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5: Homework 1

Solutions

1. y

= 3 2y

(i)

-10 -7.5 -5 -2.5 0 2.5 5 7.5 10

-5

-2.5

2.5

5

Figure 1

(ii)

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

-3

-2

-1

1

2

3

Figure 2

(iii) For y < 3/2,

dy

dt

> 0, so solutions with initial value y(0) < 3/2 increase and converge to

the equilibrium y = 3/2 as t . For y > 3/2,

dy

dt

< 0, so solutions with initial value

y(0) > 3/2 decrease and converge to the equilibrium as t .

(iv)

y

= 0 3 2y = 0 y = 3/2

So, the only equilibrium solution is y(t) = 3/2. Since all solutions converge to y = 3/2, it

is a stable equilibrium.

2

2. y

= 2y 3

(i)

-10 -7.5 -5 -2.5 0 2.5 5 7.5 10

-5

-2.5

2.5

5

Figure 3

(ii)

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

-3

-2

-1

1

2

3

Figure 4

(iii) For y < 3/2,

dy

dt

< 0, so solutions with initial value y(0) < 3/2 decrease and diverge from

the equilibrium y = 3/2 as t . For y > 3/2,

dy

dt

> 0, so solutions with initial value

y(0) > 3/2 increase and diverge from the equilibrium as t .

(iv)

y

= 0 2y 3 = 0 y = 3/2

So, the only equilibrium solution is y(t) = 3/2. Since all solutions diverge y = 3/2, it is an

unstable equilibrium.

3

3. y

= (y 1)(y + 1)

(i)

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

-3

-2

-1

1

2

3

Figure 5

(ii)

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

-3

-2

-1

1

2

3

Figure 6

(iii) For y < 1 and y > 1,

dy

dt

> 0. For 1 < y < 1,

dy

dt

< 0. Thus, we see that solutions

with initial value y(0) < 1 increase toward the equilibrium y = 1 as t . Solutions

with initial values 1 < y(0) < 1 are decreasing, hence they diverge from the equilibrium

y = 1 and converge to the equilibrium y = 1. Solutions with initial value y(0) > 1 are

increasing and so they diverge from the equilibrium y = 1.

(iv)

y

= 0 (y 1)(y + 1) = 0 y = 1

So, there are two equilibrium solutions, y(t) = 1 and y(t) = 1. Since all nearby solutions

diverge from y = 1, it is an unstable equilibrium. All nearby solutions converge to y = 1,

so it is a stable equilibrium.

4

4. y

= y

2

(i)

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

-3

-2

-1

1

2

3

Figure 7

(ii)

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

-3

-2

-1

1

2

3

Figure 8

(iii) For y < 0 and y > 0,

dy

dt

> 0. Thus, all solutions other than the equiilbrium are increasing.

Then if the initial value y(0) < 0, the solution will converge to y = 0 and if y(0) > 0, the

solution will diverge from the equiiibrium.

(iv)

y

= 0 y

2

= 0 y = 0

Then the only equilibrium solution is y(t) = 0. Since solutions with initial conditions

greater than 0 diverge from y = 0, it is an unstable equilibrium.

5

5. Write down a dierential equation of the form

dy

dt

= ay + b whose solutions have the required

behavior as t .

(i) All solutions approach the equilibrium solution y = 3.

(ii)

-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20

-12

-8

-4

4

8

12

Figure 9.

dy

dt

= 3 y

(iii) All solutions other than the equilibrium solution y = 2 diverge from y = 2.

(iv)

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

-3

-2

-1

1

2

3

Figure 10.

dy

dt

= y 2

6

6. The population dynamics of rabbits in a certain habitat is described by the dierential equation

dP

dt

= P 500

where P(t) denotes the rabbit population at time t (measured in months), and 500 is the number

of rabbits killed by predators each month.

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

250

500

Figure 11.

dP

dt

= P 500

(i) For which initial value of P does the rabbit population stay constant over time?

dP

dt

= 0 P 500 = 0 P = 500

The rabbit population stays constant if the initial population is 500.

