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# HARDWARE DEVELOPMENT

## Variable resistor 10k ohms Jumper Wire

Variable Switch

Figure 1.1

1. The apparatus that we used is like in figure 1.1.
2. Firstly the value of internal resistor Rm in voltmeter is measured by using ohm
meter and the Ifsd for zero and full scale deflection is measured by using
3. The measured process is used volt supply 5v as the supply to get the result of
internal resistor and internal current.
4. After that, the hardware is setup like in schematic figure 2.1 below.

5. Then the hardware that has been created is calibrate by using multimer. The
value of each variable resistor is set like in calculation.

6. Then we testing to measured a battery supply of 5V. the error are showed
about 8 percent more than the actual value.

7. The hardware is calibrated again by tuning the variable resistor until the
voltmeter is showed the accurate reading.

8. The hardware is completed.

ANALYSIS

In this mini project, the analog volt meter created by using basic component. The
component that has been used is coil meter movement that contain Rm (internal
resistor), variable resistor, jumper, breadboard and selector switch. The variable
resistor is choose because it easy to calibrate with suitable value for every scale.
The four variable resistor is need to create this mini project because In this project,
the voltmeter can measured four type of different scale of volt. Each of variable
resistor is set for each every scale. This mini project can measured 2 volt, 4 volt, 8
volt and 12 volt.
Firstly, the coil meter movement or PMMC during zero and full scale deflection must
be measured their internal resistance by using decade resistor box and the PMMC is
connected series in power supply 5V and decade box resistor. After that the decade
box resistor is adjusted to get 0 scale deflection and full scale deflection and the
value resistor of decade box is recorded.
Secondly to get the suitable value of resistor for every scale, the calculation must be
done with the formula that has been given in lecture note. The variable resistor value
also can be called as Rs. After all the value of RS has been defined. The circuit can
be construct like the figure below.

After the circuit has been construct. The calibration for each RS type of scale can be
done to make more accurate. RS in figure is R1, R2, R3 and R4.
The procedure for calibrated RS in scale 12 volt is firstly the voltage supply must set
to 12 volt. And the mini project DC multi voltmeter must measured the 12volt supply.
The reading must show full scale deflection. If have little bit less or higher full scale
reading. The RS for scale 12 volt must adjusted until the reading in full scale. If the
reading has been full scale it mean the calibration has been done perfectly.

Discussion

After all the result in calculation and measurement is done collected. Their got a little
bit different in value of RS for scale voltmeter in measurement practical and
calculation for RS. The different in result calculation and measurement occur
because during calculation the all possibility error are not include inside but in
measurement practical real life many possibility of error can be include like implicit
and explicit. Other than that the error reading by human also can occur. To minimize
the error, the measurement has been done by the three times and the average of
reading is taken. Other than error, the environment factor also can be include as the
reason because in real life the jumper also contain little resistance. The longer
jumper that is use the more resistance will created the higher of different value will
get. In this mini project the error that happen is human error, random error.

Reference

How to created voltmeter