723 views

Uploaded by gugi

aci manual

aci manual

© All Rights Reserved

- PE Exam preperation Solved Problems
- bearing wall design (ACI 2005)
- ACI 301 Specifications for Structural Concrete for Buildings_tcm45-346207
- ACI-318-02
- PE Civil Questions-40
- ACI 301
- Reinforced Concrete Design
- reinforced cement concrete slab design
- ACI 314 Design Aid-11.pdf
- ACI Mix Design 2
- ACI_mix_design.pdf
- COURSE Reinforced Concrete Design
- Reinforced Concrete Design by Everard and Tanner
- Design Of 6 storey Building in Etabs
- ACI 421.1R-08 - Punching Shear
- aci 318-14.pdf
- ACI List
- reinforced concrete
- ACI SP-17(14)
- SWD-ACI-530-11

You are on page 1of 73

Structural Engineering Handbook

Ed. Chen Wai-Fah

Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC, 1999

Structural Concrete Desi gn

1

Amy Gri der and

Jul i o A. Rami rez

School of Civil Engineering,

PurdueUniversity,

West Lafayette, I N

Young Mook Yun

Department of Civil Engineering,

National University,

Taegu, South Korea

4.1 Propertiesof Concreteand ReinforcingSteel

Propertiesof Concrete

Lightweight Concrete

Heavyweight

Concrete

High-Strength Concrete

ReinforcingSteel

4.2 Proportioningand MixingConcrete

ProportioningConcreteMix

Admixtures

Mixing

4.3 Flexural Design of Beamsand One-Way Slabs

Reinforced ConcreteStrength Design

Prestressed Concrete

Strength Design

4.4 Columnsunder Bendingand Axial Load

Short Columnsunder MinimumEccentricity

Short Columns

under Axial LoadandBending

SlendernessEffects

Columns

under Axial Load and Biaxial Bending

4.5 Shear and Torsion

Reinforced Concrete Beams and One-Way Slabs Strength

Design

Prestressed Concrete Beams and One-Way Slabs

Strength Design

4.6 Development of Reinforcement

Development of Bars in Tension

Development of Bars in

Compression

Development of Hooks in Tension

Splices,

Bundled Bars, and Web Reinforcement

4.7 Two-Way Systems

Denition

Design Procedures

and Reinforcement

Direct Design Method

Equivalent

FrameMethod

Detailing

4.8 Frames

Analysisof Frames

4.9 Bracketsand Corbels

4.10 Footings

Typesof Footings

Design Considerations

Wall Footings

Combined Footings

Two-

Column Footings

Foot-

ingson Piles

4.11 Walls

Panel, Curtain, andBearingWalls

Basement Walls

Partition

Walls

ShearsWalls

4.12 DeningTerms

References

Further Reading

1

Thematerial in thischapter waspreviously published by CRCPressin TheCivil EngineeringHandbook, W.F. Chen, Ed.,

1995.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

At this point in the history of development of reinforced and prestressed concrete it is neces-

sary to reexaminethefundamental approachesto design of thesecompositematerials. Structural

engineering isaworldwideindustry. Designersfrom onenation or acontinent arefaced with de-

signing aproject in another nation or continent. Thedecadesof effortsdedicated to harmonizing

concrete design approaches worldwide have resulted in some successes but in large part have led

to further differencesand numerousdifferent design procedures. It isthisabundanceof different

design approaches, techniques, and coderegulationsthat justiesand callsfor theneed for auni-

cation of design approachesthroughout theentirerangeof structural concrete, from plain to fully

prestressed [ 5] .

The effort must begin at all levels: university courses, textbooks, handbooks, and standards of

practice. Studentsandpractitionersmust beencouragedtothink of asinglecontinuumof structural

concrete. Based on this premise, this chapter on concrete design is organized to promote such

unication. In addition, effort will bedirected at dispelling thepresent unjustied preoccupation

with complex analysis procedures and often highly empirical and incompletesectional mechanics

approachesthat tendtobothdistract thedesignersfromfundamental behavior andimpart afalsesense

of accuracy to beginningdesigners. Instead, designerswill bedirected to givecareful consideration

to overall structurebehavior, remarkingtheadequateowof forcesthroughout theentirestructure.

4.1 Propertiesof ConcreteandReinforcingSteel

The designer needs to be knowledgeable about the properties of concrete, reinforcing steel, and

prestressingsteel. Thispart of thechapter summarizesthematerial propertiesof particular impor-

tanceto thedesigner.

4.1.1 Propertiesof Concrete

Workabilityistheeasewithwhichtheingredientscan bemixedandtheresultingmixhandled, trans-

ported, and placed with littlelossin homogeneity. Unfortunately, workability cannot bemeasured

directly. Engineersthereforetry to measuretheconsistency of theconcreteby performingaslump

test.

Theslumptest isuseful indetectingvariationsintheuniformityof amix. Intheslumptest, amold

shapedasthefrustumof acone, 12in. (305mm) highwithan8in. (203mm) diameter baseand4in.

(102mm) diameter top, islledwithconcrete(ASTM Specication C143). Immediatelyafter lling,

themold isremoved and thechangein height of thespecimen ismeasured. Thechangein height of

thespecimen istaken astheslump when thetest isdoneaccordingto theASTM Specication.

Awell-proportionedworkablemixsettlesslowly, retainingitsoriginal shape. Apoor mixcrumbles,

segregates, andfallsapart. Theslumpmaybeincreasedbyaddingwater, increasingthepercentageof

nes(cement or aggregate), entrainingair, or byusinganadmixturethat reduceswater requirements;

however, thesechangesmay adversely affect other propertiesof theconcrete. In general, theslump

specied should yield thedesired consistency with theleast amount of water and cement.

Concreteshouldwithstandtheweathering, chemical action, andwear towhichit will besubjected

in service over a period of years; thus, durability is an important property of concrete. Concrete

resistance to freezing and thawing damage can be improved by increasing the watertightness, en-

training 2 to 6% air, using an air-entraining agent, or applying aprotectivecoating to thesurface.

Chemical agents damage or disintegrate concrete; therefore, concrete should be protected with a

resistant coating. Resistanceto wear can beobtained by useof ahigh-strength, denseconcretemade

with hard aggregates.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

Excesswater leavesvoidsand cavitiesafter evaporation, and water can penetrateor passthrough

theconcreteif thevoids areinterconnected. Watertightnesscan beimproved by entraining air or

reducingwater in themix, or it can beprolonged through curing.

Volume change of concrete should be considered, since expansion of the concrete may cause

bucklingand dryingshrinkagemay causecracking. Expansion dueto alkali-aggregatereaction can

be avoided by using nonreactive aggregates. If reactive aggregates must be used, expansion may

be reduced by adding pozzolanic material (e.g., y ash) to the mix. Expansion caused by heat of

hydration of thecement can bereduced by keepingcement content aslowaspossible; usingTypeIV

cement; and chillingtheaggregates, water, and concretein theforms. Expansion from temperature

increases can be reduced by using coarse aggregate with a lower coefcient of thermal expansion.

Drying shrinkage can be reduced by using less water in the mix, using less cement, or allowing

adequatemoist curing. Theaddition of pozzolans, unlessallowingareduction in water, will increase

dryingshrinkage. Whether volumechangecausesdamageusually dependson therestraint present;

consideration should begiven to eliminatingrestraintsor resistingthestressesthey may cause[ 8] .

Strength of concreteisusually considered itsmost important property. Thecompressivestrength

at 28 d is often used as a measure of strength because the strength of concrete usually increases

with time. The compressive strength of concrete is determined by testing specimens in the form

of standard cylindersasspecied in ASTM Specication C192 for research testing or C31 for eld

testing. Thetest procedureisgiven in ASTM C39. If drilled coresareused, ASTM C42 should be

followed.

Thesuitability of amix isoften desired beforetheresultsof the28-d test areavailable. A formula

proposed by W. A. Slater estimatesthe28-d compressivestrength of concretefromits7-d strength:

S

28

= S

7

+30

_

S

7

(4.1)

where

S

28

= 28-d compressivestrength, psi

S

7

= 7-d compressivestrength, psi

Strengthcan beincreasedbydecreasingwater-cement ratio, usinghigher strengthaggregate, using

a pozzolan such as y ash, grading the aggregates to produce a smaller percentage of voids in the

concrete, moist curing the concrete after it has set, and vibrating the concrete in the forms. The

short-time strength can be increased by using Type III portland cement, accelerating admixtures,

and by increasingthecuringtemperature.

Thestress-strain curvefor concreteisacurvedline. Maximumstressisreachedat astrain of 0.002

in./in., after which thecurvedescends.

Themodulusof elasticity, E

c

, asgiven in ACI 318-89 (Revised 92), BuildingCodeRequirements

for ReinforcedConcrete[ 1] , is:

E

c

= w

1.5

c

33

_

f

c

lb/ft

3

and psi (4.2a)

E

c

= w

1.5

c

0.043

_

f

c

kg/m

3

and MPa (4.2b)

where

w

c

= unit weight of concrete

f

c

= compressivestrength at 28d

Tensilestrength of concreteismuch lower than thecompressivestrengthabout 7

_

f

c

for the

higher-strength concretesand 10

_

f

c

for thelower-strength concretes.

Creep istheincreasein strain with timeunder aconstant load. Creep increaseswith increasing

water-cement ratio and decreaseswith an increasein relativehumidity. Creep isaccounted for in

design by usingareduced modulusof elasticity of theconcrete.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

4.1.2 Lightweight Concrete

Structural lightweight concreteisusually madefromaggregatesconformingto ASTM C330that are

usually produced in akiln, such asexpanded claysand shales. Structural lightweight concretehasa

density between 90and 120lb/ft

3

(1440to 1920kg/m

3

).

Production of lightweight concrete is more difcult than normal-weight concrete because the

aggregatesvary in absorption of water, specicgravity, moisturecontent, and amount of gradingof

undersize. Slump and unit weight testsshould beperformed often to ensureuniformity of themix.

During placing and nishing of theconcrete, theaggregatesmay oat to thesurface. Workability

can be improved by increasing the percentage of nes or by using an air-entraining admixture to

incorporate4 to 6% air. Dry aggregateshould not beput into themix becauseit will continueto

absorbmoistureand causetheconcretetoharden beforeplacement iscompleted. Continuouswater

curingisimportant with lightweight concrete.

No-nesconcreteisobtained by usingpeagravel asthecoarseaggregateand 20to 30%entrained

air instead of sand. It isused for low dead weight and insulation when strength isnot important.

Thisconcreteweighsfrom 105 to 118 lb/ft

3

(1680 to 1890 kg/m

3

) and hasa compressivestrength

from200to 1000psi (1to 7MPa).

Aporousconcretemadebygapgradingor single-sizeaggregategradingisusedfor lowconductivity

or wheredrainageisneeded.

Lightweight concrete can also be made with gas-forming of foaming agents which are used as

admixtures. Foamconcretesrangeinweight from20to110lb/ft

3

(320to1760kg/m

3

). Themodulus

of elasticity of lightweight concretecan becomputed using thesameformula as normal concrete.

Theshrinkageof lightweight concreteissimilar to or slightly greater than for normal concrete.

4.1.3 Heavyweight Concrete

Heavyweight concretes are used primarily for shielding purposes against gamma and x-radiation

in nuclear reactorsand other structures. Barite, limoniteand magnetite, steel punchings, and steel

shot aretypically used asaggregates. Heavyweight concretesweigh from 200 to 350 lb/ft

3

(3200 to

5600 kg/m

3

) with strengthsfrom 3200 to 6000 psi (22 to 41 MPa). Gradingsand mix proportions

aresimilar to thosefor normal weight concrete. Heavyweight concretesusually do not havegood

resistanceto weatheringor abrasion.

4.1.4 High-StrengthConcrete

Concreteswith strengthsin excessof 6000 psi (41 MPa) arereferred to ashigh-strength concretes.

Strengthsup to 18,000psi (124MPa) havebeen used in buildings.

Admixtures such as superplasticizers, silicafume, and supplementary cementing materials such

asy ash improvethedispersion of cement in themix and produceworkableconcreteswith lower

water-cement ratios, lower void ratios, and higher strength. Coarse aggregates should be strong

ne-grained gravel with rough surfaces.

For concretestrengthsin excessof 6000psi (41MPa), themodulusof elasticity should betaken as

E

c

= 40,000

_

f

c

+1.0 10

6

(4.3)

where

f

c

= compressivestrength at 28d, psi [ 4]

Theshrinkageof high-strength concreteisabout thesameasthat for normal concrete.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

4.1.5 ReinforcingSteel

Concrete can be reinforced with welded wire fabric, deformed reinforcing bars, and prestressing

tendons.

Welded wire fabric is used in thin slabs, thin shells, and other locations where space does not

allowtheplacement of deformed bars. Welded wirefabricconsistsof cold drawn wirein orthogonal

patternssquareor rectangular and resistance-welded at all intersections. Thewiremay besmooth

(ASTM A185 and A82) or deformed (ASTM A497 and A496). Thewireisspecied by thesymbol

W for smooth wiresor D for deformed wiresfollowed by anumber representingthecross-sectional

areain hundredthsof asquareinch. On design drawingsit isindicatedbythesymbol WWFfollowed

by spacings of the wires in the two 90

Table4.1.

TABLE4.1 Wireand Welded WireFabricSteels

Minimum Minimum

yield tensile

Wiresize stress,

a

f

y

strength

AST designation designation ksi MPa ksi MPa

A82-79(cold-drawn wire) (properties W1.2and larger

b

65 450 75 520

apply when material isto beused for Smaller than W1.2 56 385 70 480

fabric)

A185-79(welded wirefabric) SameasA82; thisisA82 material fabricated into sheet (so-called

mesh ) by theprocessof electricwelding

A496-78 (deformed steel wire) (propertiesap-

ply when material isto beused for fabric)

D1-D31

c

70 480 80 550

A497-79 Same as A82 or A496; this specication applies for fabric made

fromA496, or fromacombination of A496and A82wires

a

Theterm yield stress refersto either yieldpoint, thewell-dened deviation from perfect elasticity, or yieldstrength,

thevalueobtained by aspecied offset strain for material havingno well-dened yield point.

b

TheW number representsthenominal cross-sectional areain squareinchesmultiplied by 100, for smooth wires.

c

TheD number representsthenominal cross-sectional areain squareinchesmultiplied by 100, for deformed wires.

Thedeformationson adeformedreinforcingbar inhibit longitudinal movement of thebar relative

to the concrete around it. Table 4.2 gives dimensions and weights of these bars. Reinforcing bar

steel can bemadeof billet steel of grades40and 60havingminimumspecicyield stressesof 40,000

and 60,000 psi, respectively (276 and 414 MPa) (ASTM A615) or low-alloy steel of grade60, which

isintended for applicationswherewelding and/or bending isimportant (ASTM A706). Presently,

grade60billet steel isthemost predominantly used for construction.

Prestressing tendons are commonly in the form of individual wires or groups of wires. Wires

of different strengths and properties are available with the most prevalent being the 7-wire low-

relaxation strandconformingtoASTM A416. ASTM A416alsocoversastress-relievedstrand, which

isseldom used in construction nowadays. Propertiesof standard prestressing strandsaregiven in

Table4.3. Prestressing tendonscould also bebars; however, thisisnot very common. Prestressing

barsmeetingASTM A722havebeen used in connectionsbetween members.

The modulus of elasticity for non-prestressed steel is 29,000,000 psi (200,000 MPa). For pre-

stressing steel, it is lower and also variable, so it should be obtained from the manufacturer. For

7-wiresstrandsconformingto ASTM A416, themodulusof elasticity isusually taken as27,000,000

psi (186,000MPa).

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

TABLE4.2 ReinforcingBar Dimensionsand Weights

Nominal dimensions . .

Bar Diameter Area Weight

number (in.) (mm) (in.

2

) (cm

2

) (lb/ft) (kg/m)

3 0.375 9.5 0.11 0.71 0.376 0.559

4 0.500 12.7 0.20 1.29 0.668 0.994

5 0.625 15.9 0.31 2.00 1.043 1.552

6 0.750 19.1 0.44 2.84 1.502 2.235

7 0.875 22.2 0.60 3.87 2.044 3.041

8 1.000 25.4 0.79 5.10 2.670 3.973

9 1.128 28.7 1.00 6.45 3.400 5.059

10 1.270 32.3 1.27 8.19 4.303 6.403

11 1.410 35.8 1.56 10.06 5.313 7.906

14 1.693 43.0 2.25 14.52 7.65 11.38

18 2.257 57.3 4.00 25.81 13.60 20.24

TABLE4.3 Standard PrestressingStrands, Wires, and Bars

Grade Nominal dimension

f

pu

Diameter Area Weight

Tendon type ksi in. in.

2

plf

Seven-wirestrand 250 1/4 0.036 0.12

270 3/8 0.085 0.29

250 3/8 0.080 0.27

270 1/2 0.153 0.53

250 1/2 0.144 0.49

270 0.6 0.215 0.74

250 0.6 0.216 0.74

Prestressingwire 250 0.196 0.0302 0.10

240 0.250 0.0491 0.17

235 0.276 0.0598 0.20

Deformed prestressingbars 157 5/8 0.28 0.98

150 1 0.85 3.01

150 11/4 1.25 4.39

150 13/8 1.58 5.56

4.2 ProportioningandMixingConcrete

4.2.1 ProportioningConcreteMix

Aconcretemixisspeciedbytheweight of water, sand, coarseaggregate, andadmixturetobeusedper

94-pound bagof cement. Thetypeof cement (Table4.4), modulusof theaggregates, and maximum

sizeof theaggregates(Table4.5) should also begiven. A mix can bespecied by theweight ratio of

cement tosand tocoarseaggregatewith theminimumamount of cement per cubicyard of concrete.

In proportioningaconcretemix, it isadvisableto makeand test trial batchesbecauseof themany

variables involved. Several trial batches should be made with a constant water-cement ratio but

varyingratiosof aggregatestoobtain thedesired workabilitywith theleast cement. Toobtain results

similar to thosein theeld, thetrial batchesshould bemixed by machine.

When timeor other conditionsdo not allow proportioning by thetrial batch method, Table4.6

maybeused. Start withmixBcorrespondingtotheappropriatemaximumsizeof aggregate. Addjust

enough water for thedesired workability. If themix isundersanded, changeto mix A; if oversanded,

changeto mix C. Weightsaregiven for dry sand. For damp sand, increasetheweight of sand 10 lb,

and for very wet sand, 20lb, per bagof cement.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

TABLE4.4 Typesof Portland Cement

a

Type Usage

I Ordinary construction wherespecial propertiesare

not required

II Ordinary construction when moderatesulfateresis-

tanceor moderateheat of hydration isdesired

III When high early strength isdesired

IV When lowheat of hydration isdesired

V When high sulfateresistanceisdesired

a

Accordingto ASTM C150.

TABLE4.5 Recommended MaximumSizesof Aggregate

a

Maximumsize, in., of aggregatefor:

Reinforced-concrete Lightly reinforced

Minimumdimension beams, columns, Heavily or unreinforced

of section, in. walls reinforced slabs slabs

5or less 3/4 11/2 3/4 11/2

611 3/4 11/2 11/2 11/2 3

1229 11/2 3 3 3 6

30or more 11/2 3 3 6

a

ConcreteManual. U.S. Bureau of Reclamation.

TABLE4.6 Typical ConcreteMixes

a

Aggregate, lb per bagof cement

Maximum Bagsof

sizeof cement Sand

aggregate, Mix per yd

3

of Air-entrained Concrete Gravel or

in. designation concrete concrete without air crushed stone

1/2 A 7.0 235 245 170

B 6.9 225 235 190

C 6.8 225 235 205

3/4 A 6.6 225 235 225

B 6.4 225 235 245

C 6.3 215 225 265

1 A 6.4 225 235 245

B 6.2 215 225 275

C 6.1 205 215 290

11/2 A 6.0 225 235 290

B 5.8 215 225 320

C 5.7 205 215 345

2 A 5.7 225 235 330

B 5.6 215 225 360

C 5.4 205 215 380

a

ConcreteManual. U.S. Bureau of Reclamation.

4.2.2 Admixtures

Admixtures may be used to modify the properties of concrete. Some types of admixtures are set

accelerators, water reducers, air-entraining agents, and waterproofers. Admixtures are generally

helpful in improving quality of the concrete. However, if admixtures are not properly used, they

could haveundesirableeffects; it isthereforenecessarytoknowtheadvantagesand limitationsof the

proposed admixture. TheASTM Specicationscover many of theadmixtures.

Set acceleratorsareused (1) when it takestoo long for concreteto set naturally; such asin cold

weather, or (2) to acceleratetherateof strength development. Calcium chlorideiswidely used asa

set accelerator. If not used in theright quantities, it could haveharmful effectson theconcreteand

reinforcement.

Water reducerslubricatethemixandpermit easier placement of theconcrete. Sincetheworkability

of a mix can beimproved by a chemical agent, lesswater isneeded. With lesswater but thesame

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

cement content, thestrength isincreased. Sincelesswater isneeded, thecement content could also

be decreased, which results in less shrinkage of the hardened concrete. Some water reducers also

slowdown theconcreteset, which isuseful in hot weather and integratingconsecutivepoursof the

concrete.

Air-entrainingagentsareprobablythemost widelyused typeof admixture. Minutebubblesof air

areentrained in theconcrete, which increasestheresistanceof theconcretetofreeze-thawcyclesand

theuseof ice-removal salts.

Waterproong chemicals are often applied as surface treatments, but they can be added to the

concrete mix. If applied properly and uniformly, they can prevent water from penetrating the

concretesurface. Epoxiescan also beused for waterproong. They aremoredurablethan silicone

coatings, but they may bemorecostly. Epoxiescan also beused for protection of wearingsurfaces,

patchingcavitiesand cracks, and gluefor connectingpiecesof hardened concrete.

