4.7.4 Direct DesignMethod
Thedirect design method consistsof aset of rulesfor thedesign of two-waysslabswith or without
beams. Sincethemethod wasdeveloped assumingsimpledesignsand construction, itsapplication
isrestricted by thecodeto two-way systemswith aminimum of threecontinuousspans, successive
span lengthsthat do not differ by morethan one-third, columnswith offset not morethan 10%of
thespan, and all loadsareduetogravity only and uniformly distributed with liveload not exceeding
threetimesdead load. Thedirect design method involvesthreefundamental steps: (1) determine
thetotal factored static moment; (2) distributethestatic moment to negativeand positivesections;
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
and (3) distributemomentsto column and middlestripsand to beams, if any. Thetotal factored
staticmoment M
o
for aspan bounded laterally by thecenterlinesof adjacent panels(seeFigure4.6)
isgiven by
M
o
=
w
u
l
2
l
2
n
8
(4.112)
In an interior span, 0.65 M
o
isassigned to each negativesection and 0.35 M
o
isassigned to the
positivesection. In an end span, M
o
isdistributed accordingto Table4.9. If theratio of dead load to
liveloadislessthan2, theeffect of patternloadingisaccountedfor byincreasingthepositivemoment
followingprovisionsin ACI Section 13.6.10. Negativeand positivemomentsarethen proportioned
to the column strip following the percentages in Table 4.10, where
t
is the ratio of the torsional
stiffnessof edgebeamsection toexural stiffnessof awidthof slabequal tospan lengthof beam. The
remainingmoment not resistedbythecolumn stripisproportionatelyassignedtothecorresponding
half middlestrip. If beamsarepresent, theyareproportionedtoresist 85%of columnstripmoments.
When(l
2
/l
1
) islessthan1.0, theproportionof columnstripmomentsresistedbybeamsisobtained
by linear interpolation between 85%and zero. Theshear in beamsisdetermined from loadsacting
on tributary areasprojected fromthepanel cornersat 45degrees.
TABLE4.9 Direct Design MethodDistribution of Moment in End Span
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
Slab without
Slab beamsbetween
with interior supports
beams Exterior
Exterior between Without With edge
edge all edge edge fully
unrestrained supports beam beam restrained
Interior negative- 0.75 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.65
factored moment
Positive-factored 0.63 0.57 0.52 0.50 0.35
moment
Exterior negative- 0 0.16 0.26 0.30 0.65
factored moment
From ACI Committee 318. 1992. BuildingCodeRequirementsfor ReinforcedConcreteand
Commentary, ACI 318-89 (Revised 92) and ACI 318R-89 (Revised 92), Detroit, MI. With
permission.
TABLE4.10 Proportion of Moment to
Column Strip in Percent
Interior negative-factored moment

2
/
1
0.5 1.0 2.0
(
1

2
/
1
) = 0 75 75 75
(
1

2
/
1
) 1.0 90 75 45
Positive-factored moment
(
1

2
/
1
) = 0 B
t
= 0 100 100 100
B
t
2.5 75 75 75
(
1

2
/
1
) 1.0 B
t
= 0 100 100 100
B
t
= 2.5 90 75 45
Exterior negative-factored moment
(
1

2
/
1
) = 0 60 60 60
(
1

2
/
1
) 1.0 90 75 45
From ACI Committee318. 1992. BuildingCodeRequire-
mentsforReinforcedConcreteandCommentary, ACI 318-89
(Revised92) andACI 318R-89(Revised92), Detroit, MI.
With permission.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
4.7.5 Equivalent FrameMethod
For two-waysystemsnot meetingthegeometricor loadingpreconditionsof thedirect designmethod,
design momentsmay becomputed by theequivalent framemethod. Thisisamoregeneral method
and involves the representation of the three-dimensional slab system by dividing it into a series
of two-dimensional equivalent frames (Figure 4.6). The complete analysis of a two-way system
consists of analyzing the series of equivalent interior and exterior frames that span longitudinally
and transversely through the system. Each equivalent frame, which is centered on a column line
and bounded by thecenter linesof theadjacent panels, comprisesahorizontal slab-beam strip and
equivalent columnsextendingaboveandbelowtheslabbeam(Figure4.7). Thisstructureisanalyzed
FIGURE4.7: Equivalent column (columnsplustorsional members).
asaframefor loadsactingin theplaneof theframe, and themomentsobtained at critical sections
acrosstheslab-beam strip aredistributed to thecolumn strip, middlestrip, and beam in thesame
manner asthedirect designmethod(seeTable4.10). Initsoriginal development, theequivalent frame
method assumed that analysiswould bedoneby moment distribution. Presently, frameanalysisis
moreeasily accomplished in design practicewith computersusinggeneral purposeprogramsbased
on thedirect stiffnessmethod. Consequently, theequivalent framemethod isnow often used asa
method for modelingatwo-way systemfor computer analysis.
For thedifferent typesof two-way systems, themoment of inertiasfor modeling theslab-beam
element of theequivalent frameareindicated in Figure4.8. Momentsof inertiaof slab beamsare
based on thegrossareaof concrete; thevariation in moment of inertiaalong theaxisistaken into
account, which in practicewould mean that anodewould belocated on thecomputer model where
a change of moment of inertia occurs. To account for the increased stiffness between the center
of the column and the face of column, beam, or capital, the moment of inertia is divided by the
quantity (1 c
2
/l
2
)
2
, where c
2
and l
2
are measured transverse to the direction of the span. For
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
FIGURE4.8: Slab-beam stiffnessby equivalent framemethod. (From ACI Committee318. 1992.
BuildingCodeRequirementsfor ReinforcedConcreteandCommentary, ACI 318-89(Revised92) and
ACI 318R-89(Revised92), Detroit, MI. With permission.)
column modeling, themoment of inertia at any cross-section outsideof jointsor column capitals
may bebased on thegrossareaof concrete, and themoment of inertiafromthetop to bottomof the
slab-beamjoint isassumed innite.
Torsion members(Figure4.7) areelementsin theequivalent framethat providemoment transfer
between thehorizontal slab beamand vertical columns. Thecross-section of torsional membersare
assumedtoconsist of theportionof slabandbeamhavingawidthaccordingtotheconditionsdepicted
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
FIGURE4.9: Torsional members. (From ACI Committee318. 1992. BuildingCodeRequirements
for ReinforcedConcreteandCommentary, ACI 318-89(Revised92) andACI 318R-89(Revised92),
Detroit, MI. With permission.)
in Figure4.9. ThestiffnessK
t
of thetorsional member iscalculated by thefollowingexpression:
K
t
=

9E
cs
C
l
2
_
1
c
2
l
2
_
3
(4.113)
whereE
cs
isthemodulusof elasticityof theslabconcreteandtorsional constant Cmaybeevaluatedby
dividingthecross-section intoseparaterectangular partsandcarryingout thefollowingsummation:
C =

