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• Milling is the process of cutting away material by feeding a work piece past a
rotating multiple tooth cutter.
• The cutting action of the many teeth around the milling cutter provides a fast
method of machining.
• The machined surface may be flat, angular, or curved. The surface may also
be milled to any combination of shapes.
• The machine for holding the work piece, rotating the cutter, and feeding it is
known as the Milling machine.
• Peripheral Milling
In peripheral (or slab) milling, the milled surface is generated by teeth located on
the periphery of the cutter body. The axis of cutter rotation is generally in a plane
parallel to the work piece surface to be machined.

• Face Milling
In face milling, the cutter is mounted on a spindle having an axis of rotation
perpendicular to the work piece surface. The milled surface results from the action
of cutting edges located on the periphery and face of the cutter.
• End Milling
The cutter in end milling generally rotates on an axis vertical to the work piece. It
can be tilted to machine tapered surfaces. Cutting teeth are located on both the end
face of the cutter and the periphery of the cutter body.
• Up Milling
Up milling is also referred to as conventional milling. The direction of the cutter
rotation opposes the feed motion. For example, if the cutter rotates clockwise , the
workpiece is fed to the right in up milling.

• Down Milling
Down milling is also referred to as climb milling. The direction of cutter rotation is
same as the feed motion. For example, if the cutter rotates counterclockwise , the
work piece is fed to the right in down milling.

The chip formation in down milling is opposite to the chip formation in up milling.
The figure for down milling shows that the cutter tooth is almost parallel to the top
surface of the work piece. The cutter tooth begins to mill the full chip thickness.
Then the chip thickness gradually decreases.

Other milling operations are shown in the figure.

• Parts of the centre milling.

There are two basic configurations of milling machine; horizontal and vertical.
‐ Plain horizontal milling

Illustrates a plain horizontal mill:
A traversing slide moves (i) under the cutter providing the feed. Height
adjustment (ii) sets the depth of cut. Movement (iii) is positional adjustment
only and is set and usually locked before cutting commences.
‐ Vertical milling

Illustrates a vertical mill:
Movements (i) and (iii) may both be used to provide cutting feed. Movement (ii) sets
depth of cut.


• Turning is cutting process to produce circular section/cylindrical parts,
touches a cutting tool to it, and cuts the material such as bolts, shafts,
spindles, threads, est.
• The work piece thus moves against the cutting edge of the turning tool, which
removes the chips.
• This called as turning operation


• Lathe may be use for:

1. Facing 6. Parting
2. Boring 7. Tapping
3. Knurling 8. Turning
4. Drilling 9. Grooving
5. Threading 10. Polishing

• Two types of turning process:

1. Outside Turning
2. Inside Turning

• Types of machining that can be accomplished on a lathe


• Parts of the centre lathe

• Types of turning tool

Cutting speed

• Cutting speed is the cutting length in meter per minute (m/min).
• If the cutting speed is too low, the machining times will be too long.
• If the cutting speed is too high , the cutting edge loses its hardness due to
strong heating
• The cutting edge wears out quickly and must often be reshaped.

V=π x d x n m/min where: V = cutting speed in m/min
1000 d = diameter of work piece
n = revolution per minute (rpm)

Grinding is a finishing process used to improve surface finish, abrade hard
materials, and tighten the tolerance on flat and cylindrical surfaces by removing a
small amount of material. In grinding, an abrasive material rubs against the metal
part and removes tiny pieces of material. The abrasive material is typically on the
surface of a wheel or belt and abrades material in a way similar to sanding. On a
microscopic scale, the chip formation in grinding is the same as that found in other
machining processes. The abrasive action of grinding generates excessive heat so
that flooding of the cutting area with fluid is necessary. Following are the reasons
for using grinding operation.
The material is too hard to be machined economically. (The material may
have been hardened in order to produce a low‐wear finish, such as that in a
bearing raceway.).
Tolerances required preclude machining. Grinding can produce flatness
tolerances of less than ±0.0025 mm (±0.0001 in) on a 127 x 127 mm (5 x 5
in) steel surface if the surface is adequately supported.
Machining removes excessive material.
• Principle of Operation
To grind means to abrade, to war away by friction or to sharpen. In
manufacturing it refers to the removal of metal by an abrasive wheel rotating at
high speeds and working on the external or internal surface of a metallic or other
part hard enough to be abraded, rather than indented by the grinding wheel. The
action of the grinding wheel is similar to that of a milling cutter. The grinding wheel
is composed of many small abrasive particles bounded together, each one acting as a
miniature cutting point.
Grinding removes metal from the work piece in the form of small chips by the
mechanical action of abrasive particles bonded together in a grinding wheel.
• Grinding operations
Following are the different grinding operations that could be performed.
1. Grinding flat surface
2. Grinding vertical surface
3. Grinding slot
4. Grinding angular surfaces
5. Grinding a radius
6. Cutting off.
Grinding machines are designed principally for finishing parts having
cylindrical, flat or internal surfaces. The kind of surface machined largely
determines the type of grinding machine. Following is the classification of various
types of grinding machines.
1. Surface grinding machine:
It is a precision grinding machine to produce flat surfaces on a work piece. It
is more economical and practical method of accurately finished flat surfaces than
filling and scraping. The grinding is done on the circumference of the plain wheel.
Area of contact is less. Following are the different types of surface grinders. In
general, following are the parts of any grinding machine.
Base: It has a driving mechanism (hydraulic device, tank and motor.) It has column
at the back for supporting the wheel head.
Saddle: It is the frame. It carries the table in its cross wise movement. It is used to
give cross‐feed to the work. It can be moved by hand feed or auto‐feed.
Table: It is fitted on the saddle. It reciprocates along the guide ways to prove the
longitudinal feed to the work. It has 'T' slots for clamping purposes. It is moved by
hand or auto‐feed.
Wheel head: It is mounted on the column. It can be moved vertically up and down to
accommodate work piece of different lengths. The wheel rotates at a constant speed
of 1500 m / min.

