"J" or "L" Bolts &
Products that are Hot Dip Galvanized such as the Pressed Steel Tank for water storage and steel
towers, Guardrails,Highway Guardrails or Highway Safety Crash Barriers. Playground
Equipment and Garden Furniture are normally Hot Dip Galvanized and Duplex Powder
Coated for its colorful appeal...for more information on these products contact us
PRESSED STEEL WATER TANKS - These
are pressed steel panels bolted together for water
storage typically for fire protection systems, domestic
water and air conditioning systems in buildings.
These water storage tanks are
normally supplied complete with covers, internal and
external ladders, water level indicators and are
mostly hot dip galvanized for corrosion protection.
The pressed steel water storage tanks are
bolted together from the outside with sealastrip and
bitumum compound for water tightness. These
pressed steel tank panels are held together with hot dip galvanized internal trusses and anchorage
PRESSED STEEL WATER TANKS - These water storage tanks are constructed from standard
galvanized pressed steel tank panels of 1.2 m x 1.2 m and of various steel thickness from 3
mm, 4.5mm and 6 mm thickness. A typical standard tank size of 1.2 m x 1.2 m x 1.2 m (ht)
would hold a maximum of 1728 liters of water. Bigger tanks sizes are in multiples of the
standard unit and may be constructed to hold up to 100,000 liters (3.6 m x 6 m x 4.8 m (ht))
or larger volumes.
DAILY APPLICATIONS OF HOT DIP GALVANIZING
The selection of a steel coating system is an integral part of all engineering design. The main
consideration for the engineer in the selection of the most suitable corrosion protection
system would be the performance of a steel coating and the economics of the application of the
steel coating system. There is no other corrosion protection system that could match the
performance and economics of Hot dip galvanizing
APPLICATIONS OF HOT DIP GALVANIZED STEEL IN THE FOLLOWING
SECTORS OF OUR ECONOMY
1) POWER GENERATION & TRANSMISSION 2) INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT
1) POWER GENERATION AND POWER TRANSMISSION
In the building of a power station for power generation, steel is a major construction
material. Galvanized steel is used in platforms, equipment buildings, stairs and handrails. In the
area of fuel supply to the main power generating plants galvanized steel conveyor systems are
common in a coal fired power station. Cooling water, water reticulation and fire protections
systems consume huge amounts of galvanized steel in the form of piping and it fittings.
As for power transmission every piece of steel in a transmission tower is completely galvanized
from the main steel frame, every piece of bolt and nut used to fasten the angles together to the
cable support systems are completely galvanized. The are now many transmission towers that are
also painted with special paint system for identification purposes.
2) INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT
Government of many countries now invest and spent huge part of their budgets in improving the
infrastructure such as road highways and expressways, railways, Light Rail Transport system
(LRT) and Mass rapid Transportation system (MRT) , Port terminals and airport facilities. These
projects consume huge amounts of exposed steel and as such hot dip galvanizing is the preferred
corrosion protection system.
As for other developments such as schools, hospitals, community halls and other public places
galvanized steel are mainly in galvanized products such as galvanized water tanks for fire
protections systems, street lights, safety barriers and road and drain covers.
Hot dip galvanized reinforcement steel was only used in critical construction areas such as
coastal or marine concrete structures. In the last decade the use of hot dip galvanized
reinforcement steel increased with the rapid expansion of the road, highways and
expressways. Steel rods and strips for reinforced earth (RE) walls and soil nails are always hot
dip galvanized. Guardrails, crash cushions, decorative street lights, high masts,
pedestrian overhead bridges, noise barriers, parapet handrails are some of the other products that
are corrosion protected with hot dip galvanizing
3) TELECOMMUNICATION TOWERS
Telecommunication steel towers are difficult structures to maintain considering its location
which normally are difficult to access since it is situated on hills slopes and on top of
mountains. For easy installation these Steel Towers are fabricated from Steel Tubes in different
sections and steel Angles of various sizes and lengths, Hot Dip Galvanized and fastened with
Centrifuged Hot Dip Galvanized Bolts, Nuts and Washers. These 3 Leg Telecommunication
Towers are 100% Hot Dip Galvanized and Duplex coated for long term corrosion protection and
4) BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION
Twin Towers KL Tower
The Petronas Twin Tower in Kuala Lumpur and the Kuala Lumpur Tower are prestigious
projects in Malaysia. For durability most steel are Hot Dip Galvanized and Duplex coated.