_
1 0.63
x
y
_
x
3
y
3
(4.114)
wherex and y aretheshorter and longer dimension, respectively, of each rectangular part. Where
beamsframeintocolumnsinthedirectionof thespan, theincreasedtorsional stiffnessK
t a
isobtained
by multiplyingthevalueK
t
obtained fromEquation 4.113by theratio of (a) moment inertiaof slab
with such beam, to (b) moment of inertia of slab without such beam. Various ways have been
suggested for incorporatingtorsional membersinto acomputer model of an equivalent frame. The
model implied by theACI Codeisonethat hastheslab beam connected to thetorsional members,
which are projected out of the plane of the columns. Others have suggested that the torsional
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
membersbereplaced by rotational springsat column endsor, alternatively, at theslab-beam ends.
Or, insteadof rotational springs, columnsmaybemodeledwithanequivalent valueof themoment of
inertiamodied by theequivalent column stiffnessK
ec
given in thecommentary of thecode. Using
Figure4.7, K
ec
iscomputed as
K
ec
=
K
ct
+K
cb
1 +
K
ct
+K
cb
K
t a
+K
t a
(4.115)
whereK
ct
and K
cb
arethetop and bottomexural stiffnessesof thecolumn.
4.7.6 Detailing
TheACI Codespeciesthat reinforcement intwo-wayslabswithout beamshaveminimumextensions
as prescribed in Figure 4.10. Where adjacent spans are unequal, extensions of negative moment
FIGURE4.10: Minimumextensionsfor reinforcement in two-way slabswithout beams. (FromACI
Committee318. 1992. BuildingCodeRequirementsfor ReinforcedConcreteandCommentary, ACI
318-89(Revised92) andACI 318R-89(Revised92), Detroit, MI. With permission.)
reinforcement shall bebased on thelonger span. Bent barsmay beused only when thedepth-span
ratio permitsuseof bends45 degreesor less. And at least two of thecolumn strip bottom barsin
each direction shall becontinuousor spliced at thesupport with ClassA splicesor anchored within
support. These bars must pass through the column and be placed within the column core. The
purposeof this integrity steel isto givetheslabsomeresidual capacity followingasinglepunching
shear failure.
The ACI Code requires drop panels to extend in each direction from centerline of support a
distancenot lessthan one-sixth thespan length, and thedrop panel must project below theslab at
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
least one-quarter of theslab thickness. Theeffectivesupport areaof acolumn capital isdened by
theintersection of thebottom surfaceof theslab with thelargest right circular conewhosesurfaces
arelocated within thecolumn and capital and areoriented no greater than 45degreesto theaxisof
thecolumn.
4.8 Frames
A structural frameisathree-dimensional structural system consistingof straight membersthat are
built monolithically and haverigid joints. Theframemay beonebay longand onestory highsuch
asportal framesand gableframesor it may consist of multiplebaysand stories. All membersof
frameareconsideredcontinuousin thethreedirections, andthecolumnsparticipatewith thebeams
in resistingexternal loads.
Consideration of the behavior of reinforced concrete frames at and near the ultimate load is
necessary to determinethepossibledistributionsof bending moment, shear force, and axial force
that could be used in design. It is possible to use a distribution of moments and forces different
from that given by linear elastic structural analysisif thecritical sectionshavesufcient ductility to
allow redistribution of actionsto occur astheultimateload isapproached. Also, in countriesthat
experienceearthquakes, afurther important design istheductilityof thestructurewhen subjectedto
seismic-typeloading, sincepresent seismicdesignphilosophyreliesonenergydissipationbyinelastic
deformationsin theevent of major earthquakes.
4.8.1 Analysisof Frames
A number of methodshavebeen developed over theyearsfor theanalysisof continuousbeamsand
frames. Theso-called classical methodssuch asapplication of thetheorem of threemoments, the
methodof least work, andthegeneral methodof consistent deformationhaveproveduseful mainly
in theanalysisof continuousbeamshavingfewspansor of very simpleframes. For themorecom-
plicated casesusually met in practice, such methodsproveto beexceedingly tedious, and alternative
approachesarepreferred. For manyyearsthecloselyrelatedmethodsof slopedeectionandmoment
distribution provided thebasicanalytical toolsfor theanalysisof indeterminateconcretebeamsand
frames. In ofceswith accessto high-speed digital computers, thesehavebeen supplanted largely by
matrix methodsof analysis. Wherecomputer facilitiesarenot available, moment distribution isstill
themost common method. Approximatemethodsof analysis, based either on an assumed shapeof
thedeformed structureor on moment coefcients, provideameansfor rapid estimation of internal
forcesand moments. Such estimatesareuseful in preliminary design and in checking moreexact
solutions, and in structuresof minor importancemay serveasthebasisfor nal design.
SlopeDeection
Themethod of slopedeection entailswritingtwo equationsfor each member of acontinuous
frame, one at each end, expressing the end moment as the sum of four contributions: (1) the
restraining moment associated with an assumed xed-end condition for the loaded span, (2) the
moment associated with rotation of thetangent to theelastic curveat thenear end of themember,
(3) themoment associated with rotation of thetangent at thefar end of themember, and (4) the
moment associated with translation of one end of the member with respect to the other. These
equationsarerelated through application of requirementsof equilibrium and compatibility at the
joints. A set of simultaneous, linear algebraicequationsresultsfor theentirestructure, in which the
structural displacementsareunknowns. Solution for thesedisplacementspermitsthecalculation of
all internal forcesand moments.
Thismethod iswell suited to solvingcontinuousbeams, provided therearenot very many spans.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
Itsusefulnessisextendedthroughmodicationsthat takeadvantageof symmetryandantisymmetry,
and of hinge-end support conditionswheretheyexist. However, for multistoryand multibayframes
inwhichtherearealargenumber of membersandjoints, andwhichwill, ingeneral, involvetranslation
aswell asrotation of thesejoints, theeffort required to solvethecorrespondingly largenumber of
simultaneousequationsisprohibitive. Other methodsof analysisaremoreattractive.
Moment Distribution
The method of moment distribution was developed to solve problems in frame analysis that
involvemany unknown joint displacements. Thismethod can beregarded asan iterativesolution
of the slope-deection equations. Starting with xed-end moments for each member, these are
modied in aseriesof cycles, each convergingon theprecisenal result, to account for rotation and
translation of the joints. The resulting series can be terminated whenever one reaches the degree
of accuracy required. After obtaining member-end moments, all member stress resultants can be
obtained by useof thelawsof statics.
MatrixAnalysis
Useof matrix theory makesit possibleto reducethedetailed numerical operationsrequired in
the analysis of an indeterminate structure to systematic processes of matrix manipulation which
can beperformed automatically and rapidly by computer. Such methodspermit therapid solution
of problems involving large numbers of unknowns. As a consequence, less reliance is placed on
special techniques limited to certain typesof problems; powerful methodsof general applicability
have emerged, such as the matrix displacement method. Account can be taken of such factors as
rotational restraint provided by membersperpendicular to theplaneof aframe. A largenumber of
alternativeloadingsmaybeconsidered. Providedthat computer facilitiesareavailable, highlyprecise
analysesarepossibleat lower cost than for approximateanalysespreviously employed.
ApproximateAnalysis
In spiteof thedevelopment of rened methodsfor theanalysisof beamsand frames, increasing
attention isbeingpaidtovariousapproximatemethodsof analysis. Thereareseveral reasonsfor this.
Prior to performingacompleteanalysisof an indeterminatestructure, it isnecessary to estimatethe
proportionsof itsmembersin order toknowtheir relativestiffnessupon which theanalysisdepends.
These dimensions can be obtained using approximate analysis. Also, even with the availability of
computers, most engineers nd it desirableto makea rough check of resultsusing approximate
meanstodetect grosserrors. Further, for structuresof minor importance, it isoften satisfactoryto
design on thebasisof resultsobtained by rough calculation.
Providedthat pointsof inection (locationsin membersat whichthebendingmoment iszeroand
thereisareversal of curvatureof theelasticcurve) can belocated accurately, thestressresultantsfor
aframed structurecan usually befound on thebasisof staticequilibriumalone. Each portion of the
structuremust bein equilibrium under theapplication of itsexternal loadsand theinternal stress
resultants. Theuseof approximateanalysisin determining stressresultantsin framesisillustrated
usingasimplerigid framein Figure4.11.
ACI Moment Coefcients
TheACI Code[ 1] includes moment and shear coefcients that can beused for theanalysis of
buildingsof usual typesof construction, span, and story heights. They aregiven in ACI CodeSec.
8.3.3. The ACI coefcients were derived with due consideration of several factors: a maximum
allowableratio of liveto dead load (3:1); a maximum allowablespan difference(thelarger of two
adjacent spansnot exceed theshorter by morethan 20%); thefact that reinforced concretebeams
arenever simply supported but either rest on supportsof considerablewidth, such aswalls, or are
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
FIGURE4.11: Approximateanalysisof rigid frame.
built monolithically likecolumns; and other factors. Sinceall theseinuencesareconsidered, the
ACI coefcientsarenecessarily quiteconservative, so that actual momentsin any particular design
are likely to be considerably smaller than indicated. Consequently, in many reinforced concrete
structures, signicant economy can beeffected by makingamorepreciseanalysis.
Limit Analysis
Limit analysisin reinforcedconcretereferstotheredistribution of momentsthat occursthrough-
out astructureasthesteel reinforcement at acritical sectionreachesitsyieldstrength. Under working
loads, thedistribution of momentsin astatically indeterminatestructureisbased on elastic theory,
and thewholestructureremainsin theelastic range. In limit design, wherefactored loadsareused,
thedistribution of momentsat failurewhen amechanism isreached isdifferent from that distribu-
tion based on elastictheory. Theultimatestrength of thestructurecan beincreased asmoresections
reach their ultimate capacity. Although the yielding of the reinforcement introduces large deec-
tions, which should beavoided under service, astatically indeterminatestructuredoesnot collapse
when thereinforcement of therst section yields. Furthermore, alargereserveof strength ispresent
between theinitial yieldingand thecollapseof thestructure.
In steel design thetermplasticdesignisused toindicatethechangein thedistribution of moments
in the structure as the steel bers, at a critical section, are stressed to their yield strength. Limit
analysisof reinforced concretedeveloped asaresult of earlier research on steel structures. Several
studieshad been performed on theprinciplesof limit design and therotation capacity of reinforced
concreteplastichinges.
Full utilizationof theplasticcapacityof reinforcedconcretebeamsandframesrequiresanextensive
analysisof all possiblemechanismsand an investigation of rotation requirementsand capacitiesat
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
all proposed hingelocations. Theincreaseof design timemay not bejustied by thelimited gains
obtained. On theother hand, a restricted amount of redistribution of elastic moments can safely
bemadewithout completeanalysisand may besufcient to obtain most of theadvantagesof limit
analysis.
A limited amount of redistribution ispermitted under theACI Code, depending upon a rough
measureof availableductility; without explicit calculation of rotation requirementsand capacities.
Theratio /
b
or in thecaseof doubly reinforced members, (

)/
b
isused asan indicator
of rotation capacity, where
b
isthebalancedsteel ratio. For singlyreinforcedmemberswith =
b
,
experimentsindicatealmost norotationcapacity, sincetheconcretestrainisnearlyequal to
cu
when
steel yielding isinitiated. Similarly, in adoubly reinforced member, when

=
b
, very little
rotation will occur after yielding beforetheconcretecrushes. However, when or

is low,
extensiverotation isusually possible. Accordingly, ACI CodeSec. 8.3providesasfollows:
Except whereapproximatevaluesfor momentsareused, it ispermitted to increaseor
decreasenegativemomentscalculatedbyelastictheoryat supportsof continuousexural
membersfor any assumed loadingarrangement by not morethan 20[1 (

)/
b
]
percent. The modied negative moments shall be used for calculating moments at
sectionswithin thespans. Redistribution of negativemomentsshall bemadeonlywhen
thesection at which moment isreduced isso designed that or

isnot greater
than 0.5
b
[ 1992] .
4.8.2 Designfor Seismic Loading
TheACI Codecontainsprovisionsthat arecurrently considered to betheminimum requirements
for producingamonolithic concretestructurewith adequateproportionsand detailsto enablethe
structuretosustainaseriesof oscillationsintotheinelasticrangeof responsewithout critical decayin
strength. Theprovisionsareintended to apply to reinforced concretestructureslocated in aseismic
zone where major damage to construction has a high possibility of occurrence, and are designed
with a substantial reduction in total lateral seismic forces due to the use of lateral load-resisting
systemsconsisting of ductilemoment-resisting frames. Theprovisionsfor framesaredivided into
sectionson exural members, columns, and jointsof frames. Someof theimportant pointsstated
aresummarized below.
Flexural Members
Membershavingafactored axial forcenot exceedingA
g
f

c
/10, whereA
g
isgrosssection of area
(in.
2
), areregarded asexural members. An upper limit isplaced on theexural steel ratio . The
maximum valueof should not exceed 0.025. Provision is also madeto ensurethat a minimum
quantity of top and bottom reinforcement isalwayspresent. Both thetop and thebottom steel are
to haveasteel ratio of aleast 200/f
y
, with thesteel yield strength f
y
in psi throughout thelength
of themember. Recommendationsarealso madeto ensurethat sufcient steel ispresent to allow
for unforeseen shiftsin thepointsof contraexure. At column connections, thepositivemoment
capacity should beat least 50%of thenegativemoment capacity, and thereinforcement should be
continuousthrough columnswherepossible. At external columns, beam reinforcement should be
terminated in thefar faceof thecolumn using a hook plusany additional extension necessary for
anchorage.
The design shear force V
e
should be determined from consideration of the static forces on the
portion of themember between facesof thejoints. It should beassumed that momentsof opposite
signcorrespondingtoprobablestrengthM
pr
act at thejoint facesandthat themember isloadedwith
thefactored tributary gravity load alongitsspan. Figure4.12 illustratesthecalculation. Minimum
webreinforcement isprovided throughout thelength of themember, and spacingshould not exceed
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
FIGURE4.12: Design shearsfor girdersand columns. (From ACI Committee318. 1992. Building
CodeRequirementsforReinforcedConcreteandCommentary,ACI 318-89(Revised92)andACI 318R-89
(Revised92), Detroit, MI. With permission.)
d/4 in plastic hinge zones and d/2 elsewhere, where d is effectivedepth of member. The stirrups
should be closed around bars required to act as compression reinforcement and in plastic hinge
regions, and thespacingshould not exceed specied values.
Columns
Members having a factored axial force exceeding A
g
f

c
/10 are regarded as columns of frames
serving to resist earthquakeforces. Thesemembersshould satisfy theconditionsthat theshortest
cross-sectional dimensionmeasured on astraight linepassing through thegeometric centroid
should not be less than 12 in. and that the ratio of the shortest cross-sectional dimension to the
perpendicular dimension should not belessthan 0.4. Theexural strengthsof thecolumnsshould
satisfy

M
e
(6/5)

M
g
(4.116)
where

M
e
is sum of moments, at the center of the joint, corresponding to the design exural
strength of thecolumnsframinginto that joint and where