Specification of surface grinder:
• Maximum diameter of the wheel that can be held one the spindle.
• Maximum size of the job that can be ground.
• The type of drive of the work table ( Hydraulic / electrical )
2. Cylindrical grinder:
It produces a cylindrical or conical shape on a work piece. The work piece is
mounted between centers or in a chuck and the face of the grinding wheel passes
over the external surface of the revolving work piece. There are two types of
cylindrical grinders. They are
Plain cylindrical grinders:
These are the machines that are designed for simple external grinding. The
wheel head is made to operate to and from the work table but cannot be swiveled.
The work table holds the work head and tail stock and can be swiveled for slight
Horizontal spindle reciprocating table Horizontal spindle rotary

table Vertical spindle reciprocating
Vertical spindle rotary table

tapers. The head stock is rigidly attached to the work table and cannot be swiveled.
It is located to the left of the operator. These grinders are used to produce
• Plain or stepped surface,
• External cylinders.
• Tapers,
• Concave or convex radii,
• Under cuts and
• Form grinding by dressing the grinding wheel the desired shape.
Universal cylindrical grinders:
It is different from the above grinder in the sense that the wheel head can be
swiveled on its base and can be fed to and from the table. The upper work table can
be swiveled and is equipped with scales and adjusting screws for setting the table to
produce slight tapers. Steep tapers may be ground by swiveling the headstock on its
base. The universal grinding machine is a tool room machine.


A CAM technology using computers to control cutting machines such as milling
machines and lathes to cut specified three‐dimensional shapes. CNC has been used
since the early 1970s. Prior to this, machines were controlled by prepared tapes and
the process was called simply Numerical Control (NC).


CNC lathes are rapidly replacing the older production lathes (multisided, etc.) due to
their ease of setting and operation. They are designed to use modern carbide tooling
and fully use modern processes. The part may be designed and the tool paths
programmed by the CAD/CAM process, and the resulting file uploaded to the
machine, and once set and trialed the machine will continue to turn out parts under
the occasional supervision of an operator.
The machine is controlled electronically via a computer menu style interface; the
program may be modified and displayed at the machine, along with a simulated
view of the process. The setter/operator needs a high level of skill to perform the
process, however the knowledge base is broader compared to the older production
machines where intimate knowledge of each machine was considered essential.
These machines are often set and operated by the same person, where the operator
will supervise a small number of machines (cell).
The design of a CNC lathe has evolved yet again however the basic principles and
parts are still recognizable, the turret holds the tools and indexes them as needed.
The machines are often totally enclosed, due in large part to Occupational health
and safety (OH&S) issues.
With the advent of cheap computers, free operating systems such as Linux, and open
source CNC software, the entry price of CNC machines has plummeted.


• Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machines perform functions of drilling,
milling, turning, etc. CNC Mills are usually defined in terms of the number of axes
they handle.
• Axes are generally labeled as x and y for horizontal movement and z for vertical
movement. The number of axes of a milling machine is significant.
• A standard manual industrial mill typically has four axes: * Table x. * Table y. *
Table z. * Milling Head z.
• A five‐axis CNC milling machine has an extra axis. This axis is the basis of a
horizontal pivot for the milling head.
• This allows a greater flexibility for machining with the end mill at an angle with
respect to the table.
• A six‐axis CNC milling machine has another horizontal pivot for the milling head,
perpendicular to the fifth axis.
• Is usually removed by both the end and the side of the cutting tool.
• In CNC milling the cutting tool usually rotates about an axis that is perpendicular
to the table, which holds the material to be cut.

• Cutting tools of various profile shapes include:
i. Square
ii. Rounded
iii. Angled

• A wide variety of part shapes and geometries are possible by a CNC machine.
• Interestingly, CNC machines come in various models, which range from small
desk‐top lathes and milling machines to larger full‐sized machining centers.
• CNC milling machines carry out the cutting process in which materials are
removed from a block by a rotating tool.
• In CNC milling, the cutting tool is moved in all three dimensions to achieve the
desired cut shape.
• A key advantage of CNC machining is the wide variety of work piece features that
it can produce.
• Part features such as walls, pockets of different depths, tapped holes, bolt‐hole
circle patterns and others commonly found on prototypes can be precisely
produced on a CNC machine.
• One other advantage of CNC machines is their ability to produce metal molds
which can then be used for injection molding operations.