Commonly found in the open areas are Forged Welded Gratings hot dip Galvanized, Garden
Lighting Poles Hot Dip Galvanized and Children Play Stations all Hot Dip Galvanized and
6) OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION
7) AGRICULTURE AND ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
Real Benefits of Galvanized Steel
The use of galvanizing for structural steel protection gives you ten major,
1. Lowest first cost. Galvanizing is lower in first cost than many other commonly
specified protective coatings for steel. (The application cost of labour intensive coatings
such as painting has risen far more than the cost of factory operations such as
2. Less maintenance/Lowest long term cost. Even in cases where the initial cost of
galvanizing is higher than alternative coatings, galvanizing is almost invariably cheapest
in the long term (because it lasts longer and needs less maintenance). And,
maintenance causes problems and adds to costs when structures are located in remote
areas, and when plant shutdown or disruption to production is involved.
3. Long life. The life expectancy of galvanized coatings on typical structural members is
far in excess of 50 years in most rural environments, and 20 to 25 years plus, even in
severe urban and coastal exposure.
4. Reliability. Galvanizing is carried out to Australian / New Zealand Standard 4680,
and standard, minimum coating thicknesses are applied. Coating life and performance
are reliable and predictable.
5. Toughest coating. A galvanized coating has a unique metallurgical structure which
gives outstanding resistance to mechanical damage in transport, erection and service.
6. Automatic protection for damaged areas. Galvanized coatings corrode
preferentially to steel, providing cathodic or sacrificial protection to small areas of steel
exposed through damage. Unlike organic coatings, small damaged areas need no touch
7. Complete protection. Every part of a galvanized article is protected, even recesses,
sharp corners and inaccessible areas. No coating applied to a structure or fabrication
after completion can provide the same protection.
8. Ease of inspection. Galvanized coatings are assessed readily by eye, and simple
non-destructive thickness testing methods can be used. The galvanizing process is
such that if coatings appear sound and continuous, they are sound and continuous.
9. Faster erection time. As galvanized steel members are received they are ready for
use. No time is lost on-site in surface preparation, painting and inspection. When
assembly of the structure is complete, it is immediately ready for use, or for the next
10. A full protective coating can be applied in minutes; The galvanizing process is
not dependent on weather conditions
Galvanized Iron And Steel: Characteristics, Uses And Problems
Developed For Hspg (Nps - Sero)
Galvanized Iron And Steel: Characteristics, Uses And Problems
GALVANIZED IRON AND STEEL: CHARACTERISTICS, USES AND
This standard includes general information on the characteristics
and common uses of galvanized iron and steel and identifies typical
problems associated with these materials along with common causes
of its deterioration.
Galvanizing is a process of coating iron or steel with zinc in
order to provide greater protection against corrosion for the iron
or steel base. The process of galvanizing sheet iron was developed
simultaneously in France and England in 1837. Both of these
methods employed a "hot dipping" process to coat sheet iron with
zinc. Like tinplate, early galvanized metals were hand dipped.
Today almost all galvanized iron and steel is electroplated.
The following are the most common methods for applying protective
coatings of zinc to iron and steel:
1. Hot-dip Galvanizing: The immersion of iron or steel in molten
zinc, after the surface of the base metal has been properly
a. This process gives a relatively thick coating of zinc
that freezes into a crystalline surface pattern known as
b. During the process, a multiple layered structure of iron-
or steel-zinc alloys is formed between the inner surface
of the zinc coating and the iron or steel. These middle
layers tend to be hard and brittle and may peel or flake
if the iron or steel element is bent.
2. Electrogalvanizing: The immersion of iron or steel in an
electrolyte, a solution of zinc sulfate or cyanide.
Electrolytic action deposits a coating of pure zinc on the
surface of the iron or steel.
a. The thickness of the coating can be accurately controlled
using this process.
a. The thick coatings provided by the hot-dip galvanizing
process are not usually possible with this method.