M
g
issum of moments, at thecenter
of the joint, corresponding to the design exural strengths of the girders framing into that joint.
Flexural strengthsshould besummed such that thecolumn momentsopposethebeam moments.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
Equation 4.116should besatised for beammomentsactingin both directionsin thevertical plane
of theframeconsidered. Therequirement isintendedtoensurethat plastichingesforminthegirders
rather than thecolumns.
Thelongitudinal reinforcement ratioislimitedtotherangeof 0.01to0.06. Thelower boundtothe
reinforcement ratio refersto thetraditional concern for theeffectsof time-dependent deformations
of theconcreteandthedesiretohaveasizabledifferencebetweenthecrackingandyieldingmoments.
Theupper bound reectsconcern for steel congestion, load transfer from oor elementsto column
in low-rise construction, and the development of large shear stresses. Lap splices are permitted
only within the center half of the member length and should be proportioned as tension splices.
Weldedsplicesandmechanical connectionsareallowedfor splicingthereinforcement at anysection,
provided not morethan alternatelongitudinal barsarespliced at asection and thedistancebetween
splicesis24in. or morealongthelongitudinal axisof thereinforcement.
If Equation 4.116 isnot satised at ajoint, columnssupportingreactionsfrom that joint should
beprovided with transversereinforcement over their full height to connetheconcreteand provide
lateral support tothereinforcement. Whereaspiral isused, theratioof volumeof spiral reinforcement
to thecorevolumeconned by thespiral reinforcement,
s
, should beat least that given by

s
= 0.45
f

c
f
y
_
A
g
A
c
1
_
(4.117)
but not lessthan 0.12f

c
/f
yh
, whereA
c
istheareaof coreof spirallyreinforcedcompression member
measured to outsidediameter of spiral in in.
2
and f
yh
is thespecied yield strength of transverse
reinforcement in psi. When rectangular reinforcement hoop isused, thetotal cross-sectional areaof
rectangular hoop reinforcement should not belessthan that given by
A
sh
= 0.3
_
sh
c
f

c
/f
yh
_ __
A
g
/A
ch
_
1
_
(4.118)
A
sh
= 0.09sh
c
f

c
/f
yh
(4.119)
wheres isthespacingof transversereinforcement measured alongthelongitudinal axisof column,
h
c
is the cross-sectional dimension of column core measured center-to-center of conning rein-
forcement, and A
sh
isthetotal cross-sectional areaof transversereinforcement (includingcrossties)
within spacing s and perpendicular to dimension h
c
. Supplementary crossties, if used, should be
of thesamediameter asthehoop bar and should engagethehoop with ahook. Special transverse
conningsteel isrequired for thefull height of columnsthat support discontinuousshear walls.
Thedesign shear forceV
e
should bedetermined from consideration of themaximum forcesthat
can begenerated at thefacesof thejointsat each end of thecolumn. Thesejoint forcesshould be
determined usingthemaximum probablemoment strength M
pr
of thecolumn associated with the
rangeof factored axial loadson thecolumn. Thecolumn shearsneed not exceed thosedetermined
fromjoint strengthsbasedontheprobablemoment strengthM
pr
, of thetransversemembersframing
into the joint. In no case should V
e
be less than the factored shear determined by analysis of the
structureFigure4.12.
Jointsof Frames
Development of inelasticrotationsat thefacesof jointsof reinforcedconcreteframesisassociated
with strainsin theexural reinforcement well in excessof theyield strain. Consequently, joint shear
forcegeneratedbytheexural reinforcement iscalculatedfor astressof 1.25f
y
in thereinforcement.
Withinthedepthof theshallowedframingmember, transversereinforcement equal toat least one-
half theamount required for thecolumn reinforcement should beprovided wheremembersframe
intoall four sidesof thejoint andwhereeachmember widthisat least three-fourthsthecolumnwidth.
Transversereinforcement asrequired for thecolumn reinforcement should beprovided through the
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joint to provideconnement for longitudinal beam reinforcement outsidethecolumn coreif such
connement isnot provided by abeamframinginto thejoint.
Thenominal shear strengthof thejoint shouldnot betaken greater than theforcesspeciedbelow
for normal weight aggregateconcrete:
20
_
f

c
A
j
for jointsconned on all four faces
15
_
f

c
A
j
for jointsconned on threefacesor on two oppositefaces
12
_
f

c
A
j
for others
whereA
j
istheeffectivecross-sectional areawithinajoint inaplaneparallel toplaneof reinforcement
generatingshear in thejoint (Figure4.13). Amember that framesintoafaceisconsideredtoprovide
FIGURE4.13: Effectiveareaof joint. (FromACI Committee318. 1992. BuildingCodeRequirements
for ReinforcedConcreteandCommentary, ACI 318-89(Revised92) andACI 318R-89(Revised92),
Detroit, MI. With permission.)
connement to thejoint if at least three-quartersof thefaceof thejoint iscovered by theframing
member. A joint isconsidered to beconned if such conningmembersframeinto all facesof the
joint. For lightweight-aggregateconcrete, thenominal shear strength of thejoint should not exceed
three-quartersof thelimitsgiven above.
Details of minimum development length for deformed bars with standard hooks embedded in
normal and lightweight concreteand for straight barsarecontained in ACI CodeSec. 21.6.4.
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4.9 BracketsandCorbels
Bracketsand corbelsarecantilevershavingshear span depth ratio, a/d, not greater than unity. The
shear span a isthedistancefromthepoint of load to thefaceof support, and thedistanced shall be
measured at faceof support (seeFigure4.14).
FIGURE 4.14: Structural action of a corbel. (From ACI Committee 318. 1992. BuildingCode
Requirementsfor ReinforcedConcreteandCommentary, ACI 318-89(Revised92) andACI 318R-89
(Revised92), Detroit, MI. With permission.)
The corbel shown in Figure 4.14 may fail by shearing along the interface between the column
and thecorbel by yieldingof thetension tie, by crushingor splittingof thecompression strut, or by
localized bearingor shearingfailureunder theloadingplate.
The depth of a bracket or corbel at its outer edge should be less than one-half of the required
depth d at thesupport. Reinforcement should consist of main tension barswith areaA
s
and shear
reinforcement withareaA
h
(seeFigure4.15for notation). Theareaof primarytensionreinforcement
FIGURE4.15: Notation used. (From ACI Committee318. 1992. BuildingCodeRequirementsfor
ReinforcedConcreteandCommentary, ACI 318-89(Revised92) andACI 318R-89(Revised92),Detroit,
MI. With permission.)
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
A
s
should bemadeequal to thegreater of (A
f
+ A
n
) or (2A
vf
/3 A
n
), whereA
f
istheexural
reinforcement required to resist moment [V
u
a + N
uc
(h d)], A
n
isthereinforcement required to
resist tensileforceN
uc
, and A
vf
istheshear-friction reinforcement required to resist shear V
u
:
A
f
=
M
u
f
y
jd
=
V
u
a +N
uc
(h d)
f
y
jd
(4.120)
A
n
=
N
uc
f
y
(4.121)
A
vf
=
V
u
f
y

(4.122)
Intheaboveequations, f
y
isthereinforcement yieldstrength; is0.9for Equation 4.120and0.85for
Equations4.121and4.122. In Equation 4.120, thelever armjd can beapproximatedfor all practical
purposesinmost casesas0.85d. TensileforceN
uc
inEquation4.121shouldnot betakenlessthan0.2
V
u
unlessspecial provisionsaremadetoavoidtensileforces. TensileforceN
uc
shouldberegardedasa
liveloadeven when tension resultsfromcreep, shrinkage, or temperaturechange. In Equation4.122,
V
u
/(= V
n
) should not betaken greater than 0.2 f

c
b
w
d nor 800b
w
d in poundsin normal-weight
concrete. For all-lightweight or sand-lightweight concrete, shear strengthV
n
shouldnot betaken
greater than (0.20.07a/d)f

c
b
w
d nor (800280a/d)b
w
d in pounds. Thecoefcient of friction
in Equation 4.122shouldbe1.4 for concreteplacedmonolithically, 1.0 for concreteplacedagainst
hardened concretewith surfaceintentionally roughened, 0.6 for concreteplaced against hardened
concrete not intentionally roughened, and 0.7 for concrete anchored to as-rolled structural steel
by headed studsor by reinforcing bars, where is1.0 for normal weight concrete, 0.85 for sand-
lightweight concrete, and 0.75for all-lightweight concrete. Linear interpolation of ispermitted
when partial sand replacement isused.
Thetotal areaof closed stirrupsor tiesA
h
parallel to A
s
should not belessthan 0.5(A
s
A
n
) and
should beuniformly distributed within two-thirdsof thedepth of thebracket adjacent to A
s
.
At front faceof bracket or corbel, primary tension reinforcement A
s
should beanchored in one
of thefollowing ways: (a) by astructural weld to atransversebar of at least equal size; weld to be
designed to develop specied yield strength f
y
of A
s
bars; (b) by bendingprimary tension barsA
s
back to form ahorizontal loop, or (c) by someother meansof positiveanchorage. Also, to ensure
development of the yield strength of the reinforcement A
s
near the load, bearing area of load on
bracket or corbel should not project beyond straight portion of primarytension barsA
s
, nor project
beyondinterior faceof transverseanchor bar (if oneisprovided). Whencorbelsaredesignedtoresist
horizontal forces, thebearingplateshould bewelded to thetension reinforcement A
s
.
4.10 Footings
Footingsarestructural membersused to support columnsand wallsand to transmit and distribute
their loads to the soil in such a way that (a) the load bearing capacity of the soil is not exceeded,
(b) excessivesettlement, differential settlement, and rotationsareprevented, and (c) adequatesafety
against overturning or sliding is maintained. When a column load is transmitted to the soil by
the footing, the soil becomes compressed. The amount of settlement depends on many factors,
such as thetypeof soil, theload intensity, thedepth below ground level, and thetypeof footing.
If different footings of the same structure have different settlements, new stresses develop in the
structure. Excessivedifferential settlement may lead to thedamageof nonstructural membersin the
buildings, even failureof theaffected parts.
Vertical loadsareusuallyappliedat thecentroidof thefooting. If theresultant of theappliedloads
doesnot coincidewith thecentroid of thebearing area, abending moment develops. In thiscase,
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thepressureon onesideof thefooting will begreater than thepressureon theother side, causing
higher settlement on onesideand apossiblerotation of thefooting.
If thebearingsoil capacity isdifferent under different footingsfor example, if thefootingsof a
buildingarepartly on soil and partly on rockadifferential settlement will occur. It iscustomary
in such casesto providea joint between thetwo partsto separatethem, allowing for independent
settlement.
4.10.1 Typesof Footings
Different typesof footingsmay beused to support buildingcolumnsor walls. Themost commonly
used onesareillustrated in Figure4.16(ag). A simplelefootingisshown in Figure4.16(h).
FIGURE4.16: Common typesof footingsfor wallsand columns. (FromACI Committee340. 1990.
DesignHandbookinAccordancewiththeStrengthDesignMethodof ACI 318-89. Volume2, SP-17.
With permission.)
For walls, a spread footing is a slab wider than the wall and extending the length of the wall
[ Figure 4.16(a)] . Square or rectangular slabs are used under single columns [ Figure 4.16(bd)] .
When twocolumnsaresoclosethat their footingswould mergeor nearlytouch, acombined footing
[ Figure4.16(e)] extending under thetwo should beconstructed. When a column footing cannot
project in one direction, perhaps because of the proximity of a property line, the footing may be
helped out by an adjacent footingwith morespace; either acombined footingor astrap (cantilever)
footing[ Figure4.16(f )] may beused under thetwo.
For structureswith heavy loadsrelativeto soil capacity, amat or raft foundation [ Figure4.16(g)]
may proveeconomical. Asimpleformisathick, two-way-reinforced-concreteslab extendingunder
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theentirestructure. In effect, it enablesthestructureto oat on thesoil, and becauseof itsrigidity
it permits negligible differential settlement. Even greater rigidity can be obtained by building the
raft foundation as an inverted beam-and-girder oor, with the girders supporting the columns.
Sometimes, also, inverted at slabsareused asmat foundations.
4.10.2 DesignConsiderations
Footings must be designed to carry the column loads and transmit them to the soil safely while
satisfyingcodelimitations. Thedesignproceduremust takethefollowingstrengthrequirementsinto
consideration:
Theareaof thefootingbased on theallowablebearingsoil capacity
Two-way shear or punchingshear
One-way shear
Bendingmoment and steel reinforcement required
Dowel requirements
Development length of bars
Differential settlement
Thesestrength requirementswill beexplained in thefollowingsections.
Sizeof Footings
Therequired areaof concentrically loaded footingsisdetermined from
A
req
=
D +L
q
a
(4.123)
whereq
a
isallowablebearingpressureand D and Lare, respectively, unfactored dead and liveloads.
Allowablebearing pressures areestablished from principles of soil mechanics on thebasis of load
testsand other experimental determinations. Allowablebearingpressuresq
a
under serviceloadsare
usually based on asafety factor of 2.5 to 3.0 against exceeding theultimatebearing capacity of the
particular soil and to keep settlementswithin tolerablelimits. Therequired areaof footingsunder
theeffectsof wind W or earthquakeE isdetermined fromthefollowing:
A
req
=
D +L +W
1.33q
a
or
D +L +E
1.33q
a
(4.124)
It should benoted that footingsizesaredetermined for unfactored serviceloadsand soil pressures,
in contrast to thestrength design of reinforced concretemembers, which utilizesfactored loadsand
factored nominal strengths.
A footingiseccentrically loaded if thesupported column isnot concentric with thefootingarea
or if the column transmitsat its juncture with the footingnot only a vertical load but also a
bendingmoment. In either case, theloadeffectsat thefootingbasecan berepresentedbythevertical
load P and abendingmoment M. Theresultingbearingpressuresareagain assumed to belinearly
distributed. Aslongastheresultingeccentricitye = M/P doesnot exceed thekern distancek of the
footingarea, theusual exureformula
q
max, min
=
P
A
+
M
c
I
(4.125)
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FIGURE4.17: Assumed bearingpressuresunder eccentricfootings.
permits the determination of the bearing pressures at the two extreme edges, as shown in Fig-
ure 4.17(a). The footing area is found by trial and error from the condition q
max
q
a
. If the
eccentricity falls outside the kern, Equation 4.125 gives a negative value for q along one edge of
the footing. Because no tension can be transmitted at the contact area between soil and footing,
Equation 4.125isno longer valid and bearingpressuresaredistributed asin Figure4.17(b).
Oncetherequiredfootingareahasbeen determined, thefootingmust then bedesignedtodevelop
thenecessary strength to resist all moments, shears, and other internal actionscaused by theapplied
loads. For thispurpose, theload factorsof theACI Codeapply to footingsasto all other structural
components.
Depth of footing abovebottom reinforcement should not belessthan 6 in. for footingson soil,
nor lessthan 12in. for footingson piles.
Two-WayShear (PunchingShear)
ACI Code Sec. 11.12.2 allows a shear strength V
c
of footings without shear reinforcement for
two-way shear action asfollows:
V
c
=
_
2 +
4