4.2.3 Mixing

Materialsusedinmakingconcretearestoredinbatchplantsthat haveweighingandcontrol equipment

andbinsfor storingthecement andaggregates. Proportionsarecontrolledbyautomaticor manually

operated scales. Thewater ismeasured out either frommeasuringtanksor by usingwater meters.

Machinemixingisused whenever possibleto achieveuniform consistency. Therevolvingdrum-

typemixer and thecountercurrent mixer, which hasmixingbladesrotatingin theoppositedirection

of thedrum, arecommonly used.

Mixingtime, which ismeasured fromthetimeall ingredientsarein thedrum, should beat least

1.5minutesfor a1-yd

3

mixer, plus0.5min for each cubicyard of capacity over 1yd

3

[ ACI 304-73,

1973] . It also is recommended to set a maximum on mixing time since overmixing may remove

entrainedair andincreasenes, thusrequiringmorewater for workability; threetimestheminimum

mixingtimecan beused asaguide.

Ready-mixed concreteismadein plantsand delivered to job sitesin mixersmounted on trucks.

The concrete can be mixed en route or upon arrival at the site. Concrete can be kept plastic and

workablefor aslongas1.5hoursbyslowrevolvingof themixer. Mixingtimecan bebetter controlled

if water isaddedandmixingstarteduponarrival at thejobsite, wheretheoperationcanbeinspected.

4.3 Flexural Designof BeamsandOne-WaySlabs

4.3.1 ReinforcedConcreteStrengthDesign

Thebasicassumptionsmadein exural design are:

1. Sectionsperpendicular totheaxisof bendingthat areplanebeforebendingremain planeafter

bending.

2. A perfect bond existsbetween thereinforcement and theconcretesuch that thestrain in the

reinforcement isequal to thestrain in theconcreteat thesamelevel.

3. Thestrainsin both theconcreteand reinforcement areassumed to bedirectly proportional to

thedistancefromtheneutral axis(ACI 10.2.2) [ 1] .

4. Concreteisassumed to fail when thecompressivestrain reaches0.003(ACI 10.2.3).

5. Thetensilestrength of concreteisneglected (ACI 10.2.5).

6. Thestressesin theconcreteand reinforcement can becomputed fromthestrainsusingstress-

strain curvesfor concreteand steel, respectively.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

7. Thecompressivestress-strainrelationshipfor concretemaybeassumedtoberectangular, trape-

zoidal, parabolic, or any other shapethat resultsin prediction of strength in substantial agree-

ment withtheresultsof comprehensivetests(ACI 10.2.6). ACI 10.2.7outlinestheuseof arect-

angular compressivestressdistributionwhichisknownastheWhitney rectangular stressblock.

For other stressdistributionsseeReinforcedConcreteMechanicsandDesignby JamesG. Mac-

Gregor [ 8] .

Analysisof Rectangular BeamswithTensionReinforcement Only

Equationsfor M

n

andM

n

: TensionSteel Yielding Consider thebeamshowninFigure4.1.

Thecompressiveforce, C, in theconcreteis

C =

_

0.85f

c

_

ba (4.4)

Thetension force, T , in thesteel is

T = A

s

f

y

(4.5)

For equilibrium, C = T , so thedepth of theequivalent rectangular stressblock, a, is

a =

A

s

f

y

0.85f

c

b

(4.6)

Notingthat theinternal forcesC andT formanequivalent force-couplesystem, theinternal moment

is

M

n

= T (d a/2) (4.7)

or

M

n

= C(d a/2)

M

n

isthen

M

n

= T (d a/2) (4.8)

or

M

n

= C(d a/2)

where =0.90.

FIGURE4.1: Stressesand forcesin arectangular beam.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

Equationfor M

n

andM

n

: TensionSteel Elastic Theinternal forcesand equilibrium are

given by:

C = T

0.85f

c

ba = A

s

f

s

0.85f

c

ba = bdE

s

s

(4.9)

Fromstrain compatibility (seeFigure4.1),

s

=

cu

_

d c

c

_

(4.10)

Substituting

s

into theequilibriumequation, notingthat a =

1

c, and simplifyinggives

_

0.85f

c

E

s

cu

_

a

2

+(d)a

1

d

2

= 0 (4.11)

which can besolved for a. Equations4.7and 4.8can then beused to obtain M

n

and M

n

.

Reinforcement Ratios Thereinforcement ratio, , isused to represent therelativeamount

of tension reinforcement in abeamand isgiven by

=

A

s

bd

(4.12)

At thebalanced strain condition themaximum strain,

cu

, at theextremeconcretecompression

ber reaches0.003 just asthetension steel reachesthestrain

y

= f

y

/E

s

. Thereinforcement ratio

in the balanced strain condition,

b

, can be obtained by applying equilibrium and compatibility

conditions. Fromthelinear strain condition, Figure4.1,

c

b

d

=

cu

cu

+

y

=

0.003

0.003 +

f

y

29,000,000

=

87,000

87,000 +f

y

(4.13)

Thecompressiveand tensileforcesare:

C

b

= 0.85f

c

b

1

c

b

T

b

= f

y

A

sb

=

b

bdf

y

(4.14)

EquatingC

b

to T

b

and solvingfor

b

gives

b

=

0.85f

1

f

y

_

c

b

d

_

(4.15)

which on substitution of Equation 4.13gives

b

=

0.85f

1

f

y

_

87,000

87,000 +f

y

_

(4.16)

ACI 10.3.3limitstheamount of reinforcement in order to prevent nonductilebehavior:

max = 0.75

b

(4.17)

ACI 10.5requiresaminimumamount of exural reinforcement:

min

=

200

f

y

(4.18)

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

Analysisof BeamswithTensionandCompressionReinforcement

For theanalysis of doubly reinforced beams, thecross-section will bedivided into two beams.

Beam1consistsof thecompression reinforcement at thetopandsufcient steel at thebottomsothat

T

1

= C

s

; beam 2consistsof theconcreteweb and theremainingtensilereinforcement, asshown in

Figure4.2

FIGURE4.2: Strains, stresses, and forcesin beamwith compression reinforcement.

Equationfor M

n

: CompressionSteel Yields Theareaof tension steel in beam1isobtained

by settingT

1

= C

s

, which givesA

s1

= A

s

. Thenominal moment capacity of beam1isthen

M

n1

= A

s

f

y

_

d d

_

(4.19)

Beam2consistsof theconcreteandtheremainingsteel, A

s2

= A

s

A

s1

= A

s

A

s

. Thecompression

forcein theconcreteis

C = 0.85f

c

ba (4.20)

and thetension forcein thesteel for beam2is

T =

_

A

s

A

s

_

f

y

(4.21)

Thedepth of thecompression stressblock isthen

a =

_

A

s

A

s

_

f

y

0.85f

c

b

(4.22)

Therefore, thenominal moment capacity for beam2is

M

n2

=

_

A

s

A

s

_

f

y

(d a/2) (4.23)

The total moment capacity for a doubly reinforced beam with compression steel yielding is the

summation of themoment capacity for beam1and beam2; therefore,

M

n

= A

s

f

y

_

d d

_

+

_

A

s

A

s

_

f

y

(d a/2) (4.24)

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

Equationfor M

n

: CompressionSteel DoesNot Yield Assumingthat thetension steel yields,

theinternal forcesin thebeamare

T = A

s

f

y

C

c

= 0.85f

c

ba

C

s

= A

s

_

E

s

s

_

(4.25)

where

s

=

_

1

1

d

a

_

(0.003) (4.26)

Fromequilibrium, C

s

+C

c

= T or

0.85f

c

ba +A

s

E

s

_

1

1

d

a

_

(0.003) = A

s

f

y

(4.27)

Thiscan berewritten in quadraticformas

_

0.85f

c

b

_

a

2

+

_

0.003A

s

E

s

A

s

F

y

_

a

_

0.003A

s

E

s

1

d

_

= 0 (4.28)

where a can be calculated by means of the quadratic equation. Therefore, the nominal moment

capacity in adoubly reinforced concretebeamwherethecompression steel doesnot yield is

M

n

= C

c

_

d

a

2

_

+C

s

_

d d

_

(4.29)

Reinforcement Ratios The reinforcement ratio at the balanced strain condition can be

obtained in a similar manner as that for beams with tension steel only. For compression steel

yielding, thebalanced ratio is

_

_

b

=

0.85f

1

f

y

_

87,000

87,000 +f

y

_

(4.30)

For compression steel not yielding, thebalanced ratio is

_

s

f

y

_

b

=

0.85f

1

f

y

_

87,000

87,000 +f

y

_

(4.31)

Themaximumand minimumreinforcement ratiosasgiven in ACI 10.3.3and 10.5are

max

= 0.75

b

min

=

200

f

y

(4.32)

4.3.2 PrestressedConcreteStrengthDesign

Elastic Flexural Analysis

In developingelasticequationsfor prestress, theeffectsof prestressforce, deadloadmoment, and

liveload moment arecalculated separately, and then theseparatestressesaresuperimposed, giving

f =

F

A

Fey

I

My

I

(4.33)

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

where() indicatescompression and (+) indicatestension. It isnecessary to check that thestresses

in theextremebersremain within theACI-specied limitsunder any combination of loadingsthat

many occur. Thestresslimitsfor theconcreteand prestressingtendonsarespecied in ACI 18.4and

18.5[ 1] .

ACI 18.2.6statesthat thelossof areaduetoopenductsshall beconsideredwhencomputingsection

properties. It isnoted in thecommentary that section propertiesmay bebased on total areaif the

effect of theopen duct areaisconsiderednegligible. In pretensionedmembersandinpost-tensioned

membersafter grouting, section propertiescan bebased on grosssections, net sections, or effective

sectionsusingthetransformed areasof bonded tendonsand nonprestressed reinforcement.

Flexural Strength

Thestrength of aprestressed beam can becalculated usingthemethodsdeveloped for ordinary

reinforced concretebeams, with modicationstoaccount for thedifferingnatureof thestress-strain

relationship of prestressingsteel compared with ordinary reinforcingsteel.

A prestressed beam will fail when the steel reaches a stress f

ps

, generally less than the tensile

strength f

pu

. For rectangular cross-sectionsthenominal exural strength is

M

n

= A

ps

f

ps

d

a

2

(4.34)

where

a =

A

ps

f

ps

0.85f

c

b

(4.35)

Thesteel stressf

ps

can befound based on strain compatibility or by usingapproximateequations

such asthosegiven in ACI 18.7.2. Theequationsin ACI areapplicableonly if theeffectiveprestress

in thesteel, f

se

, which equalsP

e

/A

ps

, isnot lessthan 0.5f

pu

. TheACI equationsareasfollows.

(a) For memberswith bonded tendons:

f

ps

= f

pu

_

1

p

1

_

f

pu

f

c

+

d

d

p

_

_

__

(4.36)

If anycompression reinforcement istaken intoaccount when calculatingf

ps

withEquation 4.36, the

followingapplies:

_

p

f

pu

f

c

+

d

d

p

_

_

_

0.17 (4.37)

and

d

0.15d

p

(b) For memberswith unbonded tendonsand with aspan-to-depth ratio of 35or less:

f

ps

= f

se

+10,000 +

f

c

100

p

_

f

py

f

se

+60,000

_

(4.38)

(c) For memberswith unbonded tendonsand with aspan-to-depth ratio greater than 35:

f

ps

= f

se

+10,000 +

f

c

300

p

_

f

py

f

se

+30,000

_

(4.39)

Theexural strength isthen calculated fromEquation 4.34. Thedesign strength isequal to M

n

,

where = 0.90 for exure.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

Reinforcement Ratios

ACI requiresthat thetotal amount of prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement beadequate

to develop afactored load at least 1.2timesthecrackingload calculated on thebasisof amodulusof

ruptureof 7.5

_

f

c

.

To control cracking in members with unbonded tendons, some bonded reinforcement should

be uniformly distributed over the tension zone near the extreme tension ber. ACI species the

minimumamount of bonded reinforcement as

A

s

= 0.004A (4.40)

whereA istheareaof thecross-section between theexural tension faceand thecenter of gravity of

thegrosscross-section. ACI 19.9.4givestheminimumlength of thebonded reinforcement.

To ensureadequateductility, ACI 18.8.1providesthefollowingrequirement:

_

p

+

_

d

d

p

_

_

pw

+

_

d

d

p

_

_

w

_

_

_

0.36

1

(4.41)

ACI allows each of the terms on the left side to be set equal to 0.85 a/d

p

in order to simplify the

equation.

When areinforcement ratiogreater than 0.36

1

isused, ACI 18.8.2statesthat thedesign moment

strength shall not be greater than the moment strength based on the compression portion of the

moment couple.

4.4 Columnsunder BendingandAxial Load

4.4.1 Short Columnsunder MinimumEccentricity

When asymmetrical column issubjected to aconcentric axial load, P, longitudinal strainsdevelop

uniformly acrossthesection. Becausethesteel and concretearebonded together, thestrainsin the

concreteand steel areequal. For anygiven strain it ispossibletocomputethestressesin theconcrete

and steel usingthestress-strain curvesfor thetwo materials. Theforcesin theconcreteand steel are

equal to thestressesmultiplied by thecorrespondingareas. Thetotal load on thecolumn isthesum

of theforcesin theconcreteand steel:

P

o

= 0.85f

c

_

A

g

A

st

_

+f

y

A

st

(4.42)

To account for theeffect of incidental moments, ACI 10.3.5speciesthat themaximumdesign axial

load on acolumn be, for spiral columns,

P

n(max)

= 0.85

_

.85f

c

_

A

g

A

st

_

+f

y

A

st

_

(4.43)

and for tied columns,

P

n(max)

= 0.80

_

.85f

c

_

A

g

A

st

_

+f

y

A

st

_

(4.44)

For high values of axial load, values of 0.7 and 0.75 are specied for tied and spiral columns,

respectively (ACI 9.3.2.2b) [ 1] .

Short columnsaresufciently stocky such that slendernesseffectscan beignored.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

4.4.2 Short Columnsunder Axial LoadandBending

Almost all compression membersinconcretestructuresaresubjectedtomomentsinadditiontoaxial

loads. Althoughit ispossibletoderiveequationstoevaluatethestrengthof columnssubjectedtocom-

binedbendingandaxial loads, theequationsaretedioustouse. For thisreason, interaction diagrams

for columnsaregenerally computed by assumingaseriesof strain distributions, each corresponding

to aparticular point on theinteraction diagram, and computingthecorrespondingvaluesof P and

M. Once enough such points have been computed, the results are summarized in an interaction

diagram. For exampleson determiningtheinteraction diagram, seeReinforcedConcreteMechanics

andDesignby JamesG. MacGregor [ 8] or ReinforcedConcreteDesignby Chu-KiaWangand Charles

G. Salmon [ 11] .

Figure 4.3 illustrates a series of strain distributions and the resulting points on the interaction

diagram. Point A representspureaxial compression. Point B correspondsto crushing at oneface

and zero tension at theother. If thetensilestrength of concreteisignored, thisrepresentstheonset

of crackingon thebottom faceof thesection. All pointslower than thisin theinteraction diagram

represent casesinwhichthesectionispartiallycracked. Point C, thefarthest right point, corresponds

tothebalancedstrainconditionandrepresentsthechangefromcompressionfailuresfor higher loads

andtension failuresfor lower loads. Point Drepresentsastrain distribution wherethereinforcement

hasbeen strained to several timestheyield strain beforetheconcretereachesitscrushingstrain.

Thehorizontal axisof theinteraction diagram correspondsto purebending where = 0.9. A

transition isrequired from = 0.7 or 0.75 for high axial loadsto = 0.9 for purebending. The

change in begins at a capacity P

a

, which equals the smaller of the balanced load, P

b

, or 0.1

f

c

A

g

. Generally, P

b

exceeds0.1f

c

A

g

except for afewnonrectangular columns.

ACI publication SP-17A(85), ADesignHandbookfor Columns, containsnondimensional interac-

tion diagramsaswell asother design aidsfor columns[2] .

4.4.3 SlendernessEffects

ACI 10.11describesan approximateslenderness-effect design procedurebasedon themoment mag-

nier concept. Themomentsarecomputed by ordinary frameanalysisand multiplied by amoment

magnier that isafunction of thefactored axial load and thecritical buckling load of thecolumn.

Thefollowing givesasummary of themoment magnier design procedurefor slender columnsin

frames.

1. Lengthof Column. Theunsupported length, l

u

, isdened in ACI 10.11.1astheclear distance

between oor slabs, beams, or other memberscapableof givinglateral support tothecolumn.

2. Effectivelength. Theeffectivelength factors, k, used in calculating

b

shall bebetween 0.5and

1.0 (ACI 10.11.2.1). The effective length factors used to compute

s

shall be greater than 1

(ACI 10.11.2.2). Theeffectivelengthfactorscan beestimatedusingACI Fig. R10.11.2or using

ACI Equations(A)(E) given in ACI R10.11.2. Thesetwoproceduresrequirethat theratio, ,

of thecolumnsand beamsbeknown:

=

(E

c

I

c

/l

c

)

(E

b

I

b

/l

b

)

(4.45)

In computing it isacceptableto taketheEI of thecolumn astheuncracked grossE

c

I

g

of

thecolumnsand theEI of thebeamas0.5E

c

I

g

.

3. Denitionofbracedandunbracedframes. TheACI Commentarysuggeststhat aframeisbraced

if either of thefollowingaresatised:

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE4.3: Strain distributionscorrespondingto pointson interaction diagram.

(a) If thestability index, Q, for astory islessthan 0.04, where

Q =

P

u

u

H

u

h

s

0.04 (4.46)

(b) If thesum of thelateral stiffnessof thebracing elementsin astory exceedssix timesthe

lateral stiffnessof all thecolumnsin thestory.

4. Radiusofgyration. For arectangular cross-sectionr equals0.3h, andfor acircular cross-section

r equals0.25h. For other sections, r equals

I/A.

5. Considerationof slendernesseffects. ACI 10.11.4.1allowsslendernesseffectsto beneglected for

columnsin braced frameswhen

kl

u

r

< 34 12

M

1b

M

2b

(4.47)

ACI 10.11.4.2allowsslendernesseffectsto beneglected for columnsin unbraced frameswhen

kl

u

r

< 22 (4.48)

If kl

u

/r exceeds100, ACI 10.11.4.3statesthat design shall bebased on second-order analysis.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

6. Minimummoments. For columnsin abraced frame, M

2b

shall benot lessthan thevaluegiven

in ACI 10.11.5.4. In an unbraced frameACI 10.11.5.5appliesfor M

2s

.

7. Momentmagnierequation. ACI 10.11.5.1statesthat columnsshall bedesignedfor thefactored

axial load, P

u

, and amagnied factored moment, M

c

, dened by

M

c

=

b

M

2b

+

s

M

2s

(4.49)

whereM

2b

isthelarger factored end moment acting on thecolumn dueto loadscausing no

appreciablesidesway (lateral deectionslessthan l/1500) and M

2s

isthelarger factored end

moment duetoloadsthat result in an appreciablesidesway. Themomentsarecomputedfrom

aconventional rst-order elasticframeanalysis. For theaboveequation, thefollowingapply:

b

=

C

m

1 P

u

/P

c

1.0 (4.50)

s

=

1

1

P

u

/

P

c

1.0

For membersbraced against sidesway, ACI 10.11.5.1gives

s

=1.0.

C

m

= 0.6 +0.4

M

1b

M

2b

0.4 (4.51)

Theratio M

1b

/M

2b

istaken aspositiveif themember isbent in singlecurvatureand negative

if themember isbent in doublecurvature. Equation 4.51 appliesonly to columnsin braced

frames. In all other cases, ACI 10.11.5.3statesthat C

m

=1.0.

P

c

=

2

EI

(kl

u

)

2

(4.52)

where

EI =

E

c

I

g

/5 +E

s

I

se

1 +

d

(4.53)

or, approximately

EI =

E

c

I

g

/2.5

1 +

d

(4.54)

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

When computing

b

,

d

=

Axial load dueto factored dead load

Total factored axial load

(4.55)

When computing

s

,

d

=

Factored sustained lateral shear in thestory

Total factored lateral shear in thestory

(4.56)

If

b

or

s

isfound to benegative, thecolumn should beenlarged. If either

b

or

s

exceeds

2.0, consideration should begiven to enlargingthecolumn.

4.4.4 Columnsunder Axial LoadandBiaxial Bending

The nominal ultimatestrength of a section under biaxial bending and compression is a function

of three variables, P

n

, M

nx

, and M

ny

, which may also be expressed as P

n

acting at eccentricities

e

y

= M

nx

/P

n

and e

x

= M

ny

/P

n

with respect tothex and y axes. Threetypesof failuresurfacescan

bedened. In therst type, S

1

, thethreeorthogonal axesaredenedbyP

n

, e

x

, ande

y

; in thesecond

type, S

2

, thevariablesdening theaxesare1/P

n

, e

x

, and e

y

; and in thethird type, S

3

theaxesare

P

n

, M

nx

, and M

ny

. In thepresentation that follows, theBresler reciprocal load method makesuse

of thereciprocal failuresurfaceS

2

, and theBresler load contour method and thePCA load contour

method both usethefailuresurfaceS

3

.

Bresler Reciprocal LoadMethod

Usingafailuresurfaceof typeS

2

, Bresler proposed thefollowingequation asameansof approx-

imatingapoint on thefailuresurfacecorrespondingto prespecied eccentricitiese

x

and e

y

:

1

P

ni

=

1

P

nx

+

1

P

ny

1

P

0

(4.57)

where

P

ni

= nominal axial load strength at given eccentricity alongboth axes

P

nx

= nominal axial load strength at given eccentricity alongx axis

P

ny

= nominal axial load strength at given eccentricity alongy axis

P

0

= nominal axial load strength for purecompression (zero eccentricity)

Test results indicate that Equation 4.57 may be inappropriate when small values of axial load are

involved, such aswhen P

n

/P

0

isin therangeof 0.06 or less. For such casesthemember should be

designed for exureonly.