3. Sherardizing: The placing of a thoroughly cleaned iron or
steel element in an air-free enclosure where it is surrounded
by metallic zinc dust. The architectural element is then
heated and a thin, zinc alloy coating is produced.
a. The coating will conform to the configurations of the
a. This process is usually limited to relatively small
4. Metallic Spraying: The application of a fine spray of molten
zinc to a clean iron or steel element. The coating can then
be heated and fused with the surface of the iron or steel to
produce an alloy.
a. Coating is less brittle than those produced by some of
the other processes.
b. Coating will not peel or flake on bending.
a. The coating is more porous and becomes impermeable with
time as products of corrosion fill in the pores.
5. Painting: Paint containing zinc dust pigments may be applied
as a protective coating to galvanized iron and steel.
a. The paint may be applied in situ.
a. This is a less effective method of zinc coating than the
others listed above.
b. Paint does not adhere well to pure zinc, nor to
galvanized iron or steel.
c. When paint peels from galvanized iron and steel, it
usually comes off completely along with the primer,
exposing a clean metal surface.
d. If sheetmetal features are well-painted, it is difficult
to identify whether they are zinc or galvanized iron or
1) If the metal is galvanized, it will have a spangled
appearance and may show some rust or rust stains
from the iron or steel base metal. Both galvanized
iron and steel are magnetic
2) If the metal is cast or pressed zinc, it will have
a grayish-white appearance. Pure zinc is not
magnetic so a magnet will not stick.
3) A magnet test will also reveal whether a painted
sheetmetal feature is zinc or galvanized iron or
steel. Both galvanized iron and steel are
magnetic, pure zinc is not.
Typical historical uses for galvanized iron and steel included:
- Cornices and other wall ornaments
- Door and window hoods
- Decorative formed shingles and pantiles designed to imitate
- Roof ornaments such as crestings and finials
Typical uses today include:
- Sheetmetal for flashing, and gutters and downspouts.
- Hot-dipped galvanized steel nails.
PROBLEMS AND DETERIORATION
Problems may be classified into two broad categories: 1) Natural
or inherent problems based on the characteristics of the material
and the conditions of the exposure, and 2) Vandalism and human-induced
Although there is some overlap between the two categories, the
inherent material deterioration problems generally occur gradually
over long periods of time, at predictable rates and require
appropriate routine or preventive maintenance to control.
Conversely, many human induced problems, (especially vandalism),
are random in occurrence; can produce catastrophic results; are
difficult to prevent, and require emergency action to mitigate.
Some human induced problems, however, are predictable and occur
NATURAL OR INHERENT PROBLEMS
Galvanized iron and steel's resistance to corrosion depends largely
on the type and thickness of the protective zinc coating and the
type of corrosive environment.
The zinc coating on galvanized iron and steel may be corroded by:
Acids, strong alkalis, and is particularly vulnerable to corrosion
by sulfur acids produced by hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide
pollution in urban atmospheres.
1. Natural Corrosion:
a. The zinc coating on galvanized iron and steel develops a
natural carbonate on its surface by exposure to the
atmosphere and by the action of rainwater. This coating,
however, is usually not thick enough to protect the metal
from further corrosion.
b. The carbonate can become brittle and crusty and
eventually split, exposing fresh zinc for corrosion.
Since the zinc coating on the iron or steel is very thin,
it can corrode up to the base metal exposing the base to
the atmosphere as well.
c. In industrial atmospheres, the zinc carbonate coating can
be broken down by the same acids that attack zinc. These
acids convert the carbonate to zinc sulfate, which is
water soluble and washes away with rainwater, often
staining the adjacent building elements.
2. Chemical Corrosion:
a. Galvanized iron and steel have good corrosion resistance
to: Concrete, mortar, lead, tin, zinc and aluminum.
b. Galvanized iron and steel have poor corrosion resistance
to: Plasters and cements (especially Portland cements)
containing chlorides and sulfates, acidic rainwater run-
off from roofs with wood shingles (redwood, cedar, oak,
and sweet chestnut), moss, or lichen, condensation on the
underside of zinc plates and ponded water on the exterior
surfaces of the zinc features
3. Galvanic (Electrochemical) Corrosion: This type of corrosion
is an electrolytic reaction between the zinc coating and
dissimilar metals when in the presence of an electrolyte such
as rain, dew, fog or condensation.
a. To prevent the corrosion of the zinc coating due to
galvanic action, contact between galvanized items and
copper or pure iron or steel should be avoided.
b. Galvanized iron and steel are corrosive to all metals
except lead, tin, zinc and aluminum.
c. Applying a protective coating such as paint to galvanized
iron and steel will alleviate the problems caused by
corrosion of the protective zinc coating.