c
_
_
f

c
b
o
d 4
_
f

c
b
o
d (4.126)
where
c
istheratio of longsideto short sideof rectangular area, b
o
istheperimeter of thecritical
section taken at d/2 from theloaded area(column section), and d istheeffectivedepth of footing.
Thisshear isameasureof thediagonal tension causedbytheeffect of thecolumn loadon thefooting.
Inclined cracksmay occur in thefootingat adistanced/2 from thefaceof thecolumn on all sides.
Thefootingwill fail asthecolumn triesto punch out part of thefooting, asshown in Figure4.18.
One-WayShear
For footingswith bending action in onedirection, thecritical section islocated at adistance d
from thefaceof thecolumn. Thediagonal tension at section m-m in Figure4.19 can bechecked as
isdonein beams. Theallowableshear in thiscaseisequal to
V
c
= 2
_
f

c
bd (4.127)
whereb isthewidth of section m-m. Theultimateshearingforceat section m-m can becalculated
asfollows:
V
u
= q
u
b
_
L
2

c
2
d
_
(4.128)
whereb isthesideof footingparallel to section m-m.
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FIGURE4.18: Punchingshear (two-way).
FIGURE4.19: One-way shear.
Flexural Reinforcement andFootingReinforcement
Thetheoretical sectionsfor moment occur at faceof thecolumn (section n-n, Figure4.20). The
bendingmoment ineachdirectionof thefootingmust becheckedandtheappropriatereinforcement
must beprovided. Insquarefootingsthebendingmomentsinbothdirectionsareequal. Todetermine
thereinforcement required, thedepthof thefootingineachdirectionmaybeused. Asthebarsinone
direction rest on top of thebarsin theother direction, theeffectivedepth d varieswith thediameter
of thebarsused. Thevalueof d
min
may beadopted.
The depth of footing is often controlled by the shear, which requires a depth greater than that
required by thebendingmoment. Thesteel reinforcement in each direction can becalculated in the
caseof exural membersasfollows:
A
s
=
M
u
f
y
(d a/2)
(4.129)
The minimum steel percentage requirement in exural member is equal to 200/f
y
. However,
ACI Code Sec. 10.5.3 indicates that for structural slabs of uniform thickness, the minimum area
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
FIGURE4.20: Critical section of bendingmoment.
and maximum spacing of steel in the direction of bending should be as required for shrinkage
and temperaturereinforcement. Thislast minimum steel reinforcement isvery small and ahigher
minimumreinforcement ratio isrecommended, but not greater than 200/f
y
.
Thereinforcement in one-wayfootingsandtwo-wayfootingsmust bedistributedacrosstheentire
width of thefooting. In thecaseof two-way rectangular footings, ACI CodeSec15.4.4speciesthat
in thelongdirection thetotal reinforcement must beplaced uniformly within aband width equal to
thelength of theshort sideof thefootingaccordingto
Reinforcement band width
Total reinforcement in short direction
=
2
+1
(4.130)
where istheratioof thelongsidetotheshort sideof thefooting. Thebandwidth must becentered
on thecenterlineof thecolumn (Figure4.21). Theremainingreinforcement in theshort direction
must beuniformly distributed outsidetheband width. This remaining reinforcement percentage
should not belessthan required for shrinkageand temperature.
FIGURE4.21: Band width for reinforcement distribution.
When structural steel columns or masonry walls are used, the critical sections for moments in
footingaretaken at halfwaybetween themiddleandtheedgeof masonrywalls, andhalfwaybetween
thefaceof thecolumn and theedgeof thesteel baseplace(ACI CodeSec. 15.4.2).
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BendingCapacityof Columnat Base
Theloadsfrom thecolumn act on thefootingat thebaseof thecolumn, on an areaequal to the
areaof thecolumncross-section. Compressiveforcesaretransferredtothefootingdirectlybybearing
on theconcrete. Tensileforces must beresisted by reinforcement, neglecting any contribution by
concrete.
Forcesacting on theconcreteat thebaseof thecolumn must not exceed thebearing strength of
concreteasspecied by theACI CodeSec.10.15:
N =
_
0.85f

c
A
1
_
(4.131)
where is 0.7 and A
1
is thebearing area of thecolumn. Thevalueof thebearing strength given
in Equation 4.131 may be multiplied by a factor

A
2
/A
1
2.0 for bearing on footings when
thesupporting surfaceiswider on all sidesother than theloaded area. HereA
2
isthearea of the
part of the supporting footing that is geometrically similar to and concentric with the load area
(Figure4.22). SinceA
2
> A
1
, thefactor

A
2
/A
1
isgreater than unity, indicatingthat theallowable
FIGURE4.22: Bearingareason footings. A
1
= c
2
, A
2
= b
2
.
bearing strength isincreased becauseof thelateral support from thefooting area surrounding the
column base. If thecalculated bearingforceisgreater than N or themodied onewith r

A
2
/A
1
,
reinforcement must beprovided to transfer theexcessforce. Thisisachieved by providing dowels
or extending thecolumn barsinto thefooting. If thecalculated bearing forceislessthan either N
or themodied onewith r

A
2
/A
1
, then minimum reinforcement must beprovided. ACI Code
Sec. 15.8.2 indicatesthat theminimum areaof thedowel reinforcement isat least 0.005A
g
but not
lessthan 4 bars, whereA
g
isthegrossarea of thecolumn section of thesupported member. The
minimum reinforcement requirementsapply to thecasein which thecalculated bearing forcesare
greater than N or themodied onewith r

A
2
/A
1
.
DowelsonFootings
It was explained earlier that dowels are required in any case, even if the bearing strength is
adequate. The ACI Code species a minimum steel ratio = 0.005 of the column section as
compared to = 0.01 asminimum reinforcement for thecolumn itself. Theminimum number of
dowel barsneeded isfour; thesemaybeplaced at thefour cornersof thecolumn. Thedowel barsare
usually extended into thefooting, bent at their ends, and tied to themain footingreinforcement.
ACI Code Sec. 15.8.2 indicates that #14 and #18 longitudinal bars, in compression only, may
belap-spliced with dowels. Dowels should not belarger than #11 bar and should extend (1) into
supported member adistancenot lessthan thedevelopment length of #14 or 18 barsor thesplice
length of the dowelswhichever is greater, and (2) into the footing a distance not less than the
development length of thedowels.
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Development Lengthof theReinforcingBars
Thecritical sectionsfor checkingthedevelopment lengthof reinforcingbarsarethesameasthose
for bending moments. Calculated tension or compression in reinforcement at each section should
bedeveloped on each sideof that section by embedment length, hook (tension only) or mechanical
device, or acombination thereof. Thedevelopment length for compression bar is
l
d
= 0.02f
y
d
b
_
f

