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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY

College of Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences Department

1.1 Ideal op-amp: Device with differential inputs V

and V

+

, and an output V

0

. The output is given by

V

0

= A(V

+

V

), where A is infinite at all frequencies. No current flows into either input (infinite

input impedance) and the output impedance is zero.

[2 points off for missing each of the four critical properties: infinite differential gain, zero common

mode gain, infinite input impedance, zero output impdance]

[V

0

= A(V

+

V

1.2 Johnson noise: Random voltage generated by the thermal agitation of electrons in a resistor or

semiconductor.

1.3 Sensitivity (of a sensor): Change in electrical output per unit change in the physical quantity being

sensed

1.4 Actuator: Device that converts electrical energy into physical energy

1.5 Strain (mechanical): Fractional change in length !L/L

[3 points off for defining a strain gauge]

2.1 Differential gain 1000, bandwidth 10 kHz

[3 points off for Gain = 10,000, bandwidth 1 kHz]

[3 points off for Gain = 100, bandwidth 100 kHz]

2.2 Output V

rms

= (4 nV Hz

1/2

) (100 Hz

1/2

) (1000) = 0.4 mV in 10 kHz

[2 points off for input noise rather than output noise]

[3 points off for not taking the square root of the bandwidth]

2.3 We want a Butterworth low-pass filter with a gain of G

1

= 0.99 at f

P

= 1 kHz and G

2

= 0.01 at f

S

=

2 kHz. f

S

/f

P

= 2.

n f

1

/f

c

f

2

/f

c

f

2

/f

1

6 0.723 2.154 2.98 n too low

8 0.784 1.778 2.27 n too low

10 0.823 1.585 1.93 n =10 OK

Using f

1

/f

c

= 0.823, f

c

= 1 kHz/0.823 = 1.215 kHz

Using f

1

/f

c

= 1.585, f

c

= 2 kHz/1.585 = 1.262 kHz

The order is 10 and a corner frequency between 1.215 kHz and 1.262 kHz is OK. (order 12 also

accepted)

[2 points off for order 8]

[2 points off for giving input noise before filtering]

[2 points off for giving input noise of 0.141 "V]

After amplification and filtering, the output noise is V

rms

= (4 nV Hz

1/2

) sqrt(1.24 kHz) (1000) =

(4 nV Hz

1/2

) (35.3 Hz

1/2

) (1000) = 0.141 mV.

So the filtering reduced the output noise from 0.4 mV to 0.14 mV

EECS 145L Final Examination Solutions (Fall 2007)

December 17, 2007 page 2 S. Derenzo

[3 points off if output noise not given or determined by multiplying the answer from 2.2 by 0.01 or

0.99]

2.4 The best way to reduce the 60 Hz interference from the middle of a band of frequencies of interest is

to use a notch filter. The common mode rejection ratio of 60 dB means that the common mode gain

is 1000/1000 = 1. So the instrumentation amplifier 60 Hz output will be 10 mV from a common

mode input of 10 mV. The output due to a differential 60 Hz interference is (0.01 mV) (1000) =

10 mV. In the worst case, these are in phase, producing a total of 20 mV. A notch filter can

reduce this total by a factor of typically 30, to 0.7 mV.

[Any value between 0.1 and 2 mV was accepted for full credit]

[2 points off for including one 10 mV and not the other]

[3 points off for giving output noise as ~ zero]

[4 points off if input noise not given or not based on 60 Hz interference]

[4 points off if output noise not given]

[8 points off for using a HPF, which removes the important earthquake frequencies below 60 Hz]

2.5 [OK to reverse order of low pass and notch filters]

Seismometer

Instrumentation

amplifier

gain = 1000

60 Hz

notch filter

LPF n=10

f

c

= 1.24 kHz

[4 points off if amplifier not in circuit]

3.1 Since R

2

/( R

1

+ R

2

) = R

3

/( R

T

+ R

3

), R

2

= R

3

, and R

T

= 10 k# at 20C the solution is R

1

= 10 k#.

3.2 P = V

T

2

/R = (0.5 volts)

2

/(10 k#) = 25 "W

[3 points off for assuming V

T

= 1 volt]

3.3 Amplifier output of 0.05 volts means a bridge output V

+

V

= 0.01 volts. Using the bridge equation

(supplied on the equation sheets), we have RT = (10000 #)*(10000 # 0.01*20,000 #)/(10000 #

+ 0.01*20,000 #) = 10,000 # (9,800/10,200) = 9608 #

[2 points off for not dividing by the amplifier gain]

[3 points off for assuming a linear response from 0 C and 0 # to 20 C and 10 k#]

3.4 T = 20C + (9608 # 10000 #)/(300 #/C) = 21.3C

3.5 V

T

= 1 10000 # /(10000 # + 9608 #) = 0.490 volts

P = (0.490 volts)