Bresler LoadContour Method

ThefailuresurfaceS

3

can bethought of asafamilyof curves(load contours) each corresponding

to aconstant valueof P

n

. Thegeneral nondimensional equation for theload contour at constant P

n

may beexpressed in thefollowingform:

_

M

nx

M

ox

_

1

+

_

M

ny

M

oy

_

2

= 1.0 (4.58)

where

M

nx

= P

n

e

y

; M

ny

= P

n

e

x

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

M

ox

= M

nx

capacity at axial load P

n

when M

ny

(or e

x

) iszero

M

oy

= M

ny

capacity at axial load P

n

when M

nx

(or e

y

) iszero

The exponents

1

and

2

depend on the column dimensions, amount and arrangement of the

reinforcement, and material strengths. Bresler suggeststaking

1

=

2

= . Calculated valuesof

vary from 1.15 to 1.55. For practical purposes, can betaken as1.5 for rectangular sectionsand

between 1.5and 2.0for squaresections.

PCA (Parme-Gowens)LoadContour Method

Thismethodhasbeen developedasan extension of theBresler loadcontour methodin which the

Bresler interaction Equation 4.58 istaken asthebasic strength criterion. In thisapproach, apoint

on theload contour isdened in such away that thebiaxial moment strengthsM

nx

and M

ny

arein

thesameratio astheuniaxial moment strengthsM

ox

and M

oy

,

M

ny

M

nx

=

M

oy

M

ox

= (4.59)

Theactual valueof depends on theratio of P

n

to P

0

aswell asthematerial and cross-sectional

properties, with theusual rangeof valuesbetween 0.55 and 0.70. Chartsfor determining can be

found in ACI Publication SP-17A(85), ADesignHandbookfor Columns[ 2] .

SubstitutingEquation 4.59into Equation 4.58,

_

M

ox

M

ox

_

+

_

M

oy

M

oy

_

= 1

2

= 1

= 1/2 (4.60)

=

log 0.5

log

thus,

_

M

nx

M

ox

_

log0.5/log

+

_

M

ny

M

oy

_

log0.5/log

= 1 (4.61)

For moreinformation on columnssubjected to biaxial bending, seeReinforcedConcreteDesignby

Chu-KiaWangand CharlesG. Salmon [ 11] .

4.5 Shear andTorsion

4.5.1 ReinforcedConcreteBeamsandOne-WaySlabsStrengthDesign

Thecracksthat formin areinforced concretebeamcan beduetoexureor acombination of exure

and shear. Flexural cracksstart at thebottomof thebeam, wheretheexural stressesarethelargest.

Inclinedcracks, alsocalledshear cracksor diagonal tensioncracks, areduetoacombination of exure

and shear. Inclined cracksmust exist beforeashear failurecan occur.

Inclined cracksform in two different ways. In thin-walled I-beamsin which theshear stressesin

theweb arehigh whiletheexural stressesarelow, aweb-shear crack occurs. Theinclined cracking

shear can becalculated astheshear necessary to causeaprincipal tensilestressequal to thetensile

strength of theconcreteat thecentroid of thebeam.

In most reinforcedconcretebeams, however, exural cracksoccur rst andextendverticallyin the

beam. Thesealter thestateof stressin thebeam and causeastressconcentration near thetip of the

crack. In time, theexural cracksextend to becomeexure-shear cracks. Empirical equationshave

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

been developed to calculatetheexure-shear crackingload, sincethiscrackingcannot bepredicted

by calculatingtheprincipal stresses.

In theACI Code, thebasicdesign equation for theshear capacity of concretebeamsisasfollows:

V

u

V

n

(4.62)

whereV

u

istheshear forcedueto thefactored loads, isthestrength reduction factor equal to 0.85

for shear, and V

n

isthenominal shear resistance, which isgiven by

V

n

= V

c

+V

s

(4.63)

whereV

c

istheshear carried by theconcreteand V

s

istheshear carried by theshear reinforcement.

Thetorsional capacity of abeamasgiven in ACI 11.6.5isasfollows:

T

u

T

n

(4.64)

whereT

u

isthetorsional moment dueto factored loads, isthestrength reduction factor equal to

0.85for torsion, and T

n

isthenominal torsional moment strength given by

T

n

= T

c

+T

c

(4.65)

whereT

c

isthetorsional moment strength provided by theconcreteand T

s

isthetorsional moment

strength provided by thetorsion reinforcement.

Designof BeamsandOne-WaySlabsWithout Shear Reinforcement: for Shear

Thecritical section for shear in reinforced concretebeamsistaken at adistanced from theface

of thesupport. Sectionslocated at adistancelessthan d fromthesupport aredesigned for theshear

computed at d.

Shear Strength Provided by Concrete Beams without web reinforcement will fail when

inclinedcrackingoccursor shortlyafterwards. For thisreason theshear capacityistaken equal tothe

inclinedcrackingshear. ACI givesthefollowingequationsfor calculatingtheshear strengthprovided

by theconcretefor beamswithout web reinforcement subject to shear and exure:

V

c

= 2

_

f

c

b

w

d (4.66)

or, with amoredetailed equation:

V

c

=

_

1.9

_

f

c

+2500

w

V

u

d

M

u

_

b

w

d 3.5

_

f

c

b

w

d (4.67)

Thequantity V

u

d/M

u

isnot to betaken greater than 1.0in computingV

c

whereM

u

isthefactored

moment occurringsimultaneously with V

u

at thesection considered.

Combined Shear, Moment, and Axial Load For members that are also subject to axial

compression, ACI modiesEquation 4.66asfollows(ACI 11.3.1.2):

V

c

= 2

_

1 +

N

u

2000A

k

_

_

f

c

b

w

d (4.68)

whereN

u

ispositivein compression. ACI 11.3.2.2containsamoredetailed calculation for theshear

strength of memberssubject to axial compression.

For memberssubject toaxial tension, ACI 11.3.1.3statesthat shear reinforcement shall bedesigned

to carry total shear. As an alternative, ACI 11.3.2.3 gives the following for the shear strength of

memberssubject to axial tension:

V

c

= 2

_

1 +

N

u

500A

g

_

_

f

c

b

w

d (4.69)

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

whereN

u

isnegativein tension. In Equation 4.68and 4.69theterms

_

f

c

, N

u

/A

g

, 2000, and 500all

haveunitsof psi.

CombinedShear, Moment, andTorsion For memberssubject totorsion, ACI 11.3.1.4gives

theequation for theshear strength of theconcreteasthefollowing:

V

c

=

2

_

f

c

b

w

d

_

1 +(2.5C

t

T

u

/V

u

)

2

(4.70)

where

T

u

_

0.5

_

f

x

2

y

_

Designof BeamsandOne-WaySlabsWithout Shear Reinforcements: for Torsion

ACI 11.6.1requiresthat torsional momentsbeconsidered in design if

T

u

_

0.5

_

f

x

2

y

_

(4.71)

Otherwise, torsion effectsmay beneglected.

Thecritical sectionfor torsionistakenat adistanced fromthefaceof support, andsectionslocated

at adistancelessthan d aredesigned for thetorsion at d. If aconcentrated torqueoccurswithin this

distance, thecritical section istaken at thefaceof thesupport.

Torsional StrengthProvidedbyConcrete Torsionseldomoccursbyitself; bendingmoments

andshearingforcesaretypicallypresent also. Inanuncrackedmember, shear forcesaswell astorques

produceshear stresses. Flexural shear forcesand torquesinteract in away that reducesthestrength

of themember comparedwithwhat it wouldbeif shear or torsion wereactingalone. Theinteraction

between shear and torsion istaken into account by theuseof a circular interaction equation. For

moreinformation, refer to ReinforcedConcreteMechanicsandDesignby JamesG. MacGregor [ 8] .

Thetorsional moment strength provided by theconcreteisgiven in ACI 11.6.6.1as

T

c

=

0.8

_

f

c

x

2

y

_

1 +(0.4V

u

/C

t

T

u

)

2

(4.72)

CombinedTorsionandAxial Load For memberssubject to signicant axial tension, ACI

11.6.6.2statesthat thetorsion reinforcement must bedesigned to carry thetotal torsional moment,

or asan alternativemodify T

c

asfollows:

T

c

=

0.8

_

f

c

x

2

y

_

1 +(0.4V

u

/C

t

T

u

)

2

_

1 +

N

u

500A

g

_

(4.73)

whereN

u

isnegativefor tension.

Designof BeamsandOne-WaySlabswithout Shear Reinforcement:

MinimumReinforcement ACI 11.5.5.1requiresaminimumamount of webreinforcement

tobeprovided for shear and torsion if thefactored shear forceV

u

exceedsonehalf theshear strength

provided by theconcrete(V

u

0.5V

c

) except in thefollowing:

(a) Slabsand footings

(b) Concretejoist construction

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

(c) Beamswith total depth not greater than 10inches, 21/2 timesthethicknessof theange, or 1/2

thewidth of theweb, whichever isgreatest

Theminimumareaof shear reinforcement shall beat least

A

v(min)

=

50b

w

s

f

y

for T

u

<

_

0.5

_

f

x

2

y

_

(4.74)

When torsion istobeconsidered in design, thesumof theclosed stirrupsfor shear and torsion must

satisfy thefollowing:

A

v

+2A

t

50b

w

s

f

y

(4.75)

whereA

v

istheareaof twolegsof aclosedstirrupandA

t

istheareaof onlyonelegof aclosedstirrup.

Designof StirrupReinforcement for Shear andTorsion

Shear Reinforcement Shear reinforcement isto beprovided when V

u

V

c

, such that

V

s

V

u

V

c

(4.76)

Thedesign yield strength of theshear reinforcement isnot to exceed 60,000psi.

When theshear reinforcement isperpendicular totheaxisof themember, theshear resistedbythe

stirrupsis

V

s

=

A

v

f

y

d

s

(4.77)

If theshear reinforcement isinclined at an angle, theshear resisted by thestirrupsis

V

s

=

A

v

f

y

(sin +cos ) d

s

(4.78)

Themaximumshear strength of theshear reinforcement isnot to exceed 8

_

f

c

b

w

d asstated in ACI

11.5.6.8.

SpacingLimitationsfor Shear Reinforcement ACI 11.5.4.1 sets the maximum spacing of

vertical stirrupsasthesmaller of d/2or 24inches. Themaximumspacingof inclined stirrupsissuch

that a45

at least onestirrup.

If V

s

exceeds4

_

f

c

b

w

d, themaximum allowablespacingsarereduced to onehalf of thosejust

described.

TorsionReinforcement Torsion reinforcement istobeprovided when T

u

T

c

, such that

T

s

T

u

T

c

(4.79)

Thedesign yield strength of thetorsional reinforcement isnot to exceed 60,000psi.

Thetorsional moment strength of thereinforcement iscomputed by

T

s

=

A

t

t

x

1

y

1

f

y

s

(4.80)

where

t

= [0.66 +0.33 (y

t

/x

t

)] 1.50 (4.81)

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

whereA

t

istheareaof onelegof aclosed stirrup resistingtorsion within adistances. Thetorsional

moment strength isnot to exceed 4T

c

asgiven in ACI 11.6.9.4.

Longitudinal reinforcement is to be provided to resist axial tension that develops as a result of

thetorsional moment (ACI 11.6.9.3). Therequired areaof longitudinal barsdistributed around the

perimeter of theclosed stirrupsthat areprovided astorsion reinforcement isto be

A

l

2A

t

(x

1

+y

1

)

s

A

l

_

400xs

f

y

_

T

u

T

u

+

V

u

3C

t

_

= 2A

t

_

_

x

1

+y

1

s

_

(4.82)

SpacingLimitationsfor Torsion Reinforcement ACI 11.6.8.1 givesthemaximum spacing

of closed stirrupsasthesmaller of (x

1

+y

1

)/4or 12inches.

Thelongitudinal barsareto spaced around thecircumferenceof theclosed stirrupsat not more

than 12inchesapart. At least onelongitudinal bar istobeplacedin eachcorner of theclosedstirrups

(ACI 11.6.8.2).

Designof DeepBeams

ACI 11.8 coverstheshear design of deep beams. Thissection appliesto memberswith l

n

/d <5

that areloadedononefaceandsupportedontheoppositefacesothat compressionstrutscandevelop

between theloadsand thesupports. For moreinformation on deep beams, seeReinforcedConcrete

MechanicsandDesign, 2nd ed. by JamesG. MacGregor [ 8] .

Thebasicdesign equation for simplespansdeep beamsis

V

u

(V

c

+V

s

) (4.83)

whereV

c

istheshear carriedbytheconcreteandV

s

istheshear carriedbythevertical andhorizontal

web reinforcement.

Theshear strength of deep beamsshall not betaken greater than

V

n

= 8

_

f

c

b

w

d for l

n

/d < 2

V

n

=

2

3

_

10 +

l

n

d

_

_

f

c

b

w

d for 2 l

n

/d 5 (4.84)

Design for shear isdoneat acritical section locatedat 0.15l

n

fromthefaceof support in uniformly

loadedbeams, andat themiddleof theshear spanfor beamswithconcentratedloads. For bothcases,

thecritical section shall not befarther than d fromthefaceof thesupport. Theshear reinforcement

required at thiscritical section isto beused throughout thespan.

Theshear carried by theconcreteisgiven by

V

c

= 2

_

f

c

b

w

d (4.85)

or, with amoredetailed calculation,

V

c

=

_

3.5 2.5

M

u

V

u

d

__

1.9

_

f

c

+2500

w

V

u

d

M

u

_

b

w

d 6

_

f

c

b

w

d (4.86)

where

_

3.5 2.5

M

u

V

u

d

_

2.5 (4.87)

In Equations4.86and 4.87M

u

and V

u

arethefactored moment and shear at thecritical section.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

Shear reinforcement isto beprovided when V

u

V

c

such that

V

s

=

V

u

V

c

(4.88)

where

V

s

=

_

A

v

s

_

1 +l

n

/d

12

_

+

A

vh

s

2

_

11 l

n

/d

12

__

f

y

d (4.89)

whereA

v

and s aretheareaand spacingof thevertical shear reinforcement and A

vh

and s

2

refer to

thehorizontal shear reinforcement.

ACI 11.8.9and11.8.10requireminimumreinforcement inboththevertical andhorizontal sections

asfollows:

(a) vertical direction

A

v

0.0015b

w

s (4.90)

where

s

_

d/5

18 in.

_

(4.91)

(b) horizontal direction

A

vh

0.0025b

w

s

2

(4.92)

where

s

2

_

d/3

18 in.

_

(4.93)

4.5.2 PrestressedConcreteBeamsandOne-WaySlabsStrengthDesign

At loads near failure, a prestressed beam is usually heavily cracked and behaves similarly to an

ordinary reinforced concretebeam. Many of theequationsdeveloped previously for design of web

reinforcement for nonprestressed beamscan also beapplied to prestressed beams.

Shear design isbased on thesamebasicequation asbefore,

V

u

(V

c

+V

s

)

where =0.85.

Thecritical sectionfor shear istakenat adistanceh/2fromthefaceof thesupport. Sectionslocated

at adistancelessthan h/2aredesigned for theshear computed at h/2.

Shear StrengthProvidedbytheConcrete

Theshear forceresisted by theconcreteafter crackinghasoccurred istaken asequal to theshear

that caused the rst diagonal crack. Two types of diagonal cracks have been observed in tests of

prestressed concrete.

1. Flexure-shear cracks, occurringat nominal shear V

ci

, start asnearly vertical exural cracksat

thetension faceof thebeam, then spread diagonally upward toward thecompression face.

2. Webshear cracks, occurringat nominal shear V

cw

, start inthewebduetohighdiagonal tension,

then spread diagonally both upward and downward.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

The shear strength provided by the concrete for members with effective prestress force not less

than 40%of thetensilestrength of theexural reinforcement is

V

c

=

_

0.6

_

f

c

+700

V

u

d

M

u

_

b

w

d 2

_

f

c

b

w

d (4.94)

V

c

may also becomputed asthelesser of V

ci

and V

cw

, where

V

ci

= 0.6

_

f

c

b

w

d +V

d

+

V

i

M

cr

M

max

1.7

_

f

c

b

w

d (4.95)

M

cr

=

_

I

y

t

_

_

6

_

f

c

+f

pc

f

d

_

(4.96)

V

cw

=

_

3.5

_

f

c

+0.3f

pc

_

b

w

d +V

p

(4.97)

In Equations4.95 and 4.97 d isthedistancefrom theextremecompression ber to thecentroid of

theprestressingsteel or 0.8h, whichever isgreater.

Shear StrengthProvidedbytheShear Reinforcement

Shear reinforcement for prestressed concrete is designed in a similar manner as for reinforced

concrete, with thefollowingmodicationsfor minimumamount and spacing.

MinimumReinforcement Theminimumareaof shear reinforcement shall beat least

A

v(min)

=

50b

w

s

f

y

for T

u

<

_

0.5

_

f

x

2

y

_

(4.98)

or

A

v(min)

=

A

ps

f

pu

s

80f

y

d

_

d

b

w

(4.99)

SpacingLimitationsfor Shear Reinforcement ACI 11.5.4.1 sets the maximum spacing of

vertical stirrupsasthesmaller of (3/4)h or 24in. Themaximumspacingof inclined stirrupsissuch

that a45

at least onestirrup.

If V

s

exceeds 4

_

f

c

b

w

d, themaximum allowablespacings arereduced to one-half of thosejust

described.

4.6 Development of Reinforcement

Thedevelopment length, l

d

, istheshortest length of bar in which thebar stresscan increasefrom

zero to theyield strength, f

y

. If thedistancefrom apoint wherethebar stressequalsf

y

to theend

of thebar islessthan thedevelopment length, thebar will pull out of theconcrete. Development

lengthsaredifferent for tension and compression.

4.6.1 Development of BarsinTension

ACI Fig. R12.2givesaowchart for determiningdevelopment length. Thestepsareoutlined below.

Thebasictension development lengthshavebeen foundtobe(ACI 12.2.2). For no. 11andsmaller

barsand deformed wire:

l

db

=

0.04A

b

f

y

_

f

c

(4.100)

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

For no. 14bars:

l

db

=

0.085f

y

_

f

c

(4.101)

For no. 18bars:

l

db

=

0.125f

y

_

f

c

(4.102)

where

_

f

c

isnot to betaken greater than 100psi.

The development length, l

d

, is computed as the product of the basic development length and

modication factorsgiven in ACI 12.2.3, 12.2.4, and 12.2.5. Thedevelopment length obtained from

ACI 12.2.2and 12.2.3.1through 12.2.3.5shall not belessthan

0.03d

b

f

y

_

f

c

(4.103)

asgiven ACI 12.2.3.6.

Thelength computed fromACI 12.2.2and 12.2.3isthen multiplied by factorsgiven in ACI 12.2.4

and12.2.5. Thefactorsgiven in ACI 12.2.3.1through12.2.3.3and12.2.4arerequired, but thefactors

in ACI 12.2.3.4, 12.2.3.5, and 12.2.5areoptional.

Thedevelopment length isnot to belessthan 12inches(ACI 12.2.1).

4.6.2 Development of BarsinCompression

Thebasiccompression development length is(ACI 12.3.2)

l

db

=

0.02d

b

f

y

_

f

c

0.003d

b

f

y

(4.104)

Thedevelopment length, l

d

, isfoundastheproduct of thebasicdevelopment lengthandapplicable

modication factorsgiven in ACI 12.3.3.

Thedevelopment length isnot to belessthan 8inches(ACI 12.3.1).

4.6.3 Development of HooksinTension

Thebasicdevelopment length for ahooked bar with f

y

=60,000psi is(ACI 12.5.2)

l

db

=

1200d

b

_

f

c

(4.105)

Thedevelopment length, l

dh

, isfoundastheproduct of thebasicdevelopment lengthandapplicable

modication factorsgiven in ACI 12.5.3.

Thedevelopment length of thehook isnot tobelessthan 8bar diametersor 6inches(ACI 12.5.1).

Hooksarenot to beused to develop barsin compression.

4.6.4 Splices, BundledBars, andWebReinforcement

Splices

TensionLapSplices ACI 12.15 distinguishesbetween two typesof tension lap splicesde-

pending on the amount of reinforcement provided and the fraction of the bars spliced in a given

lengthseeACI TableR12.15.2. Thesplicelengthsfor each spliceclassareasfollows:

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

ClassA splice: 1.0l

d

ClassBsplice: 1.3l

d

wherel

d

isthetensiledevelopment length ascomputed in ACI 12.2without themodication factor

for excessreinforcement given in ACI 12.2.5. Theminimumsplicelength is12inches.

Lap splicesarenot to beused for barslarger than no. 11 except at footing to column jointsand

for compression lap splicesof no. 14and no. 18barswith smaller bars(ACI 12.14.2.1). Thecenter-

to-center distancebetween two barsin alap splicecannot begreater than one-fth therequired lap

splicelength with a maximum of 6 inches (ACI 12.14.2.3). ACI 21.3.2.3 requires that tension lap

splicesof exural reinforcement in beamsresistingseismicloadsbeenclosed by hoopsor spirals.

Compression Lap Splices The splice length for a compression lap splice is given in ACI

12.16.1as

l

s

= 0.0005f

y

d

b

for f

y

60,000 psi (4.106)

l

s

=

_

0.0009f

y

24

_

d

b

for f

y

> 60,000 psi (4.107)

but not lessthan 12inches. For f

c

lessthan 3000psi, thelap length must beincreased by one-third.

When different sizebarsarelap spliced in compression, thesplicelength isto bethelarger of:

1. Compression splicelength of thesmaller bar, or

2. Compression development length of larger bar.

Compression lap splices are allowed for no. 14 and no. 18 bars to no. 11 or smaller bars (ACI

12.16.2).