c
(4.132)
but not lessthan 0.0003f
y
d
b
8 in. For other values, refer to ACI Code, Chapter 12. Dowel bars
must also bechecked for proper development length.
Differential Settlement
Footingsusually support thefollowingloads:
Dead loadsfromthesubstructureand superstructure
Liveloadsresultingfrommaterialsor occupancy
Weight of materialsused in backlling
Wind loads
Each footingin abuildingisdesigned to support themaximumload that may occur on any column
dueto thecritical combination of loadings, usingtheallowablesoil pressure.
Thedead load, and maybeasmall portion of theliveload, may act continuously on thestructure.
The rest of the live load may occur at intervals and on some parts of the structure only, causing
different loadingson columns. Consequently, thepressureon thesoil under different loadingswill
varyaccordingtotheloadson thedifferent columns, and differential settlement will occur under the
variousfootingsof onestructure. Sincepartial settlement isinevitable, theproblemisdened bythe
amount of differential settlement that thestructurecantolerate. Theamount of differential settlement
dependson thevariation in thecompressibility of thesoils, thethicknessof compressiblematerial
below foundation level, and the stiffness of the combined footing and superstructure. Excessive
differential settlement resultsin cracking of concreteand damageto claddings, partitions, ceilings,
and nishes.
For practical purposesit canbeassumedthat thesoil pressureunder theeffect of sustainedloadings
isthesamefor all footings, thuscausing equal settlements. Thesustained load (or theusual load)
can beassumedequal tothedeadloadplusapercentageof theliveload, whichoccursveryfrequently
on thestructure. Footingsthen areproportioned for thesesustained loadsto producethesamesoil
pressureunder all footings. In nocaseistheallowablesoil bearingcapacitytobeexceeded under the
dead load plusthemaximumliveload for each footing.
4.10.3 Wall Footings
Thespread footing under awall [ Figure4.16(a)] distributesthewall load horizontally to preclude
excessivesettlement. Thewall should beso located on thefootingsasto produceuniform bearing
pressureon thesoil (Figure4.23), ignoringthevariation duetobendingof thefooting. Thepressure
isdetermined by dividingtheload per foot by thefootingwidth.
Thefootingactsasacantilever onoppositesidesof thewall under downwardwall loadsandupward
soil pressure. For footingssupportingconcretewalls, thecritical section for bendingmoment isat
thefaceof thewall; for footingsunder masonry walls, halfway between themiddleand edgeof the
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FIGURE4.23: Reinforced-concretewall footing.
wall. Hence, for aone-foot-longstrip of symmetrical concrete-wall footing, symmetrically loaded,
themaximummoment, ft-lb, is
M
u
=
1
8
q
u
(L a)
2
(4.133)
whereq
u
istheuniformpressureon soil (lb/ft
2
), Listhewidth of footing(ft), and a iswall thickness
(ft).
For determining shear stresses, the vertical shear force is computed on the section located at a
distanced fromthefaceof thewall. Thus,
V
u
= q
u
_
L a
2
L
_
(4.134)
Thecalculation of development length isbased on thesection of maximummoment.
4.10.4 Single-ColumnSpreadFootings
Thespread footingunder acolumn [ Figure4.16(bd)] distributesthecolumn load horizontally to
prevent excessivetotal and differential settlement. Thecolumn should belocated on thefootingso
as to produce uniform bearing pressure on the soil, ignoring the variation due to bending of the
footing. Thepressureequalstheload divided by thefootingarea.
In plan, single-column footingsareusually square. Rectangular footingsareused if spacerestric-
tions dictate this choice or if the supported columns are of strongly elongated rectangular cross-
section. In the simplest form, they consist of a single slab [ Figure4.16(b)] . Another type is that
of Figure4.16(c), wherea pedestal or cap is interposed between thecolumn and thefooting slab;
thepedestal providesfor amorefavorabletransfer of load and in many casesisrequired in order to
providethenecessary development length for dowels. Thisform isalso known asasteppedfooting.
All partsof astepped footingmust bepoured in asinglepour in order to providemonolithicaction.
Sometimessloped footingslikethosein Figure 4.16(d) areused. They requireslessconcretethan
stepped footings, but theadditional labor necessarytoproducetheslopingsurfaces(formwork, etc.)
usually makesstepped footingsmoreeconomical. In general, single-slab footings[ Figure4.16(b)]
aremost economical for thicknessesup to 3ft.
Therequiredbearingareaisobtainedbydividingthetotal load, includingtheweight of thefooting,
by theselected bearing pressure. Weightsof footings, at thisstage, must beestimated and usually
amount to 4to 8%of thecolumn load, theformer valueapplyingto thestronger typesof soils.
Oncetherequired footingareahasbeen established, thethicknessh of thefootingmust bedeter-
mined. In singlefootingstheeffectivedepth d ismostly governed by shear. Two different typesof
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shear strength aredistinguished in singlefootings: two-way (or punching) shear and one-way (or
beam) shear. Based on theEquations4.126and 4.127for punchingand one-way shear strength, the
required effectivedepth of footingd iscalculated.
Single-column footingsrepresent, asit were, cantileversprojectingout from thecolumn in both
directionsandloadedupwardbythesoil pressure. Correspondingtension stressesarecausedin both
thesedirectionsat thebottom surface. Such footingsarethereforereinforced by two layersof steel,
perpendicular to each other and parallel to theedge. Thesteel reinforcement in each direction can
becalculated usingEquation 4.129. Thecritical sectionsfor development length of footingbarsare
thesameasthosefor bending. Development length may alsohavetobechecked at all vertical planes
in which changesof section or of reinforcement occur, asat theedgesof pedestalsor wherepart of
thereinforcement may beterminated.
When acolumn restson afootingor pedestal, it transfersitsload to only apart of thetotal area
of the supporting member. The adjacent footing concrete provides lateral support to the directly
loadedpart of theconcrete. Thiscausestriaxial compression stressesthat increasethestrength of the
concrete, which isloaded directly under thecolumn. Thedesign bearingstrength of concretemust
not exceedtheonegiveninEquation4.131for forcesactingontheconcreteat thebaseof columnand
themodied onewith r

A
2
/A
1
for supporting areawider than theloaded area. If thecalculated
bearingforceisgreater than thedesign bearingstrength, reinforcement must beprovided totransfer
theexcessforce. Thisisdoneeither by extendingthecolumn barsinto thefootingor by providing
dowels, which areembedded in thefootingand project aboveit.
4.10.5 CombinedFootings
Spread footingsthat support morethan onecolumn or wall areknown ascombinedfootings. They
can bedivided into two categories: thosethat support two columns, and thosethat support more
than two (generally largenumbersof ) columns.
In buildingswheretheallowablesoil pressureislargeenough for singlefootingstobeadequatefor
most columns, two-column footingsareseen to becomenecessary in two situations: (1) if columns
are so close to the property line that single-column footings cannot be made without projecting
beyond that line, and (2) if some adjacent columns are so close to each other that their footings
would merge.
When the bearing capacity of the subsoil is low so that large bearing areas become necessary,
individual footingsarereplacedbycontinuousstripfootings, whichsupport morethan twocolumns
and usually all columnsin arow. Mostly, such stripsarearranged in both directions, in which casea
grid foundation isobtained, asshown in Figure4.24. Such agrid foundation can bedoneby single
footings because the individual strips of the grid foundation represent continuous beams whose
momentsaremuch smaller than thecantilever momentsin largesinglefootingsthat project far out
fromthecolumn in all four directions.
For still lower bearingcapacities, thestripsaremadeto merge, resultingin amat foundation, as
shown in Figure4.25. That is, thefoundation consistsof asolid reinforced concreteslab under the
entirebuilding. In structural action such a mat is very similar to a at slab or a at plate, upside
downthat is, loaded upward by thebearingpressureand downward by theconcentrated column
reactions. Themat foundation evidently developsthemaximum availablebearing area under the
building. If thesoilscapacity isso lowthat even thislargebearingareaisinsufcient, someformof
deep foundation, such aspilesor caissons, must beused.
Grid and mat foundationsmay bedesigned with thecolumn pedestalsasshown in Figures4.24
and 4.25or without them, dependingon whether or not they arenecessary for shear strength and
thedevelopment length of dowels. Apart fromdevelopinglargebearingareas, another advantageof
gridandmat foundationsisthat their continuityandrigidityhelpinreducingdifferential settlements
of individual columnsrelativetoeachother, whichmayotherwisebecausedbylocal variationsin the
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
FIGURE4.24: Grid foundation.
FIGURE4.25: Mat foundation.
quality of subsoil, or other causes. For thispurpose, continuousspread foundationsarefrequently
used in situationswherethesuperstructureor thetypeof occupancy providesunusual sensitivity to
differential settlement.
4.10.6 Two-ColumnFootings
The ACI Codes does not provide a detailed approach for the design of combined footings. The
design, in general, isbased on an empirical approach. It isdesirableto design combined footings
so that thecentroid of thefooting areacoincideswith theresultant of thetwo column loads. This
producesuniform bearingpressureover theentireareaand forestallsatendency for thefootingsto
tilt. In plan, such footingsarerectangular, trapezoidal, or T shaped, thedetailsof theshapebeing
arranged to producecoincidenceof centroid and resultant. Thesimplerelationshipsof Figure4.26
facilitatethedetermination of theshapesof thebearingarea[ 7] . In general, thedistancesm and n
aregiven, theformer beingthedistancefrom thecenter of theexterior column to theproperty line
and thelatter thedistancefromthat column to theresultant of both column loads.
Another expedient, which isused if asinglefootingcannot becentered under an exterior column,
istoplacetheexterior columnfootingeccentricallyandtoconnect it withthenearest interior column
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
FIGURE4.26: Two-column footings. (FromFintel, M. 1985. HandbookofConcreteEngineering, 2nd
ed., Van Nostrand Reinhold, NewYork. With permission.)
by abeamor strap. Thisstrap, beingcounterweighted by theinterior column load, resiststhetilting
tendency of theeccentricexterior footingsand equalizesthepressureunder it. Such foundationsare
known asstrap, cantilever, or connectedfootings.
Thestrap may bedesigned asarectangular beam spacingbetween thecolumns. Theloadson it
includeitsown weight (when it doesnot rest on thesoil) and theupward pressurefromthefootings.
Width of the strap usually is selected arbitrarily as equal to that of the largest column plus 4 to 8
inches so that column forms can be supported on top of the strap. Depth is determined by the
maximum bendingmoment. Themain reinforcingin thestrap isplaced near thetop. Someof the
steel can becut off wherenot needed. For diagonal tension, stirrupsnormally will beneeded near
thecolumns(Figure4.27). In addition, longitudinal placement steel isset near thebottom of the
strap, plusreinforcement to guard against settlement stresses.
Thefootingunder theexterior columnmaybedesignedasawall footing. Theportionsonopposite
sidesof thestrapact ascantileversunder theconstant upwardpressureof thesoil. Theinterior footing
should be designed as a single-column footing. The critical section for punching shear, however,
differsfromthat for aconventional footing. Thisshear shouldbecomputedon asection at adistance
d/2from thesidesand extendingaround thecolumn at adistanced/2from itsfaces, whered isthe
effectivedepth of thefooting.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
FIGURE4.27: Strap (cantilever) footing. (FromFintel, M. 1985. Handbookof ConcreteEngineering,
2nd ed., Van Nostrand Reinhold, NewYork. With permission.)
4.10.7 Strip, Grid, andMat Foundations
In the case of heavily loaded columns, particularly if they are to be supported on relatively weak
or uneven soils, continuousfoundationsmay benecessary. They may consist of acontinuousstrip
footing supporting all columns in a given row or, more often, of two sets of such strip footings
intersectingat right anglessothat theyformonecontinuousgridfoundation (Figure4.24). For even
larger loadsor weaker soilsthestripsaremadetomerge, resultingin amat foundation (Figure4.25).
For thedesign of such continuousfoundationsit isessential that reasonably realisticassumptions
bemaderegardingthedistributionof bearingpressures, whichact asupwardloadsonthefoundation.
For compressiblesoilsit can beassumed in rst approximation that thedeformation or settlement
of thesoil at agiven location and thebearingpressureat that location areproportional toeach other.
If columnsarespaced at moderatedistancesand if thestrip, grid, or mat foundation isvery rigid,
thesettlementsin all portionsof thefoundation will besubstantially thesame. Thismeansthat the
bearingpressure, also known assubgradereaction, will bethesameprovided that thecentroid of the
foundation coincides with the resultant of the loads. If they do not coincide, then for such rigid
foundationsthesubgradereaction can beassumed aslinear and determined fromstaticsin thesame
manner asdiscussed for singlefootings. In thiscase, all loadsthedownward column loadsaswell
astheupward-bearingpressuresareknown. Hence, momentsand shear forcesin thefoundation
can befound by staticsalone. Oncethesearedetermined, thedesign of strip and grid foundations
issimilar to that of inverted continuousbeams, and design of mat foundationsissimilar to that of
inverted at slabsor plates.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
Ontheother hand, if thefoundationisrelativelyexibleandthecolumnspacinglarge, settlements
will no longer be uniform or linear. For one thing, the more heavily loaded columns will cause
larger settlements, and thereby larger subgrade reactions, than the lighter ones. Also, since the
continuousstripor slabmidwaybetweencolumnswill deect upwardrelativetothenearbycolumns,
soil settlementand thereby thesubgradereactionwill besmaller midway between columnsthan
directlyat thecolumns. Thisisshown schematicallyin Figure4.28. In thiscasethesubgradereaction
can no longer beassumed asuniform. Areasonably accuratebut fairly complex analysiscan then be
madeusingthetheory of beamson elasticfoundations.
FIGURE4.28: Strip footing. (FromFintel, M. 1985. Handbookof ConcreteEngineering, 2nd ed., Van
Nostrand Reinhold, NewYork. With permission.)
Asimpliedapproachhasbeendevelopedthat coversthemost frequent situationsof stripandgrid
foundations[ 4] . Themethod rst denestheconditionsunder which afoundation can beregarded
asrigid so that uniform or overall linear distribution of subgradereactionscan beassumed. Thisis
thecasewhen theaverageof two adjacent span lengthsin acontinuousstrip doesnot exceed 1.75/,
provided also that theadjacent span and column loadsdo not differ by morethan 20%of thelarger
value. Here,
= 4
_
k
s
b
3E
c
I
(4.135)
where
k
s
= Sk