2

/(9608 #) = 24.99 "W (25 "W was accepted for full credit)

3.6 Dissipation coefficient = 25 "W/(21.3C 20C) = 19 "W/C

[2 points off for using difference between 3.5 and 3.2 in numerator]

[2 points off for using 20C in denominator]

EECS 145L Final Examination Solutions (Fall 2007)

December 17, 2007 page 3 S. Derenzo

4.1

V

1

+5 V

5V

V

2

Photodiode

R

[6 points of if circuit does not allow control of V

diode

or I

diode

]

[8 points of if no external bias]

[8 points off for a voltage controlled current driver]

[4 points off if only forward or only reverse bias]

4.2 Adjust potentiometer, measure V

1

Measure V

2

Voltage across diode V

diode

= V

1

V

2

Current through diode I

diode

= V

2

/R

Change V

1

and repeat to measure entire curve

[2 points off for measuring a single V

diode

, I

diode

point- the problem asked for a measurement of I

diode

as a function of V

diode

.]

[4 points off for failing to determine I

diode

or V

diode

]

Its is also possible to use a voltage-controlled current driver. A series of currents is set and the

voltage across the diode measured for each current.

4.3 See textbook, figure 4.36 for I

diode

vs. V

diode

curves

5.1

If the temperature at the output of the mixing valve is T (in C), the output of the solid state

temperature sensor is V

1

= (T+273) mV which is summed with +273 mV to produce V

2

= (100

mV)T at the output of the summing op-amp.

[A thermocouple could also be used, but this would require keeping the reference junction at a

known temperature]

[a thermistor was allowed, in spite of its nonlinear response. As may be seen in Figure 4.23 of the

textbook, the thermistor bridge output is reasonably linear over a 30C temperature range.]

[3 points off for using a thermistor without specifying resistance at 50C because this is needed to

put the maximum sensitivity at midrange between 20C and 80C.]

[3 points off for not designing 10C/V sense value at set point comparison point]

EECS 145L Final Examination Solutions (Fall 2007)

December 17, 2007 page 4 S. Derenzo

20 V

+273 mV

Solid-state

temperature

s e n s o r

I = (1!A/K)T

Solid-state

temperature sensor

1 k!

1 k!

2 V 8 V

1 k!

100 k!

V = (1mV/K)T

Op-amp

Hi gh-gai n

power op-amp

Valve

actuator

Hot water

Cold water

User set point

V

V

V

1

2

3

5.2 The user set point is at 2.0V, and by the virtual short rule, V2 = 2.0 volts, which corresponds to a

temperature of 20 C, as desired. The power op-amp output V3 = 5V, as needed to pass only

20C water through the mixing valve.

[Note that V2 is actually a bit higher than 2.0 V so that the power op-amp gain can produce 5V.

Remember the basis for the virtual short rule: The op-amp produces whatever output is necessary

to make both of its inputs nearly equal. The difference in inputs is 5 V divided by the open-loop

gain which in this case is the gain of the final amplifier]

5.3 When the set point temperature is changed to 6.0 V, the output of the power op-amp will be driven

strongly positive to mix in hot water. The system will come into equilibrium when V2 is

approximately 6.0 V, which occurs when the solid state temperature sensor is at 60 C, as desired.

5.4 If the hot water temperature is reduced from 80C to 70C, the output of the mixing valve will

become cooler, and V2 will drop below the user set point of 6.0V. This will increase the voltage to

the valve controller, and increase the faction of hot water in the mix. The system will again come

into equilibrium when V2 is approximately 6.0 V, which occurs when the solid state temperature

sensor is at 60 C, as desired.

EECS 145L Final Examination Solutions (Fall 2007)

December 17, 2007 page 5 S. Derenzo

145L FINAL EXAM GRADE STATISTICS

Problem 1 2 3 4 5 Total

Average 36.6 32.1 35.9 27.8 43.0 175.4

rms 2.6 4.7 3.6 5.6 5.4 13.3

Maximum 40 40 40 34 46 200

Total score distribution:

100-109 0 110-119 0 120-129 0

130-139 1 140-149 1 150-159 1

160-169 3 170-179 8 180-189 8

190-199 3 200 0

145L COURSE GRADE STATISTICS

Grade Undergraduate Graduate

Scores Scores

A+ 945 none

A 922, 926, 930, 937, 943

A

B+ 888, 888, 893, 896, 903

B 854, 860, 865, 868, 871, 877, 877, 878

B 825

C+ 794, 802, 805, 806

C

C 730

D+

D

D

F

Maximum 1000

Average 871.3

rms 53.5

Note: the average grade for the lab report 4, 6, 12, 14 series was 89.7 and the average grade for the

lab report 5, 11, 13, 15 series was 91.3. To compensate, one bonus point was awarded to lab

reports 4, 6, 12 , and 14. This did not affect any letter grades.

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