End-BearingSplices End-bearingsplicesareallowedfor compression onlywherethecom-

pressivestressistransmitted by bearing of squarecut endsheld in concentric contact by asuitable

device. According to ACI 12.16.4.2 bar endsmust terminatein at surfaceswithin 1 1/2

of right

anglestotheaxisof thebarsandbettedwithin 3

areonly allowed in memberscontainingclosed ties, closed stirrups, or spirals.

WeldedSplicesor Mechanical Connections Barsstressed in tension or compression may be

spliced by weldingor by variousmechanical connections. ACI 12.14.3, 12.15.3, 12.15.4, and 12.16.3

govern theuseof such splices. For further information seeReinforcedConcreteDesign, by Chu-Kia

Wangand CharlesG. Salmon [ 11] .

BundledBars

Therequirementsof ACI 12.4.1 specify that thedevelopment length for bundled barsbebased

on that for theindividual bar in thebundle, increased by 20% for athree-bar bundleand 33% for

afour-bar bundle. ACI 12.4.2 statesthat aunit of bundled barsshall betreated asasinglebar of

adiameter derived from theequivalent total area when determiningtheappropriatemodication

factorsin ACI 12.2.3and 12.2.4.3.

WebReinforcement

ACI 12.13.1requiresthat theweb reinforcement beascloseto thecompression and tension faces

ascover and bar-spacing requirementspermit. TheACI Coderequirementsfor stirrup anchorage

areillustrated in Figure4.4.

(a) ACI 12.13.3requiresthat each bend awayfromtheendsof astirrup enclosealongitudinal bar,

asseen in Figure4.4(a).

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE4.4: Stirrup detailingrequirements.

(b) For no. 5 or D31 wire stirrups and smaller with any yield strength and for no. 6, 7, and 8

barswith ayield strength of 40,000psi or less, ACI 12.13.2.1allowstheuseof astandard hook

around longitudinal reinforcement, asshown in Figure4.4(b).

(c) For no. 6, 7, and 8stirrupswith f

y

greater than 40,000psi, ACI 12.13.2.2requiresastandard

hook around alongitudinal bar plusan embedment between midheight of themember and

theoutsideend of thehook of at least 0.014d

b

f

y

/

_

f

c

.

(d) Requirementsfor welded wirefabricformingU stirrupsaregiven in ACI 12.13.2.3.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

(e) Pairs of U stirrups that form a closed unit shall have a lap length of 1.3l

d

as shown in Fig-

ure4.4(c). Thistypeof stirrup hasproven unsuitablein seismicareas.

(f ) Requirementsfor longitudinal barsbent toact asshear reinforcement aregiven in ACI 12.13.4.

4.7 Two-WaySystems

4.7.1 Denition

When theratio of thelonger to theshorter spansof aoor panel dropsbelow2, thecontribution of

thelonger span in carryingtheoor load becomessubstantial. Sincetheoor transmitsloadsin two

directions, it isdenedasatwo-waysystem, andexural reinforcement isdesignedfor bothdirections.

Two-way systemsincludeat plates, at slabs, two-wayslabs, and wafeslabs(seeFigure4.5). The

choicebetween thesedifferent typesof two-waysystemsislargelyamatter of thearchitectural layout,

magnitudeof thedesign loads, and span lengths. A at plateissimply aslab of uniform thickness

supporteddirectlyoncolumns, generallysuitablefor relativelylight loads. For larger loadsandspans,

aat slab becomesmoresuitablewith thecolumn capitalsand drop panelsprovidinghigher shear

and exural strength. Aslabsupported on beamson all sidesof each oor panel isgenerallyreferred

to asatwo-way slab. A wafeslab isequivalent to atwo-way joist system or may bevisualized asa

solid slab with recessesin order to decreasetheweight of theslab.

FIGURE4.5: Two-way systems.

4.7.2 DesignProcedures

TheACI code[ 1] states that a two-way slab system may bedesigned by any proceduresatisfying

conditions of equilibrium and geometric compatibility if shown that the design strength at every

section isat least equal to therequired strength . . . and that all serviceability conditions, including

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

specied limitson deections, aremet (p.204). Thereareanumber of possibleapproachesto the

analysisanddesign of two-waysystemsbasedon elastictheory, limit analysis, niteelement analysis,

or combination of elastic theory and limit analysis. The designer is permitted by the ACI Code

to adopt any of theseapproachesprovided that all safety and serviceability criteriaaresatised. In

general, onlyfor casesof acomplextwo-waysystemor unusual loadingwouldaniteelement analysis

bechosen asthedesign approach. Otherwise, morepractical design approachesarepreferred. The

ACI Codedetailstwoproceduresthedirectdesignmethodandtheequivalentframemethodfor the

designof oor systemswithor without beams. Theseprocedureswerederivedfromanalytical studies

based on elastictheoryin conjunction with aspectsof limit analysisand resultsof experimental tests.

Theprimarydifferencebetween thedirect design methodandequivalent framemethodisin theway

momentsarecomputed for two-way systems.

Theyield-linetheoryisalimit analysismethoddevisedfor slabdesign. Comparedtoelastictheory,

the yield-line theory gives a more realistic representation of the behavior of slabs at the ultimate

limit state, and itsapplication isparticularly advantageousfor irregular column spacing. Whilethe

yield-line method is an upper-bound limit design procedure, stripmethodis considered to give a

lower-bound design solution. Thestrip method offersawidelatitudeof design choicesand it iseasy

to use; theseareoften cited astheappealingfeaturesof themethod.

Some of the earlier design methods based on moment coefcients from elastic analysis are still

favored by many designers. These methods are easy to apply and give valuable insight into slab

behavior; their useisespecially justied for many irregular slab caseswherethepreconditionsof the

direct design method arenot met or when column interaction isnot signicant. Table4.7 liststhe

moment coefcientstaken frommethod 2of the1963ACI Code.

TABLE4.7 ElasticMoment Coefcientsfor Two-Way Slabs

Short span Long

span,

Span ratio, short/long all

0.5 span

Moments 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 and less ratios

Case1Interior panels

Negativemoment at:

Continuousedge 0.033 0.040 0.048 0.055 0.063 0.083 0.033

Discontinuousedge

Positivemoment at midspan 0.025 0.030 0.036 0.041 0.047 0.062 0.025

Case2Oneedgediscontinuous

Negativemoment at:

Continuousedge 0.041 0.048 0.055 0.062 0.069 0.085 0.041

Discontinuousedge 0.021 0.024 0.027 0.031 0.035 0.042 0.021

Positivemoment at midspan 0.031 0.036 0.041 0.047 0.052 0.064 0.031

Case3Two edgesdiscontinuous

Negativemoment at:

Continuousedge 0.049 0.057 0.064 0.071 0.078 0.090 0.049

Discontinuousedge 0.025 0.028 0.032 0.036 0.039 0.045 0.025

Positivemoment at midspan: 0.037 0.043 0.048 0.054 0.059 0.068 0.037

Case4Threeedgesdiscontinuous

Negativemoment at:

Continuousedge 0.058 0.066 0.074 0.082 0.090 0.098 0.058

Discontinuousedge 0.029 0.033 0.037 0.041 0.045 0.049 0.029

Positivemoment at midspan: 0.044 0.050 0.056 0.062 0.068 0.074 0.044

Case5Four edgesdiscontinuous

Negativemoment at:

Continuousedge

Discontinuousedge 0.033 0.038 0.043 0.047 0.053 0.055 0.033

Positivemoment at midspan 0.050 0.057 0.064 0.072 0.080 0.083 0.050

Asin the1989code, two-wayslabsaredividedintocolumn stripsandmiddlestripsasindicatedby

Figure4.6, wherel

1

and l

2

arethecenter-to-center span lengthsof theoor panel. Acolumn strip is

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE4.6: Denitionsof equivalent frame, columnstrip, andmiddlestrip. (FromACI Committee

318. 1992. BuildingCodeRequirementsforReinforcedConcreteandCommentary, ACI 318-89(Revised

92) andACI 318R-89(Revised92), Detroit, MI. With permission.)

adesign strip with awidth on each sideof acolumn centerlineequal to 0.25l

2

or 0.25l

1

, whichever is

less. Amiddlestrip isadesign strip bounded by two column strips. Takingthemoment coefcients

from Table4.7, bending momentsper unit width M for themiddlestripsarecomputed from the

formula

M = (Coef.)wl

2

s

(4.108)

wherew isthetotal uniform load per unit areaand l

s

istheshorter span length of l

1

and l

2

. The

average moments per unit width in the column strip is taken as two-thirds of the corresponding

momentsin themiddlestrip.

4.7.3 MinimumSlabThicknessandReinforcement

ACI CodeSection 9.5.3 containsrequirementsto determineminimum slab thicknessof atwo-way

system for deection control. For slabs without beams, the thickness limits are summarized by

Table4.8, but thicknessmust not belessthan 5 in. for slabswithout drop panelsor 4 in. for slabs

with drop panels. In Table4.8l

n

isthelength of clear span in thelongdirection and istheratio of

exural stiffnessof beamsection toexural stiffnessof awidthof slabboundedlaterallybycenterline

of adjacent panel on each sideof beam.

For slabswith beams, it isnecessary to computetheminimumthicknessh from

h =

l

n

_

0.8 +

f

y

200, 000

_

36 +5

_

m

0.12

_

1 +

1

__ (4.109)

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

but not lessthan

h =

l

n

_

0.8 +

f

y

200, 000

_

36 +9

(4.110)

and need not bemorethan

h =

l

n

_

0.8 +

f

y

200, 000

_

36

(4.111)

where istheratio of clear spansin long-to-short direction and

m

istheaveragevalueof for all

beamson edgesof apanel. In nocaseshould theslabthicknessbelessthan 5in. for

m

<2.0or less

than 31/2in. for

m

2.0.

Minimum reinforcement in two-way slabsisgoverned by shrinkageand temperaturecontrolsto

minimizecracking. Theminimum reinforcement areastipulated by theACI Codeshall not beless

than 0.0018timesthegrossconcreteareawhen grade60steel isused (0.0020when grade40or grade

50 isused). Thespacing of reinforcement in two-way slabsshall exceed neither two timestheslab

thicknessnor 18in.

TABLE4.8 MinimumThicknessof

Two-Way Slabswithout Beams

Yield

stress Exterior panels

f

y

, Without With Interior

psi

a

edgebeams edgebeams

b

panels

Without drop panels

40,000 l

n

/33 l

n

/36 l

n

/36

60,000 l

n

/30 l

n

/33 l

n

/33

With drop panels

40,000 l

n

/36 l

n

/40 l

n

/40

60,000 l

n

/33 l

n

/36 l

n

/36

a

For valuesof reinforcement yieldstressbetween 40,000

and 60,000 psi minimum thickness shall be obtained

by linear interpolation.

b

Slabs with beams between columns along exterior

edges. Thevalueof for theedgebeam shall not be

lessthan 0.8.

FromACI Committee318. 1992. BuildingCodeRequire-

mentsfor ReinforcedConcreteandCommentary, ACI 318-

89(Revised92) andACI 318R-89(Revised92), Detroit,

MI. With permission.

4.7.4 Direct DesignMethod

Thedirect design method consistsof aset of rulesfor thedesign of two-waysslabswith or without

beams. Sincethemethod wasdeveloped assumingsimpledesignsand construction, itsapplication

isrestricted by thecodeto two-way systemswith aminimum of threecontinuousspans, successive

span lengthsthat do not differ by morethan one-third, columnswith offset not morethan 10%of

thespan, and all loadsareduetogravity only and uniformly distributed with liveload not exceeding

threetimesdead load. Thedirect design method involvesthreefundamental steps: (1) determine

thetotal factored static moment; (2) distributethestatic moment to negativeand positivesections;

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

and (3) distributemomentsto column and middlestripsand to beams, if any. Thetotal factored

staticmoment M

o

for aspan bounded laterally by thecenterlinesof adjacent panels(seeFigure4.6)

isgiven by

M

o

=

w

u

l

2

l

2

n

8

(4.112)

In an interior span, 0.65 M

o

isassigned to each negativesection and 0.35 M

o

isassigned to the

positivesection. In an end span, M

o

isdistributed accordingto Table4.9. If theratio of dead load to

liveloadislessthan2, theeffect of patternloadingisaccountedfor byincreasingthepositivemoment

followingprovisionsin ACI Section 13.6.10. Negativeand positivemomentsarethen proportioned

to the column strip following the percentages in Table 4.10, where

t

is the ratio of the torsional

stiffnessof edgebeamsection toexural stiffnessof awidthof slabequal tospan lengthof beam. The

remainingmoment not resistedbythecolumn stripisproportionatelyassignedtothecorresponding

half middlestrip. If beamsarepresent, theyareproportionedtoresist 85%of columnstripmoments.

When(l

2

/l

1

) islessthan1.0, theproportionof columnstripmomentsresistedbybeamsisobtained

by linear interpolation between 85%and zero. Theshear in beamsisdetermined from loadsacting

on tributary areasprojected fromthepanel cornersat 45degrees.

TABLE4.9 Direct Design MethodDistribution of Moment in End Span

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Slab without

Slab beamsbetween

with interior supports

beams Exterior

Exterior between Without With edge

edge all edge edge fully

unrestrained supports beam beam restrained

Interior negative- 0.75 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.65

factored moment

Positive-factored 0.63 0.57 0.52 0.50 0.35

moment

Exterior negative- 0 0.16 0.26 0.30 0.65

factored moment

From ACI Committee 318. 1992. BuildingCodeRequirementsfor ReinforcedConcreteand

Commentary, ACI 318-89 (Revised 92) and ACI 318R-89 (Revised 92), Detroit, MI. With

permission.

TABLE4.10 Proportion of Moment to

Column Strip in Percent

Interior negative-factored moment

2

/

1

0.5 1.0 2.0

(

1

2

/

1

) = 0 75 75 75

(

1

2

/

1

) 1.0 90 75 45

Positive-factored moment

(

1

2

/

1

) = 0 B

t

= 0 100 100 100

B

t

2.5 75 75 75

(

1

2

/

1

) 1.0 B

t

= 0 100 100 100

B

t

= 2.5 90 75 45

Exterior negative-factored moment

(

1

2

/

1

) = 0 60 60 60

(

1

2

/

1

) 1.0 90 75 45

From ACI Committee318. 1992. BuildingCodeRequire-

mentsforReinforcedConcreteandCommentary, ACI 318-89

(Revised92) andACI 318R-89(Revised92), Detroit, MI.

With permission.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

4.7.5 Equivalent FrameMethod

For two-waysystemsnot meetingthegeometricor loadingpreconditionsof thedirect designmethod,

design momentsmay becomputed by theequivalent framemethod. Thisisamoregeneral method

and involves the representation of the three-dimensional slab system by dividing it into a series

of two-dimensional equivalent frames (Figure 4.6). The complete analysis of a two-way system

consists of analyzing the series of equivalent interior and exterior frames that span longitudinally

and transversely through the system. Each equivalent frame, which is centered on a column line

and bounded by thecenter linesof theadjacent panels, comprisesahorizontal slab-beam strip and

equivalent columnsextendingaboveandbelowtheslabbeam(Figure4.7). Thisstructureisanalyzed

FIGURE4.7: Equivalent column (columnsplustorsional members).

asaframefor loadsactingin theplaneof theframe, and themomentsobtained at critical sections

acrosstheslab-beam strip aredistributed to thecolumn strip, middlestrip, and beam in thesame

manner asthedirect designmethod(seeTable4.10). Initsoriginal development, theequivalent frame

method assumed that analysiswould bedoneby moment distribution. Presently, frameanalysisis

moreeasily accomplished in design practicewith computersusinggeneral purposeprogramsbased

on thedirect stiffnessmethod. Consequently, theequivalent framemethod isnow often used asa

method for modelingatwo-way systemfor computer analysis.

For thedifferent typesof two-way systems, themoment of inertiasfor modeling theslab-beam

element of theequivalent frameareindicated in Figure4.8. Momentsof inertiaof slab beamsare

based on thegrossareaof concrete; thevariation in moment of inertiaalong theaxisistaken into

account, which in practicewould mean that anodewould belocated on thecomputer model where

a change of moment of inertia occurs. To account for the increased stiffness between the center

of the column and the face of column, beam, or capital, the moment of inertia is divided by the

quantity (1 c

2

/l

2

)

2

, where c

2

and l

2

are measured transverse to the direction of the span. For

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE4.8: Slab-beam stiffnessby equivalent framemethod. (From ACI Committee318. 1992.

BuildingCodeRequirementsfor ReinforcedConcreteandCommentary, ACI 318-89(Revised92) and

ACI 318R-89(Revised92), Detroit, MI. With permission.)

column modeling, themoment of inertia at any cross-section outsideof jointsor column capitals

may bebased on thegrossareaof concrete, and themoment of inertiafromthetop to bottomof the

slab-beamjoint isassumed innite.

Torsion members(Figure4.7) areelementsin theequivalent framethat providemoment transfer

between thehorizontal slab beamand vertical columns. Thecross-section of torsional membersare

assumedtoconsist of theportionof slabandbeamhavingawidthaccordingtotheconditionsdepicted

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE4.9: Torsional members. (From ACI Committee318. 1992. BuildingCodeRequirements

for ReinforcedConcreteandCommentary, ACI 318-89(Revised92) andACI 318R-89(Revised92),

Detroit, MI. With permission.)

in Figure4.9. ThestiffnessK

t

of thetorsional member iscalculated by thefollowingexpression:

K

t

=

9E

cs

C

l

2

_

1

c

2

l

2

_

3

(4.113)

whereE

cs

isthemodulusof elasticityof theslabconcreteandtorsional constant Cmaybeevaluatedby

dividingthecross-section intoseparaterectangular partsandcarryingout thefollowingsummation:

C =

_

1 0.63

x

y

_

x

3

y

3

(4.114)

wherex and y aretheshorter and longer dimension, respectively, of each rectangular part. Where

beamsframeintocolumnsinthedirectionof thespan, theincreasedtorsional stiffnessK

t a

isobtained

by multiplyingthevalueK

t

obtained fromEquation 4.113by theratio of (a) moment inertiaof slab

with such beam, to (b) moment of inertia of slab without such beam. Various ways have been

suggested for incorporatingtorsional membersinto acomputer model of an equivalent frame. The

model implied by theACI Codeisonethat hastheslab beam connected to thetorsional members,

which are projected out of the plane of the columns. Others have suggested that the torsional

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

membersbereplaced by rotational springsat column endsor, alternatively, at theslab-beam ends.

Or, insteadof rotational springs, columnsmaybemodeledwithanequivalent valueof themoment of

inertiamodied by theequivalent column stiffnessK

ec

given in thecommentary of thecode. Using

Figure4.7, K

ec

iscomputed as

K

ec

=

K

ct

+K

cb

1 +

K

ct

+K

cb

K

t a

+K

t a

(4.115)

whereK

ct

and K

cb

arethetop and bottomexural stiffnessesof thecolumn.

4.7.6 Detailing

TheACI Codespeciesthat reinforcement intwo-wayslabswithout beamshaveminimumextensions

as prescribed in Figure 4.10. Where adjacent spans are unequal, extensions of negative moment

FIGURE4.10: Minimumextensionsfor reinforcement in two-way slabswithout beams. (FromACI

Committee318. 1992. BuildingCodeRequirementsfor ReinforcedConcreteandCommentary, ACI

318-89(Revised92) andACI 318R-89(Revised92), Detroit, MI. With permission.)

reinforcement shall bebased on thelonger span. Bent barsmay beused only when thedepth-span

ratio permitsuseof bends45 degreesor less. And at least two of thecolumn strip bottom barsin

each direction shall becontinuousor spliced at thesupport with ClassA splicesor anchored within

support. These bars must pass through the column and be placed within the column core. The

purposeof this integrity steel isto givetheslabsomeresidual capacity followingasinglepunching

shear failure.

The ACI Code requires drop panels to extend in each direction from centerline of support a

distancenot lessthan one-sixth thespan length, and thedrop panel must project below theslab at

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

least one-quarter of theslab thickness. Theeffectivesupport areaof acolumn capital isdened by

theintersection of thebottom surfaceof theslab with thelargest right circular conewhosesurfaces

arelocated within thecolumn and capital and areoriented no greater than 45degreesto theaxisof

thecolumn.

4.8 Frames

A structural frameisathree-dimensional structural system consistingof straight membersthat are

built monolithically and haverigid joints. Theframemay beonebay longand onestory highsuch

asportal framesand gableframesor it may consist of multiplebaysand stories. All membersof

frameareconsideredcontinuousin thethreedirections, andthecolumnsparticipatewith thebeams

in resistingexternal loads.

Consideration of the behavior of reinforced concrete frames at and near the ultimate load is

necessary to determinethepossibledistributionsof bending moment, shear force, and axial force

that could be used in design. It is possible to use a distribution of moments and forces different

from that given by linear elastic structural analysisif thecritical sectionshavesufcient ductility to

allow redistribution of actionsto occur astheultimateload isapproached. Also, in countriesthat

experienceearthquakes, afurther important design istheductilityof thestructurewhen subjectedto

seismic-typeloading, sincepresent seismicdesignphilosophyreliesonenergydissipationbyinelastic

deformationsin theevent of major earthquakes.

4.8.1 Analysisof Frames

A number of methodshavebeen developed over theyearsfor theanalysisof continuousbeamsand

frames. Theso-called classical methodssuch asapplication of thetheorem of threemoments, the

methodof least work, andthegeneral methodof consistent deformationhaveproveduseful mainly

in theanalysisof continuousbeamshavingfewspansor of very simpleframes. For themorecom-

plicated casesusually met in practice, such methodsproveto beexceedingly tedious, and alternative

approachesarepreferred. For manyyearsthecloselyrelatedmethodsof slopedeectionandmoment

distribution provided thebasicanalytical toolsfor theanalysisof indeterminateconcretebeamsand

frames. In ofceswith accessto high-speed digital computers, thesehavebeen supplanted largely by

matrix methodsof analysis. Wherecomputer facilitiesarenot available, moment distribution isstill

themost common method. Approximatemethodsof analysis, based either on an assumed shapeof

thedeformed structureor on moment coefcients, provideameansfor rapid estimation of internal

forcesand moments. Such estimatesareuseful in preliminary design and in checking moreexact

solutions, and in structuresof minor importancemay serveasthebasisfor nal design.