s
k

s
= coefcient of subgradereaction asdened in soilsmechanics, basically forceper unit area
required to produceunit settlement, kips/ft
3
b = width of footing, ft
E
c
= modulusof elasticity of concrete, kips/ft
2
I = moment of inertiaof footing, ft
4
S = shapefactor, being [(b + 1)/2b]
2
for granular soils and (n + 0.5)/1.5n for cohesivesoils,
wheren istheratio of longer to shorter sideof strip
If theaverageof two adjacent spansexceeds1.75/, thefoundation isregarded asexible. Pro-
vided that adjacent spansand column loadsdiffer by no morethan 20%, thecomplex curvelinear
distribution of subgradereaction can bereplaced by aset of equivalent trapezoidal reactions, which
arealso shown in Figure4.28. Thereport of ACI Committee436 containsfairly simpleequations
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
for determining theintensitiesof theequivalent pressuresunder thecolumnsand at themiddleof
thespansand also givesequationsfor thepositiveand negativemomentscaused by theseequivalent
subgradereactions. Withthisinformation, thedesign of continuousstripandgridfootingsproceeds
similarly to that of footingsunder two columns.
Mat foundationslikewiserequiredifferent approaches, dependingonwhether theycanbeclassied
asrigid or exible. Asin strip footings, if thecolumn spacingislessthan 1/, thestructuremay be
regarded asrigid, soil pressurecan beassumed asuniformly or linearly distributed, and thedesign
isbased on statics. On theother hand, when thefoundation isconsidered exibleasdened above,
and if thevariation of adjacent column loadsand spansisnot greater than 20%, thesamesimplied
procedureasfor stripandgridfoundationscanbeappliedtomat foundations. Themat isdividedinto
two setsof mutually perpendicular strip footingsof width equal to thedistancebetween midspans,
and thedistribution of bearingpressuresand bendingmomentsiscarried out for each strip. Once
moments are determined, the mat is in essence treated the same as a at slab or plate, with the
reinforcement allocated between column and middlestripsasin theseslab structures.
This approach is feasible only when columns are located in a regular rectangular grid pattern.
When a mat that can be regarded as rigid supports columns at random locations, the subgrade
reactionscan still betaken asuniformor aslinearly distributed and themat analyzed by statics. If it
isaexiblemat that supportssuch randomly located columns, thedesign isbased on thetheory of
plateson elasticfoundation.
4.10.8 FootingsonPiles
If thebearingcapacityof theupper soil layersisinsufcient for aspreadfoundation, but rmer strata
are available at greater depth, piles are used to transfer the loads to these deeper strata. Piles are
generally arranged in groupsor clusters, oneunder each column. Thegroup iscapped by aspread
footing or cap that distributes thecolumn load to all piles in thegroup. Reactions on caps act as
concentrated loadsat theindividual piles, rather than asdistributed pressures. If thetotal of all pile
reactionsin acluster isdivided by areaof thefootingto obtain an equivalent uniform pressure, it is
found that thisequivalent pressureisconsiderably higher in pilecapsthan for spread footings.
Thus, it isin any event advisableto provideamplerigiditythat is, depth for pilecapsin order
to spread theload evenly to all piles.
Asin single-column spread footings, theeffectiveportion of allowablebearingcapacitiesof piles,
R
a
, availableto resist theunfactored column loadsistheallowablepilereaction lesstheweight of
footing, backll, and surchargeper pile. That is,
R
e
= R
a
W
f
(4.136)
whereW
f
isthetotal weight of footing, ll, and surchargedivided by thenumber of piles.
Oncetheavailableor effectivepilereactionR
e
isdetermined, thenumber of pilesinaconcentrically
loaded cluster istheinteger next larger than
n =
D +L
R
e
(4.137)
Theeffectsof wind and earthquakemomentsat thefoot of thecolumnsgenerally producean eccen-
trically loaded pilecluster in which different pilescarry different loads. Thenumber and location of
pilesin such acluster isdetermined by successiveapproximation from thecondition that theload
on themost heavily loaded pileshould not exceed theallowablepilereaction R
a
. Assumingalinear
distribution of pileloadsdueto bending, themaximumpilereaction is
R
max
=
P
n
+
M
I
pg
/c
(4.138)
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
whereP isthemaximumload(includingweight of cap, backll, etc.), M isthemoment toberesisted
by thepilegroup, both referred to thebottom of thecap, I
pg
isthemoment of inertiaof theentire
pilegroup about thecentroidal axisabout which bendingsoccurs, and c isthedistancefrom that
axisto theextremepile.
Piles are generally arranged in tight patterns, which minimizes the cost of the caps, but they
cannot beplacedcloser than conditionsof derivingandof undisturbedcarryingcapacitywill permit.
AASHTO requiresthat pilesbespaced at least 2 ft 6 in. center to center and that thedistancefrom
thesideof apileto thenearest edgeof thefootingbe9in. or more.
Thedesignof footingsonpilesissimilar tothat of single-columnspreadfootings. Oneapproachis
to design thecap for thepilereactionscalculated for thefactored column loads. For aconcentrically
loaded cluster this would give R
u
= (1.4D + 1.7L)/n. However, since the number of piles was
taken asthenext larger integer accordingtoEquation 4.138, determiningR
u
in thismanner can lead
to a design wherethestrength of thecap islessthan thecapacity of thepilegroup. It istherefore
recommended that thepilereaction for strength design betaken as
R
u
= R
e
Averageload factor (4.139)
wheretheaverageload factor is(1.4D + 1.7L)/(D + L). In thismanner thecap isdesigned to be
capableof developingthefull allowablecapacity of thepilegroup.
As in single-column spread footings, the depth of the pile cap is usually governed by shear. In
thisregard both punching and one-way shear need to beconsidered. Thecritical sectionsarethe
same as explained earlier under Two-Way Shear (Punching Shear) and One-Way Shear. The
differenceisthat shearson capsarecaused by concentrated pilereactionsrather than by distributed
bearingpressures. Thisposesthequestion of howto calculateshear if thecritical section intersects
thecircumferenceof oneor morepiles. For thiscasetheACI Codeaccountsfor thefact that pile
reaction isnot really apoint load, but isdistributed over thepile-bearingarea. Correspondingly, for
pileswith diametersd
p
, it stipulatesasfollows:
Computation of shear on any section through afooting on pilesshall bein accordancewith the
following:
(a) The entire reaction from any pile whose center is located d
p
/2 or more outside this section
shall beconsidered asproducingshear on that section.
(b) The reaction from any pile whose center is located d
p
/2 or more inside the section shall be
considered asproducingno shear on that section.
(c) For intermediateportionsof thepilecenter, theportion of thepilereaction to beconsidered
asproducingshear on thesection shall bebasedon straight-lineinterpolation between thefull
valueat d
p
/2outsidethesection and zero at d
p
/2insidethesection [ 1] .
In addition to checkingpunchingand one-way shear, punchingshear must beinvestigated for the
individual pile. Particularlyin capson asmall number of heavilyloadedpiles, it isthispossibilityof a
pilepunchingupward through thecap which may govern therequired depth. Thecritical perimeter
for thisaction, again, islocated at adistanced/2 outsidetheupper edgeof thepile. However, for
relativelydeepcapsandcloselyspacedpiles, critical perimetersaroundadjacent pilesmayoverlap. In
thiscase, fracture, if any, would undoubtedly occur alongan outward-slantingsurfacearound both
adjacent piles. For such situationsthecritical perimeter issolocated that itslength isaminimum, as
shown for two adjacent pilesin Figure4.29.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
FIGURE4.29: Modied critical section for shear with overlappingcritical perimeters.
4.11 Walls
4.11.1 Panel, Curtain, andBearingWalls
Asageneral rule, theexterior wallsof areinforced concretebuildingaresupported at each oor by
theskeleton framework, their onlyfunction beingtoenclosethebuilding. Suchwallsarecalledpanel
walls. They may be made of concrete (often precast), cinder concrete block, brick, tile blocks, or
insulated metal panels. Thethicknessof each of thesetypesof panel wallswill vary accordingto the
material, typeof construction, climatological conditions, and thebuildingrequirementsgoverning
theparticular locality in which theconstruction takesplace. Thepressureof thewind isusually the
onlyload that isconsidered in determiningthestructural thicknessof awall panel, although in some
casesexterior wallsareusedasdiaphragmstotransmit forcescausedbyhorizontal loadsdown tothe
buildingfoundations.
Curtainwallsaresimilar topanel wallsexcept that theyarenot supportedat eachstorybytheframe
of thebuilding; rather, they areself supporting. However, they areoften anchored to thebuilding
frameat each oor to providelateral support.
A bearingwall may bedened asonethat carriesany vertical load in addition to itsown weight.
Such walls may be constructed of stone masonry, brick, concrete block, or reinforced concrete.
Occasional projections or pilasters add to the strength of the wall and are often used at points of
load concentration. Bearingwallsmay beof either singleor doublethickness, theadvantageof the
latter typebeing that theair spacebetween thewallsrenderstheinterior of thebuilding lessliable
to temperaturevariation and makesthewall itself morenearly moistureproof. On account of the
greater grossthicknessof thedoublewall, such construction reducestheavailableoor space.
Accordingto ACI CodeSec. 14.5.2theload capacity of awall isgiven by
P
nw
= 0.55f