(ii) For which initial populations do the rabbits die out?

The rabbits die out if P(0) < 500.

(iii) For which initial populations do the rabbits reproduce faster than their predators can eat

them? What does this model predict will happen to the rabbit population in this case?

The model predicts that the rabbit population grows exponentially if P(0) > 500.

7. A pond initially contains 1,000,000 gallons of water and an unknown amount of an undesirable

chemical. Water containing 0.01 grams/gallon of this chemical ows into the pond at a rate of 300

gallons/hour. The mixture ows out at the same rate, so the amount of water in the pond remains

constant. Assume that the chemical is always uniformly distributed throughout the pond.

(i) Write a dierential equation for the amount of chemical in the pond at any time.

Let t = time, measured in hours and x = x(t) be the amount of chemical (in grams) in

the pond at any time. Then

dx

dt

is the rate of change (in grams/hour) of the amount of

chemical in the pond.

The net ow into the pond is 0.01 grams/gallon 300 gallons/hour = 3 grams/hour.

7

The net ow out of the pond is x/1000000 grams/gallon 300 gallons/hour = 3x/10000 grams/hour.

All in all,

dx

dt

= 3

3x

10000

(ii) How much of the chemical will be in the pond after a very long time (as t )? Does

this limiting amount depend on the amount that was present initially?

As t , all solutions converge to the equilibrium x = 10000. Thus, after a long time,

there will be approximately 10000 grams of the chemical in the pond, independent of the

initial amount.

8. Newtons law of cooling states that the temperature of an object changes at a rate proportional to

the dierence between the temperature of the object itself and the temperature of its surroundings

(the ambient air in most cases). Suppose that the ambient temperature is 70

constant is 0.05/min. Write a dierential equation for the temperature of the object at any time.

What happens to the temperature as time passes?

Let T be the temperature of the object in

F and t be time in minutes. Then

dT

dt

= 0.05(70 T)

As time passes, the temperature of the object approaches the ambient temperature, 70

F.

9. In class we derived the dierential equation

(1) m

dv

dt

= mg v

for the velocity of a falling object by assuming that the drag force is proportional to the velocity.

For small, slowing falling objects, this assumption is a good one. For larger, more rapidly falling

objects, it is more accurate to assume that the drag force is proportional to the square of the

velocity.

(i) Write a dierential equation for the velocity of a falling object of mass m if the drag force

is proportional to the square of the velocity.

We start with Newtons second law, Net Force = mass acceleration or F = m

dv

dt

. The

force due to gravity, F

g

, remains unchanged: F

g

= mg. Assuming the drag force, F

d

, is

proportional to the square of the velocity, we have F

d

= v

2

where is the drag coecient.

Since gravity acts on the object in the downwards, positive, direction and the drag force

acts in the upward, negative, direction, we have

m

dv

dt

= mg v

2

or

dv

dt

= g

m

v

2

8

(ii) Determine the limiting velocity as t .

We will look at the direction eld. First determine if there are any equilibrium solutions.

dv

dt

= 0 implies

g

m

v

2

= 0

v

2

=

gm

v =

gm

-50

-25

25

50

Figure 12.

dv

dt

= 9.8

2

245

v

2

So, there are two equilibrium solutions, v =

gm

. For v <

gm

and v >

gm

,

dv

dt

< 0 and for

gm

< v <

gm

,

dv

dt

> 0. So, for solutions with initial conditions

v(0) 0, the limiting velocity is

gm

(iii) If m = 10 kg, nd the drag coecient so that the limiting velocity is 49 m/s.

From part ii, the limiting velocity is v =

gm

have

49 =

9.8(10)

or

=

2

49

9

(iv) Using the data in part (iii), draw a direction eld for the dierential equation and compare

it to the direction eld we drew in class for the dierential equation (1).

0 25 50 75 100 125 150

25

50

75

100

Figure 13.

dv

dt

= 9.8

2

490

v

2

0 25 50 75 100 125 150

25

50

75

100

Figure 14.

dv

dt

= 9.8

1

5

v

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