SlopeDeection

Themethod of slopedeection entailswritingtwo equationsfor each member of acontinuous

frame, one at each end, expressing the end moment as the sum of four contributions: (1) the

restraining moment associated with an assumed xed-end condition for the loaded span, (2) the

moment associated with rotation of thetangent to theelastic curveat thenear end of themember,

(3) themoment associated with rotation of thetangent at thefar end of themember, and (4) the

moment associated with translation of one end of the member with respect to the other. These

equationsarerelated through application of requirementsof equilibrium and compatibility at the

joints. A set of simultaneous, linear algebraicequationsresultsfor theentirestructure, in which the

structural displacementsareunknowns. Solution for thesedisplacementspermitsthecalculation of

all internal forcesand moments.

Thismethod iswell suited to solvingcontinuousbeams, provided therearenot very many spans.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

Itsusefulnessisextendedthroughmodicationsthat takeadvantageof symmetryandantisymmetry,

and of hinge-end support conditionswheretheyexist. However, for multistoryand multibayframes

inwhichtherearealargenumber of membersandjoints, andwhichwill, ingeneral, involvetranslation

aswell asrotation of thesejoints, theeffort required to solvethecorrespondingly largenumber of

simultaneousequationsisprohibitive. Other methodsof analysisaremoreattractive.

Moment Distribution

The method of moment distribution was developed to solve problems in frame analysis that

involvemany unknown joint displacements. Thismethod can beregarded asan iterativesolution

of the slope-deection equations. Starting with xed-end moments for each member, these are

modied in aseriesof cycles, each convergingon theprecisenal result, to account for rotation and

translation of the joints. The resulting series can be terminated whenever one reaches the degree

of accuracy required. After obtaining member-end moments, all member stress resultants can be

obtained by useof thelawsof statics.

MatrixAnalysis

Useof matrix theory makesit possibleto reducethedetailed numerical operationsrequired in

the analysis of an indeterminate structure to systematic processes of matrix manipulation which

can beperformed automatically and rapidly by computer. Such methodspermit therapid solution

of problems involving large numbers of unknowns. As a consequence, less reliance is placed on

special techniques limited to certain typesof problems; powerful methodsof general applicability

have emerged, such as the matrix displacement method. Account can be taken of such factors as

rotational restraint provided by membersperpendicular to theplaneof aframe. A largenumber of

alternativeloadingsmaybeconsidered. Providedthat computer facilitiesareavailable, highlyprecise

analysesarepossibleat lower cost than for approximateanalysespreviously employed.

ApproximateAnalysis

In spiteof thedevelopment of rened methodsfor theanalysisof beamsand frames, increasing

attention isbeingpaidtovariousapproximatemethodsof analysis. Thereareseveral reasonsfor this.

Prior to performingacompleteanalysisof an indeterminatestructure, it isnecessary to estimatethe

proportionsof itsmembersin order toknowtheir relativestiffnessupon which theanalysisdepends.

These dimensions can be obtained using approximate analysis. Also, even with the availability of

computers, most engineers nd it desirableto makea rough check of resultsusing approximate

meanstodetect grosserrors. Further, for structuresof minor importance, it isoften satisfactoryto

design on thebasisof resultsobtained by rough calculation.

Providedthat pointsof inection (locationsin membersat whichthebendingmoment iszeroand

thereisareversal of curvatureof theelasticcurve) can belocated accurately, thestressresultantsfor

aframed structurecan usually befound on thebasisof staticequilibriumalone. Each portion of the

structuremust bein equilibrium under theapplication of itsexternal loadsand theinternal stress

resultants. Theuseof approximateanalysisin determining stressresultantsin framesisillustrated

usingasimplerigid framein Figure4.11.

ACI Moment Coefcients

TheACI Code[ 1] includes moment and shear coefcients that can beused for theanalysis of

buildingsof usual typesof construction, span, and story heights. They aregiven in ACI CodeSec.

8.3.3. The ACI coefcients were derived with due consideration of several factors: a maximum

allowableratio of liveto dead load (3:1); a maximum allowablespan difference(thelarger of two

adjacent spansnot exceed theshorter by morethan 20%); thefact that reinforced concretebeams

arenever simply supported but either rest on supportsof considerablewidth, such aswalls, or are

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE4.11: Approximateanalysisof rigid frame.

built monolithically likecolumns; and other factors. Sinceall theseinuencesareconsidered, the

ACI coefcientsarenecessarily quiteconservative, so that actual momentsin any particular design

are likely to be considerably smaller than indicated. Consequently, in many reinforced concrete

structures, signicant economy can beeffected by makingamorepreciseanalysis.

Limit Analysis

Limit analysisin reinforcedconcretereferstotheredistribution of momentsthat occursthrough-

out astructureasthesteel reinforcement at acritical sectionreachesitsyieldstrength. Under working

loads, thedistribution of momentsin astatically indeterminatestructureisbased on elastic theory,

and thewholestructureremainsin theelastic range. In limit design, wherefactored loadsareused,

thedistribution of momentsat failurewhen amechanism isreached isdifferent from that distribu-

tion based on elastictheory. Theultimatestrength of thestructurecan beincreased asmoresections

reach their ultimate capacity. Although the yielding of the reinforcement introduces large deec-

tions, which should beavoided under service, astatically indeterminatestructuredoesnot collapse

when thereinforcement of therst section yields. Furthermore, alargereserveof strength ispresent

between theinitial yieldingand thecollapseof thestructure.

In steel design thetermplasticdesignisused toindicatethechangein thedistribution of moments

in the structure as the steel bers, at a critical section, are stressed to their yield strength. Limit

analysisof reinforced concretedeveloped asaresult of earlier research on steel structures. Several

studieshad been performed on theprinciplesof limit design and therotation capacity of reinforced

concreteplastichinges.

Full utilizationof theplasticcapacityof reinforcedconcretebeamsandframesrequiresanextensive

analysisof all possiblemechanismsand an investigation of rotation requirementsand capacitiesat

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

all proposed hingelocations. Theincreaseof design timemay not bejustied by thelimited gains

obtained. On theother hand, a restricted amount of redistribution of elastic moments can safely

bemadewithout completeanalysisand may besufcient to obtain most of theadvantagesof limit

analysis.

A limited amount of redistribution ispermitted under theACI Code, depending upon a rough

measureof availableductility; without explicit calculation of rotation requirementsand capacities.

Theratio /

b

or in thecaseof doubly reinforced members, (

)/

b

isused asan indicator

of rotation capacity, where

b

isthebalancedsteel ratio. For singlyreinforcedmemberswith =

b

,

experimentsindicatealmost norotationcapacity, sincetheconcretestrainisnearlyequal to

cu

when

steel yielding isinitiated. Similarly, in adoubly reinforced member, when

=

b

, very little

rotation will occur after yielding beforetheconcretecrushes. However, when or

is low,

extensiverotation isusually possible. Accordingly, ACI CodeSec. 8.3providesasfollows:

Except whereapproximatevaluesfor momentsareused, it ispermitted to increaseor

decreasenegativemomentscalculatedbyelastictheoryat supportsof continuousexural

membersfor any assumed loadingarrangement by not morethan 20[1 (

)/

b

]

percent. The modied negative moments shall be used for calculating moments at

sectionswithin thespans. Redistribution of negativemomentsshall bemadeonlywhen

thesection at which moment isreduced isso designed that or

isnot greater

than 0.5

b

[ 1992] .

4.8.2 Designfor Seismic Loading

TheACI Codecontainsprovisionsthat arecurrently considered to betheminimum requirements

for producingamonolithic concretestructurewith adequateproportionsand detailsto enablethe

structuretosustainaseriesof oscillationsintotheinelasticrangeof responsewithout critical decayin

strength. Theprovisionsareintended to apply to reinforced concretestructureslocated in aseismic

zone where major damage to construction has a high possibility of occurrence, and are designed

with a substantial reduction in total lateral seismic forces due to the use of lateral load-resisting

systemsconsisting of ductilemoment-resisting frames. Theprovisionsfor framesaredivided into

sectionson exural members, columns, and jointsof frames. Someof theimportant pointsstated

aresummarized below.

Flexural Members

Membershavingafactored axial forcenot exceedingA

g

f

c

/10, whereA

g

isgrosssection of area

(in.

2

), areregarded asexural members. An upper limit isplaced on theexural steel ratio . The

maximum valueof should not exceed 0.025. Provision is also madeto ensurethat a minimum

quantity of top and bottom reinforcement isalwayspresent. Both thetop and thebottom steel are

to haveasteel ratio of aleast 200/f

y

, with thesteel yield strength f

y

in psi throughout thelength

of themember. Recommendationsarealso madeto ensurethat sufcient steel ispresent to allow

for unforeseen shiftsin thepointsof contraexure. At column connections, thepositivemoment

capacity should beat least 50%of thenegativemoment capacity, and thereinforcement should be

continuousthrough columnswherepossible. At external columns, beam reinforcement should be

terminated in thefar faceof thecolumn using a hook plusany additional extension necessary for

anchorage.

The design shear force V

e

should be determined from consideration of the static forces on the

portion of themember between facesof thejoints. It should beassumed that momentsof opposite

signcorrespondingtoprobablestrengthM

pr

act at thejoint facesandthat themember isloadedwith

thefactored tributary gravity load alongitsspan. Figure4.12 illustratesthecalculation. Minimum

webreinforcement isprovided throughout thelength of themember, and spacingshould not exceed

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE4.12: Design shearsfor girdersand columns. (From ACI Committee318. 1992. Building

CodeRequirementsforReinforcedConcreteandCommentary,ACI 318-89(Revised92)andACI 318R-89

(Revised92), Detroit, MI. With permission.)

d/4 in plastic hinge zones and d/2 elsewhere, where d is effectivedepth of member. The stirrups

should be closed around bars required to act as compression reinforcement and in plastic hinge

regions, and thespacingshould not exceed specied values.

Columns

Members having a factored axial force exceeding A

g

f

c

/10 are regarded as columns of frames

serving to resist earthquakeforces. Thesemembersshould satisfy theconditionsthat theshortest

cross-sectional dimensionmeasured on astraight linepassing through thegeometric centroid

should not be less than 12 in. and that the ratio of the shortest cross-sectional dimension to the

perpendicular dimension should not belessthan 0.4. Theexural strengthsof thecolumnsshould

satisfy

M

e

(6/5)

M

g

(4.116)

where

M

e

is sum of moments, at the center of the joint, corresponding to the design exural

strength of thecolumnsframinginto that joint and where

M

g

issum of moments, at thecenter

of the joint, corresponding to the design exural strengths of the girders framing into that joint.

Flexural strengthsshould besummed such that thecolumn momentsopposethebeam moments.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

Equation 4.116should besatised for beammomentsactingin both directionsin thevertical plane

of theframeconsidered. Therequirement isintendedtoensurethat plastichingesforminthegirders

rather than thecolumns.

Thelongitudinal reinforcement ratioislimitedtotherangeof 0.01to0.06. Thelower boundtothe

reinforcement ratio refersto thetraditional concern for theeffectsof time-dependent deformations

of theconcreteandthedesiretohaveasizabledifferencebetweenthecrackingandyieldingmoments.

Theupper bound reectsconcern for steel congestion, load transfer from oor elementsto column

in low-rise construction, and the development of large shear stresses. Lap splices are permitted

only within the center half of the member length and should be proportioned as tension splices.

Weldedsplicesandmechanical connectionsareallowedfor splicingthereinforcement at anysection,

provided not morethan alternatelongitudinal barsarespliced at asection and thedistancebetween

splicesis24in. or morealongthelongitudinal axisof thereinforcement.

If Equation 4.116 isnot satised at ajoint, columnssupportingreactionsfrom that joint should

beprovided with transversereinforcement over their full height to connetheconcreteand provide

lateral support tothereinforcement. Whereaspiral isused, theratioof volumeof spiral reinforcement

to thecorevolumeconned by thespiral reinforcement,

s

, should beat least that given by

s

= 0.45

f

c

f

y

_

A

g

A

c

1

_

(4.117)

but not lessthan 0.12f

c

/f

yh

, whereA

c

istheareaof coreof spirallyreinforcedcompression member

measured to outsidediameter of spiral in in.

2

and f

yh

is thespecied yield strength of transverse

reinforcement in psi. When rectangular reinforcement hoop isused, thetotal cross-sectional areaof

rectangular hoop reinforcement should not belessthan that given by

A

sh

= 0.3

_

sh

c

f

c

/f

yh

_ __

A

g

/A

ch

_

1

_

(4.118)

A

sh

= 0.09sh

c

f

c

/f

yh

(4.119)

wheres isthespacingof transversereinforcement measured alongthelongitudinal axisof column,

h

c

is the cross-sectional dimension of column core measured center-to-center of conning rein-

forcement, and A

sh

isthetotal cross-sectional areaof transversereinforcement (includingcrossties)

within spacing s and perpendicular to dimension h

c

. Supplementary crossties, if used, should be

of thesamediameter asthehoop bar and should engagethehoop with ahook. Special transverse

conningsteel isrequired for thefull height of columnsthat support discontinuousshear walls.

Thedesign shear forceV

e

should bedetermined from consideration of themaximum forcesthat

can begenerated at thefacesof thejointsat each end of thecolumn. Thesejoint forcesshould be

determined usingthemaximum probablemoment strength M

pr

of thecolumn associated with the

rangeof factored axial loadson thecolumn. Thecolumn shearsneed not exceed thosedetermined

fromjoint strengthsbasedontheprobablemoment strengthM

pr

, of thetransversemembersframing

into the joint. In no case should V

e

be less than the factored shear determined by analysis of the

structureFigure4.12.

Jointsof Frames

Development of inelasticrotationsat thefacesof jointsof reinforcedconcreteframesisassociated

with strainsin theexural reinforcement well in excessof theyield strain. Consequently, joint shear

forcegeneratedbytheexural reinforcement iscalculatedfor astressof 1.25f

y

in thereinforcement.

Withinthedepthof theshallowedframingmember, transversereinforcement equal toat least one-

half theamount required for thecolumn reinforcement should beprovided wheremembersframe

intoall four sidesof thejoint andwhereeachmember widthisat least three-fourthsthecolumnwidth.

Transversereinforcement asrequired for thecolumn reinforcement should beprovided through the

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

joint to provideconnement for longitudinal beam reinforcement outsidethecolumn coreif such

connement isnot provided by abeamframinginto thejoint.

Thenominal shear strengthof thejoint shouldnot betaken greater than theforcesspeciedbelow

for normal weight aggregateconcrete:

20

_

f

c

A

j

for jointsconned on all four faces

15

_

f

c

A

j

for jointsconned on threefacesor on two oppositefaces

12

_

f

c

A

j

for others

whereA

j

istheeffectivecross-sectional areawithinajoint inaplaneparallel toplaneof reinforcement

generatingshear in thejoint (Figure4.13). Amember that framesintoafaceisconsideredtoprovide

FIGURE4.13: Effectiveareaof joint. (FromACI Committee318. 1992. BuildingCodeRequirements

for ReinforcedConcreteandCommentary, ACI 318-89(Revised92) andACI 318R-89(Revised92),

Detroit, MI. With permission.)

connement to thejoint if at least three-quartersof thefaceof thejoint iscovered by theframing

member. A joint isconsidered to beconned if such conningmembersframeinto all facesof the

joint. For lightweight-aggregateconcrete, thenominal shear strength of thejoint should not exceed

three-quartersof thelimitsgiven above.

Details of minimum development length for deformed bars with standard hooks embedded in

normal and lightweight concreteand for straight barsarecontained in ACI CodeSec. 21.6.4.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

4.9 BracketsandCorbels

Bracketsand corbelsarecantilevershavingshear span depth ratio, a/d, not greater than unity. The

shear span a isthedistancefromthepoint of load to thefaceof support, and thedistanced shall be

measured at faceof support (seeFigure4.14).

FIGURE 4.14: Structural action of a corbel. (From ACI Committee 318. 1992. BuildingCode

Requirementsfor ReinforcedConcreteandCommentary, ACI 318-89(Revised92) andACI 318R-89

(Revised92), Detroit, MI. With permission.)

The corbel shown in Figure 4.14 may fail by shearing along the interface between the column

and thecorbel by yieldingof thetension tie, by crushingor splittingof thecompression strut, or by

localized bearingor shearingfailureunder theloadingplate.

The depth of a bracket or corbel at its outer edge should be less than one-half of the required

depth d at thesupport. Reinforcement should consist of main tension barswith areaA

s

and shear

reinforcement withareaA

h

(seeFigure4.15for notation). Theareaof primarytensionreinforcement

FIGURE4.15: Notation used. (From ACI Committee318. 1992. BuildingCodeRequirementsfor

ReinforcedConcreteandCommentary, ACI 318-89(Revised92) andACI 318R-89(Revised92),Detroit,

MI. With permission.)

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

A

s

should bemadeequal to thegreater of (A

f

+ A

n

) or (2A

vf

/3 A

n

), whereA

f

istheexural

reinforcement required to resist moment [V

u

a + N

uc

(h d)], A

n

isthereinforcement required to

resist tensileforceN

uc

, and A

vf

istheshear-friction reinforcement required to resist shear V

u

:

A

f

=

M

u

f

y

jd

=

V

u

a +N

uc

(h d)

f

y

jd

(4.120)

A

n

=

N

uc

f

y

(4.121)

A

vf

=

V

u

f

y

(4.122)

Intheaboveequations, f

y

isthereinforcement yieldstrength; is0.9for Equation 4.120and0.85for

Equations4.121and4.122. In Equation 4.120, thelever armjd can beapproximatedfor all practical

purposesinmost casesas0.85d. TensileforceN

uc

inEquation4.121shouldnot betakenlessthan0.2

V

u

unlessspecial provisionsaremadetoavoidtensileforces. TensileforceN

uc

shouldberegardedasa

liveloadeven when tension resultsfromcreep, shrinkage, or temperaturechange. In Equation4.122,

V

u

/(= V

n

) should not betaken greater than 0.2 f

c

b

w

d nor 800b

w

d in poundsin normal-weight

concrete. For all-lightweight or sand-lightweight concrete, shear strengthV

n

shouldnot betaken

greater than (0.20.07a/d)f

c

b

w

d nor (800280a/d)b

w

d in pounds. Thecoefcient of friction

in Equation 4.122shouldbe1.4 for concreteplacedmonolithically, 1.0 for concreteplacedagainst

hardened concretewith surfaceintentionally roughened, 0.6 for concreteplaced against hardened

concrete not intentionally roughened, and 0.7 for concrete anchored to as-rolled structural steel

by headed studsor by reinforcing bars, where is1.0 for normal weight concrete, 0.85 for sand-

lightweight concrete, and 0.75for all-lightweight concrete. Linear interpolation of ispermitted

when partial sand replacement isused.

Thetotal areaof closed stirrupsor tiesA

h

parallel to A

s

should not belessthan 0.5(A

s

A

n

) and

should beuniformly distributed within two-thirdsof thedepth of thebracket adjacent to A

s

.

At front faceof bracket or corbel, primary tension reinforcement A

s

should beanchored in one

of thefollowing ways: (a) by astructural weld to atransversebar of at least equal size; weld to be

designed to develop specied yield strength f

y

of A

s

bars; (b) by bendingprimary tension barsA

s

back to form ahorizontal loop, or (c) by someother meansof positiveanchorage. Also, to ensure

development of the yield strength of the reinforcement A

s

near the load, bearing area of load on

bracket or corbel should not project beyond straight portion of primarytension barsA

s

, nor project

beyondinterior faceof transverseanchor bar (if oneisprovided). Whencorbelsaredesignedtoresist

horizontal forces, thebearingplateshould bewelded to thetension reinforcement A

s

.

4.10 Footings

Footingsarestructural membersused to support columnsand wallsand to transmit and distribute

their loads to the soil in such a way that (a) the load bearing capacity of the soil is not exceeded,

(b) excessivesettlement, differential settlement, and rotationsareprevented, and (c) adequatesafety

against overturning or sliding is maintained. When a column load is transmitted to the soil by

the footing, the soil becomes compressed. The amount of settlement depends on many factors,

such as thetypeof soil, theload intensity, thedepth below ground level, and thetypeof footing.

If different footings of the same structure have different settlements, new stresses develop in the

structure. Excessivedifferential settlement may lead to thedamageof nonstructural membersin the

buildings, even failureof theaffected parts.

Vertical loadsareusuallyappliedat thecentroidof thefooting. If theresultant of theappliedloads

doesnot coincidewith thecentroid of thebearing area, abending moment develops. In thiscase,

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

thepressureon onesideof thefooting will begreater than thepressureon theother side, causing

higher settlement on onesideand apossiblerotation of thefooting.

If thebearingsoil capacity isdifferent under different footingsfor example, if thefootingsof a

buildingarepartly on soil and partly on rockadifferential settlement will occur. It iscustomary

in such casesto providea joint between thetwo partsto separatethem, allowing for independent

settlement.

4.10.1 Typesof Footings

Different typesof footingsmay beused to support buildingcolumnsor walls. Themost commonly

used onesareillustrated in Figure4.16(ag). A simplelefootingisshown in Figure4.16(h).

FIGURE4.16: Common typesof footingsfor wallsand columns. (FromACI Committee340. 1990.

DesignHandbookinAccordancewiththeStrengthDesignMethodof ACI 318-89. Volume2, SP-17.

With permission.)