VANDALISM OR HUMAN-INDUCED PROBLEMS
Mechanical or Physical Deterioration:
1. Abrasion: Causes removal of the protective metal surface.
The soft zinc coating on galvanized iron and steel make it
vulnerable to abrasion damage, especially at roof valleys and
gutters where the coating can be worn paper-thin by the
scouring of rainwater.
2. Fatigue: A type of deterioration caused by cyclical expansion
and contraction of sheet metal features, especially roofs,
without adequate provisions for this movement.
a. Zinc is very vulnerable to fatigue failure because it has
a relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion.
b. Fatigue failure may also occur when the metal sheets are
too thin to resist buckling and sagging. It results in
the bulging and tearing of the zinc coating and resembles
a cut or a crack.
3. Creep: The permanent distortion of a soft metal which has
been stretched due to its own weight. Thin areas of the metal
are especially prone to failure. Creep may be prevented by
the use of properly sized individual sheets and bays, properly
designed joints, and an adequate number of fasteners.
4. Distortion: Permanent deformation or failure may occur when
a metal is overloaded beyond its yield point because of
increased live or dead loads, thermal stresses, or structural
modifications altering a stress regime.
1. Wind and thermal stress can damage a roof by pulling joints
apart and loosening fasteners.
END OF SECTION
A less common environment for galvanized steel is submerged in or exposed to water. Moisture
is highly corrosive to most metals including steel and zinc. Despite the difficulty of predicting
corrosion, hot-dip galvanizing steel is one of the best methods of corrosion protection for
submersed applications because of its complete, uniform coverage. Similar to the zinc patina in
atmospheric exposure, some waters allow the zinc coating to develop a passive film on the
surface slowing the corrosion rate.
Similar to soils, the varieties of water make predicting corrosion rates difficult. Many parameters
affect corrosion of metals in a water environment , including pH level, oxygen content, water
temperature, agitation, the presence of inhibitors, and tide conditions. The first step in deciding
whether galvanized steel is the right coating for your application is to determine what type of
water will be used. Water can be divided into a number of different types; pure water (e.g.,
distilled water or de-ionized water), natural fresh water, seawater, or potable water (treated
drinking water)and each has different mechanisms that determine the ultimate corrosion rate.
Pure water, also known as de-ionized or distilled water, is usually very corrosive to zinc coatings
due to the presence of dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide. Corrosion rates of steel increase
with aeration of pure water; dissolved oxygen in pure water is five to ten times more aggressive
than carbonic acid
Natural Fresh Water
Galvanizing is successfully used to protect steel in fresh water exposure. Fresh water refers to all
forms of water except sea water. Fresh water may be classified according to its origin or
application. Included are hot and cold domestic, industrial, river, lake and canal waters.
Corrosion of zinc in fresh water is a complex process controlled largely by impurities in the
water. Even rain water contains oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and other dissolved gases, in
addition to dust and smoke particles.
Ground water carries micro-organisms, eroded soil, decaying vegetation, dissolved salts of
calcium, magnesium, iron, and manganese, and suspended colloidal matter. All of these
substances and other factors such as pH, temperature, and motion affect the structure and
composition of the corrosion products formed on the exposed zinc surface.
Relatively small differences in fresh water content or conditions can produce relatively
substantial changes in corrosion products and rate. Thus, there is no simple rule governing the
corrosion rate of zinc in fresh water. However, one trend data supports is hard water is much less
corrosive than soft water. Under conditions of moderate or high water hardness, a natural scale
of insoluble salts tends to form on the galvanized surface. These combine with zinc to form a
protective barrier of calcium carbonate and basic zinc carbonate which slow the corrosion rate.
The biggest factors in the zinc corrosion rate in fresh water are dissolved gasses,
hardness/mineral rate, flow rate, and other ions/chlorides.
Gasses: More oxygen means more corrosion products on the surface of the zinc which
increases the corrosion rate. For this reason, fully immersed in the water is better than partial
immersion because there is less oxygen under water. Well waters tend to have lower content of
dissolved oxygens, so corrosion is low, while surface waters and springs have higher rates.