c
A
g
_
1
_
kl
c
32h
_
2
_
(4.140)
where
P
nw
= design axial load strength
A
g
= grossareaof section, in.
2
l
c
= vertical distancebetween supports, in.
h = thicknessof wall, in.
= 0.7
and wheretheeffectivelength factor k istaken as0.8 for wallsrestrained against rotation at top or
bottomor both, 1.0for wallsunrestrained against rotation at both ends, and 2.0for wallsnot braced
against lateral translation.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
Inthecaseof concentratedloads, thelengthof thewall tobeconsideredaseffectivefor eachshould
not exceed thecenter-to-center distancebetween loads; nor should it exceed thewidth of thebearing
plus4 timesthewall thickness. Reinforced concretebearingwallsshould haveathicknessof aleast
1/25timestheunsupported height or width, whichever isshorter. Reinforced concretebearingwalls
of buildingsshould benot lessthan 4in. thick.
Minimum ratio of horizontal reinforcement area to gross concrete area should be 0.0020 for
deformed barsnot larger than #5with specied yield strength not lessthan 60,000 psi or 0.0025
for other deformed barsor 0.0025 for welded wirefabric not larger than W31 or D31. Minimum
ratio of vertical reinforcement area to grossconcretearea should be0.0012 for deformed barsnot
larger than #5with specied yield strength not lessthan 60,000 psi or 0.0015 for other deformed
barsor 0.0012 for welded wirefabric not larger than W31 or D31. In addition to theminimum
reinforcement, not lessthan two #5 barsshall beprovided around all window and door openings.
Such barsshall beextended to develop thebar beyond thecornersof theopeningsbut not lessthan
24in.
Wallsmorethan 10 in. thick should havereinforcement for each direction placed in two layers
parallel with facesof wall. Vertical and horizontal reinforcement should not bespaced further apart
than threetimesthewall thickness, or 18 in. Vertical reinforcement need not beenclosed by lateral
tiesif vertical reinforcement areaisnot greater than 0.01timesgrossconcretearea, or wherevertical
reinforcement isnot required ascompression reinforcement.
Quantity of reinforcement and limitsof thicknessmentioned abovearewaived wherestructural
analysis shows adequatestrength and stability. Wallsshould beanchored to intersecting elements
such asoors, roofs, or to columns, pilasters, buttresses, and intersectingwalls, and footings.
4.11.2 Basement Walls
In determining the thickness of basement walls, the lateral pressure of the earth, if any, must be
considered in addition to other structural features. If it ispart of abearingwall, thelower portion
maybedesignedeither asaslabsupportedbythebasement andoorsor asaretainingwall, depending
upon thetypeof construction. If columnsand wall beamsareavailablefor support, each basement
wall panel of reinforcedconcretemaybedesignedtoresist theearthpressureasasimpleslabreinforced
in either oneor two directions. A minimum thicknessof 7.5 in. isspecied for reinforced concrete
basement walls. In wet ground a minimum thickness of 12 in. should be used. In any case, the
thicknesscannot belessthan that of thewall above.
Care should be taken to brace a basement wall thoroughly from the inside (1) if the earth is
backlled beforethewall hasobtained sufcient strength to resist thelateral pressurewithout such
assistance, or (2) if it isplaced beforetherst-oor slab isin position.
4.11.3 PartitionWalls
Interior wallsused for thepurposeof subdividingtheoor areamay bemadeof cinder block, brick,
precast concrete, metal lath and plaster, clay tile, or metal. The type of wall selected will depend
upon thereresistancerequired; exibility of rearrangement; easewith which electrical conduits,
plumbing, etc. can beaccommodated; and architectural requirements.
4.11.4 ShearsWalls
Horizontal forcesacting on buildingsfor example, thosedueto wind or seismic actioncan be
resistedbyavarietyof means. Rigid-frameresistanceof thestructure, augmentedbythecontribution
of ordinarymasonrywallsand partitions, can providefor wind loadsin manycases. However, when
heavy horizontal loading islikelysuch aswould result from an earthquakereinforced concrete
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
shear walls areused. Thesemay beadded solely to resist horizontal forces; alternatively, concrete
wallsenclosingstairwaysor elevator shaftsmay also serveasshear walls.
Figure4.30showsabuildingwith wind or seismicforcesrepresented by arrowsactingon theedge
of each oor or roof. Thehorizontal surfacesact asdeep beamstotransmit loadstovertical resisting
FIGURE 4.30: Building with shear walls subject to horizontal loads: (a) typical oor; (b) front
elevation; (c) end elevation.
elements A and B. These shear walls, in turn, act as cantilever beams xed at their base to carry
loadsdown to thefoundation. They aresubjected to (1) avariableshear, which reachesmaximum
at thebase, (2) abendingmoment, which tendsto causevertical tension near theloaded edgeand
compression at thefar edge, and (3) avertical compression dueto ordinary gravity loadingfromthe
structure. For thebuildingshown, additional shear wallsCand D areprovided to resist loadsacting
in thelogdirection of thestructure.
Thedesign basisfor shear walls, according to theACI Code, isof thesamegeneral form asthat
used for ordinary beams:
V
u
V
n
(4.141)
V
n
= V
c
+V
s
(4.142)
Shear strengthV
n
at anyhorizontal section for shear in planeof wall shouldnot betaken greater than
10
_
f

c
hd. In thisand all other equationspertaining to thedesign of shear walls, thedistanceof d
maybetaken equal to0.8l
w
. Alarger valueof d, equal tothedistancefromtheextremecompression
faceto thecenter of forceof all reinforcement in tension, may beused when determined by astrain
compatibility analysis.
Thevalueof V
c
, thenominal shear strength provided by theconcrete, may bebased on theusual
equationsfor beams, accordingto ACI Code. For wallssubjected to vertical compression,
V
c
= 2
_
f

c
hd (4.143)
and for wallssubjected to vertical tension N
u
,
V
c
= 2
_
1 +
N
u
500A
g
_
_
f

c
hd (4.144)
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
whereN
u
isthefactored axial load in pounds, taken negativefor tension, and A
g
isthegrossareaof
horizontal concretesection in squareinches. Alternatively, thevalueof V
c
may bebased on amore
detailed calculation, asthelesser of
V
c
= 3.3
_
f

c
hd +
N
u
d
4l
w
(4.145)
or
V
c
=
_
0.6
_
f

c
+
l
w
_
1.25
_
f

c
+0.2N
u
/l
w
h
_
M
u
/V
u
l
w
/2
_
hd (4.146)
Equation 4.145correspondsto theoccurrenceof aprincipal tensilestressof approximately 4
_
f

c
at
thecentroid of theshear-wall section. Equation 4.146correspondsapproximately to theoccurrence
of aexural tensilestressof 6
_
f

c
at asection l
w
/2abovethesection beinginvestigated. Thusthetwo
equationspredict, respectively, web-shear cracking and exure-shear cracking. When thequantity
M
u
/V
u
l
w
/2 isnegative, Equation 4.146 isinapplicable. According to theACI Code, horizontal
sectionslocated closer tothewall basethan adistancel
w
/2 or h
w
/2, whichever less, maybedesigned
for thesameV
c
asthat computed at adistancel
w
/2or h
w
/2.
When thefactored shear forceV
u
doesnot exceed V
c
/2, awall may bereinforced according to
theminimum requirementsgiven in Sec. 12.1. When V
u
exceedsV
c
/2, reinforcement for shear is
to beprovided accordingto thefollowingrequirements.
Thenominal shear strength V
s
provided by thehorizontal wall steel isdetermined on thesame
basisasfor ordinary beams:
V
s
=
A
v
f
y
d
s
2
(4.147)
whereA
v
isthearea of horizontal shear reinforcement within vertical distances
2
, (in.
2
), s
2
isthe
vertical distancebetweenhorizontal reinforcement, (in.), andf
y
istheyieldstrengthof reinforcement,
psi. Substituting Equation 4.147 into Equation 4.142, then combining with Equation 4.141, one
obtainstheequation for therequired areaof horizontal shear reinforcement within adistances
2
:
A
v
=
(V
u
V
c
) s
2
f
y
d
(4.148)
Theminimumpermitted ratio of horizontal shear steel to grossconcreteareaof vertical section,
n
,
is0.0025and themaximumspacings
2
isnot exceed l
w
/5, 3h, or 18in.
Test resultsindicatethat for lowshear walls, vertical distributed reinforcement isneeded aswell as
horizontal reinforcement. Codeprovisionsrequirevertical steel of areaA
h
within aspacings
1
, such
that theratio of vertical steel to grossconcreteareaof horizontal section will not belessthan

n
= 0.0025 +0.5
_
2.5
h
w
l
w
_
(
h
0.0025) (4.149)
nor lessthan0.0025. However, thevertical steel rationeednot begreater thantherequiredhorizontal
steel ratio. Thespacingof thevertical barsisnot to exceed l
w
/3, 3h, or 18in.
Walls may be subjected to exural tension due to overturning moment, even when the vertical
compression fromgravityloadsissuperimposed. In manybut not all cases, vertical steel isprovided,
concentrated near thewall edges, asin Figure4.31. Therequired steel areacan befound by theusual
methodsfor beams.
TheACI Codecontainsrequirementsfor thedimensionsand detailsof structural wallsservingas
part of theearthquake-forceresistingsystems. Thereinforcement ratio,
v
(= A
sv
/A
cv
; whereA
cv
isthenet areaof concretesection bounded by web thicknessand length of section in thedirection of
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
FIGURE4.31: Geometry and reinforcement of typical shear wall: (a) crosssection; (b) elevation.
shear forceconsidered, and A
sv
istheprojection on A
cv
of areaof distributed shear reinforcement
crossingtheplaneof A
cv
), for structural wallsshould not belessthan 0.0025alongthelongitudinal
and transverseaxes. Reinforcement provided for shear strength should becontinuousand should
bedistributed acrosstheshear plane. If thedesign shear forcedoesnot exceed A
cv
_
f

c
, theshear
reinforcement may conform to the reinforcement ratio given in Sec. 12.1. At least two curtains
of reinforcement should beused in a wall if thein-planefactored shear forceassigned to thewall
exceeds2A
cv
_
f

c
. All continuousreinforcement in structural wallsshould beanchored or spliced
in accordancewith theprovisionsfor reinforcement in tension for seismicdesign.
Proportioningand detailsof structural wallsthat resist shear forcescaused by earthquakemotion
iscontained in theACI CodeSec. 21.7.3.
4.12 DeningTerms
ThetermscommoninconcreteengineeringasdenedinandselectedfromtheCement andConcrete
Terminology Report of ACI Committee116aregiven below[ 1, Further Reading] .
Allowablestress: Maximum permissiblestressused in design of membersof astructureand based
on afactor of safety against yieldingor failureof any type.
Allowablestressdesign (ASD): Design principleaccording to which stressesresulting from service
or workingloadsarenot allowed to exceed specied allowablevalues.
Balanced load: Combination of axial forceand bendingmoment that causessimultaneouscrushing
of concreteand yieldingof tension steel.
Balanced reinforcement: An amount anddistribution of exural reinforcement such that thetensile
reinforcement reaches its specied yield strength simultaneously with the concrete in com-
pression reachingitsassumed ultimatestrain of 0.003.
Beam: A structural member subjected primarily to exure; depth-to-span ratio islimited to 2/5for
continuous spans, or 4/5 for simplespans, otherwisethemember is to betreated as a deep
beam.
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Beam-column: A structural member that is subjected simultaneously to bending and substantial
axial forces.
Bond: Adhesion and grip of concreteor mortar to reinforcement or to other surfacesagainst which
it isplaced; toenhancebondstrength, ribsor other deformationsareaddedtoreinforcingbars.
Camber: A deection that is intentionally built into a structural element or form to improve ap-
pearanceor to offset thedeection of theelement under theeffectsof loads, shrinkage, and
creep.
Cast-in-placeconcrete: Concretepoured in itsnal or permanent location; also called insitucon-
crete; oppositeof precast concrete.
Column: Amember usedtosupport primarilyaxial compression loadswithaheight of at least three
timesitsleast lateral dimensions; thecapacity of short columnsiscontrolled by strength; the
capacity of longcolumnsislimited by buckling.
Column strip: Theportion of aat slabover arowof columnsconsistingof thetwoadjacent quarter
panelson each sideof thecolumn centerline.
Composition construction: Atypeof construction usingmembersmadeof different materials(e.g.,
concrete and structural steel), or combining members made of cast-in-place concrete and
precast concretesuch that thecombined componentsact together asasinglemember; strictly
speaking, reinforced concreteisalso compositeconstruction.
Compression member: A member subjected primarily to longitudinal compression; often synony-
mouswith column.
Compressivestrength: Strength typically measured on astandard 612in. cylinder of concretein
an axial compression test, 28d after casting.
Concrete: A composite material that consists essentially of a binding medium within which are
embedded particles or fragments of aggregate; in portland cement concrete, the binder is a
mixtureof portland cement and water.
Conned concrete: Concreteenclosed by closely spaced transversereinforcement, which restrains
theconcreteexpansion in directionsperpendicular to theapplied stresses.
Construction joint: Thesurfacewheretwo successiveplacementsof concretemeet, acrosswhich it
may bedesirableto achievebond, and through which reinforcement may becontinuous.
Continuousbeamor slab: A beam or slab that extends as a unit over threeor moresupports in a
given direction and isprovided with thenecessary reinforcement to develop thenegativemo-
mentsover theinterior supports; aredundant structurethat requiresastaticallyindeterminant
analysis(oppositeof simplesupported beamor slab).
Cover: In reinforced concrete, theshortest distancebetween thesurfaceof thereinforcement and
theouter surfaceof theconcrete; minimum valuesarespecied to protect thereinforcement
against corrosion and to assuresufcient bond strength.
Cracks: Results of stresses exceeding concretes tensile strength capacity; cracks are ubiquitous in
reinforced concreteand needed todevelop thestrength of thereinforcement, but adesign goal
isto keep their widthssmall (hairlinecracks).
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Cracked section: A section designed or analyzed on theassumption that concretehasno resistance
to tensilestress.
Crackingload: Theload that causestensilestressin amember to beequal to thetensilestrength of
theconcrete.
Deformed bar: Reinforcing bar with amanufactured pattern of surfaceridgesintended to prevent
slip when thebar isembedded in concrete.
Design strength: Ultimate load-bearing capacity of a member multiplied by a strength reduction
factor.
Development length: Thelength of embedded reinforcement to develop thedesign strength of the
reinforcement; afunction of bond strength.
Diagonal crack: An inclined crack caused by adiagonal tension, usually at about 45 degreesto the
neutral axisof aconcretemember.
Diagonal tension: Theprincipal tensilestressresultingfrom thecombination of normal and shear
stressesactingupon astructural element.
Drop panel: Theportion of aat slab in theareasurroundingacolumn, column capital, or bracket
which isthickened in order to reducetheintensity of stresses.
Ductility: Capability of a material or structural member to undergo large inelastic deformations
without distress; opposite of brittleness; very important material property, especially for
earthquake-resistant design; steel is naturally ductile, concrete is brittle but it can be made
ductileif well conned.
Durability: Theability of concreteto maintain itsqualitiesover long timespanswhileexposed to
weather, freeze-thawcycles, chemical attack, abrasion, and other serviceload conditions.
Effectivedepth: Depthof abeamor slabsection measuredfromthecompression facetothecentroid
of thetensilereinforcement.
Effectiveangewidth: Width of slab adjoiningabeam stem assumed to function astheangeof a
T-section.
Effectiveprestress: Thestressremainingintheprestressingsteel or intheconcreteduetoprestressing
after all losseshaveoccurred.
Effectivespan: Thelesser of thedistancebetween centersof supportsand theclear distancebetween
supportsplustheeffectivedepth of thebeamor slab.
Flat slab: A concreteslab reinforced in two or moredirections, generally without beamsor girders
totransfer theloadstosupportingmembers, but with drop panelsor column capitalsor both.
High-early strength cement: Cement producingstrength in mortar or concreteearlier than regular
cement.
Hoop: A one-piececlosed reinforcingtieor continuously wound tiethat enclosesthelongitudinal
reinforcement.
Interaction diagram: Failure curve for a member subjected to both axial force and the bending
moment, indicatingthemoment capacityfor agiven axial load and viceversa; used todevelop
design chartsfor reinforced concretecompression members.
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Lightweight concrete: Concrete of substantially lower unit weight than that made using normal-
weight gravel or crushed stoneaggregate.
Limit analysis: SeePlasticanalysis.
Limit design: A method of proportioning structural membersbased on satisfying certain strength
and serviceability limit states.
Load and resistancefactor design (LRFD): SeeUltimatestrength design.
Load factor: A factor by which a serviceload ismultiplied to determinethefactored load used in
ultimatestrength design.
Modulusof elasticity: Theratio of normal stressto correspondingstrain for tensileof compressive
stressesbelowtheproportional limit of thematerial; for steel, E
s
= 29,000 ksi; for concrete
it ishighly variablewith stresslevel and thestrength f