For walls, a spread footing is a slab wider than the wall and extending the length of the wall

[ Figure 4.16(a)] . Square or rectangular slabs are used under single columns [ Figure 4.16(bd)] .

When twocolumnsaresoclosethat their footingswould mergeor nearlytouch, acombined footing

[ Figure4.16(e)] extending under thetwo should beconstructed. When a column footing cannot

project in one direction, perhaps because of the proximity of a property line, the footing may be

helped out by an adjacent footingwith morespace; either acombined footingor astrap (cantilever)

footing[ Figure4.16(f )] may beused under thetwo.

For structureswith heavy loadsrelativeto soil capacity, amat or raft foundation [ Figure4.16(g)]

may proveeconomical. Asimpleformisathick, two-way-reinforced-concreteslab extendingunder

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

theentirestructure. In effect, it enablesthestructureto oat on thesoil, and becauseof itsrigidity

it permits negligible differential settlement. Even greater rigidity can be obtained by building the

raft foundation as an inverted beam-and-girder oor, with the girders supporting the columns.

Sometimes, also, inverted at slabsareused asmat foundations.

4.10.2 DesignConsiderations

Footings must be designed to carry the column loads and transmit them to the soil safely while

satisfyingcodelimitations. Thedesignproceduremust takethefollowingstrengthrequirementsinto

consideration:

Theareaof thefootingbased on theallowablebearingsoil capacity

Two-way shear or punchingshear

One-way shear

Bendingmoment and steel reinforcement required

Dowel requirements

Development length of bars

Differential settlement

Thesestrength requirementswill beexplained in thefollowingsections.

Sizeof Footings

Therequired areaof concentrically loaded footingsisdetermined from

A

req

=

D +L

q

a

(4.123)

whereq

a

isallowablebearingpressureand D and Lare, respectively, unfactored dead and liveloads.

Allowablebearing pressures areestablished from principles of soil mechanics on thebasis of load

testsand other experimental determinations. Allowablebearingpressuresq

a

under serviceloadsare

usually based on asafety factor of 2.5 to 3.0 against exceeding theultimatebearing capacity of the

particular soil and to keep settlementswithin tolerablelimits. Therequired areaof footingsunder

theeffectsof wind W or earthquakeE isdetermined fromthefollowing:

A

req

=

D +L +W

1.33q

a

or

D +L +E

1.33q

a

(4.124)

It should benoted that footingsizesaredetermined for unfactored serviceloadsand soil pressures,

in contrast to thestrength design of reinforced concretemembers, which utilizesfactored loadsand

factored nominal strengths.

A footingiseccentrically loaded if thesupported column isnot concentric with thefootingarea

or if the column transmitsat its juncture with the footingnot only a vertical load but also a

bendingmoment. In either case, theloadeffectsat thefootingbasecan berepresentedbythevertical

load P and abendingmoment M. Theresultingbearingpressuresareagain assumed to belinearly

distributed. Aslongastheresultingeccentricitye = M/P doesnot exceed thekern distancek of the

footingarea, theusual exureformula

q

max, min

=

P

A

+

M

c

I

(4.125)

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE4.17: Assumed bearingpressuresunder eccentricfootings.

permits the determination of the bearing pressures at the two extreme edges, as shown in Fig-

ure 4.17(a). The footing area is found by trial and error from the condition q

max

q

a

. If the

eccentricity falls outside the kern, Equation 4.125 gives a negative value for q along one edge of

the footing. Because no tension can be transmitted at the contact area between soil and footing,

Equation 4.125isno longer valid and bearingpressuresaredistributed asin Figure4.17(b).

Oncetherequiredfootingareahasbeen determined, thefootingmust then bedesignedtodevelop

thenecessary strength to resist all moments, shears, and other internal actionscaused by theapplied

loads. For thispurpose, theload factorsof theACI Codeapply to footingsasto all other structural

components.

Depth of footing abovebottom reinforcement should not belessthan 6 in. for footingson soil,

nor lessthan 12in. for footingson piles.

Two-WayShear (PunchingShear)

ACI Code Sec. 11.12.2 allows a shear strength V

c

of footings without shear reinforcement for

two-way shear action asfollows:

V

c

=

_

2 +

4

c

_

_

f

c

b

o

d 4

_

f

c

b

o

d (4.126)

where

c

istheratio of longsideto short sideof rectangular area, b

o

istheperimeter of thecritical

section taken at d/2 from theloaded area(column section), and d istheeffectivedepth of footing.

Thisshear isameasureof thediagonal tension causedbytheeffect of thecolumn loadon thefooting.

Inclined cracksmay occur in thefootingat adistanced/2 from thefaceof thecolumn on all sides.

Thefootingwill fail asthecolumn triesto punch out part of thefooting, asshown in Figure4.18.

One-WayShear

For footingswith bending action in onedirection, thecritical section islocated at adistance d

from thefaceof thecolumn. Thediagonal tension at section m-m in Figure4.19 can bechecked as

isdonein beams. Theallowableshear in thiscaseisequal to

V

c

= 2

_

f

c

bd (4.127)

whereb isthewidth of section m-m. Theultimateshearingforceat section m-m can becalculated

asfollows:

V

u

= q

u

b

_

L

2

c

2

d

_

(4.128)

whereb isthesideof footingparallel to section m-m.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE4.18: Punchingshear (two-way).

FIGURE4.19: One-way shear.

Flexural Reinforcement andFootingReinforcement

Thetheoretical sectionsfor moment occur at faceof thecolumn (section n-n, Figure4.20). The

bendingmoment ineachdirectionof thefootingmust becheckedandtheappropriatereinforcement

must beprovided. Insquarefootingsthebendingmomentsinbothdirectionsareequal. Todetermine

thereinforcement required, thedepthof thefootingineachdirectionmaybeused. Asthebarsinone

direction rest on top of thebarsin theother direction, theeffectivedepth d varieswith thediameter

of thebarsused. Thevalueof d

min

may beadopted.

The depth of footing is often controlled by the shear, which requires a depth greater than that

required by thebendingmoment. Thesteel reinforcement in each direction can becalculated in the

caseof exural membersasfollows:

A

s

=

M

u

f

y

(d a/2)

(4.129)

The minimum steel percentage requirement in exural member is equal to 200/f

y

. However,

ACI Code Sec. 10.5.3 indicates that for structural slabs of uniform thickness, the minimum area

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE4.20: Critical section of bendingmoment.

and maximum spacing of steel in the direction of bending should be as required for shrinkage

and temperaturereinforcement. Thislast minimum steel reinforcement isvery small and ahigher

minimumreinforcement ratio isrecommended, but not greater than 200/f

y

.

Thereinforcement in one-wayfootingsandtwo-wayfootingsmust bedistributedacrosstheentire

width of thefooting. In thecaseof two-way rectangular footings, ACI CodeSec15.4.4speciesthat

in thelongdirection thetotal reinforcement must beplaced uniformly within aband width equal to

thelength of theshort sideof thefootingaccordingto

Reinforcement band width

Total reinforcement in short direction

=

2

+1

(4.130)

where istheratioof thelongsidetotheshort sideof thefooting. Thebandwidth must becentered

on thecenterlineof thecolumn (Figure4.21). Theremainingreinforcement in theshort direction

must beuniformly distributed outsidetheband width. This remaining reinforcement percentage

should not belessthan required for shrinkageand temperature.

FIGURE4.21: Band width for reinforcement distribution.

When structural steel columns or masonry walls are used, the critical sections for moments in

footingaretaken at halfwaybetween themiddleandtheedgeof masonrywalls, andhalfwaybetween

thefaceof thecolumn and theedgeof thesteel baseplace(ACI CodeSec. 15.4.2).

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

BendingCapacityof Columnat Base

Theloadsfrom thecolumn act on thefootingat thebaseof thecolumn, on an areaequal to the

areaof thecolumncross-section. Compressiveforcesaretransferredtothefootingdirectlybybearing

on theconcrete. Tensileforces must beresisted by reinforcement, neglecting any contribution by

concrete.

Forcesacting on theconcreteat thebaseof thecolumn must not exceed thebearing strength of

concreteasspecied by theACI CodeSec.10.15:

N =

_

0.85f

c

A

1

_

(4.131)

where is 0.7 and A

1

is thebearing area of thecolumn. Thevalueof thebearing strength given

in Equation 4.131 may be multiplied by a factor

A

2

/A

1

2.0 for bearing on footings when

thesupporting surfaceiswider on all sidesother than theloaded area. HereA

2

isthearea of the

part of the supporting footing that is geometrically similar to and concentric with the load area

(Figure4.22). SinceA

2

> A

1

, thefactor

A

2

/A

1

isgreater than unity, indicatingthat theallowable

FIGURE4.22: Bearingareason footings. A

1

= c

2

, A

2

= b

2

.

bearing strength isincreased becauseof thelateral support from thefooting area surrounding the

column base. If thecalculated bearingforceisgreater than N or themodied onewith r

A

2

/A

1

,

reinforcement must beprovided to transfer theexcessforce. Thisisachieved by providing dowels

or extending thecolumn barsinto thefooting. If thecalculated bearing forceislessthan either N

or themodied onewith r

A

2

/A

1

, then minimum reinforcement must beprovided. ACI Code

Sec. 15.8.2 indicatesthat theminimum areaof thedowel reinforcement isat least 0.005A

g

but not

lessthan 4 bars, whereA

g

isthegrossarea of thecolumn section of thesupported member. The

minimum reinforcement requirementsapply to thecasein which thecalculated bearing forcesare

greater than N or themodied onewith r

A

2

/A

1

.

DowelsonFootings

It was explained earlier that dowels are required in any case, even if the bearing strength is

adequate. The ACI Code species a minimum steel ratio = 0.005 of the column section as

compared to = 0.01 asminimum reinforcement for thecolumn itself. Theminimum number of

dowel barsneeded isfour; thesemaybeplaced at thefour cornersof thecolumn. Thedowel barsare

usually extended into thefooting, bent at their ends, and tied to themain footingreinforcement.

ACI Code Sec. 15.8.2 indicates that #14 and #18 longitudinal bars, in compression only, may

belap-spliced with dowels. Dowels should not belarger than #11 bar and should extend (1) into

supported member adistancenot lessthan thedevelopment length of #14 or 18 barsor thesplice

length of the dowelswhichever is greater, and (2) into the footing a distance not less than the

development length of thedowels.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

Development Lengthof theReinforcingBars

Thecritical sectionsfor checkingthedevelopment lengthof reinforcingbarsarethesameasthose

for bending moments. Calculated tension or compression in reinforcement at each section should

bedeveloped on each sideof that section by embedment length, hook (tension only) or mechanical

device, or acombination thereof. Thedevelopment length for compression bar is

l

d

= 0.02f

y

d

b

_

f

c

(4.132)

but not lessthan 0.0003f

y

d

b

8 in. For other values, refer to ACI Code, Chapter 12. Dowel bars

must also bechecked for proper development length.

Differential Settlement

Footingsusually support thefollowingloads:

Dead loadsfromthesubstructureand superstructure

Liveloadsresultingfrommaterialsor occupancy

Weight of materialsused in backlling

Wind loads

Each footingin abuildingisdesigned to support themaximumload that may occur on any column

dueto thecritical combination of loadings, usingtheallowablesoil pressure.

Thedead load, and maybeasmall portion of theliveload, may act continuously on thestructure.

The rest of the live load may occur at intervals and on some parts of the structure only, causing

different loadingson columns. Consequently, thepressureon thesoil under different loadingswill

varyaccordingtotheloadson thedifferent columns, and differential settlement will occur under the

variousfootingsof onestructure. Sincepartial settlement isinevitable, theproblemisdened bythe

amount of differential settlement that thestructurecantolerate. Theamount of differential settlement

dependson thevariation in thecompressibility of thesoils, thethicknessof compressiblematerial

below foundation level, and the stiffness of the combined footing and superstructure. Excessive

differential settlement resultsin cracking of concreteand damageto claddings, partitions, ceilings,

and nishes.

For practical purposesit canbeassumedthat thesoil pressureunder theeffect of sustainedloadings

isthesamefor all footings, thuscausing equal settlements. Thesustained load (or theusual load)

can beassumedequal tothedeadloadplusapercentageof theliveload, whichoccursveryfrequently

on thestructure. Footingsthen areproportioned for thesesustained loadsto producethesamesoil

pressureunder all footings. In nocaseistheallowablesoil bearingcapacitytobeexceeded under the

dead load plusthemaximumliveload for each footing.

4.10.3 Wall Footings

Thespread footing under awall [ Figure4.16(a)] distributesthewall load horizontally to preclude

excessivesettlement. Thewall should beso located on thefootingsasto produceuniform bearing

pressureon thesoil (Figure4.23), ignoringthevariation duetobendingof thefooting. Thepressure

isdetermined by dividingtheload per foot by thefootingwidth.

Thefootingactsasacantilever onoppositesidesof thewall under downwardwall loadsandupward

soil pressure. For footingssupportingconcretewalls, thecritical section for bendingmoment isat

thefaceof thewall; for footingsunder masonry walls, halfway between themiddleand edgeof the

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE4.23: Reinforced-concretewall footing.

wall. Hence, for aone-foot-longstrip of symmetrical concrete-wall footing, symmetrically loaded,

themaximummoment, ft-lb, is

M

u

=

1

8

q

u

(L a)

2

(4.133)

whereq

u

istheuniformpressureon soil (lb/ft

2

), Listhewidth of footing(ft), and a iswall thickness

(ft).

For determining shear stresses, the vertical shear force is computed on the section located at a

distanced fromthefaceof thewall. Thus,

V

u

= q

u

_

L a

2

L

_

(4.134)

Thecalculation of development length isbased on thesection of maximummoment.

4.10.4 Single-ColumnSpreadFootings

Thespread footingunder acolumn [ Figure4.16(bd)] distributesthecolumn load horizontally to

prevent excessivetotal and differential settlement. Thecolumn should belocated on thefootingso

as to produce uniform bearing pressure on the soil, ignoring the variation due to bending of the

footing. Thepressureequalstheload divided by thefootingarea.

In plan, single-column footingsareusually square. Rectangular footingsareused if spacerestric-

tions dictate this choice or if the supported columns are of strongly elongated rectangular cross-

section. In the simplest form, they consist of a single slab [ Figure4.16(b)] . Another type is that

of Figure4.16(c), wherea pedestal or cap is interposed between thecolumn and thefooting slab;

thepedestal providesfor amorefavorabletransfer of load and in many casesisrequired in order to

providethenecessary development length for dowels. Thisform isalso known asasteppedfooting.

All partsof astepped footingmust bepoured in asinglepour in order to providemonolithicaction.

Sometimessloped footingslikethosein Figure 4.16(d) areused. They requireslessconcretethan

stepped footings, but theadditional labor necessarytoproducetheslopingsurfaces(formwork, etc.)

usually makesstepped footingsmoreeconomical. In general, single-slab footings[ Figure4.16(b)]

aremost economical for thicknessesup to 3ft.

Therequiredbearingareaisobtainedbydividingthetotal load, includingtheweight of thefooting,

by theselected bearing pressure. Weightsof footings, at thisstage, must beestimated and usually

amount to 4to 8%of thecolumn load, theformer valueapplyingto thestronger typesof soils.

Oncetherequired footingareahasbeen established, thethicknessh of thefootingmust bedeter-

mined. In singlefootingstheeffectivedepth d ismostly governed by shear. Two different typesof

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

shear strength aredistinguished in singlefootings: two-way (or punching) shear and one-way (or

beam) shear. Based on theEquations4.126and 4.127for punchingand one-way shear strength, the

required effectivedepth of footingd iscalculated.

Single-column footingsrepresent, asit were, cantileversprojectingout from thecolumn in both

directionsandloadedupwardbythesoil pressure. Correspondingtension stressesarecausedin both

thesedirectionsat thebottom surface. Such footingsarethereforereinforced by two layersof steel,

perpendicular to each other and parallel to theedge. Thesteel reinforcement in each direction can

becalculated usingEquation 4.129. Thecritical sectionsfor development length of footingbarsare

thesameasthosefor bending. Development length may alsohavetobechecked at all vertical planes

in which changesof section or of reinforcement occur, asat theedgesof pedestalsor wherepart of

thereinforcement may beterminated.

When acolumn restson afootingor pedestal, it transfersitsload to only apart of thetotal area

of the supporting member. The adjacent footing concrete provides lateral support to the directly

loadedpart of theconcrete. Thiscausestriaxial compression stressesthat increasethestrength of the

concrete, which isloaded directly under thecolumn. Thedesign bearingstrength of concretemust

not exceedtheonegiveninEquation4.131for forcesactingontheconcreteat thebaseof columnand

themodied onewith r

A

2

/A

1

for supporting areawider than theloaded area. If thecalculated

bearingforceisgreater than thedesign bearingstrength, reinforcement must beprovided totransfer

theexcessforce. Thisisdoneeither by extendingthecolumn barsinto thefootingor by providing

dowels, which areembedded in thefootingand project aboveit.

4.10.5 CombinedFootings

Spread footingsthat support morethan onecolumn or wall areknown ascombinedfootings. They

can bedivided into two categories: thosethat support two columns, and thosethat support more

than two (generally largenumbersof ) columns.

In buildingswheretheallowablesoil pressureislargeenough for singlefootingstobeadequatefor

most columns, two-column footingsareseen to becomenecessary in two situations: (1) if columns

are so close to the property line that single-column footings cannot be made without projecting

beyond that line, and (2) if some adjacent columns are so close to each other that their footings

would merge.

When the bearing capacity of the subsoil is low so that large bearing areas become necessary,

individual footingsarereplacedbycontinuousstripfootings, whichsupport morethan twocolumns

and usually all columnsin arow. Mostly, such stripsarearranged in both directions, in which casea

grid foundation isobtained, asshown in Figure4.24. Such agrid foundation can bedoneby single

footings because the individual strips of the grid foundation represent continuous beams whose

momentsaremuch smaller than thecantilever momentsin largesinglefootingsthat project far out

fromthecolumn in all four directions.

For still lower bearingcapacities, thestripsaremadeto merge, resultingin amat foundation, as

shown in Figure4.25. That is, thefoundation consistsof asolid reinforced concreteslab under the

entirebuilding. In structural action such a mat is very similar to a at slab or a at plate, upside

downthat is, loaded upward by thebearingpressureand downward by theconcentrated column

reactions. Themat foundation evidently developsthemaximum availablebearing area under the

building. If thesoilscapacity isso lowthat even thislargebearingareaisinsufcient, someformof

deep foundation, such aspilesor caissons, must beused.

Grid and mat foundationsmay bedesigned with thecolumn pedestalsasshown in Figures4.24

and 4.25or without them, dependingon whether or not they arenecessary for shear strength and

thedevelopment length of dowels. Apart fromdevelopinglargebearingareas, another advantageof

gridandmat foundationsisthat their continuityandrigidityhelpinreducingdifferential settlements

of individual columnsrelativetoeachother, whichmayotherwisebecausedbylocal variationsin the

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE4.24: Grid foundation.

FIGURE4.25: Mat foundation.

quality of subsoil, or other causes. For thispurpose, continuousspread foundationsarefrequently

used in situationswherethesuperstructureor thetypeof occupancy providesunusual sensitivity to

differential settlement.

4.10.6 Two-ColumnFootings

The ACI Codes does not provide a detailed approach for the design of combined footings. The

design, in general, isbased on an empirical approach. It isdesirableto design combined footings

so that thecentroid of thefooting areacoincideswith theresultant of thetwo column loads. This

producesuniform bearingpressureover theentireareaand forestallsatendency for thefootingsto

tilt. In plan, such footingsarerectangular, trapezoidal, or T shaped, thedetailsof theshapebeing

arranged to producecoincidenceof centroid and resultant. Thesimplerelationshipsof Figure4.26

facilitatethedetermination of theshapesof thebearingarea[ 7] . In general, thedistancesm and n

aregiven, theformer beingthedistancefrom thecenter of theexterior column to theproperty line

and thelatter thedistancefromthat column to theresultant of both column loads.

Another expedient, which isused if asinglefootingcannot becentered under an exterior column,

istoplacetheexterior columnfootingeccentricallyandtoconnect it withthenearest interior column

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE4.26: Two-column footings. (FromFintel, M. 1985. HandbookofConcreteEngineering, 2nd

ed., Van Nostrand Reinhold, NewYork. With permission.)

by abeamor strap. Thisstrap, beingcounterweighted by theinterior column load, resiststhetilting

tendency of theeccentricexterior footingsand equalizesthepressureunder it. Such foundationsare

known asstrap, cantilever, or connectedfootings.

Thestrap may bedesigned asarectangular beam spacingbetween thecolumns. Theloadson it

includeitsown weight (when it doesnot rest on thesoil) and theupward pressurefromthefootings.

Width of the strap usually is selected arbitrarily as equal to that of the largest column plus 4 to 8

inches so that column forms can be supported on top of the strap. Depth is determined by the

maximum bendingmoment. Themain reinforcingin thestrap isplaced near thetop. Someof the

steel can becut off wherenot needed. For diagonal tension, stirrupsnormally will beneeded near

thecolumns(Figure4.27). In addition, longitudinal placement steel isset near thebottom of the

strap, plusreinforcement to guard against settlement stresses.

Thefootingunder theexterior columnmaybedesignedasawall footing. Theportionsonopposite

sidesof thestrapact ascantileversunder theconstant upwardpressureof thesoil. Theinterior footing

should be designed as a single-column footing. The critical section for punching shear, however,

differsfromthat for aconventional footing. Thisshear shouldbecomputedon asection at adistance

d/2from thesidesand extendingaround thecolumn at adistanced/2from itsfaces, whered isthe

effectivedepth of thefooting.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE4.27: Strap (cantilever) footing. (FromFintel, M. 1985. Handbookof ConcreteEngineering,

2nd ed., Van Nostrand Reinhold, NewYork. With permission.)