Hardness: In hard water, zinc combines with carbonates and bio carbonates to form zinc
carbonate, which unlike zinc oxide, is not water soluble. The zinc carbonate deposits on the
surface of the zinc and creates a passive film on the galvanized part slowing corrosion. The
softer the water, the lower it is in carbonate; therefore, soft water is more corrosive than hard.
Flow Rate: Higher flow rates tend to increase corrosion because it acts similar to wind in
atmospheric exposure – it means increased abrasion.
Other Ions: Anion is the most aggressive ion to zinc, namely when over 50 mg/L. This tends to
be more pronounced in soft waters which often have 80 mg/L whereas hard waters have 700
mg/L. The protective film deposited by carbonated in hard water stifles the effects of anions.
Galvanized coatings provide considerable protection to steel immersed in sea water and exposed
to salt spray. The factors that influence the corrosion of zinc in fresh water also apply to sea
water. However, the biggest determinants to galvanized steel’s performance in seawater are
temperature and ion interaction.
Temperature: Seawater temperature varies widely from 28.4 F at the poles to 95 F near the
equator. For all waters, the warmer the water, the higher the attack on zinc because reactions
between oxygen and zinc happen faster at higher temperatures. This is why tropical seawater is
much more corrosive than temperate seawater. Temperate seawaters have a freeze cycle, and
are often less corrosive to galvanized steel than even fresh soft waters.
Ion Interaction: In moderate temperature ranges zinc forms salts with magnesium and calcium
that are not water soluble. These passive compounds form on the surface preventing the zinc
metal from reacting with oxygen and chlorides which slows the corrosion rate. Tropical waters
tend to stay at 70 or above, making it difficult to develop these compounds, as the colder the
temperature the better the formation.
Given the high level of chloride in sea water, a very high rate of zinc corrosion might be
expected. However, the presence of magnesium and calcium ions in sea water has a strong
inhibiting effect on zinc corrosion in this type of environment. Results from accelerated
laboratory tests sometimes use a simple sodium chloride (NaCl) solution to simulate the effects
of sea water exposure on galvanized steel and should be viewed skeptically. Real world results
often differ significantly from accelerated laboratory tests.
In the mid-1980s Congress passed the Clean Water Act, which includes the Drinking Water
Standard. This standard requires that any material or coating that comes in contact with drinking
water must be tested. The EPA contracted the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) to write the
test procedure, which after many drafts and public meetings, was finally published as NSF
Standard 61: “Drinking Water Systems Components: Health Effects.” Therefore, only
galvanizers that have submitted test coupons of their galvanized steel and have been approved by
the NSF have the authority to galvanize steel for use with potable water. Despite the great
lengths that a galvanizer must endure to gain this certification, hot-dip galvanized steel is a very
suitable application for potable water.
Tidal Zones & Water Agitation
One of the most corrosive areas for galvanized steel is on wash zones and tide lines. The
agitation accelerates the corrosion rate of the zinc. Often the “washing” motion removes the
passive scales which are forming on the surfaces, exposing fresh zinc which tries to redevelop
more scales/patina. This leads to rapid erosion of the zinc coating resulting in increased
Zinc Coatings - How They Work
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For over a century, zinc has enhanced the longevity and performance of steel. Zinc coatings
provide the most effective and economical way of protecting steel against corrosion which, left
unchecked, is estimated to cost an industrialized country’s economy at least 4% of GDP each
Zinc-coated or galvanized
steel offers a unique combination of properties unmatched by any other material. These include:
For this reason, galvanized steel sheet is an ideal material for a multitude of building and
manufacturing applications - from automobiles to household appliances to residential,
commercial and industrial construction.
Technical Performance of Zinc Coatings
There are many factors to consider when selecting the most appropriate zinc coating. In addition
to corrosion protection, the coating’s formability, adherence, appearance and cost should also be
considered. These factors each impact on selecting the correct zinc coating for a given
application. All zinc coatings, like the steel they protect, are recyclable.
When left unprotected, steel will corrode in almost any environment. Zinc coatings protect steel
by providing a physical barrier as well as cathodic protection for the underlying steel. It is
important that the correct zinc coating is specified to provide optimal performance under the
exposure conditions to which the coating will be subjected.
When painted zinc-coated steel is scratched, zinc protects both
the underlying steel from corrosion and the overlying paint coat from lifting.