c
; for normal-weight concreteand low
stresses, acommon approximation isE
c
= 57,000
_
f

c
.
Modulusof rupture: Thetensilestrengthof concreteasmeasuredinaexural test of asmall prismatic
specimen of plain concrete.
Mortar: Amixtureof cement pasteand neaggregate; in fresh concrete, thematerial occupyingthe
intersticesamongparticlesof coarseaggregate.
Nominal strength: The strength of a structural member based on its assumed material properties
and sectional dimensions, beforeapplication of any strength reduction factor.
Plasticanalysis: Amethod of structural analysisto determinetheintensity of aspecied load distri-
bution at which thestructureformsacollapsemechanism.
Plastichinge: Region of exural member wheretheultimatemoment capacitycan bedevelopedand
maintained with corresponding signicant inelastic rotation, asmain tensilesteel isstressed
beyond theyield point.
Post-tensioning: A method of prestressing reinforced concretein which thetendonsaretensioned
after theconcretehashardened (oppositeof pretensioning).
Precast concrete: Concretecast elsewherethan itsnal position, usually in factoriesor factory-like
shop sitesnear thenal site(oppositeof cast-in-placeconcrete).
Prestressed concrete: Concrete in which internal stresses of such magnitude and distribution are
introducedthat thetensilestressesresultingfromtheserviceloadsarecounteractedtoadesired
degree; in reinforced concretetheprestressiscommonly introduced by tensioningembedded
tendons.
Prestressingsteel: Highstrengthsteel usedtoprestressconcrete, commonlyseven-wirestrands, single
wires, bars, rods, or groupsof wiresor strands.
Pretensioning: A method of prestressing reinforced concrete in which the tendons are tensioned
beforetheconcretehashardened (oppositeof post-tensioning).
Ready-mixed concrete: Concretemanufactured for delivery to apurchaser in aplasticand unhard-
ened state; usually delivered by truck.
Rebar: Short for reinforcingbar; seeReinforcement.
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Reinforced concrete: Concretecontainingadequatereinforcement (prestressedor not) anddesigned
on theassumption that thetwo materialsact together in resistingforces.
Reinforcement: Bars, wires, strands, and other slender membersthat areembedded in concretein
such amanner that thereinforcement and theconcreteact together in resistingforces.
Safety factor: Theratio of aload producingan undesirablestate(such ascollapse) and an expected
or serviceload.
Serviceloads: Loadson a structurewith high probability of occurrence, such asdead weight sup-
ported by amember or theliveloadsspecied in buildingcodesand bridgespecications.
Shear key: A recessor groovein ajoint between successiveliftsor placementsof concrete, which is
lled with concreteof theadjacent lift, givingshear strength to thejoint.
Shear span: Thedistancefrom a support of a simply supported beam to thenearest concentrated
load.
Shear wall: SeeStructural wall.
Shotcrete: Mortar or concretepneumatically projected at high velocity onto asurface.
Silicafume: Very nenoncrystallinesilicaproduced in electric arc furnacesasaby-product of the
production of metallicsilicon and varioussilicon alloys(also knowascondensed silicafume);
used asamineral admixturein concrete.
Slab: Aat, horizontal (or neatlyso) moldedlayer of plainor reinforcedconcrete, usuallyof uniform
thickness, either on theground or supported by beams, columns, walls, or other framework.
Seealso Flat slab.
Slump: A measureof consistency of freshly mixed concreteequal to thesubsidenceof themolded
specimen immediately after removal of theslump cone, expressed in inches.
Splice: Connection of onereinforcingbar to another by lapping, welding, mechanical couplers, or
other means.
Split cylinder test: Test for tensilestrengthof concreteinwhichastandardcylinder isloadedtofailure
in diametral compression applied alongtheentirelength (also called Brazilian test).
Standard cylinder: Cylindric specimen of 12-in. height and 6-in. diameter, used to determinestan-
dard compressivestrength and splittingtensilestrength of concrete.
Stiffnesscoefcient: Thecoefcient k
ij
of stiffnessmatrix Kfor amulti-degreeof freedomstructure
is the force needed to hold the ith degree of freedom in place, if the jth degree of freedom
undergoesaunit of displacement, whileall othersarelocked in place.
Stirrup: A reinforcement used to resist shear and diagonal tension stressesin astructural member;
typically asteel bar bent into aU or rectangular shapeand installed perpendicular to or at an
angleto thelongitudinal reinforcement, and properly anchored; theterm stirrup isusually
appliedtolateral reinforcement inexural membersandthetermtie tolateral reinforcement
in compression members. SeeTie.
Strength design: SeeUltimatestrength design.
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Strength reduction factor: Capacity reduction factor (typically designated as) by which thenomi-
nal strength of amember istobemultiplied toobtain thedesign strength; specied bytheACI
Codefor different typesof members.
Structural concrete: Concreteused to carry load or to forman integral part of astructure(opposite
of, for example, insulatingconcrete).
T-beam: A beam composed of a stem and a ange in the form of a T, with the ange usually
provided by aslab.
Tension stiffeningeffect: The added stiffness of a single reinforcing bar due to the surrounding
uncracked concretebetween bond cracks.
Tie: Reinforcingbar bent intoaloop toenclosethelongitudinal steel in columns; tensilebar tohold
aformin placewhileresistingthelateral pressureof unhardened concrete.
Ultimatestrength design (USD): Designprinciplesuchthat theactual (ultimate) strengthof amem-
ber or structure, multiplied by astrength factor, isno lessthan theeffectsof all serviceload
combinations, multiplied by respectiveoverload factors.
Unbonded tendon: A tendon that isnot bonded to theconcrete.
Under-reinforced beam: Abeamwith lessthan balanced reinforcement such that thereinforcement
yieldsbeforetheconcretecrushesin compression.
Water-cement ratio: Ratio by weight of water to cement in a mixture; inversely proportional to
concretestrength.
Water-reducingadmixture: An admixture capable of lowering the mix viscosity, thereby allowing
areduction of water (and increasein strength) without lowering theworkability (also called
superplasticizer).
Whitney stressblock: Arectangular areaof uniformstressintensity0.85f

c
, whoseareaandcentroid
aresimilar to that of theactual stressdistribution in aexural member near failure.
Workability: General property of freshly mixed concretethat denestheeasewith which it can be
placed into formswithout honeycombs; closely related to slump.
Workingstressdesign: SeeAllowablestressdesign.
Yield-linetheory: Method of structural analysis of plate structures at the verge of collapse under
factored loads.
References
[ 1] ACI Committee318. 1992. BuildingCodeRequirementsfor ReinforcedConcreteandCommentary,
ACI 318-89(Revised92) andACI 318R-89(Revised92) (347pp.). Detroit, MI.
[ 2] ACI Committee340. 1990. DesignHandbookinAccordancewiththeStrengthDesignMethodof
ACI 318-89. Volume2, SP-17(222pp.).
[ 3] ACI Committee363. 1984. State-of-the-art report on highstrengthconcrete. ACI J. Proc. 81(4):364-
411.
[ 4] ACI Committee436. 1996. Suggested design procedures for combined footings and mats. J. ACI.
63:1041-1057.
[ 5] Breen, J.E. 1991. Why structural concrete?IASEColloq. Struct. Concr. Stuttgart, pp.15-26.
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[ 6] Collins, M.P. andMitchell, D. 1991. PrestressedConcreteStructures,1st ed., PrenticeHall, Englewood
Cliffs, N.J.
[ 7] Fintel, M. 1985. Handbookof ConcreteEngineering. 2nd ed., Van Nostrand Reinhold, NewYork.
[ 8] MacGregor, J.G. 1992. ReinforcedConcreteMechanicsandDesign,2nded., PrenticeHall, Englewood
Cliffs, N.J.
[ 9] Nilson, A.H. and Winter, G. 1992. Designof ConcreteStructures, 11th ed., McGraw-Hill, NewYork.
[ 10] StandardHandbookfor Civil Engineers, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, NewYork.
[ 11] Wang, C.-K. and Salmon, C. G. 1985. ReinforcedConcreteDesign, 4th ed., Harper Row, NewYork.
Further Reading
[ 1] ACI Committee116. 1990. Cement andConcreteTerminology, Report 116R-90, American Concrete
Institute, Detroit, MI.
[ 2] Ferguson, P.M., Breen, J.E., and Jirsa, J.O. 1988. ReinforcedConcreteFundamentals, 5th ed., John
Wiley & Sons, NewYork.
[ 3] Lin, T-Y. and Burns, N.H. 1981. Designof PrestressedConcreteStructures, 3rd ed., John Wiley &
Sons, NewYork.
[ 4] Meyer, C. 1996. Designof ConcreteStructures, Prentice-Hall, Upper SaddleRiver, NJ.
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