4.10.7 Strip, Grid, andMat Foundations

In the case of heavily loaded columns, particularly if they are to be supported on relatively weak

or uneven soils, continuousfoundationsmay benecessary. They may consist of acontinuousstrip

footing supporting all columns in a given row or, more often, of two sets of such strip footings

intersectingat right anglessothat theyformonecontinuousgridfoundation (Figure4.24). For even

larger loadsor weaker soilsthestripsaremadetomerge, resultingin amat foundation (Figure4.25).

For thedesign of such continuousfoundationsit isessential that reasonably realisticassumptions

bemaderegardingthedistributionof bearingpressures, whichact asupwardloadsonthefoundation.

For compressiblesoilsit can beassumed in rst approximation that thedeformation or settlement

of thesoil at agiven location and thebearingpressureat that location areproportional toeach other.

If columnsarespaced at moderatedistancesand if thestrip, grid, or mat foundation isvery rigid,

thesettlementsin all portionsof thefoundation will besubstantially thesame. Thismeansthat the

bearingpressure, also known assubgradereaction, will bethesameprovided that thecentroid of the

foundation coincides with the resultant of the loads. If they do not coincide, then for such rigid

foundationsthesubgradereaction can beassumed aslinear and determined fromstaticsin thesame

manner asdiscussed for singlefootings. In thiscase, all loadsthedownward column loadsaswell

astheupward-bearingpressuresareknown. Hence, momentsand shear forcesin thefoundation

can befound by staticsalone. Oncethesearedetermined, thedesign of strip and grid foundations

issimilar to that of inverted continuousbeams, and design of mat foundationsissimilar to that of

inverted at slabsor plates.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

Ontheother hand, if thefoundationisrelativelyexibleandthecolumnspacinglarge, settlements

will no longer be uniform or linear. For one thing, the more heavily loaded columns will cause

larger settlements, and thereby larger subgrade reactions, than the lighter ones. Also, since the

continuousstripor slabmidwaybetweencolumnswill deect upwardrelativetothenearbycolumns,

soil settlementand thereby thesubgradereactionwill besmaller midway between columnsthan

directlyat thecolumns. Thisisshown schematicallyin Figure4.28. In thiscasethesubgradereaction

can no longer beassumed asuniform. Areasonably accuratebut fairly complex analysiscan then be

madeusingthetheory of beamson elasticfoundations.

FIGURE4.28: Strip footing. (FromFintel, M. 1985. Handbookof ConcreteEngineering, 2nd ed., Van

Nostrand Reinhold, NewYork. With permission.)

Asimpliedapproachhasbeendevelopedthat coversthemost frequent situationsof stripandgrid

foundations[ 4] . Themethod rst denestheconditionsunder which afoundation can beregarded

asrigid so that uniform or overall linear distribution of subgradereactionscan beassumed. Thisis

thecasewhen theaverageof two adjacent span lengthsin acontinuousstrip doesnot exceed 1.75/,

provided also that theadjacent span and column loadsdo not differ by morethan 20%of thelarger

value. Here,

= 4

_

k

s

b

3E

c

I

(4.135)

where

k

s

= Sk

s

k

s

= coefcient of subgradereaction asdened in soilsmechanics, basically forceper unit area

required to produceunit settlement, kips/ft

3

b = width of footing, ft

E

c

= modulusof elasticity of concrete, kips/ft

2

I = moment of inertiaof footing, ft

4

S = shapefactor, being [(b + 1)/2b]

2

for granular soils and (n + 0.5)/1.5n for cohesivesoils,

wheren istheratio of longer to shorter sideof strip

If theaverageof two adjacent spansexceeds1.75/, thefoundation isregarded asexible. Pro-

vided that adjacent spansand column loadsdiffer by no morethan 20%, thecomplex curvelinear

distribution of subgradereaction can bereplaced by aset of equivalent trapezoidal reactions, which

arealso shown in Figure4.28. Thereport of ACI Committee436 containsfairly simpleequations

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

for determining theintensitiesof theequivalent pressuresunder thecolumnsand at themiddleof

thespansand also givesequationsfor thepositiveand negativemomentscaused by theseequivalent

subgradereactions. Withthisinformation, thedesign of continuousstripandgridfootingsproceeds

similarly to that of footingsunder two columns.

Mat foundationslikewiserequiredifferent approaches, dependingonwhether theycanbeclassied

asrigid or exible. Asin strip footings, if thecolumn spacingislessthan 1/, thestructuremay be

regarded asrigid, soil pressurecan beassumed asuniformly or linearly distributed, and thedesign

isbased on statics. On theother hand, when thefoundation isconsidered exibleasdened above,

and if thevariation of adjacent column loadsand spansisnot greater than 20%, thesamesimplied

procedureasfor stripandgridfoundationscanbeappliedtomat foundations. Themat isdividedinto

two setsof mutually perpendicular strip footingsof width equal to thedistancebetween midspans,

and thedistribution of bearingpressuresand bendingmomentsiscarried out for each strip. Once

moments are determined, the mat is in essence treated the same as a at slab or plate, with the

reinforcement allocated between column and middlestripsasin theseslab structures.

This approach is feasible only when columns are located in a regular rectangular grid pattern.

When a mat that can be regarded as rigid supports columns at random locations, the subgrade

reactionscan still betaken asuniformor aslinearly distributed and themat analyzed by statics. If it

isaexiblemat that supportssuch randomly located columns, thedesign isbased on thetheory of

plateson elasticfoundation.

4.10.8 FootingsonPiles

If thebearingcapacityof theupper soil layersisinsufcient for aspreadfoundation, but rmer strata

are available at greater depth, piles are used to transfer the loads to these deeper strata. Piles are

generally arranged in groupsor clusters, oneunder each column. Thegroup iscapped by aspread

footing or cap that distributes thecolumn load to all piles in thegroup. Reactions on caps act as

concentrated loadsat theindividual piles, rather than asdistributed pressures. If thetotal of all pile

reactionsin acluster isdivided by areaof thefootingto obtain an equivalent uniform pressure, it is

found that thisequivalent pressureisconsiderably higher in pilecapsthan for spread footings.

Thus, it isin any event advisableto provideamplerigiditythat is, depth for pilecapsin order

to spread theload evenly to all piles.

Asin single-column spread footings, theeffectiveportion of allowablebearingcapacitiesof piles,

R

a

, availableto resist theunfactored column loadsistheallowablepilereaction lesstheweight of

footing, backll, and surchargeper pile. That is,

R

e

= R

a

W

f

(4.136)

whereW

f

isthetotal weight of footing, ll, and surchargedivided by thenumber of piles.

Oncetheavailableor effectivepilereactionR

e

isdetermined, thenumber of pilesinaconcentrically

loaded cluster istheinteger next larger than

n =

D +L

R

e

(4.137)

Theeffectsof wind and earthquakemomentsat thefoot of thecolumnsgenerally producean eccen-

trically loaded pilecluster in which different pilescarry different loads. Thenumber and location of

pilesin such acluster isdetermined by successiveapproximation from thecondition that theload

on themost heavily loaded pileshould not exceed theallowablepilereaction R

a

. Assumingalinear

distribution of pileloadsdueto bending, themaximumpilereaction is

R

max

=

P

n

+

M

I

pg

/c

(4.138)

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

whereP isthemaximumload(includingweight of cap, backll, etc.), M isthemoment toberesisted

by thepilegroup, both referred to thebottom of thecap, I

pg

isthemoment of inertiaof theentire

pilegroup about thecentroidal axisabout which bendingsoccurs, and c isthedistancefrom that

axisto theextremepile.

Piles are generally arranged in tight patterns, which minimizes the cost of the caps, but they

cannot beplacedcloser than conditionsof derivingandof undisturbedcarryingcapacitywill permit.

AASHTO requiresthat pilesbespaced at least 2 ft 6 in. center to center and that thedistancefrom

thesideof apileto thenearest edgeof thefootingbe9in. or more.

Thedesignof footingsonpilesissimilar tothat of single-columnspreadfootings. Oneapproachis

to design thecap for thepilereactionscalculated for thefactored column loads. For aconcentrically

loaded cluster this would give R

u

= (1.4D + 1.7L)/n. However, since the number of piles was

taken asthenext larger integer accordingtoEquation 4.138, determiningR

u

in thismanner can lead

to a design wherethestrength of thecap islessthan thecapacity of thepilegroup. It istherefore

recommended that thepilereaction for strength design betaken as

R

u

= R

e

Averageload factor (4.139)

wheretheaverageload factor is(1.4D + 1.7L)/(D + L). In thismanner thecap isdesigned to be

capableof developingthefull allowablecapacity of thepilegroup.

As in single-column spread footings, the depth of the pile cap is usually governed by shear. In

thisregard both punching and one-way shear need to beconsidered. Thecritical sectionsarethe

same as explained earlier under Two-Way Shear (Punching Shear) and One-Way Shear. The

differenceisthat shearson capsarecaused by concentrated pilereactionsrather than by distributed

bearingpressures. Thisposesthequestion of howto calculateshear if thecritical section intersects

thecircumferenceof oneor morepiles. For thiscasetheACI Codeaccountsfor thefact that pile

reaction isnot really apoint load, but isdistributed over thepile-bearingarea. Correspondingly, for

pileswith diametersd

p

, it stipulatesasfollows:

Computation of shear on any section through afooting on pilesshall bein accordancewith the

following:

(a) The entire reaction from any pile whose center is located d

p

/2 or more outside this section

shall beconsidered asproducingshear on that section.

(b) The reaction from any pile whose center is located d

p

/2 or more inside the section shall be

considered asproducingno shear on that section.

(c) For intermediateportionsof thepilecenter, theportion of thepilereaction to beconsidered

asproducingshear on thesection shall bebasedon straight-lineinterpolation between thefull

valueat d

p

/2outsidethesection and zero at d

p

/2insidethesection [ 1] .

In addition to checkingpunchingand one-way shear, punchingshear must beinvestigated for the

individual pile. Particularlyin capson asmall number of heavilyloadedpiles, it isthispossibilityof a

pilepunchingupward through thecap which may govern therequired depth. Thecritical perimeter

for thisaction, again, islocated at adistanced/2 outsidetheupper edgeof thepile. However, for

relativelydeepcapsandcloselyspacedpiles, critical perimetersaroundadjacent pilesmayoverlap. In

thiscase, fracture, if any, would undoubtedly occur alongan outward-slantingsurfacearound both

adjacent piles. For such situationsthecritical perimeter issolocated that itslength isaminimum, as

shown for two adjacent pilesin Figure4.29.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE4.29: Modied critical section for shear with overlappingcritical perimeters.

4.11 Walls

4.11.1 Panel, Curtain, andBearingWalls

Asageneral rule, theexterior wallsof areinforced concretebuildingaresupported at each oor by

theskeleton framework, their onlyfunction beingtoenclosethebuilding. Suchwallsarecalledpanel

walls. They may be made of concrete (often precast), cinder concrete block, brick, tile blocks, or

insulated metal panels. Thethicknessof each of thesetypesof panel wallswill vary accordingto the

material, typeof construction, climatological conditions, and thebuildingrequirementsgoverning

theparticular locality in which theconstruction takesplace. Thepressureof thewind isusually the

onlyload that isconsidered in determiningthestructural thicknessof awall panel, although in some

casesexterior wallsareusedasdiaphragmstotransmit forcescausedbyhorizontal loadsdown tothe

buildingfoundations.

Curtainwallsaresimilar topanel wallsexcept that theyarenot supportedat eachstorybytheframe

of thebuilding; rather, they areself supporting. However, they areoften anchored to thebuilding

frameat each oor to providelateral support.

A bearingwall may bedened asonethat carriesany vertical load in addition to itsown weight.

Such walls may be constructed of stone masonry, brick, concrete block, or reinforced concrete.

Occasional projections or pilasters add to the strength of the wall and are often used at points of

load concentration. Bearingwallsmay beof either singleor doublethickness, theadvantageof the

latter typebeing that theair spacebetween thewallsrenderstheinterior of thebuilding lessliable

to temperaturevariation and makesthewall itself morenearly moistureproof. On account of the

greater grossthicknessof thedoublewall, such construction reducestheavailableoor space.

Accordingto ACI CodeSec. 14.5.2theload capacity of awall isgiven by

P

nw

= 0.55f

c

A

g

_

1

_

kl

c

32h

_

2

_

(4.140)

where

P

nw

= design axial load strength

A

g

= grossareaof section, in.

2

l

c

= vertical distancebetween supports, in.

h = thicknessof wall, in.

= 0.7

and wheretheeffectivelength factor k istaken as0.8 for wallsrestrained against rotation at top or

bottomor both, 1.0for wallsunrestrained against rotation at both ends, and 2.0for wallsnot braced

against lateral translation.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

Inthecaseof concentratedloads, thelengthof thewall tobeconsideredaseffectivefor eachshould

not exceed thecenter-to-center distancebetween loads; nor should it exceed thewidth of thebearing

plus4 timesthewall thickness. Reinforced concretebearingwallsshould haveathicknessof aleast

1/25timestheunsupported height or width, whichever isshorter. Reinforced concretebearingwalls

of buildingsshould benot lessthan 4in. thick.

Minimum ratio of horizontal reinforcement area to gross concrete area should be 0.0020 for

deformed barsnot larger than #5with specied yield strength not lessthan 60,000 psi or 0.0025

for other deformed barsor 0.0025 for welded wirefabric not larger than W31 or D31. Minimum

ratio of vertical reinforcement area to grossconcretearea should be0.0012 for deformed barsnot

larger than #5with specied yield strength not lessthan 60,000 psi or 0.0015 for other deformed

barsor 0.0012 for welded wirefabric not larger than W31 or D31. In addition to theminimum

reinforcement, not lessthan two #5 barsshall beprovided around all window and door openings.

Such barsshall beextended to develop thebar beyond thecornersof theopeningsbut not lessthan

24in.

Wallsmorethan 10 in. thick should havereinforcement for each direction placed in two layers

parallel with facesof wall. Vertical and horizontal reinforcement should not bespaced further apart

than threetimesthewall thickness, or 18 in. Vertical reinforcement need not beenclosed by lateral

tiesif vertical reinforcement areaisnot greater than 0.01timesgrossconcretearea, or wherevertical

reinforcement isnot required ascompression reinforcement.

Quantity of reinforcement and limitsof thicknessmentioned abovearewaived wherestructural

analysis shows adequatestrength and stability. Wallsshould beanchored to intersecting elements

such asoors, roofs, or to columns, pilasters, buttresses, and intersectingwalls, and footings.

4.11.2 Basement Walls

In determining the thickness of basement walls, the lateral pressure of the earth, if any, must be

considered in addition to other structural features. If it ispart of abearingwall, thelower portion

maybedesignedeither asaslabsupportedbythebasement andoorsor asaretainingwall, depending

upon thetypeof construction. If columnsand wall beamsareavailablefor support, each basement

wall panel of reinforcedconcretemaybedesignedtoresist theearthpressureasasimpleslabreinforced

in either oneor two directions. A minimum thicknessof 7.5 in. isspecied for reinforced concrete

basement walls. In wet ground a minimum thickness of 12 in. should be used. In any case, the

thicknesscannot belessthan that of thewall above.

Care should be taken to brace a basement wall thoroughly from the inside (1) if the earth is

backlled beforethewall hasobtained sufcient strength to resist thelateral pressurewithout such

assistance, or (2) if it isplaced beforetherst-oor slab isin position.

4.11.3 PartitionWalls

Interior wallsused for thepurposeof subdividingtheoor areamay bemadeof cinder block, brick,

precast concrete, metal lath and plaster, clay tile, or metal. The type of wall selected will depend

upon thereresistancerequired; exibility of rearrangement; easewith which electrical conduits,

plumbing, etc. can beaccommodated; and architectural requirements.

4.11.4 ShearsWalls

Horizontal forcesacting on buildingsfor example, thosedueto wind or seismic actioncan be

resistedbyavarietyof means. Rigid-frameresistanceof thestructure, augmentedbythecontribution

of ordinarymasonrywallsand partitions, can providefor wind loadsin manycases. However, when

heavy horizontal loading islikelysuch aswould result from an earthquakereinforced concrete

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

shear walls areused. Thesemay beadded solely to resist horizontal forces; alternatively, concrete

wallsenclosingstairwaysor elevator shaftsmay also serveasshear walls.

Figure4.30showsabuildingwith wind or seismicforcesrepresented by arrowsactingon theedge

of each oor or roof. Thehorizontal surfacesact asdeep beamstotransmit loadstovertical resisting

FIGURE 4.30: Building with shear walls subject to horizontal loads: (a) typical oor; (b) front

elevation; (c) end elevation.

elements A and B. These shear walls, in turn, act as cantilever beams xed at their base to carry

loadsdown to thefoundation. They aresubjected to (1) avariableshear, which reachesmaximum

at thebase, (2) abendingmoment, which tendsto causevertical tension near theloaded edgeand

compression at thefar edge, and (3) avertical compression dueto ordinary gravity loadingfromthe

structure. For thebuildingshown, additional shear wallsCand D areprovided to resist loadsacting

in thelogdirection of thestructure.

Thedesign basisfor shear walls, according to theACI Code, isof thesamegeneral form asthat

used for ordinary beams:

V

u

V

n

(4.141)

V

n

= V

c

+V

s

(4.142)

Shear strengthV

n

at anyhorizontal section for shear in planeof wall shouldnot betaken greater than

10

_

f

c

hd. In thisand all other equationspertaining to thedesign of shear walls, thedistanceof d

maybetaken equal to0.8l

w

. Alarger valueof d, equal tothedistancefromtheextremecompression

faceto thecenter of forceof all reinforcement in tension, may beused when determined by astrain

compatibility analysis.

Thevalueof V

c

, thenominal shear strength provided by theconcrete, may bebased on theusual

equationsfor beams, accordingto ACI Code. For wallssubjected to vertical compression,

V

c

= 2

_

f

c

hd (4.143)

and for wallssubjected to vertical tension N

u

,

V

c

= 2

_

1 +

N

u

500A

g

_

_

f

c

hd (4.144)

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

whereN

u

isthefactored axial load in pounds, taken negativefor tension, and A

g

isthegrossareaof

horizontal concretesection in squareinches. Alternatively, thevalueof V

c

may bebased on amore

detailed calculation, asthelesser of

V

c

= 3.3

_

f

c

hd +

N

u

d

4l

w

(4.145)

or

V

c

=

_

0.6

_

f

c

+

l

w

_

1.25

_

f

c

+0.2N

u

/l

w

h

_

M

u

/V

u

l

w

/2

_

hd (4.146)

Equation 4.145correspondsto theoccurrenceof aprincipal tensilestressof approximately 4

_

f

c

at

thecentroid of theshear-wall section. Equation 4.146correspondsapproximately to theoccurrence

of aexural tensilestressof 6

_

f

c

at asection l

w

/2abovethesection beinginvestigated. Thusthetwo

equationspredict, respectively, web-shear cracking and exure-shear cracking. When thequantity

M

u

/V

u

l

w

/2 isnegative, Equation 4.146 isinapplicable. According to theACI Code, horizontal

sectionslocated closer tothewall basethan adistancel

w

/2 or h

w

/2, whichever less, maybedesigned

for thesameV

c

asthat computed at adistancel

w

/2or h

w

/2.

When thefactored shear forceV

u

doesnot exceed V

c

/2, awall may bereinforced according to

theminimum requirementsgiven in Sec. 12.1. When V

u

exceedsV

c

/2, reinforcement for shear is

to beprovided accordingto thefollowingrequirements.

Thenominal shear strength V

s

provided by thehorizontal wall steel isdetermined on thesame

basisasfor ordinary beams:

V

s

=

A

v

f

y

d

s

2

(4.147)

whereA

v

isthearea of horizontal shear reinforcement within vertical distances

2

, (in.

2

), s

2

isthe

vertical distancebetweenhorizontal reinforcement, (in.), andf

y

istheyieldstrengthof reinforcement,

psi. Substituting Equation 4.147 into Equation 4.142, then combining with Equation 4.141, one

obtainstheequation for therequired areaof horizontal shear reinforcement within adistances

2

:

A

v

=

(V

u

V

c

) s

2

f

y

d

(4.148)

Theminimumpermitted ratio of horizontal shear steel to grossconcreteareaof vertical section,

n

,

is0.0025and themaximumspacings

2

isnot exceed l

w

/5, 3h, or 18in.

Test resultsindicatethat for lowshear walls, vertical distributed reinforcement isneeded aswell as

horizontal reinforcement. Codeprovisionsrequirevertical steel of areaA

h

within aspacings

1

, such

that theratio of vertical steel to grossconcreteareaof horizontal section will not belessthan

n

= 0.0025 +0.5

_

2.5

h

w

l

w

_

(

h

0.0025) (4.149)

nor lessthan0.0025. However, thevertical steel rationeednot begreater thantherequiredhorizontal

steel ratio. Thespacingof thevertical barsisnot to exceed l

w

/3, 3h, or 18in.

Walls may be subjected to exural tension due to overturning moment, even when the vertical

compression fromgravityloadsissuperimposed. In manybut not all cases, vertical steel isprovided,

concentrated near thewall edges, asin Figure4.31. Therequired steel areacan befound by theusual

methodsfor beams.

TheACI Codecontainsrequirementsfor thedimensionsand detailsof structural wallsservingas

part of theearthquake-forceresistingsystems. Thereinforcement ratio,

v

(= A

sv

/A

cv

; whereA

cv

isthenet areaof concretesection bounded by web thicknessand length of section in thedirection of

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE4.31: Geometry and reinforcement of typical shear wall: (a) crosssection; (b) elevation.

shear forceconsidered, and A

sv

istheprojection on A

cv

of areaof distributed shear reinforcement

crossingtheplaneof A

cv

), for structural wallsshould not belessthan 0.0025alongthelongitudinal

and transverseaxes. Reinforcement provided for shear strength should becontinuousand should

bedistributed acrosstheshear plane. If thedesign shear forcedoesnot exceed A

cv

_

f

c

, theshear

reinforcement may conform to the reinforcement ratio given in Sec. 12.1. At least two curtains

of reinforcement should beused in a wall if thein-planefactored shear forceassigned to thewall

exceeds2A

cv

_

f

c

. All continuousreinforcement in structural wallsshould beanchored or spliced

in accordancewith theprovisionsfor reinforcement in tension for seismicdesign.