Zinc coatings provide a continuous, impervious metallic barrier that does not allow moisture to
contact the steel. Without moisture, there is no corrosion, except in certain chemical
atmospheres. The effectiveness of zinc coatings in any given environment is directly
proportional to coating thickness. Coating life is determined by the coating corrosion rate, itself a
function of many factors such as time, composition of the atmosphere and the type of coating.
In situations of outdoor exposure, the acidity level of rain will influence the zinc corrosion rate.
With indoor exposure - ventilation ducts, floor decks and steel framing, for example - moisture
may also be present. In industrial indoor situations, the atmosphere may be corrosive. Thus the
type and weight of coating required depends both on the service life needed and the exposure
Corrosion resistance of coatings can also be improved by using a zinc alloy coating, such as
Galfan® or Galvalume®, or by applying paint top coats. These two methods, individually or
together, are recommended for exposed sheet applications where enhanced corrosion protection
Another outstanding protection mechanism is zinc’s remarkable ability to galvanically protect
steel. When base steel is exposed, such as at a cut edge or scratch, the steel is cathodically
protected by the sacrificial corrosion of the zinc coating adjacent to the steel. In practice, this
means that a zinc coating is not undercut because the steel cannot corrode adjacent to a zinc
coating. This contrasts with paint and aluminum coatings where the corroding steel progressively
undercuts the surrounding barrier film. The extent of this cathodic protection is determined by
the type of coating, its thickness and that of the underlying steel, as well as by the area of
Painted Zinc Coatings
Zinc coatings are easily painted. The term "duplex coating" is used for galvanized and painted
steel parts, whereas the term "coil coating" or "pre-painting" is used for continuous galvanized
and painted steel sheet. Paint acts as a barrier protecting the underlying zinc coating. Zinc is an
excellent substrate for paint coatings because if the paint film is broken, zinc’s high corrosion
resistance prevents undercutting of the paint film. Even if the coating damage does reach the
steel base, zinc’s cathodic action will prevent the steel from corroding. Zinc’s ability to extend
the life of paint coatings is what makes pre-painted galvanized steel sheet such a durable product
that continues to extend its market share in commercial and residential roofing and cladding
Combigram of duplex systems.
The zinc and steel industries have for many years conducted both research and field trials on the
performance of various combinations of painted and coated sheet steel. The result of this
extensive base of information is that existing performance can be predicted for a wide range of
atmospheric conditions. In the example shown for a highly corrosive industrial atmosphere, a 70
µm galvanized coating plus a 100 µm layer of paint will provide a coating life of over 50 years.
Source: Stichting Doelmatig Verzinken / Progalva
Formability and Adhesion
The formability and adhesion of continuous galvanized zinc coatings are excellent and in most
cases match the formability of the underlying steel. The formability of galvanized steel - which is
defined as the resistance to cracking and loss of adhesion of the zinc coating during forming - is
inversely proportional to coating and steel substrate thickness. There are, however, some
coatings that are more ductile than others, an important consideration for deep draw stamping
applications. It is therefore necessary to balance the requirements for corrosion resistance and
Assembly refers to the technique of joining galvanized sheet steel products, mainly to
themselves. In any application, the joining method should suit the metallic coating and will be
determined either on the basis of its performance or the properties and characteristics of the
There are several effective joining methods:
Welding is the most common method of joining steel products. Resistance welding is a
technique that uses resistance to the flow of electrical current to generate heat and thereby join
Pre-finished galvanized steel can be spot welded if the zinc coating is not too thick to enable the
welding current to pass from one electrode to the other. This technique is often used in the
Mechanical fixing methods such as screws, rivets, self-piercing rivets and lock forming can be
used for a wide range of steel substrate, zinc coatings and applications.
Adhesive bonding has become more popular and can also be allied to mechanical fixing. The
range of adhesive systems is wide and the selection depends on numerous variables such as
surface condition, adhesion, strength and cure speed.
Zinc and zinc alloy coatings can differ in appearance depending on customer needs and
consumer preferences. Galvanized coating finishes can vary from extra smooth and featureless to
a flowery "spangle" pattern. Galvanneal (Zn-Fe) coatings have a matt grey appearance.
Electrogalvanized coatings have the smoothest finish among zinc coatings and provide the best
substrate for a high quality paint finish.
There are standards covering all aspects of surface appearance - coating finishes, surface
qualities (from regular to best quality) and surface treatments (chemical passivation, oiling) - all
targeted to enhance further processing.