Proportioningand detailsof structural wallsthat resist shear forcescaused by earthquakemotion

iscontained in theACI CodeSec. 21.7.3.

4.12 DeningTerms

ThetermscommoninconcreteengineeringasdenedinandselectedfromtheCement andConcrete

Terminology Report of ACI Committee116aregiven below[ 1, Further Reading] .

Allowablestress: Maximum permissiblestressused in design of membersof astructureand based

on afactor of safety against yieldingor failureof any type.

Allowablestressdesign (ASD): Design principleaccording to which stressesresulting from service

or workingloadsarenot allowed to exceed specied allowablevalues.

Balanced load: Combination of axial forceand bendingmoment that causessimultaneouscrushing

of concreteand yieldingof tension steel.

Balanced reinforcement: An amount anddistribution of exural reinforcement such that thetensile

reinforcement reaches its specied yield strength simultaneously with the concrete in com-

pression reachingitsassumed ultimatestrain of 0.003.

Beam: A structural member subjected primarily to exure; depth-to-span ratio islimited to 2/5for

continuous spans, or 4/5 for simplespans, otherwisethemember is to betreated as a deep

beam.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

Beam-column: A structural member that is subjected simultaneously to bending and substantial

axial forces.

Bond: Adhesion and grip of concreteor mortar to reinforcement or to other surfacesagainst which

it isplaced; toenhancebondstrength, ribsor other deformationsareaddedtoreinforcingbars.

Camber: A deection that is intentionally built into a structural element or form to improve ap-

pearanceor to offset thedeection of theelement under theeffectsof loads, shrinkage, and

creep.

Cast-in-placeconcrete: Concretepoured in itsnal or permanent location; also called insitucon-

crete; oppositeof precast concrete.

Column: Amember usedtosupport primarilyaxial compression loadswithaheight of at least three

timesitsleast lateral dimensions; thecapacity of short columnsiscontrolled by strength; the

capacity of longcolumnsislimited by buckling.

Column strip: Theportion of aat slabover arowof columnsconsistingof thetwoadjacent quarter

panelson each sideof thecolumn centerline.

Composition construction: Atypeof construction usingmembersmadeof different materials(e.g.,

concrete and structural steel), or combining members made of cast-in-place concrete and

precast concretesuch that thecombined componentsact together asasinglemember; strictly

speaking, reinforced concreteisalso compositeconstruction.

Compression member: A member subjected primarily to longitudinal compression; often synony-

mouswith column.

Compressivestrength: Strength typically measured on astandard 612in. cylinder of concretein

an axial compression test, 28d after casting.

Concrete: A composite material that consists essentially of a binding medium within which are

embedded particles or fragments of aggregate; in portland cement concrete, the binder is a

mixtureof portland cement and water.

Conned concrete: Concreteenclosed by closely spaced transversereinforcement, which restrains

theconcreteexpansion in directionsperpendicular to theapplied stresses.

Construction joint: Thesurfacewheretwo successiveplacementsof concretemeet, acrosswhich it

may bedesirableto achievebond, and through which reinforcement may becontinuous.

Continuousbeamor slab: A beam or slab that extends as a unit over threeor moresupports in a

given direction and isprovided with thenecessary reinforcement to develop thenegativemo-

mentsover theinterior supports; aredundant structurethat requiresastaticallyindeterminant

analysis(oppositeof simplesupported beamor slab).

Cover: In reinforced concrete, theshortest distancebetween thesurfaceof thereinforcement and

theouter surfaceof theconcrete; minimum valuesarespecied to protect thereinforcement

against corrosion and to assuresufcient bond strength.

Cracks: Results of stresses exceeding concretes tensile strength capacity; cracks are ubiquitous in

reinforced concreteand needed todevelop thestrength of thereinforcement, but adesign goal

isto keep their widthssmall (hairlinecracks).

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

Cracked section: A section designed or analyzed on theassumption that concretehasno resistance

to tensilestress.

Crackingload: Theload that causestensilestressin amember to beequal to thetensilestrength of

theconcrete.

Deformed bar: Reinforcing bar with amanufactured pattern of surfaceridgesintended to prevent

slip when thebar isembedded in concrete.

Design strength: Ultimate load-bearing capacity of a member multiplied by a strength reduction

factor.

Development length: Thelength of embedded reinforcement to develop thedesign strength of the

reinforcement; afunction of bond strength.

Diagonal crack: An inclined crack caused by adiagonal tension, usually at about 45 degreesto the

neutral axisof aconcretemember.

Diagonal tension: Theprincipal tensilestressresultingfrom thecombination of normal and shear

stressesactingupon astructural element.

Drop panel: Theportion of aat slab in theareasurroundingacolumn, column capital, or bracket

which isthickened in order to reducetheintensity of stresses.

Ductility: Capability of a material or structural member to undergo large inelastic deformations

without distress; opposite of brittleness; very important material property, especially for

earthquake-resistant design; steel is naturally ductile, concrete is brittle but it can be made

ductileif well conned.

Durability: Theability of concreteto maintain itsqualitiesover long timespanswhileexposed to

weather, freeze-thawcycles, chemical attack, abrasion, and other serviceload conditions.

Effectivedepth: Depthof abeamor slabsection measuredfromthecompression facetothecentroid

of thetensilereinforcement.

Effectiveangewidth: Width of slab adjoiningabeam stem assumed to function astheangeof a

T-section.

Effectiveprestress: Thestressremainingintheprestressingsteel or intheconcreteduetoprestressing

after all losseshaveoccurred.

Effectivespan: Thelesser of thedistancebetween centersof supportsand theclear distancebetween

supportsplustheeffectivedepth of thebeamor slab.

Flat slab: A concreteslab reinforced in two or moredirections, generally without beamsor girders

totransfer theloadstosupportingmembers, but with drop panelsor column capitalsor both.

High-early strength cement: Cement producingstrength in mortar or concreteearlier than regular

cement.

Hoop: A one-piececlosed reinforcingtieor continuously wound tiethat enclosesthelongitudinal

reinforcement.

Interaction diagram: Failure curve for a member subjected to both axial force and the bending

moment, indicatingthemoment capacityfor agiven axial load and viceversa; used todevelop

design chartsfor reinforced concretecompression members.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

Lightweight concrete: Concrete of substantially lower unit weight than that made using normal-

weight gravel or crushed stoneaggregate.

Limit analysis: SeePlasticanalysis.

Limit design: A method of proportioning structural membersbased on satisfying certain strength

and serviceability limit states.

Load and resistancefactor design (LRFD): SeeUltimatestrength design.

Load factor: A factor by which a serviceload ismultiplied to determinethefactored load used in

ultimatestrength design.

Modulusof elasticity: Theratio of normal stressto correspondingstrain for tensileof compressive

stressesbelowtheproportional limit of thematerial; for steel, E

s

= 29,000 ksi; for concrete

it ishighly variablewith stresslevel and thestrength f

c

; for normal-weight concreteand low

stresses, acommon approximation isE

c

= 57,000

_

f

c

.

Modulusof rupture: Thetensilestrengthof concreteasmeasuredinaexural test of asmall prismatic

specimen of plain concrete.

Mortar: Amixtureof cement pasteand neaggregate; in fresh concrete, thematerial occupyingthe

intersticesamongparticlesof coarseaggregate.

Nominal strength: The strength of a structural member based on its assumed material properties

and sectional dimensions, beforeapplication of any strength reduction factor.

Plasticanalysis: Amethod of structural analysisto determinetheintensity of aspecied load distri-

bution at which thestructureformsacollapsemechanism.

Plastichinge: Region of exural member wheretheultimatemoment capacitycan bedevelopedand

maintained with corresponding signicant inelastic rotation, asmain tensilesteel isstressed

beyond theyield point.

Post-tensioning: A method of prestressing reinforced concretein which thetendonsaretensioned

after theconcretehashardened (oppositeof pretensioning).

Precast concrete: Concretecast elsewherethan itsnal position, usually in factoriesor factory-like

shop sitesnear thenal site(oppositeof cast-in-placeconcrete).

Prestressed concrete: Concrete in which internal stresses of such magnitude and distribution are

introducedthat thetensilestressesresultingfromtheserviceloadsarecounteractedtoadesired

degree; in reinforced concretetheprestressiscommonly introduced by tensioningembedded

tendons.

Prestressingsteel: Highstrengthsteel usedtoprestressconcrete, commonlyseven-wirestrands, single

wires, bars, rods, or groupsof wiresor strands.

Pretensioning: A method of prestressing reinforced concrete in which the tendons are tensioned

beforetheconcretehashardened (oppositeof post-tensioning).

Ready-mixed concrete: Concretemanufactured for delivery to apurchaser in aplasticand unhard-

ened state; usually delivered by truck.

Rebar: Short for reinforcingbar; seeReinforcement.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

Reinforced concrete: Concretecontainingadequatereinforcement (prestressedor not) anddesigned

on theassumption that thetwo materialsact together in resistingforces.

Reinforcement: Bars, wires, strands, and other slender membersthat areembedded in concretein

such amanner that thereinforcement and theconcreteact together in resistingforces.

Safety factor: Theratio of aload producingan undesirablestate(such ascollapse) and an expected

or serviceload.

Serviceloads: Loadson a structurewith high probability of occurrence, such asdead weight sup-

ported by amember or theliveloadsspecied in buildingcodesand bridgespecications.

Shear key: A recessor groovein ajoint between successiveliftsor placementsof concrete, which is

lled with concreteof theadjacent lift, givingshear strength to thejoint.

Shear span: Thedistancefrom a support of a simply supported beam to thenearest concentrated

load.

Shear wall: SeeStructural wall.

Shotcrete: Mortar or concretepneumatically projected at high velocity onto asurface.

Silicafume: Very nenoncrystallinesilicaproduced in electric arc furnacesasaby-product of the

production of metallicsilicon and varioussilicon alloys(also knowascondensed silicafume);

used asamineral admixturein concrete.

Slab: Aat, horizontal (or neatlyso) moldedlayer of plainor reinforcedconcrete, usuallyof uniform

thickness, either on theground or supported by beams, columns, walls, or other framework.

Seealso Flat slab.

Slump: A measureof consistency of freshly mixed concreteequal to thesubsidenceof themolded

specimen immediately after removal of theslump cone, expressed in inches.

Splice: Connection of onereinforcingbar to another by lapping, welding, mechanical couplers, or

other means.

Split cylinder test: Test for tensilestrengthof concreteinwhichastandardcylinder isloadedtofailure

in diametral compression applied alongtheentirelength (also called Brazilian test).

Standard cylinder: Cylindric specimen of 12-in. height and 6-in. diameter, used to determinestan-

dard compressivestrength and splittingtensilestrength of concrete.

Stiffnesscoefcient: Thecoefcient k

ij

of stiffnessmatrix Kfor amulti-degreeof freedomstructure

is the force needed to hold the ith degree of freedom in place, if the jth degree of freedom

undergoesaunit of displacement, whileall othersarelocked in place.

Stirrup: A reinforcement used to resist shear and diagonal tension stressesin astructural member;

typically asteel bar bent into aU or rectangular shapeand installed perpendicular to or at an

angleto thelongitudinal reinforcement, and properly anchored; theterm stirrup isusually

appliedtolateral reinforcement inexural membersandthetermtie tolateral reinforcement

in compression members. SeeTie.

Strength design: SeeUltimatestrength design.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

Strength reduction factor: Capacity reduction factor (typically designated as) by which thenomi-

nal strength of amember istobemultiplied toobtain thedesign strength; specied bytheACI

Codefor different typesof members.

Structural concrete: Concreteused to carry load or to forman integral part of astructure(opposite

of, for example, insulatingconcrete).

T-beam: A beam composed of a stem and a ange in the form of a T, with the ange usually

provided by aslab.

Tension stiffeningeffect: The added stiffness of a single reinforcing bar due to the surrounding

uncracked concretebetween bond cracks.

Tie: Reinforcingbar bent intoaloop toenclosethelongitudinal steel in columns; tensilebar tohold

aformin placewhileresistingthelateral pressureof unhardened concrete.

Ultimatestrength design (USD): Designprinciplesuchthat theactual (ultimate) strengthof amem-

ber or structure, multiplied by astrength factor, isno lessthan theeffectsof all serviceload

combinations, multiplied by respectiveoverload factors.

Unbonded tendon: A tendon that isnot bonded to theconcrete.

Under-reinforced beam: Abeamwith lessthan balanced reinforcement such that thereinforcement

yieldsbeforetheconcretecrushesin compression.

Water-cement ratio: Ratio by weight of water to cement in a mixture; inversely proportional to

concretestrength.

Water-reducingadmixture: An admixture capable of lowering the mix viscosity, thereby allowing

areduction of water (and increasein strength) without lowering theworkability (also called

superplasticizer).

Whitney stressblock: Arectangular areaof uniformstressintensity0.85f

c

, whoseareaandcentroid

aresimilar to that of theactual stressdistribution in aexural member near failure.

Workability: General property of freshly mixed concretethat denestheeasewith which it can be

placed into formswithout honeycombs; closely related to slump.

Workingstressdesign: SeeAllowablestressdesign.

Yield-linetheory: Method of structural analysis of plate structures at the verge of collapse under

factored loads.

References

[ 1] ACI Committee318. 1992. BuildingCodeRequirementsfor ReinforcedConcreteandCommentary,

ACI 318-89(Revised92) andACI 318R-89(Revised92) (347pp.). Detroit, MI.

[ 2] ACI Committee340. 1990. DesignHandbookinAccordancewiththeStrengthDesignMethodof

ACI 318-89. Volume2, SP-17(222pp.).

[ 3] ACI Committee363. 1984. State-of-the-art report on highstrengthconcrete. ACI J. Proc. 81(4):364-

411.

[ 4] ACI Committee436. 1996. Suggested design procedures for combined footings and mats. J. ACI.

63:1041-1057.

[ 5] Breen, J.E. 1991. Why structural concrete?IASEColloq. Struct. Concr. Stuttgart, pp.15-26.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

[ 6] Collins, M.P. andMitchell, D. 1991. PrestressedConcreteStructures,1st ed., PrenticeHall, Englewood

Cliffs, N.J.

[ 7] Fintel, M. 1985. Handbookof ConcreteEngineering. 2nd ed., Van Nostrand Reinhold, NewYork.

[ 8] MacGregor, J.G. 1992. ReinforcedConcreteMechanicsandDesign,2nded., PrenticeHall, Englewood

Cliffs, N.J.

[ 9] Nilson, A.H. and Winter, G. 1992. Designof ConcreteStructures, 11th ed., McGraw-Hill, NewYork.

[ 10] StandardHandbookfor Civil Engineers, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, NewYork.

[ 11] Wang, C.-K. and Salmon, C. G. 1985. ReinforcedConcreteDesign, 4th ed., Harper Row, NewYork.

Further Reading

[ 1] ACI Committee116. 1990. Cement andConcreteTerminology, Report 116R-90, American Concrete

Institute, Detroit, MI.

[ 2] Ferguson, P.M., Breen, J.E., and Jirsa, J.O. 1988. ReinforcedConcreteFundamentals, 5th ed., John

Wiley & Sons, NewYork.

[ 3] Lin, T-Y. and Burns, N.H. 1981. Designof PrestressedConcreteStructures, 3rd ed., John Wiley &

Sons, NewYork.

[ 4] Meyer, C. 1996. Designof ConcreteStructures, Prentice-Hall, Upper SaddleRiver, NJ.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

- PE Exam preperation Solved ProblemsUploaded bygugi
- bearing wall design (ACI 2005)Uploaded byAmr_Hafez_1437
- ACI 301 Specifications for Structural Concrete for Buildings_tcm45-346207Uploaded bymsohaibaziz
- ACI-318-02Uploaded bysoroware
- PE Civil Questions-40Uploaded byAdnan Riaz
- ACI 301Uploaded bybenzenten
- Reinforced Concrete DesignUploaded byDidi Gi
- reinforced cement concrete slab designUploaded byRavi Kumar
- ACI 314 Design Aid-11.pdfUploaded byASQ
- ACI Mix Design 2Uploaded byHenry Rante Limbong
- ACI_mix_design.pdfUploaded byHanniel Madramootoo
- COURSE Reinforced Concrete DesignUploaded bygugi
- Reinforced Concrete Design by Everard and TannerUploaded bygugi
- Design Of 6 storey Building in EtabsUploaded byMisqal A Iqbal
- ACI 421.1R-08 - Punching ShearUploaded byEdin Lissica
- aci 318-14.pdfUploaded byKimseang Ung
- ACI ListUploaded byAbufalisha
- reinforced concreteUploaded byRenukadevi Rpt
- ACI SP-17(14)Uploaded bytuantomato
- SWD-ACI-530-11Uploaded byStephanie Miyata
- ACI Shrinkage Calculation.xlsUploaded byjadlouis
- Reinforced Concrete Design - W.H. MOSLEYUploaded bywincris
- ACI-318-11Uploaded byShakeel Waseem
- ACI-SP-4 Formwork for ConcreteUploaded byDaniel Duarte
- ACI-318-1-89-ACI-318-1R-89Uploaded byMohamad_Ali_6823
- ACI 350.1-10Uploaded byShina Sharmin
- Previews-ACI 301 10 PreUploaded byAroldo Rene Vega
- Civil EngineeringUploaded byCibola Physics
- StormwaterDesignManual[1]Uploaded bygugi
- Crack Control of Slabs_Design BookletUploaded byAndré Biscaya

- Design of Concrete Structures Worked Examples.pdfUploaded bygugi
- Hydraulics ManualUploaded bygugi
- wwmathproblemsquestions110withanswers[1]Uploaded bygugi
- Guidelines for MathUploaded bygugi
- PintoPL961.pdfUploaded bygugi
- Scour in Bottomless Culverts.pdfUploaded bygugi
- architectural structural course notesUploaded bygugi
- StormwaterDesignManual[1]Uploaded bygugi
- Basic Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering - (Malestrom)Uploaded byNguyen Dang Hanh
- lecture_notesSteel structures_solved_examples.pdfUploaded bygugi
- Crack Control of Slabs_Design BookletUploaded byAndré Biscaya
- Foundation Analysis GuidelinesUploaded bygugi
- Virginia Stormwater Managment Handbook Volume_II.pdfUploaded bygugi
- foundation design sampleUploaded byArun Kumar
- Analytical Expression for Unreinforced Rigid Pavement Joint Spacing_Tariq Ahmad_AFCEC-CFTP_April 2014 (2)Uploaded bygugi
- The 10 Smartest Kids in the WorldUploaded bygugi
- Design-of-Reinforced-Concrete-Structure-Volume-3.pdfUploaded bygugi
- Simplified Methods in RCC DesignUploaded bygugi
- PNA Cost Effective SlabsUploaded bygugi
- Partially Full Pipe Flow CalculationsUploaded byLim Han Jian
- Volume 3 DrainageUploaded bygugi
- The Standard Models Greatest TriumphUploaded bygugi
- DSM ManualUploaded byrajpce
- Design of Roadside ChannelsUploaded byBesim Gülcü
- new loads on olderr structures.pdfUploaded bygugi
- UW-Foundation Design.pdfUploaded bygugi
- Guidelines on Road DrainageUploaded byadjeibaldan
- Chapter-5 Design MethodUploaded byneelagaantan

- Modeling MOSFETs in MultisimUploaded byrobertz_tolentino014
- Case Study on Contract LawUploaded bysubramax560
- New Microsoft PowerPoint PresentationUploaded byCheerag
- Advanced Anti-Aging and Weight Loss Celebrates 10 Years in Business and the Entrepreneurship of Owner, Ginny SteinerUploaded byPR.com
- Job Report 3_CO2 Propene Cascade Refrigeration System_engUploaded bymajedabdi123
- Somethng MooreUploaded bydiasha18
- Overview of Cooling Tower.pdfUploaded byHamid Ariz
- Essentials of Critical Care Nursing - A Holistic Approach - P. Morton, D. Fontaine (Lippincott, 2013) WWUploaded byDănilă Anuţ
- Triangular ArbitrageUploaded bySajid Hussain
- FAR360 (Apr09)_Q & AUploaded bySyazliana Kasim
- Aig Philippines Product Pack 2017Uploaded byJoe Bid
- AISA Poster Nov 10 kathikudam.pdfUploaded byAISA
- Expence Sheet.pdfUploaded byloveleesh
- Forest Health 2009 CSFSUploaded bymarkccs
- Issue 8 : January 1999Uploaded byIin Mochamad Solihin
- US Army FM 01 - 100Uploaded byrobertoga66
- RE Recruiting FirmsUploaded byAlex Mollozzi
- Services Shiraz v.1.2Uploaded byShiraz Muhsin
- An_Automated_Greenhouse_Control_System_u.pdfUploaded byGeorge Karidis
- 09-28-15 editionUploaded bySan Mateo Daily Journal
- Create a Pibot TableUploaded byJose Luis Becerril Burgos
- JeffParish042016 (2)Uploaded bytheadvocate.com
- Bar Datasheet SolderUploaded bymuki10
- API_598Uploaded byIkhsan Arif
- dist actUploaded bynayana mahajan
- Villegas vs. CA DigestUploaded byJewel Ivy Balabag Dumapias
- Ipv6 Socket ProgrammingUploaded byRafa Sánchez
- gtd 111 alloyUploaded byJJ
- TQM bisleriUploaded byDishank Shah
- Cable Glands - BW CW A2 E1W Type and PG Threaded Brass Cable GlandUploaded byBilalKhan